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# Decay Problem

Oleh:
Dian Nuraiman, M.Si., M.Sc.

## Jurusan Matematika – Fakultas Sains dan Teknologi – UIN Sunan

Gunung Djati Bandung – Semester Genap Tahun Akademik 2015/2016
▪ Decay Problem
▪ Numerical Integration Methods Outlines
▪ Numerical Results Decay Problem
Decay Problem
▪ Decay problem is one of benchmark problem in numerical
modelling.
𝑑𝐶
= −𝜅𝐶
𝑑𝑡
where 𝐶 is concentration of a substance, 𝑡 is time, and 𝜅 (kappa) is
a positive constant parameter.
▪ The left-hand side (LHS) refers to the temporal change of
concentration per unit time. The right-hand side (RHS) specified
this temporal change.
▪ If 𝜅 is positive, the RHS is negative since concentration is always a
positive quantity. Accordingly, 𝐶 will gradually decrease with time
at a rate in proportion to concentration itself at any time instance.
Numerical Integration Methods

## Euler’s 𝐶 𝑛+1 − 𝐶 𝑛 𝐶 𝑛+1 = 1 − 𝜅Δ𝑡 𝐶 𝑛

explicit = −𝜅𝐶 𝑛
Δ𝑡
Euler’s 𝐶 𝑛+1 − 𝐶 𝑛 𝑛+1
1
= −𝜅𝐶 𝑛+1 𝐶 = 𝐶𝑛
implicit Δ𝑡 1 + 𝜅Δ𝑡
Trapezoidal 𝐶 𝑛+1 − 𝐶 𝑛 𝜅 𝑛+1 1
1 − 𝜅Δ𝑡
rule =− 𝐶 + 𝐶𝑛 2
Δ𝑡 2 𝐶 𝑛+1 = 𝐶𝑛
1
1 + 𝜅Δ𝑡
2
Hybrid 𝐶 𝑛+1 − 𝐶 𝑛 𝑘Δ𝑡
Schemes = −𝛼𝜅𝐶 𝑛+1 − 1 − 𝛼 𝜅𝐶 𝑛 𝐶 𝑛+1 = 1− 𝐶𝑛
Δ𝑡 1 + 𝛼𝜅Δ𝑡
Midpoint 𝐶 𝑛+1 − 𝐶 𝑛−1 𝐶 𝑛+1 = 𝐶 𝑛−1 − 2𝜅Δ𝑡𝐶 𝑛
rule = −𝜅𝐶 𝑛
2Δ𝑡
The exact solution is 𝐶 𝑡 = 𝐶0 𝑒 −𝜅𝑡 .
Example: Numerical Results
A: 𝜅Δ𝑡
B: 𝑡
C: exact solution
D: Euler’s explicit
E: Euler’s implicit
F: Trapezoidal rule
G: Hybrid schemes
(with 𝛼 = 0.5)
H: Midpoint rule

with 𝜅 = 1 and
Δ𝑡 = 0.1

A B C D E F G H
Numerical Results

Gnuplot command:
plot "numerical results.txt" u 2:3 w l title "exact solution", "numerical results.txt" u 2:4 w l titl
e "Euler's explicit", "numerical results.txt" u 2:5 w l title "Euler's implicit", "numerical results.txt" u 2:
6 w l title "trapezoidal rule", "numerical results.txt" u 2:7 w l title "hybrid schemes", "numerical results.t
xt" u 2:8 w l title "midpoint rule"
Terima Kasih