Anda di halaman 1dari 11

11 February 2018 | 11:48PM EST

Cross-Asset Positioning: What We are Watching

We monitor key positioning indicators including put-call skew, options open interest, John Marshall
+1(212)902-6848 |
rates volatility and credit spreads to assess the unwind of the bullish equity
Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC
positioning and understand where cross asset risks may be continuing to rise. In our
Rocky Fishman, CFA
view, increased volatility in rates, credit and options markets in the context of a +1(212)902-3396 |
significant increase in bullish equity positioning created an environment where small Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC

changes in economic data and sentiment drove a sell-off in risk assets over the past Katherine Fogertey
+1(212)902-6473 |
two weeks. Although volatility clearly has not yet subsided, evidence from the term
Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC
structure of options shows the market is pricing in some optimism that this volatility Jonathan Kahnowitz
+1(212)357-5328 |
increase will be short-lived.
Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC
For the exclusive use of VHN@NBIM.NO

Vishal Vivek
What we are watching... +1(212)902-2603 |
Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC

Arun Prakash, CFA

+1(212)934-6218 |
Goldman Sachs India SPL
We look for evidence that investors are willing to hedge at unusually high prices
even after a nearly 10% decline in the equity market. We were surprised by the
continued demand for call options in the early stages of this market decline as
investors remained in “buy the dip” mode. Thursday and Friday marked an increase
in demand for puts relative to calls as evidenced by put-call skew and put-call

1. Put-call skew: Up, but not at extremes. We compare the cost of puts to the
cost of calls to understand whether investors are paying up for downside (puts)
or upside (calls). Put-call is up over the past two weeks, but is only in its 72nd
percentile relative to the past year, suggesting investors are not yet paying
extreme prices for puts relative to calls. Other global indices have not fallen as
strongly as the SPX on a beta-adjusted basis but have seen sharper increases in
2. Put-call volume ratios: Accelerated on Thursday and Friday. The volume of
puts traded relative to calls had remained low through Thursday as investors
were focused on buying calls to profit from a rebound. On Thursday and Friday,
put volumes increased relative to calls, sending the put-call volume ratio to 1.31,
its highest level since the US Presidential election.

Goldman Sachs does and seeks to do business with companies covered in its research reports. As a result,
investors should be aware that the firm may have a conflict of interest that could affect the objectivity of this
report. Investors should consider this report as only a single factor in making their investment decision. For Reg AC
certification and other important disclosures, see the Disclosure Appendix, or go to Analysts employed by non-US affiliates are not registered/qualified as research
analysts with FINRA in the U.S. This report is intended for distribution to GS institutional clients only.
Goldman Sachs

3. SPY and SPX call-put open interest: Shows investors are still bullishly
positioned. While prices and volumes are good real-time indicators of where
investors are adding to positioning on the margin, the outstanding open interest in
SPY and SPX options give us insight into the size of the current positions in
portfolios. Call open interest is currently at an all-time high relative to puts for SPY
options, which are typically used by retail investors. Call open interest is up relative
to puts for the institutional SPX contracts, but it is near its 4-year average on an
absolute basis. We look for increases in put open interest to indicate that investors
have added hedges to their portfolio.
4. Credit market: Equity has not yet “caught down” to credit. We believe credit
investors may have an advantage over equity investors in interpreting the drivers of
moves in the rates market and the equity options market. Further, the high
correlation of equity to credit spreads over time means they offer a valuable
“independent” indicator of company valuations. Credit weakened in mid-January,
suggesting 4% downside to equities. During the decline over the past two weeks,
equity has nearly “caught-down” to credit, but we continue to see equity as 2%
overvalued on this analysis.
For the exclusive use of VHN@NBIM.NO

Exhibit 1: If investors are hedging at any cost, Put-skew would be Exhibit 2: Put volumes rose to extreme levels on Thursday-Friday
near all-time highs Put-call Volume Ratio, PCUSTOTL Index
SPX 1-month put-call normalized skew (25dp-25dc)/50dc

0.60 1.35

0.55 1.25

1-mth Normalized Skew

Put-call volume


0.25 0.75
SPX Index 1-mth Normalized Put-Call Skew
0.20 0.65
Put-call volume ratio
May-17 Jul-17 Sep-17 Nov-17 Jan-18 0.55
Feb-17 May-17 Aug-17 Nov-17 Feb-18

Source: Goldman Sachs Group Inc. Source: CBOE, Bloomberg

11 February 2018 2
Goldman Sachs

Exhibit 3: Call open interest is high relative to puts, showing Exhibit 4: We are watching for stabilization in credit derivatives
investors are positioned for further upside (particularly for SPY) Total return of selling protection in CDX IG 5Y at 12 times notional vs
Call open interest / Put open interest for SPY and SPX buying the stocks of the companies in the CDX IG S29

0.75 12%
EQUITY: GSCBIG OTR total return index
CREDIT: CDX IG 5Y OTR (12x notional)
Call/Put open interest

Indexed Return


0.45 2%


SPX Call/Put Open Interest SPY Call/Put Open Interest

0.25 Oct-17 Nov-17 Dec-17 Jan-18 Feb-18
Feb-14 Nov-14 Aug-15 May-16 Feb-17 Nov-17

Source: Bloomberg Source: Goldman Sachs Group Inc.

What can we learn from term structure and the global volatility landscape
For the exclusive use of VHN@NBIM.NO

Although volatility clearly has not yet subsided, evidence from the term structure of
options shows the market is pricing in some optimism that this volatility increase will be

Term structure is sharply inverted; longer-dated VIX futures have fallen to a level it took
them months to reach in 2015.
Although last week’s volatility spike drove shorter-dated implied volatility toward (and by
some measures beyond) the multi-year highs set in August 2015, market expectations
of how volatile markets will be several months from now (measured by 5-6 month VIX
futures) are considerably lower than they were in the aftermath of August 2015’s
volatility spike. This strong inversion of the term structure indicates that the market is
hesitant to price in high volatility for the long term, a reflection of how low volatility was
in the many months leading up to last week’s sell-off.

11 February 2018 3
Goldman Sachs

Exhibit 5: VIX futures are pricing a faster return to low vol than post-August 2015
Rolling weighted average VIX futures prices

Source: Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research, Bloomberg

Exhibit 6: SPX term structure is more inverted than it was in the aftermath of 24-Aug-15
Median SPX at-the-money implied volatility (%)
For the exclusive use of VHN@NBIM.NO

Source: Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research, Goldman Sachs Group Inc.

Vol-of-vol remained near its all-time peak all week; limited risk VIX normalization
trades are expensive
Buying VIX puts and put spreads in the aftermath of a severe volatility spike can be a
safe way to position for volatility to normalize; however, currently VIX option prices (as
measured by the VVIX vol-of-VIX index) are unusually high. We are surprised to see how
persistent vol-of-vol is: though recent vol-of-VIX has been exceptional, the most
important driver of it (VIX ETP flows) is no longer in place. While we acknowledge that
the sample size of spikes of this magnitude is limited, in past volatility spikes that
quickly drove the VIX above 30, it has taken over a month for the VIX to fall below 20 and
the VIX has not fallen much below 15 for the following several months.

11 February 2018 4
Goldman Sachs

Exhibit 7: Vol-of-VIX has stayed at peak longer than in prior events

VIX index and VVIX vol-of-VIX index, 2010-present

Source: Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research, Bloomberg

Exhibit 8: Following major VIX spikes, it has historically taken over a month to return to a sub-20 VIX
Range of VIX prices N months following a period with the VIX over 30 (after being below 20 within the prior two
weeks); dark line is median, dotted lines are months to current VIX expirations, current event in red
For the exclusive use of VHN@NBIM.NO

Source: Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research, Bloomberg

Global indices are starting to regain their volatility premium to the SPX after lagging all
week; very high global equity index skew reflects short-term fears
! Unusually low volatility differences between global indices and the SPX. One
of the most notable derivative market dislocations in the early aftermath of last
week’s volatility spike was unusually low and often negative spreads between the
implied volatility of other equity indices and the SPX’s. This indicated that in the
initial phase of the sell-off, markets viewed the event as an idiosyncratic,
technicals-led event centered around the SPX, but have slowly started to price in the
possibility of increased global de-risking by widening these global volatility spreads.
! EEM-SPX implied volatility spread low for a sharp sell-off. The EEM-SPX implied
volatility is one to watch – should markets start pricing further risk-off, trading the
spread could expand quickly because of the EEM’s dual FX and equity exposures.

11 February 2018 5
Goldman Sachs

! Global index skew stronger than SPX skew. Additional fear of a further global
sell-off has been priced in via high implied volatility skew. SPX skew is high, but not
unusually so, after starting this year lower than its recent norm. Skew has risen
more strongly for many other global indices (particularly the EuroStoxx 50); perhaps
these movements indicate fears over other indices’ catching up to the downside per
their usual beta.

Exhibit 9: Many indices that typically have higher implied vol than the SPX now have lower implied vol -
including EEM (down 9.0% MTD)
Month-to-date price return and 1-month ATM implied volatility (as of local market close)
For the exclusive use of VHN@NBIM.NO

Source: Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research, Goldman Sachs Group Inc.

Exhibit 10: High implied volatility skew across global underlyings reflects continuing short-term fear
Median 1-month 25-delta put-call implied volatility skew, normalized by at-the-money

Source: Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research, Goldman Sachs Group Inc.

VIX market positioning has shifted post-sell-off; a bid for VIX futures may linger
By necessity, VIX markets have more positioning adjustments to make than others in
the coming days as the now-much-smaller short ETPs were linked to a substantial
portion of the VIX futures market (40% of short open interest last month):

! CFTC shows increased short VIX futures positions from the Dealer category.
This week’s Commitment of Traders report shows that the Dealer category reported
a large (80k contract change over two weeks) move toward short VIX futures

11 February 2018 6
Goldman Sachs

position, versus the roughly flat position carried in recent weeks. The
harder-to-interpret non-reportable category also shows a substantial (40k contracts)
short VIX futures position. The number Dealer entities reporting short VIX futures
positions also increased this week.
! March VIX future open interest fell this week - consistent with a decline in
ETP-like trading. Because the rolling future strategies VIX ETPs employ are such a
substantial portion of VIX futures trading, the second monthly VIX future normally
sees its open interest rise on a near-daily basis until the first future expires and it
becomes the first future. A quick drop in the March (2nd monthly) future’s open
interest leaves us on the lookout for a new, possibly lower-volume, trend in VIX
futures trading patterns.

Exhibit 11: Following Monday, Dealers appear to have added short VIX future positions
Number of Dealer entities and net Dealer VIX futures position reported by the CFTC Commitment of Traders survey
For the exclusive use of VHN@NBIM.NO

Source: Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research, CFTC

Exhibit 12: Mar-18 VIX future open interest has fallen - unusual for the 2nd VIX future
Open interest of recent monthly VIX futures, thousands of contracts

Source: Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research, Bloomberg

11 February 2018 7
Goldman Sachs

Exhibit 13: Risk of a repeat ETPs-fueled VIX spike is currently small with short products diminished
Outstanding vega ($mm exposure per VIX futures point) of major VIX ETPs

Source: Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research, Bloomberg

For the exclusive use of VHN@NBIM.NO

11 February 2018 8
Goldman Sachs

Disclosure Appendix
Reg AC
We, John Marshall, Rocky Fishman, CFA, Katherine Fogertey, Jonathan Kahnowitz, Vishal Vivek and Arun Prakash, CFA, hereby certify that all of the
views expressed in this report accurately reflect our personal views about the subject company or companies and its or their securities. We also certify
that no part of our compensation was, is or will be, directly or indirectly, related to the specific recommendations or views expressed in this report.
Unless otherwise stated, the individuals listed on the cover page of this report are analysts in Goldman Sachs’ Global Investment Research division.

Option Specific Disclosures
Price target methodology: Please refer to the analyst’s previously published research for methodology and risks associated with equity price targets.
Pricing Disclosure: Option prices and volatility levels in this note are indicative only, and are based on our estimates of recent mid-market
levels(unless otherwise noted). All prices and levels exclude transaction costs unless otherwise stated.
General Options Risks – The risks below and any other options risks mentioned in this research report pertain both to specific derivative trade
recommendations mentioned and to discussion of general opportunities and advantages of derivative strategies. Unless otherwise noted, options
strategies mentioned in this report may be a combination of the strategies below and therefore carry with them the risks of those strategies.
Buying Options - Investors who buy call (put) options risk loss of the entire premium paid if the underlying security finishes below (above) the strike
price at expiration. Investors who buy call or put spreads also risk a maximum loss of the premium paid. The maximum gain on a long call or put spread
is the difference between the strike prices, less the premium paid.
Selling Options - Investors who sell calls on securities they do not own risk unlimited loss of the security price less the strike price. Investors who
sell covered calls (sell calls while owning the underlying security) risk having to deliver the underlying security or pay the difference between the
security price and the strike price, depending on whether the option is settled by physical delivery or cash-settled. Investors who sell puts risk loss of
the strike price less the premium received for selling the put. Investors who sell put or call spreads risk a maximum loss of the difference between the
strikes less the premium received, while their maximum gain is the premium received.
For the exclusive use of VHN@NBIM.NO

For options settled by physical delivery, the above risks assume the options buyer or seller, buys or sells the resulting securities at the settlement
price on expiry.

Distribution of ratings/investment banking relationships

Goldman Sachs Investment Research global Equity coverage universe

Rating Distribution Investment Banking Relationships

Buy Hold Sell Buy Hold Sell
Global 33% 54% 13% 63% 57% 52%

As of January 1, 2018, Goldman Sachs Global Investment Research had investment ratings on 2,867 equity securities. Goldman Sachs assigns stocks
as Buys and Sells on various regional Investment Lists; stocks not so assigned are deemed Neutral. Such assignments equate to Buy, Hold and Sell for
the purposes of the above disclosure required by the FINRA Rules. See ‘Ratings, Coverage groups and views and related definitions’ below. The
Investment Banking Relationships chart reflects the percentage of subject companies within each rating category for whom Goldman Sachs has
provided investment banking services within the previous twelve months.

Disclosures required by United States laws and regulations

See company-specific regulatory disclosures above for any of the following disclosures required as to companies referred to in this report: manager or
co-manager in a pending transaction; 1% or other ownership; compensation for certain services; types of client relationships; managed/co-managed
public offerings in prior periods; directorships; for equity securities, market making and/or specialist role. Goldman Sachs trades or may trade as a
principal in debt securities (or in related derivatives) of issuers discussed in this report.
The following are additional required disclosures: Ownership and material conflicts of interest: Goldman Sachs policy prohibits its analysts,
professionals reporting to analysts and members of their households from owning securities of any company in the analyst’s area of coverage.
Analyst compensation: Analysts are paid in part based on the profitability of Goldman Sachs, which includes investment banking revenues. Analyst
as officer or director: Goldman Sachs policy generally prohibits its analysts, persons reporting to analysts or members of their households from
serving as an officer, director or advisor of any company in the analyst’s area of coverage. Non-U.S. Analysts: Non-U.S. analysts may not be
associated persons of Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and therefore may not be subject to FINRA Rule 2241 or FINRA Rule 2242 restrictions on
communications with subject company, public appearances and trading securities held by the analysts.

Additional disclosures required under the laws and regulations of jurisdictions other than the United States
The following disclosures are those required by the jurisdiction indicated, except to the extent already made above pursuant to United States laws and
regulations. Australia: Goldman Sachs Australia Pty Ltd and its affiliates are not authorised deposit-taking institutions (as that term is defined in the
Banking Act 1959 (Cth)) in Australia and do not provide banking services, nor carry on a banking business, in Australia. This research, and any access to
it, is intended only for “wholesale clients” within the meaning of the Australian Corporations Act, unless otherwise agreed by Goldman Sachs. In
producing research reports, members of the Global Investment Research Division of Goldman Sachs Australia may attend site visits and other
meetings hosted by the companies and other entities which are the subject of its research reports. In some instances the costs of such site visits or
meetings may be met in part or in whole by the issuers concerned if Goldman Sachs Australia considers it is appropriate and reasonable in the specific
circumstances relating to the site visit or meeting. To the extent that the contents of this document contains any financial product advice, it is general
advice only and has been prepared by Goldman Sachs without taking into account a client’s objectives, financial situation or needs. A client should,
before acting on any such advice, consider the appropriateness of the advice having regard to the client’s own objectives, financial situation and needs.
Brazil: Disclosure information in relation to CVM Instruction 483 is available at Where
applicable, the Brazil-registered analyst primarily responsible for the content of this research report, as defined in Article 16 of CVM Instruction 483, is
the first author named at the beginning of this report, unless indicated otherwise at the end of the text. Canada: Goldman Sachs Canada Inc. is an
affiliate of The Goldman Sachs Group Inc. and therefore is included in the company specific disclosures relating to Goldman Sachs (as defined above).

11 February 2018 9
Goldman Sachs

Goldman Sachs Canada Inc. has approved of, and agreed to take responsibility for, this research report in Canada if and to the extent that Goldman
Sachs Canada Inc. disseminates this research report to its clients. Hong Kong: Further information on the securities of covered companies referred to
in this research may be obtained on request from Goldman Sachs (Asia) L.L.C. India: Further information on the subject company or companies
referred to in this research may be obtained from Goldman Sachs (India) Securities Private Limited, Research Analyst - SEBI Registration Number
INH000001493, 951-A, Rational House, Appasaheb Marathe Marg, Prabhadevi, Mumbai 400 025, India, Corporate Identity Number
U74140MH2006FTC160634, Phone +91 22 6616 9000, Fax +91 22 6616 9001. Goldman Sachs may beneficially own 1% or more of the securities (as
such term is defined in clause 2 (h) the Indian Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956) of the subject company or companies referred to in this
research report. Japan: See below. Korea: Further information on the subject company or companies referred to in this research may be obtained
from Goldman Sachs (Asia) L.L.C., Seoul Branch. New Zealand: Goldman Sachs New Zealand Limited and its affiliates are neither “registered banks”
nor “deposit takers” (as defined in the Reserve Bank of New Zealand Act 1989) in New Zealand. This research, and any access to it, is intended for
“wholesale clients” (as defined in the Financial Advisers Act 2008) unless otherwise agreed by Goldman Sachs. Russia: Research reports distributed
in the Russian Federation are not advertising as defined in the Russian legislation, but are information and analysis not having product promotion as
their main purpose and do not provide appraisal within the meaning of the Russian legislation on appraisal activity. Singapore: Further information on
the covered companies referred to in this research may be obtained from Goldman Sachs (Singapore) Pte. (Company Number: 198602165W). Taiwan:
This material is for reference only and must not be reprinted without permission. Investors should carefully consider their own investment risk.
Investment results are the responsibility of the individual investor. United Kingdom: Persons who would be categorized as retail clients in the United
Kingdom, as such term is defined in the rules of the Financial Conduct Authority, should read this research in conjunction with prior Goldman Sachs
research on the covered companies referred to herein and should refer to the risk warnings that have been sent to them by Goldman Sachs
International. A copy of these risks warnings, and a glossary of certain financial terms used in this report, are available from Goldman Sachs
International on request.
European Union: Disclosure information in relation to Article 4 (1) (d) and Article 6 (2) of the European Commission Directive 2003/125/EC is available
at which states the European Policy for Managing Conflicts of Interest in Connection with
Investment Research.
Japan: Goldman Sachs Japan Co., Ltd. is a Financial Instrument Dealer registered with the Kanto Financial Bureau under registration number Kinsho
69, and a member of Japan Securities Dealers Association, Financial Futures Association of Japan and Type II Financial Instruments Firms Association.
Sales and purchase of equities are subject to commission pre-determined with clients plus consumption tax. See company-specific disclosures as to
any applicable disclosures required by Japanese stock exchanges, the Japanese Securities Dealers Association or the Japanese Securities Finance

Ratings, coverage groups and views and related definitions

For the exclusive use of VHN@NBIM.NO

Buy (B), Neutral (N), Sell (S) -Analysts recommend stocks as Buys or Sells for inclusion on various regional Investment Lists. Being assigned a Buy or
Sell on an Investment List is determined by a stock’s total return potential relative to its coverage. Any stock not assigned as a Buy or a Sell on an
Investment List with an active rating (i.e., a stock that is not Rating Suspended, Not Rated, Coverage Suspended or Not Covered), is deemed Neutral.
Each regional Investment Review Committee manages various regional Investment Lists to a global guideline of 25%-35% of stocks as Buy and
10%-15% of stocks as Sell; however, the distribution of Buys and Sells in any particular analyst’s coverage group may vary as determined by the
regional Investment Review Committee. Additionally, each Investment Review Committee manages Regional Conviction lists, which represent
investment recommendations focused on the size of the total return potential and/or the likelihood of the realization of the return across their
respective areas of coverage. The addition or removal of stocks from such Conviction lists do not represent a change in the analysts’ investment rating
for such stocks.
Total return potential represents the upside or downside differential between the current share price and the price target, including all paid or
anticipated dividends, expected during the time horizon associated with the price target. Price targets are required for all covered stocks. The total
return potential, price target and associated time horizon are stated in each report adding or reiterating an Investment List membership.
Coverage groups and views: A list of all stocks in each coverage group is available by primary analyst, stock and coverage group at The analyst assigns one of the following coverage views which represents the analyst’s investment outlook
on the coverage group relative to the group’s historical fundamentals and/or valuation. Attractive (A). The investment outlook over the following 12
months is favorable relative to the coverage group’s historical fundamentals and/or valuation. Neutral (N). The investment outlook over the following
12 months is neutral relative to the coverage group’s historical fundamentals and/or valuation. Cautious (C). The investment outlook over the following
12 months is unfavorable relative to the coverage group’s historical fundamentals and/or valuation.
Not Rated (NR). The investment rating and target price have been removed pursuant to Goldman Sachs policy when Goldman Sachs is acting in an
advisory capacity in a merger or strategic transaction involving this company and in certain other circumstances. Rating Suspended (RS). Goldman
Sachs Research has suspended the investment rating and price target for this stock, because there is not a sufficient fundamental basis for
determining, or there are legal, regulatory or policy constraints around publishing, an investment rating or target. The previous investment rating and
price target, if any, are no longer in effect for this stock and should not be relied upon. Coverage Suspended (CS). Goldman Sachs has suspended
coverage of this company. Not Covered (NC). Goldman Sachs does not cover this company. Not Available or Not Applicable (NA). The information
is not available for display or is not applicable. Not Meaningful (NM). The information is not meaningful and is therefore excluded.

Global product; distributing entities

The Global Investment Research Division of Goldman Sachs produces and distributes research products for clients of Goldman Sachs on a global basis.
Analysts based in Goldman Sachs offices around the world produce equity research on industries and companies, and research on macroeconomics,
currencies, commodities and portfolio strategy. This research is disseminated in Australia by Goldman Sachs Australia Pty Ltd (ABN 21 006 797 897); in
Brazil by Goldman Sachs do Brasil Corretora de Títulos e Valores Mobiliários S.A.; Ombudsman Goldman Sachs Brazil: 0800 727 5764 and / or Available Weekdays (except holidays), from 9am to 6pm. Ouvidoria Goldman Sachs Brasil: 0800 727 5764 e/ou Horário de funcionamento: segunda-feira à sexta-feira (exceto feriados), das 9h às 18h; in Canada by either Goldman
Sachs Canada Inc. or Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC; in Hong Kong by Goldman Sachs (Asia) L.L.C.; in India by Goldman Sachs (India) Securities Private
Ltd.; in Japan by Goldman Sachs Japan Co., Ltd.; in the Republic of Korea by Goldman Sachs (Asia) L.L.C., Seoul Branch; in New Zealand by Goldman
Sachs New Zealand Limited; in Russia by OOO Goldman Sachs; in Singapore by Goldman Sachs (Singapore) Pte. (Company Number: 198602165W);
and in the United States of America by Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC. Goldman Sachs International has approved this research in connection with its
distribution in the United Kingdom and European Union.
European Union: Goldman Sachs International authorised by the Prudential Regulation Authority and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority and
the Prudential Regulation Authority, has approved this research in connection with its distribution in the European Union and United Kingdom; Goldman
Sachs AG and Goldman Sachs International Zweigniederlassung Frankfurt, regulated by the Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht, may also
distribute research in Germany.

11 February 2018 10
Goldman Sachs

General disclosures
This research is for our clients only. Other than disclosures relating to Goldman Sachs, this research is based on current public information that we
consider reliable, but we do not represent it is accurate or complete, and it should not be relied on as such. The information, opinions, estimates and
forecasts contained herein are as of the date hereof and are subject to change without prior notification. We seek to update our research as
appropriate, but various regulations may prevent us from doing so. Other than certain industry reports published on a periodic basis, the large majority
of reports are published at irregular intervals as appropriate in the analyst’s judgment.
Goldman Sachs conducts a global full-service, integrated investment banking, investment management, and brokerage business. We have investment
banking and other business relationships with a substantial percentage of the companies covered by our Global Investment Research Division.
Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC, the United States broker dealer, is a member of SIPC (
Our salespeople, traders, and other professionals may provide oral or written market commentary or trading strategies to our clients and principal
trading desks that reflect opinions that are contrary to the opinions expressed in this research. Our asset management area, principal trading desks and
investing businesses may make investment decisions that are inconsistent with the recommendations or views expressed in this research.
The analysts named in this report may have from time to time discussed with our clients, including Goldman Sachs salespersons and traders, or may
discuss in this report, trading strategies that reference catalysts or events that may have a near-term impact on the market price of the equity securities
discussed in this report, which impact may be directionally counter to the analyst’s published price target expectations for such stocks. Any such
trading strategies are distinct from and do not affect the analyst’s fundamental equity rating for such stocks, which rating reflects a stock’s return
potential relative to its coverage group as described herein.
We and our affiliates, officers, directors, and employees, excluding equity and credit analysts, will from time to time have long or short positions in, act
as principal in, and buy or sell, the securities or derivatives, if any, referred to in this research.
The views attributed to third party presenters at Goldman Sachs arranged conferences, including individuals from other parts of Goldman Sachs, do not
necessarily reflect those of Global Investment Research and are not an official view of Goldman Sachs.
Any third party referenced herein, including any salespeople, traders and other professionals or members of their household, may have positions in the
products mentioned that are inconsistent with the views expressed by analysts named in this report.
This research is not an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any security in any jurisdiction where such an offer or solicitation would be
illegal. It does not constitute a personal recommendation or take into account the particular investment objectives, financial situations, or needs of
individual clients. Clients should consider whether any advice or recommendation in this research is suitable for their particular circumstances and, if
appropriate, seek professional advice, including tax advice. The price and value of investments referred to in this research and the income from them
For the exclusive use of VHN@NBIM.NO

may fluctuate. Past performance is not a guide to future performance, future returns are not guaranteed, and a loss of original capital may occur.
Fluctuations in exchange rates could have adverse effects on the value or price of, or income derived from, certain investments.
Certain transactions, including those involving futures, options, and other derivatives, give rise to substantial risk and are not suitable for all investors.
Investors should review current options disclosure documents which are available from Goldman Sachs sales representatives or at Transaction costs may be significant in option strategies calling for multiple purchase and
sales of options such as spreads. Supporting documentation will be supplied upon request.
Differing Levels of Service provided by Global Investment Research: The level and types of services provided to you by the Global Investment
Research division of GS may vary as compared to that provided to internal and other external clients of GS, depending on various factors including your
individual preferences as to the frequency and manner of receiving communication, your risk profile and investment focus and perspective (e.g.,
marketwide, sector specific, long term, short term), the size and scope of your overall client relationship with GS, and legal and regulatory constraints.
As an example, certain clients may request to receive notifications when research on specific securities is published, and certain clients may request
that specific data underlying analysts’ fundamental analysis available on our internal client websites be delivered to them electronically through data
feeds or otherwise. No change to an analyst’s fundamental research views (e.g., ratings, price targets, or material changes to earnings estimates for
equity securities), will be communicated to any client prior to inclusion of such information in a research report broadly disseminated through electronic
publication to our internal client websites or through other means, as necessary, to all clients who are entitled to receive such reports.
All research reports are disseminated and available to all clients simultaneously through electronic publication to our internal client websites. Not all
research content is redistributed to our clients or available to third-party aggregators, nor is Goldman Sachs responsible for the redistribution of our
research by third party aggregators. For research, models or other data related to one or more securities, markets or asset classes (including related
services) that may be available to you, please contact your GS representative or go to
Disclosure information is also available at or from Research Compliance, 200 West Street, New York, NY
© 2018 Goldman Sachs.
No part of this material may be (i) copied, photocopied or duplicated in any form by any means or (ii) redistributed without the prior written
consent of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.

11 February 2018 11