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NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 6

INDEX
1. Cells
2. Tissues
3. Levels of organization

by
Rafael
Rodríguez
Pérez
THE ORGANIZATION OF LIVING THINGS 37
NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 6

1. CELLS

 Topic sentence. Read this sentence and tell your


partner what you know about it. Also, talk about
more things you want to know about the topic.

‘Cells are the basic unit of life and most of them can’t
be seen with our eyes.’

 Two-minute stop technique. Your teacher will read these sentences below. When
he stops, you’ll have two minutes to explain to your mates the sentence with your
own words. Later, the secretary will write a question that all the members have
thought about.
Cells are living things, so they are alive. They carry out the three life processes, as
any other living thing:

- Nutrition: Cells obtain nutrients from food. These nutrients give them energy.

- Reproduction: Cells can divide and produce new cells that are identical to
themselves.

- Sensitivity: Cells react to what they perceive around them.

 1-2-group. Look at the picture and give examples of cells that specialize to perform a
particular function.

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NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 6

 Rotatory sheet technique. Divide a sheet of paper into two columns and write
unicellular living things and multicellular living things on the top. You will pass the
sheet around every 30 seconds and draw and write as many living things as
possible.

 Why do you think cells are different? Discuss.

 1-2-group. Look at an animal cell and a plant cell. Later, answer.

a. What parts do they have in common?


b. What organelles do plant cells have that animal cells don’t?
c. Why do you think plant cells need cell walls?

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NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 6

 Work in pairs. Make a model of a plant or animal cell with plasticine. You mustn’t
make the same as your partner. Then, label its parts with a toothpick and explain
their functions to your partner. You have to evaluate each other using this table:

Organelles: They have Nucleus: It controls the Cytoplasm: It is a jelly-like


different functions function of the cell. It’s material, composed mainly of
(nutrition, like a ‘brain’. water. It contains the
respiration…). organelles.
Membrane: This is the Cell wall: ONLY PLANT Chloroplasts: ONLY PLANT
covering around the CELLS. It is a rigid wall CELLS. They are specialized
cell. It controls what around the membrane. organelles that absorb sunlight,
goes in and out of the They make stems and which plants need to carry out
cell. branches so hard. photosynthesis and make food.

 Read and answer.


EXPLORING TINY LIFE FORMS
In the past, scientists could only observe the world around them
with the naked eye (only with their eyes). They didn’t have any
instrument to see very small things.
However, around the year 1700, the Dutch scientist Anton Van
Leeuwenhoek changed science forever. He could examine a drop of
water using a simple microscope, which was basically a powerful
magnifying glass. Van Leeuwenhoek discovered a new world, full of
tiny living things.
Using his simple microscope, Van Leeuwenhoek observed and
drew pictures of cells and many microorganisms, including bacteria.
This made him the ‘Father of Microbiology’.

a. Who was Anton Van Leeuwenhoek? Where was he from?


b. What did Van Leeuwenhoek invent to observe objects that were
invisible to the naked eye?
c. What ‘new world’ did he discover?
d. Why do we call him the ‘Father of Microbiology’?
e. Do you think his invention has influenced medicine? Why?

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NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 6

 Research. Answer these questions and write 3 more interesting questions and
answers related to cells. Curiosity is the best instrument to become a better scientist.
1. Which is the smallest cell in the human body?
2. Which is the largest cell in the human body?
3. How do cells reproduce?
4. How do cells get nutrients?
5. Are bacteria cells?
6. ___________________________________
7. ___________________________________
8. ___________________________________

2. TISSUES

 Numbered heads together. Complete:


Groups of the same type of cells join together to form ____________.

 1-2-group. Look at these tissues, think and label.


Bone tissue, muscle tissue, blood tissue, nervous
tissue, fat tissue and epithelial tissue.

 Individual activity (3’). Match animal tissues, their functions and the cells that form them.

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NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 6

 Guessing game in group. One volunteer has to choose one tissue and draw it in a
piece of paper. The rest of the group has to guess the tissue.

 Dictation.
- Plants have different types of tissues. For example: dermal tissue, ground tissue and
vascular tissue.

 Individual activity. Read about plant tissues and write what tissue refers to each
definition.

a. It makes up most of the plant. It provides support, stores nutrients and


performs photosynthesis. _________________
b. It transports substances. _________________
c. It covers the leaves and young stems, and provides protection. It’s similar to
our skin. _________________

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NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 6

3. LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION

 All for one and one for all technique. In groups, do these short activities
cooperatively. You can’t do the next activity if you are not sure that everyone
understands the previous one.
a. Look, think and order the levels of organization from the smallest to the largest.

b. Complete these sentences.

b.1. Groups of the same type of cells join together to form ___________.
b.2. Tissues join together to form ___________. Tissues in the same
___________ work together to perform a common function.
b.3. Organs join together to form ___________. Organs in ___________ work
together to perform a common function.
b.4. All the different systems work together to form an ___________, a living
thing.
 Write a summary about the most important contents in this unit. Use your own
words.

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NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 6

 Work in groups. First, draw the class representative’s silhouette in a large piece of
paper. Later, in groups, make posters of his/her level of organization. Each group
will work on a different system.
You can work on any of these
systems: digestive system,
respiratory system, circulatory
system, excretory system, nervous
system, muscular system or
skeletal system.

Here, you can see a very simple


example. You should add more
information, such as cell shape and
size, parts of the cell, function of the
tissue, function of the organ, function
of the system, parts of the system, etc.

 Work in pairs. Complete the unit diagram.

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