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PERANCANGAN PROSES,

JASA & PERANCANGAN


SISTEM KERJA

Dr. Mohammad Abdul Mukhyi,


Mukhyi, SE., MM
• seleksi proses
• ciri proses
• aliran interniten
• keputusan seleksi proses
• strategi proses-produk
• Rancangan operasi jasa
• mendefinisikan jasa
• kerangka rancangan jasa
• menetapkan strategi dan produk jasa
• sustem penyerahan ke pelanggan
• analisis aliran proses
• Peranc. & Pengukuran Kerja
• Kasus Latihan
Rancangan proses
Seleksi proses merupakan serangkaian keputusan
mengenai tipe atau jenis produksi
dan peralatan yang digunakan.

Klasifikasi :
1. Aliran Produk atau Proses:
a. garis.
b. Intermiten
c. Proyek
2. Tipe Pesanan Pelanggan :
Aliran Garis :
Produk terstandarisasi dan mengalir dari satu
operasi atau tempat kerja ke operasi berikutnya
dengan urutan yang telah ditetapkan sebelumnya.
a. Produksi Massa (mass production): memproduksi
kumpulan-kumpulan produk dalam jumlah besar
dengan mengikuti serangkaian operasi yang
sama dengan kumpulan produk sebelumnya 
repetitive process.
contoh : operasi lini perakitan.

Operasi /
tempat
Aliran
kerja
produk atau
bahan
b. Produksi terus-menerus (continuous).:
ditandai dengan waktu produksi yang relatif
lama untuk menghindari penyetelan, persiapan
lian dan kemacetan yang mahal  industri-
industri proses
Aliran Intermiten (Job Shop)
Kelompok barang yang sejenis pada interval-
interval waktu yang terputus-putus.
Peralatan dan tenaga kerja diatur dalam pusat-
pusat kerja menurut tipe-tipe ketrampilan atau
peralatan yang serupa.

Operasi /
Tempat kerja
Operati intermiten sangat fleksibel dalam perubahan
volume atau produk, karena dalam
operasinya menggunakan peralatan serba
guna dan tenaga kerja berketrampilan tinggi

Masalah: dalam pengendalian persediaan, skedul


dan kualitas.

Digunakan untuk barang-barang tidak distandarisasi


atau volume produksinya rendah
Aliran Proyek
Digunakan untuk memproduksi produk-produk
khusus atau unik.

Masalah signifikan :
perencanaan, pengurutan, sceduling dan
pengawasan kegiatan-kegiata individual yang
mengarahkan penyelesaian proyek secara
keseluruhan.

Bentuk operasi proyek digunakan bila ada


kebutuhan akan kreatifitas dan kekhususan dalam
pembuatan suatu produk
2 3

Mulai Sele
sai

1 4

: Operasi / kegiatan

: hubungan untuk menentukan mana yang


harus didahulukan
Karakteristik-karakteristik proses
Karakteristik Garis Intermiten Proyek
Produk:
Produk:
Tipe order Kontinyu atau Kumpulan Unit tunggal
kumpulan
besar
Aliran produk Berurutan Berpola tidak Tidak ada
pasti
Variasi Rendah Tinggi Tinggi
produk
Tipe pasar Massa Pesanan Khusus (unik)
Volume Tinggi Menengah Unit tunggal
Karakteristik-karakteristik proses

Karakteristik Garis Intermiten Proyek


Tenaga kerja
Ketrampilan Rendah Tinggi Tinggi
Tipe kegiatan Bersifat Tidak rutin Tidak rutin
pengulangan
Upah Rendah Tinggi Tinggi
Kapital:
Kapital:
Investasi Tinggi Menengah Rendah
Persediaan Rendah Tinggi Menengah
Peralatan Mesin khusus Serbaguna Serbaguna
Karakteristik-karakteristik proses
Karakteristik Garis Intermiten Proyek
Sasaran:
Sasaran:
Fleksibilitas Rendah Menengah Tinggi
Biaya Rendah Menengah Tinggi
Kualitas Konsisten Lebih Lebih
variabel variabel
Waktu
penyelesaian Rendah Menengah Tinggi
Perencanaan
dan
pengawasan
Produksi Mudah Sulit Sulit
Kualitas Mudah Sulit Sulit
Persediaan Mudah Sulit Sulit
Dimensi kritis lain yang mempengaruhi pemilihan
proses adalah apakah produk dibuat untuk
persediaan (production to stock) atau untuk pesanan
(production to order).

Proses produksi pesanan berdasarkan atas


permintaan atau pesanan, dimana kegiatan
pemrosesan menyesuaikan dengan spesifikasi
pesanan (tidak standar) dengan waktu yang
disepakati.

Produksi persediaan dengan garis produksi yang


distandarisasi, guna memenuhi permintaan yang
tidak pasti dan merencanakan kebutuhan kapasitas.
Produksi Pesanan VS Produksi Persediaan

Karakteri
Produksi Pesanan Produksi Persediaan
stik
Produk • Spesifikasi ditentukan • Spesifikasi ditentukan
pelanggan perusahaan
• Tidak distandarisasikan • Distandarisasikan
• Volume kecil • Volume besar
• Variasi besar • Variasi kecil
• Relatif mahal • Relatif murah
Sasaran Pemenuhan waktu Keseimbangan persediaan,
penyelesaian dan kapasitas dan pelayanan
pengelolaan kapasitas
Masalah- • Ketepatan pengiriman. • Forecasting
masalah • Pengawasan pengiriman • Perencanaan produksi
operasi • Pengendalian persediaan
utama
Matrik Karakteristik Proses

Produksi Produksi Pesanan


Persediaan

I II
Penggilingan tepung Perusahaan telepon.
Aliran Garis pabrik manakan Perusahaan listrik
dalam kaleng

III IV
Aliran intermiten Produksi perabot Bengkel mesin.
rumah tangga Restauran
Rumah Sakit

V VI
Proyek Perusahaan Produksi kapal
spekulasi. Bangunan
Lukisan komersial
Faktor-faktor yang perlu dipertimbangkan
dalam pembuatan keputusan seleksi proses
1. Kebutuhan modal.
2. Kondisi pasar
3. Tenaga kerja
4. Bahan mentah
5. Teknologi
6. Ketrampilan manajemen
Bagan yang digunakan dalam perencanaan dan
pengelolaan proses
Bagan-bagan perakitan (assembly charts)
Untuk membantu menggambarkan aliran bahan dan
hubungan masing-masing komponen
Bagan-bagan aliran proses (flow-process charts)
Memerinci proses ke dalam unsur-unsur dan simbol-simbol.
Outline
GOODS AND SERVICES SELECTION
Product Strategy Options Support
Competitive Advantage
Product Life Cycles
Life Cycle and Strategy
Product-by-value Analysis

GENERATING NEW PRODUCTS


New Product Opportunities
Importance of New Products

2
0
Pemilihan Teknologi
 Adalah aplikasi ilmu pengetahuan untuk
memecahkan masalah-masalah manusia.
 Adalah sekumpulan proses, peralatan, metoda,
prosedur dan perkakas yang digunakan untuk
memproduksi barang atau jasa.
Batasan-batasan Batasan-batasan
teknologi sosial

Disain pekerjaan Disain pekerjaan


yang feasibel dari yang feasibel dari
sudut pandangan sudut pandangan
Disain sistem teknologi sosial
sosioteknikal

Disain
sosioteknikal
Teknologi yang tersedia :
1. Teknologi Pabrik :
Pekerjaan Tangan (hand-made)
Pekerjaan Mesin (machine-made)
Otomatisasi

2. Teknologi Perkantoran :
Proses transformasi :
 penanganan surat menyurat
 pengetikan dan pengetikan kembali kertas kerja
 pengarsipan
 penggandaan barang-barang cetakan
3. Teknologi Jasa :
Dasar Pemilihan Teknologi
a. Penganggaran modal
b. Apakah teknologi baru sesuai dengan
kebutuhan-kebutuhan tenaga kerja dan
lingkungan.
c. Melibatkan manajemen operasi, manajemen
puncak dan keuangan.
d. Bukan merupakan suatu kegiatan tunggal
tetapi lebih sebagai suatu proses yang
diorganisasikan dengan baik dan mencakup
penjajagan teknologi kontinyu.
Perencanaan Proses
Perancangan dan implementasi sistem kerja yang
akan memproduksi produk yang diinginkan dalam
kuantitas yang diperlukan.

Perancangan proses memerlukan pemahaman


tentang operasi-operasi sebagai suatu sistem
produktif. Langkah-langkah yang perlu diambil:
1. Memutuskan tujuan-tujuan perencanaan, yaitu
untuk meningkatkan efisiensi, efektivitas,
kapasitas atau semangat kerja karyawan.
2. Memilih proses/sistem produktif yang relevan,
yaitu operasi keseluruhan atau beberapa
bagian operasi.
3. Menggambarkan proses transformasi yang ada
sekarang dengan bantuan bagan-bagan proses
dan pengukuran efisiensi.
4. Mengembangkan desain proses yang
diperbaiki melalui perbaikan aliran-aliran
proses dan atau masukan-masukan yang
digunakan.
4. Mendapatkan persetujuan manajemen untuk
disain proses yang telah direvisi.
5. Mengimplementasikan disain proses baru.
Macam bagan yang digunakan dalam
perencanaan dan pengelolaan proses
Bagan Perakitan (assembly charts):
Menunjukkan kebutuhan-kebutuhan bahan
dan urutan perakitan komponen-komponen
yang merupakan suatu perakitan mekanikan.
Bagan Aliran Proses (flow process charts):
Memerinci proses ke dalam unsur-unsur dan
simbol-simbol. Bagan aliran proses adalah
peralatan pokok perbaikan aliran bahan-
bahan.
Bagan Proses Operasi (operating process chart)
Mencakup spesifikasi-spesifikasi untuk
bagian-bagian dan waktu-waktu
pengoperasian dan pemeriksaan.
Routing Sheet adalah lebih terperinci daripada
bagan perakitan, karena menunjukkan operasi-
operasi dan routing yang diperlukan untuk suatu
bagian proses individual.

Bagan Operasi (operating charts):


Menunjukkan spesifikasi bagian-bagian
pengoperasian dan pemeriksaan secara
lebih terperinci
Bagan Mesin-mesin (man machine charts):
Menunjukkan hubungan antara operator dan
mesin. Menunjukkan kegiatan-kegiatan satu
karyawan dan satu mesin.
Bagan Simo (simo charts):
Bagan gerak simultan, menunjukkan
gerakan-gerakan tangan kiri dan kanan,
mencakup waktu setiap gerakan.
Bagan manusia - mesin
soal
Seorang operator akan memerlukan waktu 2 menit untuk
mengisi dan 1 menit untuk mengosongkan mesin cetak,
waktu setiap mesin berjalan secara otomatik adalah selama
4 menit. Biaya-biaya relevan Rp. 8.000,- per jam untuk
karyawan dan Rp. 20.000,- per jam untuk setiap mesin.
a. Susun bagan manusia mesin untuk situasib satu
karyawan, dua mesin yang paling efisien.
b. Berapa waktu siklus
c. Berapa waktu menganggur karyawan per siklus
d. Berapa waktu menganggur total per siklus untuk dua
mesin
e. Berapa biaya total per jam
f. Berapa biaya total per siklus
g. Berapa biaya waktu menganggur per jam
Silabus:
T. Hani Handoko, dasar-dasar manajemen
produksi dan operasi, BPFE, UGM,
Yogyakarta
Outline - continued
PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
Product Development System
Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
Organizing for Product Development
Manufacturability and Value Engineering

ISSUES FOR PRODUCT DESIGN


Robust Design
Modular Design
Computer-
Computer-Aided Design (CAD)
Computer-
Computer-Aided Manufacturing
Virtual Reality Technology
Value Analysis
Environmentally Friendly Design
4
0
Outline - continued
Time-
Time-Based Competition
Purchase of Technology by Acquiring Firm
Joint Ventures
Alliances
Defining the Product
Make-
Make-or-
or-buy Decisions
Group Technology
DOCUMENTS FOR PRODUCTION
SERVICE DESIGN
Documents for Service
Application of Decision Trees to Product Design
Transition to Production

4
1
Identify or Define:
Product life cycle
Product development team
Manufacturabililty and value engineering
Robust design
Time-based competition
Modular design
Computer aided design
Value analysis
Group technology
Configuration management
4
2
Humor in Product Design
As the customer As Marketing
wanted it. interpreted it.

© 1984-1994 T/Maker Co. © 1984-1994 T/Maker Co.

As Operations made it. As Engineering


designed it.

© 1984-1994 T/Maker Co. © 1984-1994 T/Maker Co.

4
3
What is a Product?
Need-satisfying offering of an
organization
Example
P&G does not sell laundry detergent
P&G sells the benefit of clean clothes
Customers buy satisfaction, not parts
Charles Revson says “Revlon sells
hope, not cosmetics.
May be a good or a service
4
4
Product Strategy Options

Product differentiation Strategies

• Low cost
• Rapid response/High Quality Service
• Best Technology

4
5
Causes Generating New
Product Opportunities
Economic change
• Sociological and demographic change
• Technological change
• Political/legal change
• Changes in
– market practice
– professional standards
– suppliers and distributors

4
6
Legislation/ Stated Purpose Industry Criticism
Implementation Date

Electrical-Waste Makes electrical Bans some common flame


directive (2006) equipment easier to retardants, raising the
recycle in part by banning likelihood of fires
some hazardous
substances
Telecom-data- Protects privacy on e-mail Makes surfing more onerous
protection directive and the internet by restricting use of “cookies”
(mid-2003) to remember peoples
preferences
Warning Biotech-Labeling laws Strengthens existing food- Encourages food processors
(2003) label laws and introduces and supermarkets to avoid
labeling for animal feed using genetically modified
containing genetically ingredients, and farmers
modified content could stop growing them
Pedestrian-protection Reduces injuries and Raises costs of cars and
initiative (2001-2012) casualties in road restricts automaker’s design
(when all new cars sold accidents freedom
in Europe must
comply)
Chemicals review Eliminates health hazards Restricts even minute use of
(staggered through due to chemicals dangerous substances, such
2012) as ethanol, in products such
as cosmetics and detergents

4
7
Product Components

Product

Brand Product
Package
(Name) Idea

Physical Quality Service


Features
Good Level (Warranty)

4
8
Product Life Cycle

Introduction
Growth
Maturity
Decline

4
9
Product Life Cycle
Introduction

Fine tuning
research
product development
process modification and
enhancement
supplier development

5
0
Product Life Cycle
Growth

Product design begins to


stabilize
Effective forecasting of capacity
becomes necessary
Adding or enhancing capacity
may be necessary

5
1
Product Life Cycle
Maturity

Competitors now established


High volume, innovative
production may be needed
Improved cost control,
reduction in options, paring
down of product line

5
2
Product Life Cycle
Decline
Unless product makes a special contribution,
must plan to terminate offering
Harvard’s 4 squares of product development:

4/3/2009

5
3
Product Life Cycle, Sales, Cost,
and Profit
Cost of
Development
& Manufacture
Sales Revenue
Sales, Cost & Profit .

Profit
Cash flow
Loss
Time

Introduction Growth Maturity Decline

5
4
Percent of Sales From New
50%
Product
45%
40%
35% Industry Leader
30%
25% Top
20% Third Middle
15% Third
10% Bottom
5% Third
0%
Position of Firm in Its Industry

3M wants 25% of its sales from products less than 5 years old
5
5
Products in Various Stages of
Life Cycle
Sales
Growth Maturity
Introduction Roller Decline
Blades Jet Ski

Boeing
Virtual 727
Reality

Time

5
6
Few Successes
Number

2000 Ideas
1750
Market Design review,
1500 requirement Testing, Introduction
1000
Functional
1000 specifications
500 Product
500 specification
One
100 25
success!
0
Development Stage

5
7
Product-by-Value Analysis

Lists products in descending


order of their individual dollar
contribution to the firm.
Helps management evaluate
alternative strategies.

5
8
Product Development Stages
Scope of product development team

Idea generation
Assessment of firm’s ability to carry
out
Customer Requirements
Functional Specification Scope of design for
Product Specifications manufacturability and
value engineering teams
Design Review
Test Market
Introduction to Market
Evaluation
5
9
Quality Function Deployment
Identify customer wants
Identify how the good/service will
satisfy customer wants
Relate customer wants to product hows
Identify relationships between the firm’s
hows
Develop importance ratings
Evaluate competing products

6
0
Idea Generation Stage

Provides basis for entry into market


Sources of ideas
Market need (60-80%); engineering & operations
(20%); technology; competitors; inventions;
employees
Follows from marketing strategy
Identifies, defines, & selects best market
opportunities

6
1
Customer Requirements Stage
Identifies & positions key product benefits
Stated in core benefits proposition (CBP)
Example: Long lasting with more power
(Sears’ Die Hard Battery)

House of Quality
Identifies detailed list of product
attributes desired by customer Product
Focus groups or Characteristics
1-on-1 interviews Customer
Requirements
6
2
Functional Specification Stage
Defines product in terms of how the
product would meet desired
attributes
Identifies product’s engineering
characteristics
Example: printer noise (dB)
Prioritizes engineering characteristics House of Quality
May rate product compared
to competitors’ Product
Characteristics

Customer
Requirements

6
3
Product Specification Stage
Determines how product will be made
Gives product’s physical specifications
Example: Dimensions, material etc.
Defined by engineering
drawing
Done often on computer House of Quality
Computer-Aided Component
Design (CAD) Specifications

Product
Characteristics

6
4
Quality Function Deployment

Product design process using


cross-functional teams
Marketing, engineering, manufacturing
Translates customer preferences into specific
product characteristics
Involves creating 4 tabular ‘Matrices’ or
‘Houses’
Breakdown product design into increasing levels
of detail

6
5
House of Quality Example

You’ve been assigned


temporarily to a QFD
team. The goal of the
team is to develop a new
camera design. Build a
House of Quality.

© 1984-1994 T/Maker Co.


4/3/2009

6
6
House of Quality Example

Customer Customer
Requirements Importance

Target Values

☺High relationship  Medium relationship  Low Relationship


4/3/2009

6
7
House of Quality Example

What the customer desires


(‘wall’)

Customer Customer Aluminum Auto Auto


Requirements Importance Parts Focus Exposure
Light weight
Easy to use
Reliable
Target Values

☺High relationship  Medium relationship


4/3/2009  Low Relationship

6
8
House of Quality Example

Average customer
importance rating

Customer Customer Aluminum Auto Auto


Requirements Importance Parts Focus Exposure
Light weight 3
Easy to use 2
Reliable 1
Target Values
☺High relationship  Medium relationship  Low Relationship
4/3/2009

6
9
House of Quality Example
Relationship between customer
attributes & engineering
characteristics (‘rooms’)

Customer Customer Aluminum Auto Auto


Requirements Importance Parts Focus Exposure
Light weight 3 
Easy to use 2  
Reliable 1  

☺High relationship  Medium relationship  Low Relationship


4/3/2009

7
0
House of Quality Example
Target values for engineering
characteristics (‘basement’);
key output ☺

Customer Customer Aluminum Auto Auto


Requirements Importance Parts Focus Exposure
Light weight 3 
Easy to use 2  
Reliable 1  
Target Values 5 1 1
☺High relationship  Medium relationship
4/3/2009  Low Relationship

71
Organizing for Product
Development
Historically – distinct departments
Duties and responsibilities are defined
Difficult to foster forward thinking
Today – team approach
Representatives from all disciplines or
functions
Concurrent engineering – cross functional
team

7
2
Manufacturability and
Value Engineering
Benefits:
reduced complexity of products
additional standardization of products
improved functional aspects of product
improved job design and job safety
improved maintainability of the product
robust design

7
3
Issues for Product
Development
Robust design
Time-based competition
Modular design
Computer-aided design
Value analysis
Environmentally friendly design

7
4
Robust Design

Product is designed so that


small variations in production
or assembly do not adversely
affect the product

7
5
Modular Design

Products designed in easily


segmented components.
Adds flexibility to both
production and marketing

7
6
Computer Aided Design (CAD)
Designing products at
a computer terminal or
work station
Design engineer
develops rough
sketch of product
Uses computer to
draw product
Often used with CAM

© 1995 Corel Corp.

7
7
Benefits of CAD/CAM

Shorter design time


Database availability
New capabilities
Example: Focus more on product ideas
Improved product quality
Reduced production costs

7
8
Virtual Reality

Computer technology used to


develop an interactive, 3-D
model of a product.
Especially helpful in design of
layouts (factory, store, home,
office)

7
9
Value Analysis

Focuses on design improvement


during production
Seeks improvements leading
either to a better product or a
product which can be more
economically produced.

8
0
Environmentally Friendly
Designs
Benefits
Safe and environmentally sound products
Minimum raw material and energy waste
Product differentiation
Environmental liability reduction
Cost-effective compliance with environmental
regulations
Recognition as good corporate citizen

8
1
“Green” Manufacturing

Make products recyclable


Use recycled materials
Use less harmful ingredients
Use lighter components
Use less energy
Use less material

8
2
Time-based Competition

Product life cycles are becoming


shorter.

∴Faster developers of new


products gain on slower
developers and obtain a
competitive advantage
8
3
Product Documents
Engineering drawing
Shows dimensions, tolerances,
& materials
Shows codes for Group
Technology
Bill of Material
Lists components, quantities &
where used
Shows product structure
© 1984-1994 T/Maker C

8
4
Monterey Jack
(a) U.S. grade AA. Monterey cheese shall conform to the following
requirements:
(1)Flavor. Is fine and highly pleasing, free from undesirable
flavors and odors. May possess a very slight acid or feed
flavor.
(2)Body and texture. A plug drawn from the cheese shall be
reasonably firm. It shall have numerous small
mechanical openings evenly distributed throughout the
plug. It shall not possess sweet holes, yeast holes, or
other gas holes
(3)Color. Shall have a natural, uniform, bright and
attractive appearance.
(4)Finish and appearance - bandaged and paraffin-dipped.
The rind shall be sound, firm, and smooth providing a
good protection to the cheese
8
5
Bill of Materials – Manufacturing Plant
and Fast-
Fast-Food Restaurant
Bill of Material for a Panel Weldment Hard Rock Café’s Hickory BBQ Bacon
Cheeseburger

Number Description Qty


Description Qty
A60-71 Panel Weldm’t 1 Bun 1
Hamburger Patty 8 oz.
A 60-7 Lower Roller Assembly 1 Cheddar Cheese 2 slices
R 60-17 Roller 1 Bacon 2 strips
R 60-428 Pin 1 BBQ Onions ½ cup
P 60-2 Locknet 1 Hickory BBQ Sauce 1 oz.
Burger Set
60-72 Guide Assem. Rear 1
Lettuce 1 leaf
R 60-57-1 Support Angle 1
Tomato 1 slice
A 60-4 Roller Assem. 1
Red Onion 4 rings
02-50-1150 Bolt 1
Pickle 1 slice
A 60-73 Guide Assm, Front 1 French Fries 5 oz.
A 60-74 Support Weldm’t 1 Seasoned Salt 1 tsp
R 60-99 Wear Plate 1 11-inch Plate 1
02-50-1150
4/3/2009 Bolt 1 HRC Flag 1

8
6
Make-or-Buy Decisions

Decide whether or not you want


(or need) to produce an item
May be able to purchase the
item as a “standard item” from
another manufacturer

8
7
Production Documents

Assembly Drawing
Assembly chart
Route sheet
Work order

8
8
Assembly Drawing
Shows exploded view of product

Head Neck

End
Cap
Handle

8
© 1984-1994 T/Maker Co. 9
Assembly Chart for
A Tuna Sandwich
Tuna Fish
1
Tuna
SA1 A1
Assy
2 Sandwich
Mayonnaise
FG

Bread
3 A2

Toasted Cheese Story


9
0
Route Sheet
Lists all operations

le n g t h
2 Shear # 3 Shear 45° 8 .0 5 0
c o rn e rs
3 D r ill D r ill b o th 15 3 .0 0 0
p re s s h o le s
4 B ra k e Bend 90° 10 .0 2 5
p re s s

9
1
Engineering Change Notice
(ECN)

A correction or modification of an
engineering drawing or bill of material

9
2
Configuration Management

A system by which a product’s


planned and changing
components are accurately
identified and for which control
and accountability of change
are maintained

Revisions to Drawings and


9
Assembly Instructions (E.G. Rev 3
Service Design -
Nature of Customer Participation
Ford Taurus

9
4
Application of Decision Trees to
Product Design
Particularly useful when there are a
series of decisions and outcomes which
lead to other decisions and outcomes.
Considerations:
Include all possible alternatives and states of
nature - including “doing nothing”
Enter payoffs at end of branch
Approach determining expected values by
“pruning” tree

9
5
Transition to Production
First issue: knowing when to move to production!
Second: must view product development as
evolutionary, not responsibility of single
individual/department
Third: expect to need a trial production period to
work the bugs out
Fourth: recognize that responsibility must also
transition

9
6
Operations Management, Flexible, 7th Ed. By
Heizer and Render, Prentice Hall 2005
Howard, William G., Jr. and Guile, Bruce R.,
Editors; Profiting From Innovation,
Macmillan Free Press, 1992; IBSN: 0-02-
922385-7 {Book discusses how technology
effects business development and service
strategies}

Rohwer, Jim; Asia Rising, Touchstone Books,


IBSN-0684825481 (paperback) {Book discusses
the causes and global implications of the
economic rise of Asia –China, Japan, South
Korea, Indonesia- since the 1970’s}