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ISSUE 1 OCT 2015

Created by Teresa Johnson Cover Art by Ken Samonte



Psych2Go started as a blog to feature short psychology facts in the format of memes
(text-posts that are rapidly spread around the internet). Our mission was to brand
ourselves as a forum/platform for people to get quick psychology information to further
discuss and debate about the posts. We wanted to create an open forum of discussions
to help foster critical thinking about research methods and limitations.

To accomplish that, the Psych2Go team is transparent about the fact that we don't
always post legitimate psychology information, but only do so in order to get people
to really question ALL our posts and think on an analytical level. Sometimes what you
think is true is actually not true and sometimes what is not true is yet to be supported
by research.

We have found that understanding research methods and having an open and
encouraging forum for all of this is essential. Several Facebook groups have also
been created, already aiming at this - including groups that allow people to express
their creativity like our “Poetry” and “Doodle” group, and our “Research and Writing
Discussion” group which creates discussion among expression of ideas, and academic

As time went on, it made sense that Psych2Go should start providing supplementary
materials such as sources, references, as well as some explanation to our viral meme
posts that are featured on our Tumblr (as you’ll see an example from the “Psych to
Go” article in this magazine issue) which generates large discussion from audience
members. From these realizations to include more material content,, the
sister site was born.

When we started, Psych2Go had a team of 10 writers and published over 200 articles
within less than 2 months and received over 1 million page views. And the articles
followed a specific format:
1. Intro
2. Bring up research.
3. Identify the research methods and the limitations
4. question for our readers

This format is aligned with our mission statement to analyze research, create
discussions, and provide the resources needed to facilitate those discussions.

Then, as time went on, we thought about implementing a mentorship program to help
further facilitate this learning process for our younger audiences (since a majority of
our readers were not yet psychology students).

And that’s where is today! We have editors, mentors, and intern writers,
who our Human Resource team has a very close relationship with and helps them every
step of the way.

Our goal is to become the go-to site for psychology, writing, help, research, studies,
and so forth. Psych2Go serves as an easily accessible and inclusive platform for our
young audiences.

Tai Tai Artwork by:Ken Samonte

Manager and Creator of Psych2Go

As a special part of the “Psych2Go” team, we believe that this magazine sets itself
apart from other science magazines out there. Understanding this magazine is not in a

traditional “magazine” format gives our magazine a creative and unique feel.

This was made by a collection of young entrepreneurs from all over the world. This
publication includes international contributors from places like Slovenia, The U.K., the
Netherlands, the Philippines, Canada, and people within various places of the U.S. like
New York, Maryland, D.C., Tennessee, and California.

Keep in mind that not all of us are trained professionals in the Psychology field, but
simply people that are intrigued by Psychological concepts, only wanting to pass our
research along, while involving people to talk about their personal experiences, as well
as informing an audience with interesting Psychological facts.

We hope that you enjoy this collaborative publication that acts as an extension of our
online blog,, and we ask that you get involved with this entrepreneurial
organization as well! After all, Psychology is the science that’s all about you, and as a
growing company, we’re offering the opportunity for you to grow with us.

Teresa Johnson
Editor-in-Chief, Manager & Coordinator of Psych2Go Magazine

Artwork by: Drew Borja


6 7

About Psych2Go / 4
Hello Message / 6
Meet the writers /10
Psychology in the news /13
Interview with a Psychology student /14
Social Psychology / 16
Exploring mental health / 18
Significant people that endured mental illness / 22
LGBTQA Psychology / 24
Music Psychology / 26
Personality Psychology / 28
Developmental Psychology / 30
Autism Spectrum (S.E.E.P.) Special, Exceptional, Extraordinary, People / 32
Animal Psychology / 36
Forensic Psychology 38
Art Submissions Winner / 40
Career Building / 42
Outside Submissions / 44
Entertainment/Games Section / 50
Projective Psychology / 54
Book Review / 56
Creative writing / 58
Psych to Go / 60
Debunking Psychological Myths / 62
Advice Column / 64
Mental Health Hotlines / 67
Thank you to contributors / 68
Artwork by: Drew Borja

Hello all! I’m Sneha and I’m currently pursing my Master's degree Hi! I’m Kayleigh. Besides having a passion for writing,  learning new
at University of Pennsylvania's School of Design and I’ve been things and gathering interesting facts (Did you know the majority
10 practicing Arts & Design for around 5 years. My work inclines toward
a palate of textures that influence the organic and structured notion
of lizards can’t run and breathe at the same time?), I love creative
things like drawing and making jewelry. I'm currently studying at
of spaces around me. Recently, I completed a Diploma in Learning University and in my free time I can be found listening to music,
Disorders Management and Child Psychology.  reading and writing, or browsing the internet.
U.S. (Pennsylvania) Netherlands

Sneha Kayleigh
Hi, I’m Sophie! I’m currently doing my BSc in Communication Hi I'm Hannah. I have my BSc in Psychology and I'm completing
and Media, but I have always been interested in psychology. I am my post grad in journalism at the moment. I’m fascinated by
especially interested in criminal psychology and how the mind of human sexuality & sexual behavior, and the science behind mental
a psychopath works, but I am also interested in personality, social, illness. I enjoy editing papers and long runs on the elliptical. My
and child psychology. two hedgehogs keep me motivated, and they say that they hope you
Netherlands enjoy our articles and magazine! Just know that whenever you read
something by me, a hedgehog was nearby.
Nova Scotia
Hi, I’m Teresa and I attend Community College as a sophomore in I’m Sheena, and I study Psychology BSc with the University of the
hopes of taking on NYC my Junior and Senior year of college. I plan Highlands & Islands in Scotland. Being both the kid who grew up
to receive a bachelors degree of communications and journalism reading encyclopedias and the ‘Agony Aunt’ friend, I’ve always been
due to my love of writing, communicating and self-expression. In my interested in how what happens in our heads affects the way that we
free time I love to sing, draw, write, and explore new places. I started live our lives, and in practicing acceptance (and hopefully spreading
by making videos for Psych2Go on their YouTube channel, but now it too!).
I’m project manager and editor-in-chief of this magazine! The U.K.
U.S (Maryland)
Teresa Sheena
I'm Imogen, I'm 21 and going into my final year of an MSci in Being a media student, I am a huge supporter of anti-consumerism
Psychology and Psychological Research. I work as a staff writer and media awareness. In my spare time you can find me reading
and a HR rep for, and I love learning and teaching all (especially fantasy literature), listening to music, watching
things psychological. I hope to one day become a researcher, and I Japanese anime, taking long walks in the nature and most often
love forensic, child and animal psychology! writing. Above all I am simply a girl, madly in love with stories in all
The U.K. shapes and sizes.

Imogen Katja
I'm a sophomore/junior at American University, and I’m majoring Hi there! I'm oftentimes described as a shy girl with a quick wit.
in Psychology with minors in Spanish Language/Translation and Amazingly, I've managed to channel my passion to different facets
Business Administration. I love blogging and crafting, as well as of art and psychology, and blended my two loves. A firm believer that
watching YouTube like it's my job. I'm super excited to be a part of you never stop learning
this magazine, and I can't wait to see where this adventure takes Philippines
U.S. (Maryland)

Lauren Risha
Hello, I’m Larissa, and I’m a third year Psychology major working My name is Laura Corona and I am 21 years old. Currently studying
towards a minor in Law and Society as well as Ethics and Communications and soon will begin working my way into becoming
Philosophy. Some of my greatest passions in Psychology include the an American Sign Language Interpreter.
topics of eating disorders, self-harm, psychopathology, and forensic U.S. (California)
psychology. When I’m not working or doing homework I enjoy Advice Column Team
watching Netflix, sleeping, reading, playing with cats, and writing!
U.S. (Minnesota)

Larissa Laura

12 13
I'm Tyra Davis, a middle school English Teacher living in NYC, but
I've always been a writer at heart. Although my background is not
in psychology, I have suffered from anxiety and depression in the
past, which brings with it a lot of experience dealing with negative
feelings and emotions. I hope to bring some of this experience to
light in my advice to our readers.
U.S (New York)
By: Hannah Jade
Tyra Advice Column Team

IN THE NEWS Artwork by: Erin Jean

Hey, my name’s Myelin (like Myelin Sheath). I receive my B.A. in
Psychology in November 2015. After that, I aspire to get a PsyD in
This past month was a big one for She passed away in August of 2015.
Clinical Psychology (fingers crossed). As a staff writer on Psych2Go,
I write on topics related to abnormal or cultural psychology and psychology in the news. One big thing
sexuality. In my free time, I enjoy belly dancing and sketching! for people involved in the field was the A bit of comedy is involved in the
U.S (California) revelation of repeated studies, which all psychology news this past month; an
had differing results. article entitled “The psychology behind
why couples fight when assembling
Myelin An article published in The Toronto
Star entitled “Repeating Psychology
Ikea furniture”. Released on a website
called Quartz, this article details reasons
Experiments Yields Different Results”, couples would fight whilst assembling
Hey, hello! My name’s Aubrey, as I’m sure it probably says
details how a group of researchers in furniture. It causes unnecessary stresses
somewhere already. I squint while I talk sometimes, forget to eat
occasionally, and have hot chocolate stains in most of all my sketch New York attempted to duplicate over 100 and people tend not to be as polite with
books. I work three, long and tedious jobs and go to community social science studies. The only obvious those they love than those they are just
college in Memphis so that I may transfer into a larger art school conclusion found was that more research friends with. Though probably not rooted
within the same area. I love to both draw and write, so comics and is needed after every study, including in fact, in general the article was slightly
cartoons are an absolute passion of mine!  their own. Around 40% of their attempts comedic.
U.S (Tennessee) yielded the same results, which is not
Aubrey great news. None of the experiments
were developed to test treatments, and
Another article was released on a Calgary
programme to create an addictions
tended to focus on studies with strong help programme almost completely
Hi I'm Lauren, I graduated with a degree in psychology and a
masters in counselling. I've been a youth worker, a counsellor and statistical evidence, as well as studies routed in the psychology of addiction.
currently I'm working towards becoming a social worker. I wanted that didn’t have surprising results. Published in Metro News, the article
to be apart of the magazine as I know what it's like to struggle with “New Calgary Addictions Programme to
your feelings and I want help where I can. That's my passion in life. A biography of Dr. Marnie Rice, who bridge psychology and substance abuse”
My other passion is art. I post videos of my digital art on YouTube in studied the minds of some of the worst details it. This programme is meant to
the hopes of creating a relaxing space for others. You can find me at offenders in Canada who needed focus specifically on the needs of women
Rad Little Drawings.
psychiatric care, was also released this with addictions. It is expected to roll
Northern Ireland
past month. out at the end of the year and women
Advice Column Team
who had participated in the programme
“Psychologist Marnie Rice Probed the will eventually become mentors to new
Hi! Jessica here. I'm a psych major in college working on my junior Minds of Psychopathic Offenders”, an people involved.
year. I've been inspired to study psychology by my passionate high article in The Globe and Mail details her
school teacher but my favorite topic is the brain. I'm studying hard lifetime. She started off working in the Those are a few of the bigger stories of
to research and learn to help others.
jail in Penetanguishene, Ontario, where psychology in the news over the past few
U.S (Maryland)
she eventually became the Director of months.
Research. She did behavior modification
research here on what were referred to Citation:
Ritter, M. (2015, August 30). Repeating psychology
Jessica as the “worst offenders” such as serial
killers, pedophiles, and other sexual
experiments yields different results. Retrieved
September 26, 2015.
offenders. The article details her life,
Ryell, N. (2015, September 15). Psychologist Marnie
her upbeat personality, and what her Rice probed the minds of psychopathic offenders.
research did for the field of Psychology. Retrieved September 26, 2015.

really apply that to any situation, and What is one thing a student should
14 INTERVIEW with enough work you can condition any- know about studying psychology? 15
one/thing. I like it because it’s so simple, There’s lots of content, lots to memorise,

yet so significant.  and in Australia it’s very competitive. Peo-
ple don’t realise that though they think
The next topic was Amy’s career aims and things like biomed are tough, psych can

what she has done to try and help achieve be worse. There are not nearly as many
those aims. positions, but almost as many applicants.

Hey guys! In this section of the maga-

zine, we’ll be interviewing a psychology
US What are your goals in terms of
I would like to work with youth offenders
And what’s one thing a student should
know about studying at University?
I found UNI difficult to keep on top of, at
student who is going to tell us about their at this stage, however I’m open to chang- school you have a test every week and a
course, some personal details about ing direction as my education progresses. teacher making sure you’ve done your
themselves and their interests in psy- I’m really into health and fitness also so I work, whereas at UNI you’re responsible
chology, and also their career aims and would love to be involved with a program for yourself, and you’ve now got a job, a
how they hope to achieve them and final- that uses exercise to break down barri- car, freedom, so study slips, and then it’s
ly some advice for prospective students. ers between psychologist and offender, I exam time and you’ve done nothing all
We’ll be interviewing Amy Livingstone, believe it could be a really beneficial tool. semester. It’s definitely harder to keep on
a bachelor of social sciences (psychol- top of, so be prepared and get organised.
ogy and forensic science) at Swinburne What do you look to do after your degree,
University of Technology, Melbourne, further study or work, or something Hope you enjoyed this!
Australia. The course involves eight core else? 
psych units, four core forensics units, After this degree I will hopefully complete
and twelve electives. She is currently in an honours year, and then a master’s
her third year. course. It’s extremely competitive to get
into so I’m staying hopeful, but should all
We’ll start by asking Amy about her go to plan I’m looking at another 6 years
From: Australia
course, how the education is and what of study ahead of me!
the cost is like.
What, outside of your degree, have you
done to further your interest or career in
What’s the program like, what is the it’s always interesting. psychology?
cost and how’s the education?  My current casual job is completely un-
I like the program at Swinburne, some We’ll next move on to asking about some related to psychology, however it’s with
units are obviously run better than oth- of her personal views about psychology, the YMCA who run a range of really great
ers but overall I think it’s a pretty good like which subjects she likes and dislikes. programs that I think I could get involved
psych education. To be honest I’m not in. I guess what drew me to that job was
sure about the cost, the government What is your favourite topic within psy- that it had the potential to provide path-
basically pays for UNI and we pay them chology? ways for me. 
back when we earn over $54k. I hope it’s Abnormal psych was my favourite unit so I’ll have 6 months off study before start-
not too much! I think the education’s de- far. It was really interesting and I guess ing my honours (hopefully) so I’m hoping
cent, it differs again from unit to unit, but got down to the ‘real’ or ‘stereotypical’ in that time I can get a position some-
I think if you do everything you can to be psych stuff, the stuff that the public would where really cool that will be beneficial
responsible for your learning and reach be thinking you’re learning I guess! for both my education and career. In the
out when you need it, you can get the best meantime, I’m hoping to start writing ar-
psych education anywhere. What’s your favourite psychology fact/ ticles for psych2go, when I have time, to
research study? get some better practice and some feed-
Who’s your favorite professor?  I wish I had a really good one of the top back of my work.
My favourite lecturer is probably my fo- of my head but I don’t, so I’d have to say
rensics convener; he lectures in a way Pavlov’s dog. Everyone’s heard of it - I Finally, we asked her for some advice for
that is relatable and really clear. He’s re- learnt it in school psychology, but back you guys.
ally easy to follow. Straight forward you then I don’t think I understood what it
know what you have to do to do well and meant. I think it’s so cool how you can

Most people know that children are did not have much to contribute, and
16 especially impressionable, but to what were less trustworthy than those who 17
extent do they absorb information? What spoke assertively (2006).
kinds of things do they retain? While it
may be impossible to know every little The idea that children, of at least a cer-
thing, social psychologists have some tain age, can distinguish assertiveness
ideas about what types of information when someone is speaking shows that

IT children pick up on.

One of the questions psychologists want-

as they grow, they are able to selective-
ly take social cues and information from
those they deem knowledgeable.

ed to know was whether children could
pick up on social cues similarly to an No one is arguing that children are
adult. Diesendruck, Salzer, Kushnir, and sponges. But, they clearly absorb more
Xu conducted an experiment to see if chil- information than people like to think. So

dren picked-up on social cues from dem- to everyone who spends a lot of time with
onstrators (2015). Their research showed children, remember that even if you be-
that when one demonstrator favored an lieve in the motto “Do as I say and not as
object, preschoolers associated it with a I do,” kids are paying attention to how you

THEM: person’s preference; however, when two

demonstrators favored the same object,
preschoolers “inferred that it was gener-
act and what you do.

Works Cited:

alized to other agents of the same kind” Diesendruck, G., Salzer, S., Kushnir, T., & Xu, F. (2015).
(Diesendruck et al. 2015). This shows that When Choices Are Not Personal: The Effect of Statisti-
children are informed by social cues. cal and Social Cues on Children’s Inferences About the
Social Psychology

Scope of Preferences. Journal Of Cognition & Develop-

What does this information mean? Well, ment, 16(2), 370-380.
this type of study starts to prove how chil-
dren don’t just listen to what they’re told. Schwarz, S., & Roebers, C. M. (2006). Age differences in
the effects of social influence on children’s eyewitness
They can be much more perceptive than performance and their metacognitive monitoring. Jour-
that. Anyone who has heard a kid mention nal Of Experimental Child Psychology, 94(3), 229-248. 
a word they heard their older sibling say
can attest to that. But, they are also able *Cisgendered -applies to the majority of people, de-
to pick up social cues. scribing a person who is not transgender.

This could have serious impacts later in

life. It could explain how children grow up
to be racist or sexist when their parents
don’t really say to be out loud. If a child
notices how Mom always avoids making
eye contact with black people, or how Dad
snorts or rolls his eyes when someone
mentions being anything other than cis-
gendered* or straight, the child notices.
It’s likely this is not the only reason, but it
could be a reason.

Another question on what influences

children is whether age plays a factor.
Schwarz and Roebers looked at 8- and
10-year old children and their ability to
How what children see impacts who they become “withstand” post-event information from
By: Lauren Miedel an interviewer or confederate (2006).
Artwork by: Pilar Chavez They found that 10-year olds were able
to distinguish that people talking with a
low amount of assertiveness probably

The mental illness topic of this sues within a person’s life. Although
18 Mental-Health Awareness Month: month that Psych2Go chooses to bring certain theories are made, there is no 19
awareness to is ADHD. There are the- definite reason to why people are effected
October ories created by people that those who by this, and the “cure” does not involve
claim to be affected by Attention-Deficit/ taking a “magical” pill.
Hyperactivity Disorder are simply cre-
ating an excuse to explain their “hyper” However, through time and being atten-
behavior. This is an incorrect speculation tive to ones’ environmental surroundings,
because ADHD is in fact a real mental ill- the disorder’s relevance in a person’s life
ness. It’s a brain disorder that can extend can slowly start to disappear. ADHD is
from childhood to adolescence. Accord- not made up. It is real and it does affect
ing to the National Institute of Health, people. If you have trouble concentrating,

studies have shown that people affected find yourself being very impulsive, and
by this disorder have brain developmen- have hyper-tendencies, then you may
tal delays by an extension of up to three have ADHD. Don’t be afraid to reach out
years! It’s brain-baffling to know that a and seek help from your doctor if it be-
disorder can take that much growth-re- comes a frustrating issue.
lated control. Hyperactive and impulsive
behaviors caused from people affected

by ADHD are much stronger and greater Works Cited:

than those who are not diagnosed with it. Smith, M., Robinson, L., & Segal, J. (2015, August 1).
ADD / ADHD in Children. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
Even though it’s still a mystery to scien-
Rosen, M. (n.d.). Attention for ADHD: 9 Key Facts. Re-
tists as to what causes ADHD, genes, as trieved September 5, 2015.
well as various environmental factors,
are said to help influence the actions
Organizations to connect with:
reflected through the disorder. ADHD
sometimes gets mistaken for ADD (At-
tention Deficit Disorder), however they

differ in the ways of the “hyperactivity” el-
ement that ADD withholds. Even though
ADHD is not a detrimental disorder, it still
can make life more challenging regard-
ing elements such as being distracted
and constantly getting up and moving.
The disorder is found in children, and can

extend throughout adolescence and into
their adult years. However, children can
grow out of ADHD and lead very produc-
tive lives, but this requires proper change
to their environment, developing their
strengths, and medication if needed (ac-
cording to
By: Teresa Johnson
Artwork by: Pilar Chavez Bringing awareness to this disorder, cer-
tain organizations like adhdawareness- and serve to fulfill
that purpose and let people know that
it does affect people and their mental
health. Feel free to visit these particular
sites if you are someone that struggles
with ADHD and it affects your everyday
activities. Even when a health issue isn’t
physical, it can create just as many is-

20 21
By: Sneha Easwaran
Artwork by: Drew Borja

A normal part of growing up and be- anxiety and to find ways to minimize
ing a part of the real world is dealing with it as much as possible. As always, par-
separation in a myriad amount of ways. ents and older mentors play a huge role
Individuals with noticeable symptoms in being supportive in any treatment pro-
tend to come from environments that are cess and some individuals may resort to
held together at quite close approxima- benefitting in treatment with antidepres-
tion, so as one moves away, the individ- sants or antianxiety medication to help
ual may recurrently exhibit social with- them feel calmer. Other methods may
drawal symptoms, apathy, or difficulty in include talking therapy in which an indi-
focusing. It depends on the individual’s vidual develops a comfortable relation-
Exploring Mental Health

age as well – from monsters to the dark, ship with the therapist, who provides a
and other situations that are perceived safe haven to express one’s thoughts and
as presenting danger to the integrity of feelings. Another is play therapy, in which
the family. This disorder isn’t a mild one the therapeutic use of play is a common
because it can dramatically affect a per- and effective way to get kids to talk more
son’s life by limiting the ability to engage openly. Counseling for the family and
in ordinary day-to-day activities. Anger school-based counseling is also vital as
and outbursts of emotion are very com- a more mature understanding can ben-
mon. efit an individual to explore more social,
behavioral, and academic demands of
Separation Anxiety Disorder affects ap- an environment. Preventive measures to
proximately 2-5% of children and is much minimize the effects of Separation Anxi-
more prominent to those who frequently ety Disorder can be detected at an early
have other family members with anxiety stage. This can enable a person to effec-
disorders. The tendency to develop this tively have normal growth and develop-
disorder involves the genetic and envi- ment, and to improve the quality of life
ronmental factors that come into play in
a person’s lifetime. It can be effectively
experience there on out. In order to di-
agnose this symptom, it must be present
“Separation Anxiety Disorder affects ap-
treated and is based on a comprehen- for at least 4 weeks and be more severe proximately 2-5% of children and is much
sive evaluation of a child and their fam- than the normal occurrences an individ-
ily. Some intervention strategies include ual may experience. more prominent to those who frequently
cognitive behavioral therapy with a focus
on helping the child learn skills to man-
have other family members with anxiety
age his or her anxiety. It involves helping
children and parents understand and Works Cited:
learn way to change unhelpful thoughts “Separation Anxiety Disorder in Children.” Separation
and behaviors. The therapist may help Anxiety Disorder | Boston Children’s Hospital. Accessed
a mentor understand ways in which an August 24, 2015.

individual can minimize effects by, for “Separation Anxiety Disorder.” Separation Anxiety Dis-
example, allowing a child to miss a day order. Accessed August 24, 2015.
of school. It’s also beneficial to mas-
ter the situations that contribute to the

22 also suffered from depression. “I am sitting in a glass sphere,” she

confessed, feeling isolated from others
Significant People Enduring Mental Illness in Psychology History: The family was traditional, yet many and being able only to see them, not hear
questions remain unanswered. Many or touch them (Duda and Pusch, 1995). All

THE CURIOUS CASE OF ELLEN WEST relatives suffered from mental illnesses.
Even as a child Ellen refused to submit to
the expected role of a mother and a wife;
she felt was emptiness and loneliness.
Her thoughts of being inadequate and
unfit for life had reached their peak. She
Artwork by: Ale Caballero she wished to be a boy. Her extensive seemed better in her last days, however;
By: Katja Stojic reading and ability to deal with social she enjoyed food and wrote letters. Then
problems made her different from others. she swallowed poison. Her face was calm
Her problems became severe in her and seemingly happy in death.
twenties when she refused to live by the
“Life is hanging on me like a cloud.” strict social standards of her time. She “A woman’s body is a battlefield where
despised the hypocrisy and the limitations she fights for control” (Duda and Pusch,
of her gender. An ideal image formed in 1995). It is all about controlling your body,
Women have always been on the her mind: a slim body. Friends mocked along with its emotional needs. Ellen
side-lines of history, leaving men to her because of her figure so she started West wished to achieve something great
make decisions for them. They did to lose weight. She felt useless and despite not being entitled to do so. Her
not have many ways of expressing unworthy, was afraid of everything and role was to be a woman, which meant
themselves and were far from obtaining longed for death, which she saw as the remaining in the shadows. Due to her
only happiness in life. “Anorexia demands high intelligence she was able to analyse
Exploring Mental Health

an independent living status. The only

thing a woman could control was her a perfect self-subordination and thus her situation with fearful accuracy, but
body. Hence the passage “A hysterical gives a possibility of existing” (Duda she could not alter it. Her ultimate goal in
woman responds theatrically, with her and Pusch, 1995). After her enrolment life was to maintain an independency and
own body, which is her only stage, upon in college her condition improved for a to be different from others. She was never
which she can perform publicly” (Duda while before she relapsed again. Doctors able to discover who she was. Her writing
and Pusch, 1995). Although they’ve been discovered problems with her thyroid was not regarded as actual literature,
around for centuries, eating disorders and ordered bed rest, which led to her and even today her work is locked away.
have widely spread in the last few gaining weight. The cycle repeated. “She We know much about her struggle with
decades, hidden behind the forced smiles is denying her own personality which is food, yet almost nothing about her artistic
and layers of clothing. full of needs, hunger, anger and desire” expressions. Her greatest fear had, in a
(Duda and Pusch, 1995). way, been realised; she was forgotten
satisfied, the second was not. for many years until finally her case was
“Something inside of me resists gaining
weight. It resists getting healthier; having She was very creative and wrote poetry, re-opened and examined, but even then
Ellen West lived in the late 19th and mostly about freedom. After some her real name vanished, leaving her with
round, red cheeks, becoming a simple,
early 20th centuries, a time when all persuasion from her family she married the pseudonym Ellen West. Many of her
bold woman, which would actually suit
that mattered in a woman was how she her cousin, but soon had a miscarriage poems and writings remain locked away
my nature… it is driving me desperate
looked. She was a patient of Dr. Ludwig due to her poor physical health. She at the clinic where she spent the last
so that I cannot help myself with all the
Binswanger, and suffered from anorexia must have dreaded being pregnant and months of her life. It is a shame that a
big words. I am fighting against secret
nervosa, possibly in addition to other gaining weight. One of the means to her woman of her potential could not properly
forces stronger than me. I cannot unite
mental illnesses. Her name is most remaining slim figure was the use of succeed due to the social, economic and
and grab them” (Duda and Pusch, 1995).
famously associated with existential laxatives and vomiting. Not much is said political situations of her era.
Ellen West wrote this four months before
analysis because the treatment started to about her husband except that she only
she decided to end her life. She was
emerge during this time. She described confessed her problems to him at the age Citations:
thirty-three at the time. Her life was filled Duda, Sibylle; Pusch, Luise F. (1995). Nore ženske
her struggle with food in her diaries of thirty-two, which is why he soon sent
with fear and what she dreaded most was (Wahnsinns Frauen). Ljubljana: Krtina
which she kept for many years. her to a clinic. She had reached a point
fear itself. Food was always on her mind;
Even as a child she was intentionally where all she thought about was food Wikipedia. (2015). “Ellen West.” The Free Encyclopedia.
either she ate nothing or she stuffed Retrieved from:
refusing sweets and was very and remaining slim. Her psychological
herself with anything she could find. She West
strongminded. Her father was well- condition weakened, which is the reason
could only eat by herself, as family meals
controlled and stiff but secretly sensitive she wilfully saw a doctor. Her diagnosis
made her feel hopeless and empty. Her
and suffering from night depressions and stated “Advancing schizophrenic
therapist said she was trying to fulfil two
fears. Ellen supposedly loved him very psychosis. No effective treatments.”
needs: hunger and love. The first was
much. Her mother was gentle and

beat to death for it. The LGBTQA com-
24 munity is so large and diverse now with 25
all these separate experiences that we
The Online Community can’t ever entirely pinpoint an exact fo-
cal point in our goal sometimes. But that
By: Aubrey Bryan
Artwork by: Fieni Aprilia also gives way to discussion and debate
that will allow us to continue to grow even
more diversely. While some could say
The internet is wide with all kinds of the community as a whole. As that’s an issue, because that would cause
of diversity from silly baby-burp videos surprising as it is that such well-inten- even more conflicting opinions and sides
to middle-aged house-dwellers trying to tioned people could also drag in so many of the matter—and honestly I wouldn’t
find the cure for the common cold. To add opposing perspectives to the foundation blame anyone for having that view. How-
some background, I was always more the of these beliefs, it is also not that sur- ever, diversity leads to the evolution of
animated cat video kind-of person grow- prising at all. these opinions, change in culture and so-
ing up. It wasn’t until I came across my ciety, and creates new levels of concepts
first social website that I realized there Since we’re all from different areas of in gender identity and sexuality that we’re
was a real community on the internet. the world and our countries, we’re all starting to scratch the surface of. Wheth-
With community however comes conflict, bound to have different views on what er or not these newer concepts are valid
opposing sides, and people with their makes sense in the LGBTQA communi- is a whole other area of debate already,
own individual stories feeding into these ty. Some less populated places, like the and you can only wonder how much fur-
opinions. The greatest example of this is country-side in Mississippi of the Unit- ther our community will change for bet-
the *LGBTQA community! There is a con- ed States, may hold the reservation that ter or worse ten years from now.
sensus that people with different roman- love is between two individuals; and if
tic and sexual preferences aside from the a girl likes a girl she’s gay and if a girl
LGBTQ+ Psychology

*LGBTQA – Acronym for the Lesbian, Gay,

“norm” are just as important and need likes a boy she’s straight. In places like Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, Agender
recognition within society. With today’s these, it may just seem a little weird to community
internet culture, the LGBTQA community begin talking about all the in-betweens
has more room to grow, spread informa- and gray areas. However, a more popu-
tion, and even discuss issues within the lous area with wider variation between
group itself to allow positive change. But, culture, person and belief may be more
because we are dealing with the internet, accepting to the idea that there’s a neigh-
there’s going to be those that take refuge bor next door claiming to be demi-sexual.
behind their screens to hurt, belittle or
put down others for self-righteous gain— Not only location, but also upbringing
and I’m still talking about the same com- can affect the way we understand what
munity. LGBTQA supports. Bisexuality, for ex-
ample, in some households is the, “I’m
It’s too often we see on social media confused about my sexuality” sexuality.
what awful things people can do to make While that certainly isn’t the case, it is
themselves feel in the right position or a fermented stereotype attached to the
believe they’re doing justice by hurting identity. It’s taught through several differ-
or, in extreme cases, destroying the lives ent mediums and not just in the house-
of those with one (or a few) terrible opin- hold. Social groups, media and even our
ion(s). Those who’ve been on the internet culture have a bit of an input into this
long enough can already think of multiple belief. We have a natural tendency to feel
examples, though they may not exactly like we need to “pick a side”, like it’s a
be the same examples. From one end, an football team or our favorite brand.
example would be the overbearing social
activist bloggers that find it their job to I think a lot of people tend to forget about
come down on anyone for any small slip- all the different perspectives and expe-
up comment or joke. On the other end, riences others may have when they hop
there are the less educated members of online. For every trans woman that’s
the LGBTQA community spreading false praised and told to be proud of her identi-
information or making a bad example ty there’s another just like her being near

26 27

Back in 2011, an Australian tour their levels of hostility, irritability,

operator by the name of Matt Waller stress, relaxation, activity and inspira-
revealed that for a number of years he tion. The results showed that listening to
had been tracking Great White Sharks extreme music while experiencing feel-
for a very unique series of experiments. ings of anger and aggression has a pos-
After hearing of divers in Guadeloupe itive effect on the listener, allowing them
who observed sharks reacting to certain to process their feelings, much like the
songs, he played music from his collec- participants in Papinczach’s (2015) ex-
tion through speakers attached to shark periment which reported a similar sense
cages to attract them, monitoring their of sad music helping them to process
FEELING ANGRY? reactions – and it turns out that Jaws may
have been a bit of a metalhead. When
feelings of sadness.

ADOPT THE Waller played heavier music like ACDC to

the sharks he tracked, he observed more
calm and curious behavior as they de-
Essentially, these findings have shown
that music can affect our moods, and that
those who consider themselves listen-
Music Psychology

tected the vibrations made by the music ers of extreme music, much like Waller’s
(since they don’t have ears to hear it). Great White Sharks, deal with their anger
By: Sheena Mackenzie better and ultimately feel calmer when
Artwork by: Jane Shi
This year, a similar experiment was car- listening to heavier music (although most ried out by Leah Sharman and Genevieve likely for very different reasons). Now that
gry-adopt-the-shark-method/#com- Dingle of the University of Queensland I’ve discovered this research, when I feel
in Brisbane, Australia, but with slightly myself becoming angry about anything,
more docile subjects. In order to exam- I may reach for my headphones before I
ine the popular notion that angry music reach for someone’s neck.
T U R ED ON t makes for an angry listener, they found
39 participants who listened to ‘extreme’ For those of you who listen to ‘extreme’
genres of music (including the likes of genres of music, do you find that you
c h
psy Rob Zombie and Disturbed). The sub- choose songs specifically to influence
jects, with an average age of 20, were and control your emotions in a certain
first provoked into an angry state of mind, way? Do non-listeners do similar things
then the control group were left in silence with their own music?
to deal with their anger, while the other  
participants were asked to take out their References & Further Reading:
Case, A., (2011, June 02). Great White Sharks Attracted
iPods and listen to angry extreme mu- By AC/DC Hits. Australian Geographic. Retrieved from
sic from their personal playlists for ten
minutes. Sharman and Dingle measured Sharman, L., Dingle, G. A., (2015) Extreme Metal Music
And Anger Processing, Fronteirs In Human Neurosci-
changes in heart rate in both sets of par- ence, 9, 272
ticipants, and also asked them about

one angry, one neutral - with a per- were then presented with twelve ex-
28 29
suasive message about the fiscal re- pert statements on the election. Half of
sponsibilities of students. Each group of the statements were in favor of McCain,
students had to write about a particular the other half were in favor of Obama.

ANGER situation or event. One group, however,

was instructed to write about an event
Participants were asked to select the
statements that they were more interest-

that made them feel angry. The research- ed in.
ers then presented them with different
persuasive messages that they had to In order to manipulate the participants’

US evaluate. emotional states, they were also asked

to recount

MORE Moons and Mackie (2007) found that an-

gry students were more likely to ignore
a memory that was either angry, sad, or

an irrelevant message from a superfi-
cial expert, while participants in neutral Young et al. (2011) found that angry par-
moods did not. This shows that angry ticipants often selected information that
people appear to process analytically, did not follow their beliefs. They attribut-
which “contradicts the notion that angry ed this to the fact that the feeling of anger
people…lack the cognitive resources or produces an “antagonistic interchange,”
the motivation to engage in deeper pro- where individuals are in an argumenta-
cessing” (Moons & Mackie, 2007, p. 717). tive state, ready to “move against” some-
Thus, anger acts as a motivator rather one who disagrees with their opinion.
than a barrier to analytic thought. In comparison, people in sad or neutral
Personality Psychology

states were more likely to select informa-

In another study, Young, Tiedens, Jung, tion that confirmed their current opinion.
and Tsai (2011) researched whether an-
I came across a quote a few gry people could objectively evaluate Both of these studies are significant in
years ago that stuck with me: information without confirmation bias. that they show that angry people will be
Confirmation bias is when individuals more flexible in their perspectives, as
“Don’t make decisions seek information that favors their pre-ex- well as more analytical in their thinking,
when you’re angry, and isting beliefs while ignoring information than people in other emotional states.
that does not favor their beliefs, meaning However, this does not mean that people
don’t make promises that individuals create biased opinions should try to experience more anger in
when you’re happy.” because of the way in which they evalu- order to make better decisions or think
ate information. For example, a reporter more analytically.
writing an article on an important topic
may only interview experts who support Every individual is different; anger can
By: Sophie Poulsen his or her views on the issue. Confirma- make you rational, but it can also lead to
Artwork by: Ruth Grace Estipona tion bias is problematic because it does impulsive decisions that you regret later.
not allow for an objective, realistic per-
spective. ---
…I’d like to address the first part of stupid decisions, similarly to when Work Cited
this quote. we’re intoxicated. So are angry people also affected by con-
firmation bias? Moons, W. G., & Mackie, D. M. (2007). Thinking Straight
While Seeing Red: The Influence of Anger on Informa-
Some qualities that are more commonly More and more research has shown, tion Processing. Personality and Social Psychology Bul-
associated with anger are stupidity, risky however, that anger can perhaps make us Interestingly, Young et al. (2011) found
letin, 33(5), 706- 720. doi: 10.1177/0146167206298566
behavior, distrust, prejudice, hostility, more rational. that anger results in less confirmation
aggression, and, above all, being irratio- bias than other emotional states. In their Young, M. J., Tiedens, L. Z., Jung, H., & Tsai, M. (2011).
study, Young et al. (2011) provided par- Mad enough to see the other side: Anger and the search
nal. We’ve all been in a fight where we’ve One of the most prominent experiments for disconfirming information. Cognition and Emotion,
said things we didn’t mean. We may have in this area was done by Moons and ticipants with a survey that asked them 25(1), 10- 21. doi: 10.1080/02699930903534105
called someone something we didn’t Mackie (2007), where they presented two about their political views. The main
mean, hurting them and embarrassing groups of students - one angry, one neu- question was: “Who do you want to win
ourselves in the process. We may have tral - with a persuasive message about the 2008 Presidential Election?” Their
impulsively lashed out and made hasty, the fiscal responsibilities of students. choices were Senator John McCain and
Senator Barack Obama. Participants

30 en a more domain-specific point of 31

view, and believe developments like this
3 Important proceed rather independently.
These three important subjects might
As humans we are constantly
developing in one way or
Themes in seem very one-or-the-other, but they
are anything but that. There is more and
another, for better or for
more consensus among scientists and
Developmental psychologists that development is prob-
ably caused by multiple factors at all lev-
Psychology You els. This means that there is rarely just
one correct answer to the question ‘what
causes this development?’ or ‘which of
By: Kayleigh Herber
Artwork by: Jeffrey Bigelow Must Know About these is true’. Finding out exactly what
the answer is seems pretty much impos-
Developmental Psychology is the sufficiently been proven that both sible, but the psychological community
study of how, and why, people change sides interact. will keep trying and trying to get as close
over their lifetime. When this branch of to the answer as possible.
psychology was just getting started it Continuity and Discontinuity
was primarily concerned with babies and Also a very widely discussed topic – even Works Cited:
young children, but over the course of the the famous psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud Buehl, M. M., Alexander, P. A., & Murphy, P. K. (2002).
decades it has expanded to include ado- discussed it - is how we describe patterns Beliefs about schooled knowledge: Domain specific or
Developmental Psychology

lescents and adults as well. As humans of development. Some psychologists view domain general?. Contemporary educational psychol-
ogy, 27(3), 415-449.
we are constantly developing in one way development as a continuous process, Gopnik, A. (2014). Time to Retire: The Simplicity of Na-
or another, for better or for worse, and where development happens gradually ture vs. Nurture,”. Mind and Matter”, published, 1, 25.
developmental psychology now studies and skills and abilities are accumulated Leman, P., Bremner, A., Parke, R. D., & Gauvain, M.
(2012).  Developmental Psychology. London: McGraw
people of all ages. Today we will be dis- over the years. Others tend to view it as Hill.
cussing three major themes within devel- a staircase of step-like phases that are Weinfield, N. S., Sroufe, L. A., & Egeland, B. (2000).
opmental psychology that scientists have qualitatively different from the ones be- Attachment from infancy to early adulthood in a high‐
risk sample: Continuity, discontinuity, and their cor-
been busy with for years. fore and after, each defined by particular relates. Child development, 71(3), 695-702.
behaviours. Contemporary psychologists
The Nature and Nurture Debate view development as a smooth contin- Further reading:
Over the course of history psycholo- uous curve rather than steps; they do
Developmental Psychology (2011) – Dr Rachel Gilli-
gists have argued whether behaviour is agree that within that curve there are brand, Dr Virginia Lam & Dr Victoria L. O’Donnell.
shaped by genetics and natural forces we phases, but they transition into another An Introduction to Developmental Psychology (2011) –
encounter growing up, or if it’s shaped by phase gradually. Alan Slater, J. Gavin Bremner
a child’s upbringing. These are referred
to as empiricism (nurture) and nativism Domain-general and Domain-specific
(nature). The empiricists argue that chil- Another topic that has intrigued many
dren are born as a tabula rasa (“blank psychologists is whether, and to what
slate”), and that behavioural traits de- extent, the development of new skills
velop almost exclusively from the way can influence our development of oth-
children grow up. On the other hand, er skills. For example, if you’re learning
nativists argue that a lot of skills have a a new way of swimming like the back-
genetic or innate basis, like instinctively stroke, which involves bringing your arms
looking for food. While both points of view over the head in order to move through
used to be usually quite black and white, the water, it might impact other motor
contemporary psychologists recognise abilities too. Practicing this posture and
that both are very important, though it movement could possibly help you devel-
is hard to prove exactly how much each op other skills, like over-arm serving in
contributes. In a 2014 survey, many of tennis, or weight lifting, which includes
the responding scientists wrote that the similar movements. Psychologists differ
two-sided nature vs. nurture debate has in how far they consider things like these
outlived its usefulness because it has are domain-general. Others have tak-

(c) indirect terminology, (d) the
32 wider context, (e) finding positive 33

perspective, (f) pictorial and literary
value, (g) curricular considerations, (h)
participation possibilities, (i) instructional
approaches, and (j) putting a plan in

EDUCATING EARLY By: Sheena Mackenzie

place’), but concludes that, although
it needs to be done in a very carefully
planned manner in educational setting, it
is beneficial for both neurotypical pupils
and pupils with ASD.

The key thing to remember when

educating people about the autistic
spectrum is that those with ASD are
To those unfamiliar with Autistic who attend school with people who people who have autism, not autistic
Spectrum Disorders (ASD), our ideas have ASD and dealing with the stigma people. This particular condition, to
about what it really is are shaped by of it at a very young age could greatly varying degrees, does have an impact
representations in popular culture, improve tolerance and understanding on an individual’s social, intellectual,
and perhaps the two most prominent of the sometimes confusing behavior and emotional development, but it is
S.E.E.P. (Special, Exceptional, Extraordinary People)

examples are the film ‘Rain Man’ and that people with autism can exhibit, and not their defining characteristic. Autistic
Jim Parson’s Sheldon Cooper from allow them to develop sympathetic and is not a personality trait or a lifestyle,
the American comedy series ‘The Big supportive friend groups with peers, and those who have it are people before
Bang Theory’ (although the latter is not separate from the parental and formal they are autistics, people with dreams,
diagnosed, it is widely accepted that he support that can easily become the only motivations, a sense of humor and their
is). Representational media is incredibly support a person receives coping not only own way of being in the world.
important to all of us, but it can present with their disorder, but the other stresses
its own problems, as in this example, that young people face growing up.
where both characters are portrayed
similarly: as troubled geniuses with To this end, Kimberly Maich and E.
strangely obsessive interests, ‘quirky’ Christina Belcher from Ontario, Canada
behaviors and difficulty in socializing and Melbourne, Australia respectively,
with others. All of these traits are have investigated the use of picture
associated with autism, but the reality is books depicting and exploring autism in
much more complex than the simplistic schools to promote awareness among
understanding many seem to have of children from a young age. Their study
it - it’s a spectrum disorder, with many looked at a variety of books already in
different levels of functionality and kinds print which address this issue, including
of expression. both books which specifically addressed
autism and autistic behavior (such as
As someone who has known a number “Understanding Sam And Asperger’s
of people at different points on the Syndrome” (Van Niekerk & Venters,
Autistic Spectrum, a trend I’ve noticed 2006)) and books which portray autism
is that once children reach about seven in an indirect manner (like “Looking
or eight years old, there comes a division After Louie” (Ely, 2004)). It’s important
in which neurotypical children exclude to use both types of portrayal so that
and sometimes even bully peers who children both understand the complexity
have autism. Promoting the inclusion of of the disorder, but also that to have
those on the autistic spectrum in schools autism does not have to be a disruptive
is vitally important to allowing them to or defining thing in normal everyday
create friendships, relationships, and situation. The paper suggests ten factors
support systems which are key to living to be considered when approaching this
a fulfilled life for all people. Creating issues in this way (‘including (a) story
awareness of autism among those selection tools, (b) direct labelling,

34 35

SPENCER By: Natalie Pedemonte

All my life, I knew my brother had The patience required by me to

Autism. Being the younger of the two, play games with my brother rolled
I didn’t always understand what that over into my teenage years, and in turn,
meant, but I knew that he was different. he’s affected the way in which I interact
As far as I was concerned, Spencer was with others. I believe that I’m able to
S.E.E.P. (Special, Exceptional, Extraordinary People)

the kind of big brother that all my friends understand how people think a lot better
had. But as I grew up, I slowly began to than other people my age. From years of
realize that my brother and I were not the following games step by step, I’m a lot
same in comparison to my friends and more analytical when observing people’s
their siblings. actions. Spencer has allowed me to
look at the world and the people in it,
I took notice and was baffled by how my much differently.
friends’ older siblings always seemed
so uninterested in spending time with People have asked me what it’s like
their younger brothers and sisters. Most growing up with Spencer being the way he
siblings with a three-year age gap didn’t is. And I have never been able to properly
get along as well as me and my brother answer them because I was less than a
did. They never really developed a bond year old when he was diagnosed, so I’ve
until later in life. But despite their lack of never known any differently.
interest in one other, the older sibling was
always there to show the younger one the For my entire life, Spencer has always
ropes of life. In my case, I had to try and been Spencer. And while that made him
figure out the ropes on my own and then different to others, it made my entire
try and help Spencer figure some out childhood all the more special. There was
along the way. Spencer and I have always never a dull moment with him. I’ve had to
been close and I can’t remember a game grow up a little bit faster than my friends
that he didn’t involve me in. I could always have because of my brother. And since
confide in him when it came down to it. the death of our mom, we’ve both had to
do a lot of growing up in a short period
Spencer was big into history when we of time. From experiences like this that
were younger, and every game we played have evoked life-changing mentalities,
had some historical significance that we our relationship has become even
always stuck to. So all in all, a majority of stronger. I’ve had to be his rock, and he’s
my childhood was learning a wide range done the same for me. I’ve never really
of historic events. By the time I got to high known anything else and, despite a few
school, I knew almost everything I was difficulties, I wouldn’t want anyone other
learning in class because my brother and than Spencer to be my sibling. To be my
I had played games based on the same big brother.
content as children.

36 Future planning is an interesting, need it at a future date. During this 37

and particularly hard skill to have. The testing phase, the jays were given free
reason it is particularly hard is because reign of the two places (A and C). If they
to plan for the future, you have to plan for were able to ignore their current state
the motivational state (e.g. hunger, thirst) (not being hungry) and plan for a future
you will be in at that time. This requires point in time (where they would be hun-
the suppression of the motivational state gry) then they should cache more food in
you are currently in. For this reason, place C. This was in fact what was found,
researchers are not sure whether it is scrub jays would cache the food in place
something animals can do or not. One C at a higher rate than chance.

interesting study looking into this was
conducted with scrub jays, looking at the This is taken by some as an example of
hunger motivational state. the scrub jays resisting current state to
plan for the future, however others sug-
For context, experiments with humans gest that there are problems with this
have shown even we are not perfect at experiment and that coming to that con-
this kind of future planning. For exam- clusion is premature. Can you think of
ple, in Atance and Meltzoff’s (2006) study any possible alternative explanations of
children were allowed to eat as many this finding?
pretzels as they liked. They were then
asked if they would want a glass of water, Works Cited:

or some more pretzels tomorrow. While

Atance & Melztoff (2006) Preschoolers’ current desires
Animal Psychology

4-5 year olds performed above chance warp their choices for the future. Psychological Sci-
level, they were not perfect. 3 year olds ence, 17(7).

also failed this task (ed: what determined Read & van Leeuwen (1998) Predicting hunger: the ef-
a fail?). It’s even been shown that adult fects of appetite and delay on choice.
humans can fail at these kinds of tasks. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Process-
es, 76(2), 189-205
Read and van Leeuven (1998) conducted a
field experiment on adult participants in Raby, C.R., Alexis, D.M., Dickinson, A., & Clayton, N.S.
an office, they were asked whether they (2007) Planning for the
future by western scrub jays. Nature, 445, 919-921
would want a healthy or unhealthy snack
the day after. They were either hunger or
not at the time of asking, and hungry or
not when they would receive the snack.
Participants struggled to correctly pre-
dict what they would want when the two
states of hunger did not match.

By: Imogen Bowler
Artwork by: Ale Caballero
With these findings in mind, let’s look at
what Raby et al (2007) found when testing
this skill in scrub jays. This study consist-
ed of two phases, a training phase and a
testing phase. In the training phase, for 6
days scrub jays spent the morning either
in place A or place C. In place A they were
given breakfast, whereas in place C they
were not. Therefore, in place C, hunger
was more likely to occur. On the 7th day,
the scrub jays were pre-fed so they were
not hungry. They were then given extra
food which they could cache. Caching is
a behavior many birds display where they
store food in a hidden place in case they

“I’m not a psychopath, I’m a high-

38 functioning sociopath.” This quote has 39
often been heard by fans of the BBC show
Sherlock, and while viewers may laugh,
do they truly understand what is it to be
FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY a psychopath, and why Holmes would

prefer to be called a high-functioning
sociopath? As an avid fan of Sherlock
as well as someone who is interested
in forensic psychology I have often
wondered to myself: do I truly know the
By: Larissa Grundmanis difference between the two? While both
Artwork by: Pilar Chavez are truly fascinating, the main focus
here is on psychopathy – after all, many
individuals with psychopathic traits are
found in prisons.

Psychopathy, while often confused

with one who is psychotic, is actually a
mere individual who has the abilities to
manipulate their way through life without
remorse. While this is a simplified
definition, the most common traits of a
Forensic Psychology

psychopath are that they are incapable How many times have you or your friends
of forming deep emotional attachments, acted impulsively or irresponsibly? How
they often times are unable to feel guilt or many times have you found yourself
empathy, they are manipulative, and they unwilling to acknowledge that you made
often hold a profuse level of “superficial a mistake, and take responsibility for the
charm”. Unfortunately, many times these consequences? How many times have
traits are overlooked by the general public you, or someone you know, committed
who instead see someone with antisocial acts of wanton sexual behavior?
personality disorder, psychosis, or a Most individuals would be able to find
serial killer, according to the Society for some common ground between these
the Scientific Study of Psychopathy. traits and their own lifestyles, but that
does not mean that they are violent
Why then, is psychopathy so often individuals who are prone to crime.
associated with murderers? Perhaps it Psychopathy is often looked down
is because of the media, or perhaps it is upon, but many times the average
because many individuals who have killed human being acts in ways that would
have been diagnosed with some form of be found in someone with psychopathic
psychopathy, such as Joanna Dennehy. It tendencies. Perhaps instead of jumping
may also be due to the notion that only to conclusions, we, as individuals, should
criminals would be able to behave in look for true motives behind someone’s
such manners, but is that really true? actions.
According to Chivers, it’s not. He notes
that Robert Hare, the creator of the
Chivers, T. (2014, April 6). Psychopaths: How can you
PCL-R once stated: spot one?. In The Telegraph. Retrieved from http://
“There are people who are part-way up
the scale, high enough to warrant an Psychopaths-how-can-you-spot-one.html
assessment for psychopathy, but not
high enough up to cause problems. Often Society for the Scientific Study of Psychopathy. (2013).
Psychopathy: A misunderstood condition. In Society
they’re our friends, they’re fun to be for the Scientific Study of Psychopathy. Retrieved from
around. They might take advantage of us
now and then, but usually it’s subtle and
they’re able to talk their way around it.” Webb, D. (n.d.). The psychopath. In All About Forensic
Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.all-about-
How many times have you found yourself
taking advantage of your friends, even if it
was to just get a free meal out of them?

3 41


THEME: “Psych2Go Community”

“I chose to illustrate the theme “Psych2Go Community” as

a group of people helping each other solve a puzzle. I’ve ob-
served members of various Psych2Go Facebook groups from
their posts online that the wit and wisdom of each community
members increases camaraderie - or the spirit of humor and
fun. I want to express it in this illustration how they share their
views to enhance learning from each other while in the process
of creating something big.”

Ruth Espinosa

If you would like to have the chance to win and have your art
showcased in our next issue, be on the lookout for the next art
theme which will be posted on our social media!

42 43
For those trying to get a job, Negative attending behaviors are over-
used positive attending behavior that it
here are some tips for your in- becomes uncomfortable. Excessive head
terviews! You’ve got your foot nods are distracting, saying “uh huh”
in the door and now it’s time to often becomes annoying, too much eye
tell your story. These are also contact overwhelms others, repeating
the last words intimidates the client,
helpful for conducting your own awkward mirroring looks like mocking.
interviews. Good luck! The interviewee doesn’t want to be scru-
tinized or apprehensive otherwise the in-
THE FOUR DIMENSIONS OF SIMPLE terviewer won’t get the true information

ATTENDING BEHAVIOUR they want. Remember everything is good
in moderation.
Eye contact
This is when the interviewer and inter- It’s important to consider culture with

viewee look each other in the eyes. attending skills because an interview
The culture and the interviewee might should be a good environment for getting
prefer it to others. information and both parties should be
respectful of each other. Individuals have
Body language a preference on the amount of each di-
This is when the interviewer or inter- mension of attending behavior. Gestures
viewee communicate other messages could convey other messages in other
based on their movements and posture. cultures and might not be appropriate.
Career Building

Mirroring is when both parties are con-

sistent in their movements and is best The most important part of interviewing
done subtly. This helps people become is being a good storyteller. You need to be
comfortable with you. able to take your past experience and use
it to explain how you’ve developed skills
Vocal qualities important for the new job. DO NOT just
This is how loudness, pitch, rate, and repeat your resumes because they have
fluency affects the interviewee since it already seen it you just need to expand on
can communicate feelings of empathy or it more. A good method to use is to write
cause conflict. It’s best to use a soft, firm out your positions then come up with at
voice when interviewing. least three tasks you had to do then the
skills related to it. Here’s an example:
Verbal tracking
This is listening to the interviewee to 1. Cashier
By: Jessica Jang
clarify and summarize what they say
Artwork by: Jane Shi a.) Accept currency and keep accounts updated
without putting their meanings in it.
i.) Trustworthiness

b.) Clean checkout area

i.) Multitasking skills

c.) Help customers with purchases

i.) Communication/interpersonal skills
ii.) Customer Service

own conclusions and opinions. I think

44 that sports psychology could really be ef- 45
fective. Yes, people say that you can only
motivate yourself and the only one that

HOW IS can or cannot make you do what you want

is you. Somewhat   that might be true

but don’t you think that if you have peo-
ple around you who care, take the time The psychologists can say
to listen and give you advice; that it will

INVOLVED IN motivate you too ? Having someone root-

anything they want, but if
the athlete or coach doesn’t

ing for you always. Isn’t that nice? Yes, it
is! That’s why I think it is effective. Obvi- feel like he or she has made
ously, the psychologist cannot do the job
any progress throughout the
October: Sport Psychology & Psychology and the Internet

by him or herself. You have to be faithful

By: Yara Meléndez and hopeful about your goals and try to process, then it hasn’t been
Artwork by: Jane Shi make them happen with the help of your effective at all.
sports psychologist or any psychologist if
you want to speak about your goals in life
What is Sports Psychology? (Cherry, coach doesn’t feel like he or she has instead of just athleticism. You do your
2015) tell us that Sports Psychology is made any progress throughout the pro- part and he/she will do his. In the end,
the study of how psychology influences cess, then it hasn’t been effective at all. everyone wins.
sports, athletic performance, exercise, (Sharp & Hodge, 2014) conducted a study
and physical activity. It is said that sport in which nine elite athletes would be in- Weinberg, R. (1994, December 1). The Effectiveness of
psychologists, aside from working with terviewed to talk about what they per- Psychological Interventions in Competitive Sport. Re-
people who just want to exercise for their ceived to be essential for effective sport trieved September 1, 2015.
Community Submissions:

health and well-being, they also work psychology consulting and to examine Weinberg, R. (1994). The effectiveness of psychological
with athletes and coaches so they can en- their perceptions of the key components interventions in competitive sport. Retrieved Septem-
hance the ir motivation and performance. of an effective sport psychology consult- ber 1, 2015
Could that be effective? Thanks to this ing relationship. There were six males Sharp, L., & Hodge, K. (2014, April 14). Sport psychol-
article and my perfectly done research and three females from a variety of sports ogy consulting effectiveness: The athlete’s perspective.
you’ll find out now, today. Just keep read- (e.g. cricket, rugby, swimming, triathlon, Retrieved August 31, 2015.
ing! dressage and wheelchair rugby).

According to (Comar, 1994)  education- The analysis indicated that three catego-
ally-based psychological interventions ries were essential for sport psychology
have produced significant increases in consulting effectiveness; sport psychol-
performance. He states that 38 of the ogy consultants were friendly but not a
45 studies examined (85%) have found friend, consulting experience and ath-
positive performance effects. Recent- lete-centered consulting.
ly conducted research has added that
sport psychology has had positive affect
on performance enhancement, as well as
the personal growth of athletes. However,
FOUR categories resulted essential for
effective consulting relationships;
further research needs to be conducted 1 flexibility
to improve the understanding of these
positive affects. You’re probably thinking 2 open, honest, and respectful
that this article will only contain informa- contributions from both the athlete
tion about studies that have been con- 3 and the consultant
ducted throughout the years but you’re athlete as an active participant in the
wrong. Besides information about those 4 consulting relationship
studies, I will be speaking about the
athlete’s perspective which is extreme- After conducting this research I did some
ly important. The psychologists can say serious brainstorming. I tried to see this
anything they want, but if the athlete or from their perspective and came to my

others it is a form of self-expression.

46 But to all, it is simply an escape. Coming 47
into a training session, you could have
the world weighing down on you. And by
the end of the class, feeling lighter than

PSYCHOLOGY OF THE MARTIAL ARTS ever before. Sure, your body may not feel
that way at first, but your mind will gain
a sense of relief, if even for a moment,
Body, Mind, Spirit:
which I could only describe as magical.
The Strength from Within Throughout our lives we tend to find our-
By: Mitchell Mabugat selves shying away from any thoughts of
Artwork by: Jane Shi violence; however, when the time comes
– as it is inevitable, we are not prepared
October: Sport Psychology & Psychology and the Internet

to defend ourselves from this unexplored,

“I fear not the man who has practiced 10,000 punches once, frightening monster. And unless you live
But I fear the man who has practiced 1 punch 10,000 times.” under a rock, I guarantee you that some-
-Bruce Lee day, somewhere you will need to fight.
Fight for love, fight for pride, or even a
fight to get that killer beach body you’ve
always wanted. Everyday of our lives is a
Dedication. Intensity. Control. Focus. Keeping this in mind, I’d say that
All these are key aspects in the world of approximately 80% of fights are won be-
martial arts. Dating back to as far as 2000 fore the first punch is thrown. In Sun Tzu’s
Is martial arts for everyone? No. Will you
BCE, martial arts has become a strong book, The Art Of War, he explains “A skill-
become a great UFC fighter by going to
spiritual, physical, and emotional disci- ful general must defeat the enemy with-
a few classes? Hell no. Will you gain the
Community Submissions:

pline, that for years has given strength out coming to battle, take his cities with-
individual strength and resilience need-
and enlightenment in one way or another, out siege and overthrow his state without
ed to walk through life with less fear and
to all those who went in search for the a long campaign. He must make every
more confidence? Most definitely.
true meaning of combat. effort under the heaven to achieve total
victory with his forced undiminished: This Citations:
Whether you look at the ancient samu- is the true art of strategic offence.” (Tzu, Anonymous. Martial Arts Training: Benefits Physical
rai of Japan, or the brutal bare knuckle S. 513 BCE). Never let your enemy see and Psychological. Retrieved from http://www.ontar-
boxing of Greece, all cultures of the world your fear. When weak appear to your en- cal-and-psychological/
have developed in some sense, their own emies as strong. When strong appear to
art of self-defense. Though a common your enemies as weak. Sun Tzu describes Lapre, S. Personal Communication. June 2012.

misconception, many people believe warfare and combat as “the path of de- Mccaferty,G. (2015, July). Psychological Benefits of
that all combat consists of is a bunch of ception” (Tzu, S. 513 BCE). To never show Martial Arts Training. Retrieved from http://believe-
brutes toppling over each other to see your aggressors your fears or insecuri-
who is the strongest. This idea, I can ties; to appear a lion when feeling like a
confidently say, is false. Though physical mouse. Showing your aggressor not how
strength is, like in all sports important, it strong you are physically but how impen-
does not alone make up the foundations etrable and indestructible your mind is.
and principles of martial arts. The most Even when in a competition of strength,
important and sometimes the most diffi- he whose psyche is unbreakable, is phys-
cult aspect of one’s self to master is the ically unbreakable.
mind. In its truest form, martial arts is a
science. Similar to all areas of science it Now I am aware that the topic I am sup-
requires analysis, repetition, and reflec- posed to be writing on is sports psychol-
tion in order to truly master. A second ogy, and although mixed martial arts,
too slow and you take damage, a second boxing, and taekwondo are all technically
to fast and you lose an opportunity to do sports, I can assure you martial arts in
damage. its truest form is much more than just
a sport. To some it is a lifestyle forged
through repetition and tradition, and to

Macs my generation started out with.

48 Neither can the Internet be compared to 49
the other more advanced technology that
seemed to grow mushrooms overnight
during the late 90s and on into the 21st
Century. Perhaps the Internet started

PSYCHOLOGY AND THE INTERNET out that way, and it was probably intend-
ed to be nothing more than another tool
in the end, but that’s not what happened.
By: Digby Driver
Artwork by: Pilar Chavez
Instead, the Internet has evolved into a
virtual real estate, pioneered and settled
by my fellow Millennials before it was
October: Sport Psychology & Psychology and the Internet

passed on and seized by Generation Z as

a brave new world they now claim as a
Interpretation is the most necessary What happens if you’re the one with
mother country. Like any other country,
survival skill for all thinking creatures, an atypical method of interpretation that
the Internet has a language and a cul-
though rarely is it associated with basic makes the status not so quo for you and
ture. It has currency, government, and
needs. Any cub scout, disaster prepper, seemingly no one else? What then? Con-
patriotic pride. The fact that it has no set
or off the grid homesteader will tell you sider carefully that it takes us right to to
location, legal residency, or even a physi-
that food, shelter, and water are the most why the Internet is so much more than
cal mailing addresses isn’t something its
crucial things to consider, but the fact just a piece of technology, and why the
citizens worry about. If the World Wide
is that these things would never have psychology behind the Internet isn’t just
Web were an actual place, anthropolo-
crossed their minds were it not for their for kicks and pop culture giggles.
gists and government intelligence agen-
body’s ability to interpret hunger, thirst,
cies would study nothing else for gener-
Community Submissions:

and cold. We use interpretation every Communication and interpretation are

ations to come, but since it exists solely
second of the day without hesitation as the fluids that keep so many areas of
as data connections, Wi-Fi hotspots, and
our bodies interpret the need to breathe, cognitive and developmental psychol-
DSL hookups across the world, it’s up
the words of our friends and family, and ogy running smoothly. It’s the oil, the
to psychology enthusiasts to spread the
the passing of time. antifreeze, the water pumping through
news that the times are changing and
the radiator cooling down Carl Jung’s
we’d better be prepared for a hostile
Have you ever realized that without sen- engine of human thought and reaction.
takeover by a country that exists only as
sory data, (or the ability to interpret it), They’re the most basic parts of our brain,
stored memory in hard drives and human
we wouldn’t be able to interact with the yet so crucial. In a car, they’re the one
world on any level? We wouldn’t even thing mechanics and garages will top up
know it existed. Without the ability to and monitor freely. It’s not just because
take in and interpret sensory stimuli, we they’re nice guys, but because without
wouldn’t even be the most basic parts them everything in the entire engine will
within Sartre’s existential bubble as break apart, fuse together, and grind to a
for-itself beings in an in-itself world. The painful, inevitable halt if they run out or
only thing between us and falling into the grow too stagnant.
void is entirely in the way our body inter-
prets, translates, and plans to take in and A popular quote from Jung’s novel Mem-
make sense of it all every hour in a day, ories, Dreams, Reflections says, “lone-
every day in a week, and year after year liness does not come from having no
so we can stay aware of our shared bub- people about one, but from being unable
ble for as long as possible. to communicate the things that seem
important to oneself, or from holding
Well, that’s a little depressing. certain views which others find inadmis-
Maybe so, but not as much as having sible.”
the ability to interpret all that sensory
stimuli, but not being able to explain it The internet is not just another product
in a way other people can relate to, or in or service of the tech age. It’s not the
a way they can relate to you personally. same thing as the first blocky, off-white


Created by: Sadia Nadeem Created by: Jade Li

Designed by: Craig Alexander Designed by: Craig Alexander

Please see answers on page 69!


52 53

Comic by: Katherine Fosso


This set consists of the most common 4. S

 upernatural figures such as
54 answers that were sent to Psych2Go. fairies, dwarves, and angels, and 55
Projective Psychology All compiled responses are listed here. the grim reaper, were also common
The audience’s responses were able to answers.
Rorschach Projective Test point out and identify some aspects of These kinds of responses can be

their personality and character: associated with someone who is aware of
themselves and has a greater tendency to
1. A
 part of the human body. be more empathic to other people. But it
A common answer was ribcage, but this would also depend on what the creature is
also varied to lungs or the pelvis of a doing: If it’s positive (like shaking hands),
person. Sometimes, it was even specified then it can be interpreted in a positive
as an x-ray. This would be interpreted as light. If negative emotion is clipped with
someone who tends to set the bar high the figure, then the person identifying the
for themselves. Presumably, they would image could be experiencing some sort of
be the type of person who (consciously or negativity within their life, or some kind of
unconsciously) projects their intelligence pent up emotion.
to their environment.
The next Rorschach will be posted on
2. A
 n animal. the Psych2Go Website and social media
There were also a lot of responses accounts before the next issue, so to
regarding animals—the most common keep yourself up to date and post your
being a cow, but there were also interpretation, be sure to follow us on
interpretations of different breeds of social media!
dogs, followed by rats, elephants, and
foxes. Now, in order to decipher this,
it depends on the characteristic of the
animal. Cows, for example, are known
to be stoic, yet emotionally deep. Dogs
are often called loyal. Rats are often
the witty, mischievous ones. Elephants
are sometimes described as calm and
confident. While foxes are associated
with wisdom and are often guides.

3. T
 wo people kissing/shaking hands.
First off, the immediate association with
a human being means that the person
who interpreted the picture in this
way may have strong connections with
humanism. Also, it would depend on the
gender of the person in the image (is it
a man and a woman? Or two people of
the same gender?). The gender or age
observation may depict the attachment
the interpreter has to a particular
figurehead in their life (was it you and
your sibling you saw shaking hands,
perhaps?). The action can be explained
as someone who is aware of themselves,
and is attuned to the different needs of
By: Risha Mae Ordas the people around them.

56 While well written and an interesting Things like “stepmother” crossed

BOOK REVIEW: read, “Wintergirls” is definitely not out to say Jennifer. She also refers to

representative of what it is like to have any type of food as either a number or a
an eating disorder. The book opens with color. The numbers represent the calories
a description of how Cassie, Lia’s best in the food she is discussing. There are a
friend of 10 years, has been found dead lot of scenes that are graphically about
in the room of a motel. Lia is the main self harm and intense self deprecation on
character of the novel, which documents Lia’s part both mentally and physically.
By: Hannah Jade her struggles with anorexia, which she She realized that Cassie had called her 47
has personified with the name “ana”. It times on the night of her death, and a part
appears to me that the author’s research of what is making her so stressed out and
into bulimia and anorexia may not have ill is that she blames herself for not being
spanned further than researching pro there for her friend.
*ana and *mia websites.
The hotel in which Cassie died has a
A lot of the way things are written seem person named Elijah working there and
to romanticize eating disorders, rather he and Lia form an unlikely friendship.
than show what kind of torture they are. It’s very strange to watch this person’s
Lia called herself strong for keeping world unravel. We find out that Cassie
herself “empty”. Cassie had been died from a ruptured esophagus and Lia
bulimic and was influencing her friend to had actually had some points where she
be the same, which actually made Lia’s sabotaged Cassie’s attempts to recover
parents somewhat grateful that she had from bulimia- the disease that ultimately
died. I thought that was a bit of a harsh killed her. Cassie had left a message
Book Review

way to introduce the stepmother in a for Lia - that she was the skinniest, and
scene. I understand that they could have she had won. As if it was some sort of
been blaming her for the eating disorder competition, again the glorification of a
of the child they were raising, however weight achieved by means of an eating
wouldn’t a death of your child’s best disorder.
friend warrant a response that was more
caring and trying to help your struggling The book describes the changes in her
child rather than tarnishing their late body and it gets increasingly emaciated,
best friend’s name? I don’t know really, which shows the brutality of what
as I thought the way the stepmother was happens with an eating disorder. The very
shown was extremely cold, even though end of the book Lia is cutting herself,
most of the time she was making an and her stepsister Emma who absolutely
attempt to help out. A lot of the book the adores her walks in. It ends on this note
narration is disconnected and it feels and doesn’t allow further elaboration, so
cold. The chapters are titled in the way one can only make assumptions about
that she would weigh herself and write where to go from there. Overall, the book
down the weight (00.0) which I thought was decent, however I found it slightly
was interesting. Stylistically, the book romanticizing eating disorders and who
somewhat resembles a diary. It is written can be the sickest, but I have not suffered
in a very poetic style, but I didn’t hate the from bulimia or anorexia, so I would leave
poeticism as much as I hate anything like people with more authority on that to
that by Sharon Creech. (I’m looking at judge better. All in all the book was easy
you, Heartbeat). to read, well written, and interesting. I
think research could have been better,
However, a lot of the time the author but overall it was a good read.
will cross out words to show what the
character was thinking at first but then *ana – short for Anorexia Nervosa
changed their mind to state differently. *mia – short for Bulimia
Anderson, L. H., & Viking. (2009). Wintergirls. New York: Viking.

3 59


Everyday tell something you didn’t see Something

that wasn’t old, or on repeat Something that would
give me hope, to believe So I can see a chance, to
come back from defeat

Ammunition takes lives is what I hear on the radio

From state to state, from coast to coast
Most of the times we ask why, but don’t know
We don’t have an answer; there’s nothing to post

More tears than smiles, I continue to hear

More suffering than living, please tell me how
These young kids that live their life in such fear
Give me a reason why I shouldn’t be doing
something now

This list goes on as we drift into slumber

Reset the clocks, for the day is almost over
Prepare yourself tomorrow; it’s time to repeat the
same thing Our first world problems block out the
help when others sing


Artwork by: Ale Caballero

Note from the author: This poem represents how people can alter
their thinking to reflect more positivity to make an impacting change.

If you’re like me, you’ve had your fair their true emotions are more likely
60 share of awkward moments. A lot of to do this fake-laugh, which could be a 61
mine revolve around the fact that I cannot signal to others that we are in distress.
control when I laugh. I laughed when my The brain may do this in order to raise

friend told me that she and her girlfriend the likelihood of someone coming to find
had broken up. I make jokes about awful out what is causing the stress (Keltner &
situations, as well as during sad and Bonanno 1997).
angering scenarios. I joke around during
serious talks between myself and my With this information in mind, it’s easy to
parents. I have depression, and lots of see why the brain would sometimes think
times people think that I’m ok because of that having us laugh is the best course of
how often I make them laugh. So I can say action. It may be inconvenient and possibly
with certainty that it was a relief when I a social faux-pas, our brain is just trying
discovered that I wasn’t broken; in fact, to look out for us. Now I understand why
I’m just one of many who use humour I make so many jokes when I’m feeling
to deal with fairly large problems. Many so down; my brain is trying to find ways
By: Lauren Miedel people use humour or laughter to cope to help me cope with the stress. So the
with stressful and hard situations. next time you find yourself laughing when
you think you shouldn’t, remember that it
According to Keltner and Bonanno (1997), may help you in the long run.
laughing helps us respond to stress by
“increasing the psychological distance Citation:

from distress and by enhancing social Keltner, D., & Bonanno, G. A. (1997). A Study of Laughter
and Dissociation: Distinct Correlates of Laughter and
relations.” In other words, we laugh in Smiling During Bereavement. Journal Of Personality &
times of distress because sometimes Social Psychology, 73(4), 687-702.
our minds cannot handle the stress. Mayo Clinic Staff (2013). Stress relief from laughter? It’s
no joke. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
Think about it, whenever something bad
happens, it can be hard to process. Your
brain deals with this trouble processing
by laughing, which releases a bunch
of endorphins, increases personal
satisfaction, and improves your mood—
all of these help deal with stress (Mayo
Clinic Staff 2013). By creating these
physiological changes to make your body
think it’s happy, you put distance between
yourself and the situation. Also, think
about how laughing and joking around
play a huge part in our socialization.
Laughing is one of the biggest socializing
elements. In times of distress, your mind
craves human contact and interaction (to
help deal with the stress), so it makes
sense that it would laugh to increase
those chances.

There’s also another reason the brain

might force us into laughter. As humans,
we are generally very good at reading
people’s emotions. We know when
someone is smiling out of politeness
or, in this case, when someone laughs
without feeling a positive emotion.
People who are not as good at hiding

PSYCHOLOGICAL MYTHS relationships. For instance, value of the other person (Steele &
62 63
Similarities Attract “individuals with an avoidant attachment
style use fewer relationship-maintaining
McGlynn, 1979, p. 111-112).” Essentially,
it is not the list of traits that may match
Debunking ‘Opposites Attract’ behaviors, such as talking about problems
and coming to an understanding, and are
up with another person; it is whether or
not those perceived similarities have an
By: Myelin Abenojar Artwork by: Jane Shi less likely to seek support from [others] affective value on us, which produces
(Barelds, 2005, p. 503)” thus making a sense of attraction. Notably, there
relationships more difficult to maintain is more to attraction than personality.
When looking at one’s partner or more similar the couples were the than they already are. But this trend does Yet, it is helpful to know in retrospect
friend, one may suddenly question greater report of marital satisfaction not determine that other relationships that the “symmetry that is reflected
with squinting eyes: Why? This may resulted (Wilson & Cousins, 2003, p. 164). with children raised with an avoidant between partners at the very start of
be a question that is posed repeatedly So, similarity is not a random occurrence attachment will be fruitless, but instead the relationship may help determine the
or not at all. Maybe there is a mystical amongst people, but something that tends shows that this individual must find a eventual success of the partnership, and
acceptance of fate that brought two to bring people together and promotes friend or partner that can understand the changes over time may help shape
beings together. Or maybe it was simply happiness. The interplay of a couple’s and fulfill their needs. And that is the the relationship as it develops (Gonzaga
proximity, and there was no one else to “neuroticism, openness to experience, key difference between our interpersonal et al., 2010, p. 642).” In conclusion,
choose from. Regardless of the believed empathy, self-esteem, extraversion, relationship with our primary caregiver relationships are subjective and can vary
circumstances, it is safe to wonder: Why emotional stability, and autonomy are versus our romantic partners or friends; across cultures and individuals. So what
do people like the people that they like? all qualities that significantly affect there is an element of choice. As infants may work for one couple may not work
What is this gravitational pull called the quality of an intimate relationship” we do not choose whom we interact with for another. Research in this field of
“attraction” that people experience (Barelds, 2005, p. 502, 513). For instance, but as we grow older we gradually receive relationship attraction and maintenance
amongst each other? How can this bond an introvert in a relationship may feel freedom to interact with our environment is not only useful to researchers but also
be maintained? And, what if we knew the very drained being with an extrovert. Or and the people in it. to marriage counselors, relationship
formula to achieving peak happiness in someone with low self-esteem may grow therapists, clergy, love-struck teenagers,
Debungking Psychological Myths

interpersonal romantic relationships? to feel inferior with his or her partner who Our lives begin with and are propelled by friends, co-workers, and basically anyone
has a high self-esteem. And perhaps, in interpersonal relationships. Others can in the world who engages in any form of
There are some basic trends that have a stressful situation, someone who is and tend to be our source of self-esteem, an array of interpersonal relationships
been found. “Opposites attract” is a emotionally stable will find the reactions comfort, love and belonging. Similarity (Wilson & Cousins, 2003, p. 165). But
rationale that is often disputed yet of an emotionally unstable partner is an ideal, but often not a reality—for discovering exactly what elements or
equally often suggested. The sight of a strange and discerning. Discordance in the attraction to someone exactly like personality characteristics to find in
cat cuddling with a dog, an interracial personality type can create dissonance in oneself is narcissism. And presumably another person to complement one’s own
couple, or the pull of two magnets the relationship. people are not generally aware of the personality should be knowledge received
promotes a sense of awe. But, is it true? similarities they may find in another and taken in precaution. Although it is
In general, it is more difficult to interact Yet, this does not answer why partners person and it is also possible that they an ideal to achieve peak happiness in
with someone who is unlike us. As tend to be similar in these studies. The are unaware of their own personality our lives, that sense of happiness would
depicted throughout history in various most convincing argument for how characteristics. There is not a constant be irrelevant if there was nothing to
battles and wars, dissimilarity has often interpersonal similarity is the largest evaluation mechanism that we go through compare it to. Therefore, people should
been a source of conflict, and furthermore factor in relationship satisfaction is based that weeds out people who are unlike not limit themselves and disregard other
hatred. Conversely, one can also assume on the idea of convergence. Convergence ourselves. Our attraction is dependent people who are unlike them. For while
that it is easier to interact with someone is “the tendency for partners to become more on our perception of the other there are times of dissonance when
who is like them. This phenomenon is more alike over time” (Gonzaga et al., person. “Perceiving that another has confronting differences between people,
highlighted when people of similar ages, 2010, p. 634). One study showed that, similar traits (attitudes, interests, etc.) there is also an equal potential for growth
races, religions, or socioeconomic status “couples who converged in personality increases attraction only because the and understanding in others as well
get along because they are connected via between first meeting and the first perceiver usually positively values those as ourselves.
a point of similarity (Wilson & Cousins, years of marriage were more satisfied traits and [therefore hold a] positive
2003, p. 161). Overall, partners or with their relationships” (Gonzaga et al.,
friends who are similar are more likely 2010, p. 642). In this situation, similarity Citation:
to establish, maintain, and sustain happy is something that occurs overtime. This Barelds, D. (2005). Self and partner personality in intimate relationships. European Journal of Personality, 19(6),
and healthy interpersonal relationships. leads to question, are couples least
Gonzaga, G. J., Carter, & Buckwalter (2010). Assortative mating, convergence, and satisfaction in married couples.
similar from the onset of a relationship? Personal Relationships, 17(4), 634-644.
Similar Romantic Partners To answer that question, it’s logical to Steele, M. P. & McGlynn, R. P. (1979). Effects of affective value and similarity on attraction. Journal of Social
Romantic partners, especially long revisit our first interpersonal relationship. Psychology, 108(1), 111.
term marital partners, tend to be more Thompson, W. & Nishimura, R. (1952). Some determinants of friendship. Journal of Personality, 20(3), 305.
similar on personality and interests Foundational Primary Caregivers Wilson, G. D. & Cousins, J. M. (2005). Measurement of partner compatibility: further validation and refinement of the
than dissimilar in comparison to The foundation created by the initial CQ test. Sexual & Relationship Therapy, 20(4), 421-429.
Wilson, G. D. & Cousins, J. M. (2003). Partner similarity and relationship satisfaction: development of a compatibility
random couplings (Gonzaga, Carter, & relationship with our primary caregiver quotient. Sexual & Relationship Therapy, 18(2), 161.
Buckwalter, 2010, p. 642). In fact, the affects all future interpersonal

“My best friend’s mom has cancer
64 and it’s really tearing her apart. What Hello, I’m sorry to hear about what 65
can I do to make her feel better? How you’re going through. No one should feel
can I make things better for her? What that level of paranoia and not be able to
are some things I can say to offer move on with their life. It seems to me
comfort to her without sounding cheesy like you’re in a bit of a trauma situation.
and generic or unsympathetic?” – Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Anonymous is a serious thing to deal with at an
“I’ve been in a long term relationship Thank you for sharing your story early stage. I suggest you do go see a
for almost six years. We have a child, with us. I believe the first step to Hi, I think your friend is very lucky to therapist. Having nightmares about your
and I also have a child from a previous creating positive change in our lives is have someone like you in their lives, ex and feeling like he might show up out
relationship. We had only been dating getting real about what needs fixing. who’s so committed to being there for of no where can be early signs of PTSD.
for six months when I got pregnant, As I read through your very personal them. I’m sure you’re already a huge You have to let go of the past in order
and things weren’t going so well then. account, I can’t help but notice some comfort to them. I think there’s 3 main to continue your relationship with the
I decided to stay in the relationship contradictions in the ways you describe ways to help your friend. The simplest new guy. You’ll never feel safe or worthy
and make it work for the new baby. I your significant other (s.o.). You say you one is just to ask them what they need, enough around another man and that can
thought - if I loved him once I could love love and care for him, but you are not in this might be as simple as helping them lead to a lot of emotional stress. Please
him again. I did fall in love again but love with him due to stronger emotional with chores. What they’re going through seek for help. My mother is a victim of
everything that happened within the connections you have with other men is exhausting, so less responsibility could physical and verbal abuse and she never
first year of our child being born brought (despite efforts to “fight it off”). You say make it easier for them to cope. Secondly, took care of it. She always ignored and
me to a deep depression. He was so your s.o. is smart, responsible, and is a normal life and routine are so important pretended that things were okay. Now
naive and selfish that he neglected my great dad even though he has verbally to help someone feel grounded, try not to she’s m.i.a. because she’s so afraid of her
feelings and just said I needed to ‘suck abused your child from a previous treat them differently and that includes boyfriend that she prefers not to leave his
it up’. All this created resentment, but relationship in the past. Finally, you say not having that sympathetic expression side in fear he might hurt her if she leaves.
we finally bought a house, and I thought you don’t want to hurt anyone by making which can be alienating for some people. This is her choice. She got the same
maybe then we would be happy. So many a selfish decision. I think it’s a great The 3rd way to help would be support opportunity you’re getting of starting
more things happened, which lead me to thing that you are seeking the help of a groups. Bringing your friend to support over again and she didn’t take it. You
cheat. I never slept with anyone, but I life coach, but if you are still focused on groups allows them to connect to people must seek happiness for your daughter
did manage to get involved emotionally. the negatives you are not going to make going through the same thing. It can be and see that she doesn’t suffer the same
I feel that his neglect didn’t help, and I much progress. If your s.o. is smart, a place with a lot of information lead by emotional distress from experiencing all
think I fell out of love with him. I know responsible, and great as a father as you someone experienced and skilled. It’s a of this at an early age. Every day brings
that I love and care for him, but I’m not say he is and you sincerely want to keep very difficult situation for your friend to new choices and you should always strive
in love. It’s important to me to be in love your family together, I think you already be in but with a support network around for the best. Do not belittle yourself. You
with the person I’m spending the rest of know that you’re going to have to stop them, they’ll come through this. have to stay strong for your daughter and
my life with. We get along, he’s a great indulging outside emotional connections for yourself. I hope everything gets better
dad, but he also hurt me by mistreating as this just divides your energy and focus. for you and always remember that there’s
my son verbally. He takes care of all his On the other hand, if you truly believe that LAUR
responsibilities, is a family man, and is your relationship with your s.o. cannot be EN help out there. You just have to reach out.
really smart. I have told him how I feel, salvaged, then be 100% honest with him,
and I know he’s upset that I might not yourself, and your children. Your children
“I’ve moved on with my life and am over
be in love anymore. He’s being sweet will experience some negative emotions what happened. My ex was very abusive
now but what if it’s too late? I have a life either way. Again, I’m sure you know that to me and made me feel guilty about it,
coach, and I’m trying to give our love and it’s better if they are supported by a single as though it was my fault. I’m over it.
family a chance, but I can’t seem to get mother who is confident and happy with But am I truly over it? Last night I had For future issues if you’d like to receive
that feeling back. I feel I have stronger herself and her decisions rather than a nightmare about him coming back into advice from your peers, feel free to email
connections with other men that I meet, a mother who is sad, depressed, and me and my daughter’s life (he’s m.i.a.) your inquiry to psych2goadvice@gmail.
but I fight it off. I can’t help but wonder regretful. Focus on what you really want well he was just worse and I had to call com. Advice responding to your concerns
why my significant other and I can’t with your life, decide what will really the cops on him. I kept asking this guy may be featured in our next magazine!
connect. I think it’s easier if I just suck it make you happy, and let your true desires that I want to be with (still in my dream) if
up and stay rather than separate and put guide you. he wanted to be with me because I felt it
the kids and him though the heartache. I wasn’t worth him dealing with my ex and
don’t want to hurt anyone by making a baggage. What do I do? I’m considering
selfish decision. Please help!” going to a therapist.” - Anonymous
– Anonymous

Mind infoline: 0300 123 3393 e-mail:

66  67
Mind legal advice: 0300 466 6463 legal@ 
Eating Disorders: 0845 634 14 14 e-mail: 
Eating Disorders for under age 25:
Bereavement: 08444779400 e-mail: 
Frank (information and advice on drugs):
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Australia: 13-11-14  Philippines: 02-896-9191  International text based help:
Austria: 01-713-3374  Poland: 52-70-000
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2389-2222)  Sweden: 031-711-2400  Artwork by:
Costa Rica: 606-253-5439  Switzerland: 143  Jeffrey Bigelow
Mental helpline provided by:
Croatia: 01-4833-888  Taiwan: 0800-788-995
Cyprus: 357-77-77-72-67  Thailand: 02-249-9977 
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908  Ukraine: 0487-327715
Denmark: 70-201-201 
Egypt: 762-1602  More specific mental health lines:
Estonia: 6-558-088 
Finland: 040-5032199  USA 
France: 01-45-39-4000  Depression: 1-630-482-9696
Germany: 0800-181-0721  Suicide: 1-800-784-8433 
Greece: 1018  LIFELINE: 1-800-273-8255 
Guatemala: 502-234-1239  Trevor Project: 1-866-488-7386 
Holland: 0900-0767  Sexuality Support: 1-800-246-7743 
Honduras: 504-237-3623  Eating Disorders: 1-847-831-3438 
Hungary: 06-80-820-111  Rape and sexual assault: 1-800-656-
Iceland: 44-0-8457-90-90-90  4673 
Israel: 09-8892333  Grief: 1-650-321-5272 
Italy: 06-705-4444  Runaway: 1-800-843-5200, 1-800-843-
Japan: 3-5286-9090  5678, 1-800-621-4000
Latvia: 6722-2922, 2772-2292  Post Abortion: 1-866-4394253 
Malaysia: 03-756-8144 (Singapore: Child Abuse: 1-800-422-4453 
1-800-221-4444)  UK
Mexico: 525-510-2550  Childline (for anyone under 18 with any
Netherlands: 0900-0767  problem): 08001111 

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