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3ST11 CO.

T REP. Com.
2d Session. No. 128.


FElBRUA.4ItY 20, 186t.-Od(erd to 1w)(T


Mr. iIUJCKALEUV submitted the followin-rn

R. E P 0 R T.
The Joint Select Committee (f t/c twvo housess of (Con-gresv appointed ait t11 last
session to examine into the present condition qf tilc Senate chamhcr and hall
of t/c [louse of Representatiuse, (is regards lighting, Ieating, anld1 ventilation,
and their acoustic properties, and the (eCfects and disad(ranta,;cs cxistinfl in
the saime, make t(le following report:
'l'Thlt pIursuant to the resolution of nappointntint they have obtained from
Charles F. Anderson, architect, a statement of the principles upon which he-
propo3es the improvement of tle halls of (Congress, as regards the particulars
above mentioned, and also estimates of the cxpcnIsc that will attend the proposed
alterations, and they append the said statement and estimates to this report.
They have also obtained plans and draN~ings of the proposed changes of tle
halls and Capitol wings, as authorized by ni clause of the miscellaneous appro-
lriation act of 2d July, 1864, wNhich are deposited with the Secretary of the
Senate for examination by the members of both houses. The committee lhave
also taken the voluntary testimony of a number of witnesses upon the several
subjects covered by the present inquiry, to enable then to come to intelligent
conclusions, and they now beg leave to submit that testinony in connexion
Swith this report for the information of Congress.
T'l'e committee propose, in the first place, to examine the several defects
alleged to exist in the present arrangements relating to the halls, of Congress,
anld particularly those, relating to their ventilation ; next to state distinctly the
character of the changes proposed; and, lastly, tihe time, manner, and cost of
their accomplishment.
First, then, as to existing defects
1. The air for ventilating the halls is now taken from the levels of the ter-
races, between the wings and the0old Capitol building, on the western side.
To these sitiuations much dust and other impurities are carried by the action of
winds, subjected to the influence of eddies, and taken with the air trouligh the
ventilating passages into the halls. And in warm weather the terraces and ad-
joining walls, becoming heated, affect very considerably the temperature of the
air obtained. Reference upon this point of the inquiry is made to the testi-
mony of Dr. Antisell, and Air. Forney, the engineer in charge of the ventila-
tion of the House of Representatives. It is manifest that the air introduced
into the halls should be obtained from places not subject to the accumulation of
impurities, or to the undue production of heat.


2. By the examinat ion of the engineer ill charge of' the heating' and ventil;t-
ilig deIpartinetit o0 the Senate chiamrber, it appears that the air on1 its passage to
the chaniber is heated exclusively by stemn, introduced into mazes of p)ipes for
the purpose. Hiot writer is not, used(, and it seems certain that the air is over-
heated and thereby subljected to itijurious changes. Professor Wyan says
Ii all cases in which it. mnay be necessary to warin the fresh air required to
bIe suplied to anl inhabited rooni or cell, it is essential to health that the in-
creased( tein)perature should be derived fronm a moderately heated surface ; 11ence
the advantage of uiniiig water as na edium of heiting. Iln a hotwater apparatus
of' ordinary construction, the temnperatuire of' the surfaces when Cxposed to It
current of air will never reach the boili)n poIit, atnd it is o0)ViouS that they may
be regulated inl ally lower (degree that is likely to be usefull"
AilJong the cond(lit ions prescribe(l for the warinitig al)paratus of Pentonvillel
lriso0-t hlie '' In(lel prisolln-was the following: '' That the cntire radiating sur-
fitfce Sholl(d (derive its telinperatiire from the circulation of h(ot water, and that it
.-lonld be of ,suelh :llan rea as would mailitntain a temperature- of 60 ill the cell
when the externail atmnosplhere wvnas at 32' ; further, that under ordinary circum-
stances the tenii)pvratlire o(' t he heating surface should not rallge above J0)0 to
1200 of Fallre lllheit.''
This p)oinit of' over-lhatilln the air (lenlaliads aniettinent whvlich iuist l)e secured
ill any new arraneii-ne t regarding venitilatioln.
:8. But olne of' thie iloost millnlifient sand material defects in thie v*entilation of the
Capitol wi)gs, is, thle exceeding aridity of' the air supplied. To this point thlc
commn-littee have given particular ttewtiOion, and the iiiforination obtained upon it
is mIost conclusive ill condellination of' the existing arrangement. Both hICalth
and comfort are (lisregardlled in forcing ilto the hallsair containing but one-third,
to one-half, tile lloistilre or01vaior of' water required at the temizperature to which
it is raised. It is to be taken for graitied that the natural constitution of air at
any given tei-l)perature is better adapted to life and hunian comfort thaun aln arti-
ficial onie caln be, tinid it is to be secured as nearly Sl. posSib)le in all structures
d(esigned(l for human occuipanc)y. In a free atmosphere the demand for moisture
cause(l ib) )3 cetised tempieijrature is filly supplied from natural sources. Ni3t,
ill moving air through a confined space (lestitlute of watery vapor, and subjecting
it on ils paIlqage to tile action of' heat, while its character must undergo a change
as to tepliperatuire and (lensity, there will be 11 correspoidinig cthniC in the
amount or proportion of ioisttiure it contains. In other words, moisture must be
imparted to it by artificial eanwis if its true natural constitution iis to be maini-
tainied. '1'1t1it a principle So w\ell known anld so indisputable should have been
igifored in1 the vemntilation ot' the Capitol is most surprising, aind indicates, if it
does not prove, icoin)ietenicy or indifference to duty in thle superintendency of'
the building.
doctorr Reid observers, that " the moisture ill the air is not to be regarded ats
an advemititious ingredient, but rather as an essential component of atmospheric
air. it requires in general to be added to air in cold climates in winter in pro-
portio/l to the temperature communicated to it before it approaches thiC person.
If cold air be heated in Ppring and summer by natural causes, it absorbs a pro-
portiorial sbhare of moisture in general from the surfaceofnioist ground, lakes, and
rivers, or from the ocCan, and thus reaches the system itl a congenial condition.
On1 thel other hand, if cold and dry air be heated artificially wVithout receiving
moisture, its increased power of absorbing moisture renders it offensive to the
systemn."-Re&i on ['entilation, sec. 341, 43.
" The amount of evaporation into equal spaces is dependant upon the tempe-
rature, and increases considerably on at small increase of heat." Between 320
and 100° the amount of evaporation is doubled by the addition of about 200, or
at 520 it is double tbat. of 32.° * * In winter, the air, when extremely
cold, is proportionably free from moisture. The true time, acordingly, when
moisture ought to be App)lied to air is not when it is warm in spring and sum-
mer, but as it is wtarmj artifically in winter. The temperature and moisture
of the air are certainly the most important circumstances that demand attention
.dfter securing air of sufficient purity. (lb., &. 350, 436, 511 .)
Professor Wyman says that " air holds in solution a variable amount of aque-
ous vapor, limited by the temperature. Thc influence of' this agent upon the
human system is exceedingly important. The, lungs are continually exhaling
moisture, its quantity depending upon the hygrometric state of' the atmosphere.
If the air be too dry, the lining membrane of the lungs, throat, and mouth, may
be deprived of necessary moisture so rapidly that anll uncomfortable degree of
dryness, or even inflammation, may be induced. Undoubtedly, the best constitu-
tion of the air is that which nature affords. During the summer months the air
has gradually increased in temperature, and appropriated from rivers and other
sources that amount of vapor which is required. In our houses we should imi-
tate the same course, and, heating air from below 320 to 700, provide a sufficient
,supply of water." ( Wyman on Vcntilation, pp. 190, 91, 96.)
Air changed in temperature by warming without increased moisture is apt
to produce unpleasant feelings and painful sensations in the chest, which are
often attributed to too great heat. In very dry air the insensible perspiration
will be increased, &e. The objection lies Against heated air, no matter how
heated. Stoves and air furnaces with their red-hot surfaces are undoubtedly
worse for the air than hot water apparatus which never scorch it, yet the latter
may pour into our apartments a withering blast of air at 15Q0, which may be
potent for mischief. The onl- way that hot air can be made healthful and de-
airable is by an effectual pllan of artificial evaporation." (Dr. Youmans' H-land-
book of Social Science, 308.)
Appended to this report, is a paper furnished the committee by Dr. John
A. Rowland, showing the capacity of air for moisture at different temperatures,
both as to volume and weight, to which reference is made for further informa-
tion upon the present point. The figures are obtained from works of reputa-
tion, and they show that the air of the halls during the winter and spring re-
quires two or three times the amount of moisture actually contained in it; for
its aridity, caused by heating it, is modified in no wvay whatever, not even by
leakage of doors and windows, as in the case of an ordinary apartment.
But what determines the condition of the air in this respect with perfect cer-
tainty is the examination given it by D)r. Wetherill of tle Smithsonian Insti-
tlution. Ile examined the air of the Senate chamber on the 24th of January,
and on February 9th, and states the results in his testimony. Indicating the
saturation point of air at any given temperature by the number 100, we have
a standard established for comparison, when ascertaining the quantity of mois-
ture actually present in anly specimen of air. Upon ascertaining the amount
so present, it may be indicated by a number which will bear the same relation
to 100 that the amount found present bears to the amount which would be
present if the air were completely saturated or contained moisture to the full
extent of its capacity. And in sulch case, theb number indicating the quantity pre-
sent is called the " relative humidity" of the air examined.
Now the mean annual relative humidity of atmospheric air in England has
been ascertained to be about 750, saturation being, as before stated, 1000. Mmr.
Roscoe states that in the house of lords the air is pleasant to breath when its
relative humidity ranges between 550 and 820. But Dr. Wetherill found the
relative humidity of the air in our Senate chamber on January 24th to be as fol-

loWf: In ladies' gallery, near reporters' gallery, tit 2 1p. in, 27. In same,
iieAr diplomatic gallery, 2?1. On same (lay, at 3 p. in., the relative humidity of
the external air entering the ventilating fan, wias 56.
On February 9th, with at relative humidity of' external ailr at 55 at 21 p. M.,
lhe obtained the following results in the Senate clamber: in southeast corner of
chamber on i level with (lesks, at 3A p). in., relative hiumnidity, 20; in diplomnatic
,allery, ait 4 o'clock, 21.
These astonishilg l)ut indis1)utable results prove theat upon that occasion less
thans one-thir(d the proper a:mounit of, moisture wals present ill tlh aiir of tlhe(
An ol)servationl taken by him at 4.30 p. in. of thel sanme day in the air-space
.Lbove the ceiling is also instructive. lIe found the temp)cratulrc to be 64°,
while the temperature ill thel halil below tit the j)revio(us observation had been
70.90 upon the floor, and 680 in the diplomatic gallery. An enormous influ-
enee of the roof in producing cold, and affe-cting the air of the halls, is shown
by the.sce figures. It wats a cold (lday, vithl ail external temperature of 30.6'.
It nmy be added, that by observations taken at the Smnitlhsoonian Institution
for the months of February and June, 1859, there being three observations
laily, the mean relative humidity of tile atmosphere for the former month was
71, and for the latter month, 69. Tlwhreflore, onl the 9th of' February, 1865, the
air uts d ill ventilating the Senate chamber, with an external Februtary tempera-
ture, and an inside teml)erature of' June, had a point of relative Ildmidity ill
the chamber tilat reu(lired to be multiplied by :3.& to raise it to time proper Wash-
ington average.
With good reason, therefore, does l)r. Antisell declare in his testim ny that
OllC of the capital defects of our vemitilatiomi is the want of hlylration of tile air
of the 1ha1118.
Soine attempt has been imadee to hydrate time air recently, but in ia very insuf-
ficient manner, and without material effect. 'T'lhe laudable effort of' time present
sergealntat-arins of the Semlate, with illsuficient space and facilities at coirmnanid,
to lly(lrate the air of tile Senate climber, deserves commnnieidatiomI.
But. to necomplihli time object in view it radical cilange in existing general
.arrangements is required. DIr. Reid state thlat, ill ventilating the En4glishi House
of (Comnmons wlen it was crowded, lie often exposed time air furnisiled to 5,000
feet of evaporating surface to imnpairt the necessary moisture, and sulsequently
male the airflow through jyets !' uwater. ( Youmans, s. 347.)
The ideas that have obtained in the ventilation of the capitol maly be esti-
mated by the statement made to the committee by the present arcllitect, that he
proposed to hydrate tile air of each hall by passing it over ailm eva)orating sur-
ficee of' forty square feet. The committee are not prep)alc(l to recommlelnld(l thisi
particular experiment. (A subsequent statement was, thirty feet of' Ileated
water, or a surface al little exceeding four feet by seven.)
When dry air is eXpose(l to a soure oIf moisture, a1 considerable time imust
elapse before it will become saturated. Tlhe diffusion of' vapor into hot air is
much more rapid than into that wilich is colder, but it is not alt all instantaneous.
Air. Daniell observed that at few cubic imicheis of' dry air continued to expand by
the absorption of humidity for anl hour or two, when exposed to water of the
temperature of tile sulrro'unding air."
It follows, that the dry and warmed air for supplying roomit's of great ilagni-
tude must be passed over aIl evaporating surface of great extent, in case that
mode of hydrating it be adopted. l)oubtleos, warming thie water would increase
the efficiency of the plan. Dr. Antisell recommen(1s spray or jets of water
thrown into tile air at a right angle to its current, which would no doubt be an
effective and satisfactory mode of accomplishing time object where the necessary
facilities can be established, among which space is indispensable. The objections
to the use of steanm, on tan1 extensive scale, for hydration, are, the production of
ncise, and, as alleged, of odor, and its imperfect dissolution in the air before
entering the chamber. It passes onl with the current of air for somo time before
it becomes dissolved and incorporated witlh it, and moisture is deposited upon
all surfaces with whicii tlle volume of air comes in contact. Trhlere, is no arrange-
ment for introducing steaim into the air passing to the halls, but it was provided
for the air directed to the committee rooms aind passages. T'he planl was not
found to work well, and has not lbeen in practice.
4. Dust rising in thle halls fromn the floors. This defect arises from the intro-
duction of ailr through horizontal openings in the floors, and is an inconvenience
which should be abated, if possible.
In D)r. Reid's arraingements for ventilating the former House of Commons,
inats and Russian scrapers were provided ill the lobbies to secure the greatest
possible exclusion of every source of impurity froim the floor; the air being ad-
mitte(d through the floor by numerous apertures.
'I'his difficulty of dust rising ill the room, as well as the introduction of' refuse
substances into the horizontal openings ill the floor, would be mitigated, though
not entirely removed by tile introduction of the air through the risers of the steps
b)ehin(l the seats of, members. That was the original plain, but it was abandoned,
as was also the free itroduct ion of' air illtO the sides of the room, because of the

unl)leasallt currents produced. No doubt the latter effect would be decreased,

if not removed, by plrol)er hydration of the air ; for it is quite certain that a
current of dry air, although at a high temperature, +^ill I)ro(ldlce chilliness, on
account of the rapi(l evaporation caused by it.
-i. Unequal temperature in1 thle halls at th1e sanme level. The statements of'
temperature which appear iln the evidence establish and illustrate this point;
the temperatures given of' the hall. of the House are average ones; observa-
tions of a number of' thernmomneters, at the samne level iln various Inrts of the hiall,
differing several degrees from each other, being takeil. Th'e Senate chamber
temperaLtures are those of single instruments with their p)ar'ticular locations noted,
difiering, ill some cases, five degrees or more from each other at the same level,
but onl opposite sides of the clamber. The certain result of these differences of
temperature is to cause unequal movement of' the air and to disturb the regu-
larity of the ventilation. The air will aseend uneq(ually ill different parts of
tile hlalls, and perhaps, also, some (disturbance of' s80(11(1 will be thereby pro-

6. Extreme degree of' heat in thle halls. Tj'hie thermiomietrical observations,

beside showing differences of telnperature,, show also an1 excessive degree of
heat. The average exceeds 700, -whereas it should not exceed 65' to 68°.
iIn. private houses the air shoul(I never be allowed to remnian above 70°
Whien warmed by heeated air; when heated air is used in Ctonn)exion with open
fires, or other radiating bodies, the temperature will not often require to be
above 65g." t J iyman, p. 188.)
"The best temperature for a room is 650 to 68'. ( Youmans, s. 21.)
Temperature in former Iiouse of Commons. "'Time house i£: heated to 62'
before it is opened, and maintained generally at a temperature varying between
630 and 7/00, according to the velocity of the air passing through the house."
(Reid, s. 659.)
A proper temperature is fixed by Dr. Antisell, in his testimony, at 66'. In
fiact, a temperature exceding 70J in the halls would be intolerable were it not
for the aridity of the air ; because of that, rapid evaporation takes place,
rendering individuals less sensitive to the presence of heat. But the degree of
heat to which inldivid(Iuals fare 9ubjecte(l in the halls is probably injurious, and is
in more marked contrast to the external tcll)emratule than is desirable. 'IThesc
observations relate to the winter and spring months, b)ult the temperature of the
lhalls ill suinter isf often offensiively high durig both day and night sessions;
for the heat p)assillg through tlie roof into the hallt by (andy, all the lheat throwni
down by tle liiglits at miight, are equally intrusive and objectionable. There
was no necessity for establishing the con(litions from which tliese effects followv
and thet heat, which sometimes reaches nearly 909' in thel halls, is productive of
much discomfort, is injurious to health and obstructive of' legislation. In
summer tile air ., sufficiently moist, b)ut temperature i.s less subject to regulation
than in wvinter.
7. The air of the halls is not kept distinct and apart from the air of the spaces
above the ceilings. It is, therefore, subject to the influence of thec roofs and of
the lights. Fromn this cause the ventilation of the halls is disturbed, and rendered
imperfect, as wXill be shmowvn under subsequent heads.
8. 'l'hie roof:- ar(e cxceee(linigly objectionable as tlhey exist at. pIresent,coml)ose5d in
part of' metal and in part of' glass, generating cold or admitting heat according
to season, and conducting the noise of storms enormously and offensively to the
halls. In erecting thiem, it .'evi1ns to have been forgotten that this Capitol was
not to be an Egyptian or C recian. temple, un(ler a genial sky, nor evenI a Roman
church, in the lil(l climate of' Italy, but a great structure for thce use of' legis-
lative bodies, in a comparatively inclement location upoll the banks of the Po-
tomac. Windows upon the sides, for lighting the halls, if made (loluble, would
not only have accomplished their office more )erfectly thani a glass roof, but
would have p)rotecte(l the air of' the chamber from all in jurions influence of the
external atmosphere, and froin thse intrutsion of all external sound ; taind eveII
the entrance of solar heat, now enornmous, and incapable of' regulation by the
roof, might have been exclu(led, by shading, when necessary, til 'itidows n ex-
posed to it. Light from side windows would be soft, natural, cheerful, and
diffused, p)rodlucing perfect illumination of thes whole interior space, including
the galleries, now so unequally and imn1)erfectly lighte(l. And, finally, windows,
unlike the roof, might be thrown open tit lelaslulr(e, ant( thus, at proler seasoims
unplulpn fit occasiolns, rapid and thorough ventilation of the1 halls secured.
'iii m 1,l;10f
9. Tlme particular arrangement for lighting tIhe halls by gats jets above the
ceiling is another (lefect requiring titenlltion. TLhie jets are very numerous-
those used for litghting the, hall of thle I-ouse exceeding twelve hundred in numn-
ber. ThIe amount of heat createri by them is very grem-,t, and the quantity
thrown (lown into one of the halls at a night ses-son increases the tempera-
ture of the hall from three to five degrees. This is peculiarly disadvan-
tageous in slimmer, and renders night sessions uncomfortable, there being no
effective arrangement for cooling tile alll. There is am! unnecessary C'Jnl8sump)-
tion of gas, and thle products of' combustion are not effectually removed.
Dr. Reidtiays: ' When any vitiated air is produced by a gas lamp or other
-artificial light, or by any manufacturing operation, too much importance cannot
be attached to the desirableness of involving it directly in a stream or current of air
by which it is conveyed to a channel where it cannot possibly contaminate the
air of respiration." (S. 4538.)
It is to be remembered that there is extensiX'e communication between the
lhall and the air space above the ceiling, w here the lights are placed, through
numerous apertures alone, the ceiling, allowing impurities of combustion to pass
into the halls with anv downward current. And Dr. Antisell explains, that the
accumulation of' hot air tinder the roof without sufficient means of exit is to
back up against the out-going currents from the hall (and prevent their escape.
There can be no doubt that comparatively few lights arranged with reflectori
aind ventilating chimneys, would light the halls l)erfectly, would throw down
but little heat into them, and would thboroughly ventilate the air spaces above
the ceiling, assuming that they were cut off (as they should be) from any con-
niiunication with the lhalls.
10. One principal defect of ventilation is, the imperifect removal above of the
vitiated air of the halls. Under this head two points are to be considered: 1st.
That the avenues of escape for the air are inadequate, and, 2d, that no exbausting
power is applied. Whatever of escape takes place is simply from the natural
ascent of heated air, and this action is insufficient and irregular from defective
arrangements. In the case of thel Senate hlull the apertures for the escape of'
the air havee a (leficient capacity of one-sixth as compared with the entrance
shaft, or passage below. The velocity of' escape is defitient also to the extent
of one-third as compared with the entrance movemCent produced by the fan.
Great irregularity 11(1 imperfect ventilation are the necessary results.
As to the nal)pication of' artificial power for the removal of the air, Dr. Anti-
sell says: " The chief powerr should be placed at the point where the air is
thrown out or removed from the building. I look upon a fin for the introduction
of air as of' secondary imnl)ortance compared with a fan placed at a point where
the air is removed. The object is to remIove the air that has become impure,
and it may be done much e;asier and with inore certainty if the po1Ver is applied
-Itthe removing polnt."-
Question. "1 )o you consider the application of power for the remnoval of air
from a chamber mnore importatit than for its introduction ?
Answer. '' Certainly; that is the main point. The main iomwer should l)c ap-
p)lied wliere the air is to be removed, and for this reason : You are never .sulre,
in driving air in, that it arrives at the point, desired ; hut if' you take it out
of the roomn the thing is palpable."
Nowv, at present, the air is forced by fansx into tlme halls and then allowed to
take its own course, subject, however, to all the distuir'ing causes which exist
in the halls or above thlemt. N'o power is applied to produce certainty alnd reg-
ulabrity in it. reinoval.
(CA 1I Il(NIl C A C! l) (;AS.
'lie presence o0t' arbonic acid gas in the halls is, no (loubt, in excess of tIhe
quantity contained in the external atinosplhere, but the committee have not been
able to obtain any exact determination regarding tile quantity present, either at
ordinary sessions or upon extraordinary occasions. The detection of this gas,
andi an exact determination of the amount of it contained in air, require skill,
careful attention, and instruments -and materials of' analysis of much perfection.
Of atmospheric air in a state of ordinary purity, carbonic acid gas conetitutes
but about four pWrts in ten thousand, and even in air overchalrged and rendered
unhealthy by its presence, tile quantity contained is exceedingly small. But
the examination upon this p)oilnt now leing prosecuted by Dr. Charles M.
Wetherill, of the Smithsonian Institution, will furnish information approaching
exactness, as his cpacity and fidelity are both unquestionable. In the absence
of reliable information, no clear opinion can be formed upon this subject, but
the commiiiittee JII'(e iindu(eCd to think that. the cojitaiination of the air of the hall
froin this cause, is not ve*(r exceCs3ive or injurious. The reasons for this opin-
ion are, tie(' great size of' thme halls, the fact thzat notwithstanding defective move-
melit of' the air in ventilation, the quantity of' air removed within a given time
mutst be very conisiderable, a1nld that the lialls are usually oCcup)ied but a few
hours at. ol( time. Upon extraordinary occasions, wlhen th( galleries are ivell
filled, it is p)rolblabl( that defective ventilation permits all unhealthy accumulation
of this pernicious gats, and its enormous p)r'oductiOn by the lights, without per-
f(ect exclusion fromll t lie lilIs, may produce contanihiation of' the air, (vCel below
the C('ililig.
Such, theni, are the existing (defects to which the :attention of the committee has
been directed, 11d(1 tle) Imayle )ieftly sulmmuid(I illi as flollowi :
That the( air is taken from ni iimp)roper place, where it contains dlust and is
over-lheated ill snuminer. That it is over he('ated by steam l)ipes. That the air
as introduced into the hallIs during the whit('r' andl spring nionths of the year
does not Contain 111ore than omie-tilird to onie-hIalf the IIloisture or vapor of'
water required at I he temperature to which it is raised(. That its aridity is a
cal)ital defect, an1(d d(llian(lzs radical clmange and amendment. That diist rises in
the balls firoin the introduction of' thte air through thle floors. That teinmpra-
tures ami( 11n1equal ill tilhe hll8 at, thle same level.
That. the heat is extreme ini t lie hallsQ, at le(ast. l)y 5' or 6', n(llmost excessive
in simnimier, both by day and niighi t, f'rom the( influence of' the roofs and lights.
That. tlile air of' lihe ]hills is not kelpt (listimet anlid sepratedl from that between
tllhe Ceililgs.4 a.1d roofs.
That time roofs' are very objectiontable both from their construlctioni and thec
materials of which thbey are comiose((1, amid that for the1 glass roofs, side wvindowys,
Iml(ld double, w'Oil(l be mil alldnirabhe substituteu.
'l'Tat the p)re}set arri'angenent for Iighiting thllc s is had,
Thilamit, the reovi of' tih(e air fomli the hallIs is illiperflectly accomphlisiled, the
(iltlets being illadequat(', aid( 110 ('Xlaulsting power provide(l.
'T1'M1 PLAN OF 1.MPR1VE'1)'1,N1NTJ'.
'TlF(' ('changes, 1(1nd improvements p)ropos(ed by Mr. Anderison, the architect, are
State(l in detail ill Ii1is r)eOrt to the committee, which is ap)p)ended hereto, and
are, ti\mi11lld ; lustrat('(
il Il)y his plans 111d(1 drawings which accompany it. Ile
pir'op)O('s to ob)taini lil' from it nations upon thie hank west of thle building,
through v'ertical shafts of' some (l](ev'ation ; to conduct it through projected pas-
.4ages into the(' su11b-basement, aid then conduct it uipwards3 through alp)ropriatc
passage's to ii' clullilbers outside a10(1 mier the upper part of the halls. From
t l('5(' (li.At rilbtitng ('1l1111)( rs it, is to psms through (ducts over the ceilings, and
obtaill admilio,-inll to tlie Ch11iei'wr thii'rough tie(! )reseiit alei'tilures in the ceilings.
'h1e1( ('lltire
l'(! ('II('n t (it' air FO hl' is to he p)m'od uced andl regulateol by a power-
fill failn placed ea' the bottomi of' the a.cemiding passage, anol provision is made
flor wari'ing ti(e air upon its way by hot-water pipes, and flor cooling it. in sum-
mer bl~y tIl(els of' ice}. l1e pIopoes also to plac1 jets of'wiater in thie outer
entrance shiuf'ts, ainld to provide most. am111ple and effectual ai'i'an'ge'menits for
hy(lrating the aiir before it reaches tlie ceiling. tl'lime spice at comnmamid will
(eable this to b)e d(llne peTectly, thus removing w)Nholly one of time main deflects
in tilhe existing arratilgeliiemt. T'lme I'emovil or exhautio8on of' the atir front the
halls will be through tile floors and through 1he present passages used f'or the
initro(duction of' air, l)po(rfinI tulins l)eing again uls('(d f'or accomplishing thjis pilrpose.
Now, whmatevei' o)liIl1maybe I)(l 1oried of' the inei'its of the plan timts far, as
move('ln't of' a1ir ill tihe pi'oc'ss of ventilation, it is mnamuliflest that it pog-
to tIhe
sesses the merit of being capable of exact reversal. At any time, if desired, the
air may be introduced fromt below, conveyed upward through the halls, and ex-
haustel through the p)rojposed entranwe-p)a.sages of' the- pIl(.ce; in which case it
would become, as to its general features, almost thle identical plan successfully
adopted by Dr. Reid for thle ventilation of the former IHouse of Commons. IlI
flact, such reversed plaui would have a material advantage over the Reid arrange-
enlt ill tile Ilse of an effective exhaustimn-fan instead of al fire and chilnney.
I)r. Antisell and Mlr. Cluskey correctly state that suchl reversal of tihe plan, as
to direction of thle movem1ent, of the air, could be made with little expense and
-alteration if desired hereafter. Thllis consideration meets any possible objection
to the downward movement, of tair through the halls, by those wh)o may not be
coniinced of its utility, efficiency, and success.
But aI most material )art of the proposed plan-that which involves most of
expen diture and requires of caretill ilnvestigaltionl-is thle elevation of thle
ceilings am(I roofs, with the accompanying and consequent changes.
It proposed to elevate the ceilingr and roof, in each winllg, about IifIeen fcct;
to make the roof double, the inner one cointer-ceiled with lon-cond(luCting ma-
terial ; to substitute :. limited number of lights, with r'eflectors andl ventilating
chiinmneys, for the present numer ouis gas jets, and to insert Nijdows around thel
whole upper part of the hall illthe space gained by the elevation of thle ceiling
and roof. Tu111s, the air-space above the ceiling, separated entirely from the
ducts throughl which the air for the hull is intro(luced or exllhlusted, will be
ventilated by the chimneys of the lights; all the products of combustion will
be at once removed ; abundant light, with little heat, will be p)roduced ; aill in-
fluence of external heat or cold and all noise from storms will be prevented by
the (double roof and the in)suilated air .space above the ceiling, and perfect illu-
ini:ation of the hall nand galleries, witlh other advatages, seculled by the side-
whiidows intro(lduce(ld. T'herescn lbe no (louhbt that; these would be most valuable
improvements upon the points involved in this inquiry, to wit: the ]heutinl,,
ventilatioln, and acoustics of the halls of' Congress.
r lawc's of architectural proportion require thle, elevation of thle ceilings, anl1
thle appearance of' thle halls (and particularly the hall of thle llouse of' Itepre-
6entat ies) would be greatly impnl)roved thereby.
The original plan of' Milr. Anderson, which was mainly followed in the con-
structioll ot thle hllsllz, and in their location ill the centre of the wings, contem-
plated windows above, ias now propose(, aln it is not likely that any competent
architect would ever lp'ropose sutc rooms, so located, Without allny possible ac-
cess to solar light Cxcept through the( roofs.
Besides, it is insisted upon by professional gentlemen, and appears to be true,
that tle arhellitectural effect of the Capitol, vie%%(l exterimally, would be ilproveC(l
by thfe moderate elevat ions I)ropl)e(l to be added up)on theU wings. U Ihe sky
line of' the structure would be somewhat broken, which would coll)port with Hic
style of' Roman art lIu)o1 which tIle Capitol was originally designed-the Roman-
Corinthian order-and the attention now fixud, concentrated, and absorbed by
the great (central domie, would take ill the whole striieture 11(1 recogIiz/e the
wings ill which tile gIrat legislative house, composing the Coiigress of, th(',
IUited States, l're assembled.
T1lme elevations would recede in wards 0oini' distance
( from thme outer vertical
line of' thle wings, a)nd ione of the present or proposed (exterior work upon the
Wings,5 would bedisturbed.


i ('clirrilg too ile (1ztli 5 (of tlie pdlii of ehliaige.s alre(ly state, tira cy()m it tet
have so1il10 additional Obs('lrvat iOnI to Siil)rlit, upon particularly' points.
It is quest onied by a mtIst coplnletnlit witnles.s examliniC( by the cominmnittee,
whet her (elitiranice shIafrs for the ext aerial air So hiigli a1s twventy- five (o' thirty feet,
iire('necessary or' eX pe(ldiwmt, d11(1als liethelr' jets of water ill those shafts
would lIe anR advilltl'-e. '1(v committee conclude that neither point is very im-
portailnt, and(, howeverI (lemti'milil'(1, will nIot materially afthect the general plil
a proper place for obtaininlg the air being the mllaill object to be s5001'C(l ill thle
first instance. As to passing the air over ice ill tie s;umnimer, for the purpose of'
coolimv it, the committee tliink that the- use of' col( water ill the pipes use(d in
w^iliter for varmluing tiel:air wouldd usually be sufficient or -I p'rolper re(luCtion of'
temperature. III hly(lrating the air time use of' ai extenlsive system of jets or
spray of' water, reasonably wvarnmed, iln the ample pacle a t command by the plain,
wouI(l lie^ time mos)>t, ethlcimmlt aiid( saltisfhlctory. Aiiy uise of' steaml mulst b)e inl mRodera te
quanltity, andl(l at some considerabled( instance from the )oint of entrance into tile
chamllber, to pr(Millit. its perfect Absorptioll anid(l (liSSohliotn101 ill tile ailr. Level
evaporating simrft.ces would requiii re to be of' great extent; t heir aria'anemuent
mIight inll)pede tIhe lovellient of' the air in aseendiid , and might uause anCdim-
lation of' dirt or impurity. '1'The plan of' hydration lh(r suggested is comn-
tailled inl tle testimony of' the initelligenit an(l able witness already mentioned,
amid is conicurredl ill by tlihe arch it ect. Allnot lr suggestion fromii the saime source,
as to aim easy ilmlpNovelnt(ollt f the( I)(qIlimigs of thl(e c(iliji gs for tie passage of'
aiir, is believed to lie ju(licious. 'e'll( wtindows to be ilntro(luce(l into the uipper
part of thme hlallls should uiquitest tonally (h oulmhl, aUhi(l,in tell opilnionl of thle
oillilittee, Rio stmdl "l lalss s beo1ul(l
.0ed used ill their cos(tllstiotllln.
lmt. O1e ad(l(ditional fi'atllre of the plail remains to( be conlsidelred-tlle prlo-
pos(d(l (donvward mllovellment of' thlie alil thlrolughi tle 11alM.I. C. Il his ' toNotes upoll
Acoustics aahl(l eiitetilantion," submitted(l by Captain AMeigs Jeffierson
Dalvis, Secretary of War, May 119, 185.3, thme advaiitag tes Of the (descen(lilg,
tlo1eTll(l'lts are iate(l to b)(e, thlie avoidance of' all e(ld(lics, a nearly hou)liiogelleous
and1 traliquil atmosphere, and(l the immiiedilate remoieval (lowilnwalr(ls of' any (1dust
from the carpet which would t huts be prevented from rising to be inhaled inito
tile hlitigs ; and(1 it is insisted up1)oll that good acoustic results would be secured.
The plan of' Captain MevigS fr(' tle ventilat ionl Of' tIle hal-l8 Of' Cn1g11re3ss w1as
undoubtedly derivedf'i'romn Mr. Aiiderston, whose plans, with plrilite(l explllna-
tionls, were ill his possession for some time, and obviously a(lopte(l lntl followed
to a great (extenit il the construction of' the wills. 'Flie '' Notes onl Acoustics
a(1 Veliltililtioln ''elilj)(holrtilao tiilo ilnt rIellt, lre
therefore( appended to this r(polrt., and ill coinexion t herewith t he emuphaitic in-
(lorsneil~t otf them as cori'ect andl jul(Jicious by l'rof; ssors A. 1). Bachie, of t e
()COast Survey, aili( J o('phi HIIenr'y, (If tilhe Sllitl.loliall InstitIutionl. 1'P1e views
thus lpr(s(eltedi :illd ilidor.'e(l w(er thie views of' AMr. Anderson, 1(11d1 are exactly
app)li(cilbjI to the p)lll now p)ropoSe(l by hlimii, and t hey retain whiatevei of
souliln(li:is andforce thl(y p) svssedl in 1853, nor)twithlstani(ling thivy were sub-
seq uemntly departed floTli inl the constnliction 11) a lid air'rangementi of' tlie halls.
litit thel'e are two Illaterial advantages of' the deseendimig movement otf ani
which weI'e not stated inl tile '' N(otes 'refer'lred( to, to wit the (eqllalizaLtionl of
tempelraturlle ini the h1lls, and pariticularly nearl th11 floors, and the economy or
savlin of' (heat ; both wvhieh al-e inporttalint alid evident. They are' stilte(T by
l)r. Antisell, and to be takeli into consideration ill (etelrininillg the plan now
miiider consideration. For the differences of temperature up1)on1 opposite si(les
of thle halI, c.onstitltifig One of tlle existing defects, would be wholly avoided by
thle downward movement. 'h'lie tendency of thle air after its admission at the
ceiling, and during its progress to thle floor, -would be toward equalization and
mi iformity of temperature, anmd the 7morleCmnem also wl(ldI be comparatively regu-
lar until acted upon very near the floor by outgoing currents. 1'lhe argument,
therefore, for iml)roved acoustics by the downward movement, as given in tlme
Notes," is strengthened by these considerations. The facility of heating the
hall, anld economy in thme use of' heat for that l)ul'pose, wvlould also be greatly
increased. For at considerable time is now require(l for warming one of thle
hallsl, illasmlluelh as tlhe heated air when first introduced passes rapidly to tile
ceiling and roof, the colder air remaining it), or falling to, the lower parts
of the hall. The process must therefore be continued until the entire .Qplace iX
thorouglMy warmed, and if the air is intro(luced at t proper temperature several
hours 'ill be required for this )llr)ose. Besides, a great amioulnt of warm air is
vaistled in heating the space between thle ceiling and roof, and a large amount
necessarily lost by the, roof itself; as before mentioned. lBnt in introducing the
air above, as proposed, with exhausting power below, the room canl be warmed

rapidly, tihe exhausting flin witlidrawing the coll air with certainty alnid despatclh
and permitting its place to be occupied by the desceniding volumle, of' wari air
No lieat will be lost by the roofs, nor diverte(l to the arl' s)<paces between them
and time ceiling.
The'h( Notes" correctly state, that l by at steami-driven ftLu, or other me-
chanlical meals, we caln pump air, in any desired quantity, illto aniy sp(ot to
w%'hich we choose to direct it."
The flin is now tlle accepted inlstruymeit for the movement of air by either
the plenum or vacuum impulse, where great efficiency is desired, and its im-
l)roNement has been carried so f'ar as to leave little to bc desire(l. Where the
sizeo01 building warrants itsIlse, itgives any desired power with certainty and
cheapness, and is capable of' adjustment in almost anypOsitiOn where the lim-
itedspace required by it call be obtained. And it hias superiority over at chim-
uIcy with fire, ilI its capacity toinove, air in (in f direction, and to move it regu-
larly and with greater efficiency. Placed ats ai power to supply or exhallust at
room, its force canI be exactly calculated and the result intended)precisely ac-
colmli;slied. The exhaustion of the air of a rooml)y it in it downward direction
can heinmade at pleasure. It is simply a question of' the application ofa power'
entirely at command, in an intelligent mariner.
A fiw notable instances of' downwvar(l movement in ventilation maybe men-
tiolled, alnad fn'- t that of the model Pentonville Prisoni of' which Profets.sor Wyr
manl says: Thle al'arrangements which have been in operation ventilating and
laYl'mmming tile cells, amaliintainin rllaiquable, general temperature withinim the
irisoni, have beenI attended with complete success."' The air is introduced
through lhorizontal passages warmed by hot-water pipes, and passing upward
alo1nl flues, is admitted into each cell at them top immediately under the ceiling.
It is withdrawn from the cell oln the opposite si(de, at the floor, and. passing upI)-
ward tlhrougll fitnes is eventually(liseharged byathighsaft above, into whlichl
the emoke-flues from the heating appal'atus also emteir. ' It will thus be seen
that a communications is established, first, from the outer atir through the warm-
ing -apiuratus to time top of each cell, and. thence f'om tile floor of 'caehl cell
through tile extracting fles and ventilating shaft, into tlhe outer air again.'"
A perfect diffusion of air takes place in the cell, tlhedi(lfferene of temnperla-
lure, at the ceiling and floor cant scarcely be detected, and will seldomi exceed
one degree, and it miay be infemrced that thbediffelemlce of' power mreqluired fo'
extracting the ani atone ortile other of those levels would be inappl)reciable."--

Of coure,, if the air were required to pass down from thle cells to t1e baise-
ment.,11(some nlalpropriate power would be necessary to accomplish the movement.
T1 velitilatitig i (ivemllent of air, as above described, is assisted in the winter
by the smoke an(l (disp)osable hent inl the shaft above, from tlme heating appa-
ratiu, 1111(1 in suinmer i smallflire, mnainiteiid ut the bottom of' the sbaft, is used.
III short, the assisting power ulsed is very slight, and yet. it is saijd by anl intel-
lii(lnt tlithor', thlint '' so admirably is the ventilation of' tile l)dlin(hiig COnltriVC(I
nid kept til) thliat there is not. the least sense of closeness pervadiiig it for we
feel i;11(nediately we set foot iln tme place, how fresh and pivre is the atillosphere
there '."--((11 l1ahew'S Prisons of Lond(on, 1p. 120.)
A diagram1111 oft the fine P)ort landl prison, slhowiing the introduction of air in to
the collinsiprtilieits, hothIi :bhove and below, oil One side, <1and its exhaustion on1
the opposite side at; the floor, is to be found in the P1'ison Commissioner-s' lRe-
1)01t, volume 29, for t he year 18-50.
Ini t e case of' thle New York Hhospital, 111onllBroadway, dlesigne(d by Mr.
Aideroim, and wvll(ere( lie plan of ventilation is succesqsfll tihe air is Obtainimed
tIirollg I shaft ofneat appiearm'nee about. t welve feet hig11, placed oitsidle the

buildi g, is cai'ried into at o)ssfgeof' the sub-basement, from thence admitted to

the heating apl)pll'atls above, there warmed by hot-water pipes, and permitted
to ascelld andl ('lit('r thlie ward(ls upon the si(les. It is removed upon thte olpposite
si(l(d, thrlo'logi openiings into flumes above and below, eitlielr of' whichl m1ay be1 ulsed,
but. those at tle floor are found most. ef(tcient ill practice an1 r'emnove all oflensive
lodrs of' wollld(l sickness from tlie roon. 'lie exhaustiing flues are con-
nected with asimll room above, in whuicl hot-wa'LeI pipes are placed to assist
thel mllovemllent and d isecharge o(' vitijated a-i'. 'he statement of' thle engineer ill
clharg( is attellced to Iiislrrepo't, and comulirms Ilie opinion of a member of' the
collmittee whlo visitefi the building, that the air of the wvarls is good, and the
whole a'rahig('memi t. of' ventilation juldiciolls. The use o f' ul Would inCr'ease('

(ofiiemi(clley of' lmovellenlt, if' tha1t should he desired, in tis 0tl' any otherrebuild ing
of like ar'ri'nigemenemt.
Ini the('nsf' of' the new ('miglilalt hospital now incourse of'erection omi WXtiad's
islaiid, New Yo'k, the air is obtained through ain elevated shaft. i)hltcC Son"11W
dlistam('e rioml the bulilding, and(leon(luctedl tlhml'rulg biiek ducts, and thmemniipward
througlh ironl slafts, tll'ouglh openings iii which it. is adlmitte(l into the difcrent
warIds. It is1m'enoved tirougit openings near' the floors, belmimnd the patients'
beds, anidi disclinr-ed into the at miosphihere il thle usual manmler. Thle letter of'
the arhellite('t,(desri'ilng tllie plall is her'('to attached.
C ('ONSII) DE.R1).
.)'roffessor Wymian states very clearly the olbjetions to the downward move-
mentoft air w'hichl have prevented its general adloj tion in buildings withinuch
force ad cidlarness ;lut it will be observed that they have nlo application to
tih(e planilallow undle consideration. 'I'he first is, ,i11t thii s Mnovemelit requiresthit
tle opellings for thle e.scape of' the airi should be early as numerous ln( (liffused
:sthosefoi its (lmllissioni in the cilig, and for most eevident reasons. O;'di-
nam'ly', pioweve'', such miumnerOus al)el'tures at the floor cannot b)eseculrc(1 ; but in
our ca.e theyillready exist, mi(d tile objection fails. Another objection in0 or-
(inai'iyl cases is,tihnt iii the(downw'alrd mDovTeenlt, tIh lights miust be p)1'0i(de(l
wviti ,air en tii'ehy separatefrom that which sul)plies th(er m'oon, in order that te(
gases and otherl)pro(ulcts of coimbuistion shall not be breathed. But in the
Il'eseit plan the s('paration of the space whler( the liglits iu'c placedt'rom all
Commummignition Withl thce a1irof tilehalil isone of its main. features, uutud easily
secured. We mataly add,that the perforation of' the ceiling for thin diffused ad-
mission tle air is often inconvenientor impossible, an(l that. facilities forop-
ratings an exhausting lJow'er below, dto not exist. None of the ordinary difli-
clulties opposed to the descending movement are, therefore, to be cocountered in
the present case. Its p1 acticability however, is admitted by our author in
strong lan-guiage, and itf desirability indicated where thel conditions exist for
its apl)liCation. Ile 8ays " The flow of air may, whelineii under the control of nll
efficient moving power, take any direction that many be desired ; it may move
from I)elow upwards, or thme reverse, or in. both (lirectiolls at thle sanle time.
e * *
F1There is no imn)ossibility of producing a constant and equablel downward move-
nment. * * * ThbX unoccupied ceiling, in its whole extent, may be used for the
admission. of' air which may reach the. lungs uncontamillate(l by dust or contact
vith the body. Tl'is is the movement wvhicihl constantly arises in roonis heated
bly means of fire-places, &c."
lie explains that Heatedl air first rises to the ceiling and afterwards, upon
cooling descends and is removed by thle chimney.
It i.s; a common practice iii ventilation upon tile removal of -ascending air at
time to0) of lie room, to take it down. a side passage anlIl deliver it into thle exter-
nall .atmosphere. This may be aeomn1)lished by aI fire-pmlace at the bottom of
the passage, connected with anl upright shaft or chimney, as in thee case of the
temporary House of Cornirmons, or much better, both as to efficiency and regu-
larity, by an exhlaustillg-filn. But manifestly this downward exhalastion of air
mccoomnplished ini thle side passage mnaty be accomplished equally well in the
roomn itself as to air intro(luced at the ceilillr.
Only one point remains to be noticed under this hea(l-the ascent of impurities
from the bodies of plersols occupying a, room. Evaporation from the skin and
air breathed from thle lungs convey impurity to the air, and cause aill aseending
movement in the first instance, and it is said that from this cause the descending
air may be contaminated before it reaches thme person. It is true that air
breathed froIm the lungs is usually warmer than the air of thle room, andhas.l an
ascen(ling force mainly due to the elasticity of' its watery vapor. But its sulpe-
rior temperature is quickly lost, and, in ,accordance witl the wcll known law of
diffusion of gases, it becomes incorporated wvith tle descending air, and passes
(dowu'ward. As somIC time is necessary to contaminate tihe air, it follows that in
at descending mIovemenemIt all impurity is removed below the region of respiration
before it becomes appreciable or injurious ; an(l as thme whole air of tlme room is
changed within a period of less tban tell minutes, there can be no suclh aecctmu-
lation. of' impurities in any particular section of' air as to render it offeil-
sive or obljectionable. The floors of thel galleries being perforated with numerous
(oPellillns for ventilation, 1no vitiate(d air rl'Odluced there \\ill 1)iass dowVn to the
floor' of the hall.
'P1le colmnlittee have gtiven this elaborate examination to the subject of venltila-
timom by al dow'nwlard movement of air, Inot because its approval i.s indispensable
to the plhlll proposed by tile architect, but because it is desirable to adopt a plan
wlhiel wVill allow time application of' that plarticlllar arrangement. Thme lplan will
island good for an upward movement of' air through thle halls, but, for the reasons
already given, sustained by tie authorities cited. tihe (lownwai'd movement ap-
penas to promise the mrlost complete and satisf'actory results in ventilating the
halls of Cong-'ess.
R b:SUMI :.

In summllngn" ulp thle whole case upon the architect's plan, it may be stated to
inmvolv'e thle elevation of' the ceiling, tihe insertion of Bide windows, the removal
of the glass roof and( substitution ol a doublee roof, the separation, of' the air-space
above the ceilillg fromn all (omlnmunication with the hall, the substitution of
fleier lights with reflectors and ventilating chimneys for the present light's, thle
introduction of' pure air from an external point by a fuum, with proper warning and

thorough hydration, and its effectual ajid regular removal from the hail by iln x-
haluting fni; anlld, by the plall, either anllupward or downward movenielm t of air
through the hall may he established; a change from one movement to the other
requtiring onl aI change ot' location1 in thlCcheating andlh2yd rating alppartu~ls. Upon}
the merits of thel plani preference is inade to the testimony of' Mr. Cluskey and
the other witnesses, and p).11 ticularly to the following question an( anSW('er in the
(examination of' doctorr Axltis(ell
Question. What do you say as to the feasibility an(l success of' Mr. Ander-
as compared with the l)reseint arrangement?
sont's whole planwould
''Ansiver. It. be much more effective than the, present l)ai, and feasible.
in its (dtilsi.''
The evidence of the .same witess upon the utility and ndvatllgeCs of all cx-
hIaustin, fan in v(entilation is also worthy of' particular notice.
'i1' 1 STIhlATE.S.
Tlhe coIIcliudinig subject for CXiiilniiatiOIl under the resolution appointing the
committee is the cost of the p)rOl)osed changes. T'1he careful and elaborate es-
timates laid before the committee, and herewith reported, show it total expen
diture for the Senate wing of$L 13,185 '25, independent of an attic for the erection
of which the estillmate Ui $37,500. For thle House wing the expenditure is
$15,921 30 more. The erection of anll attic upon it would cost thle same as for
th(e Senate winig, b-inig of the samiie( size. These estimates arc made at thel present
prices for labor and materials, and as to nearly the whole proposed outlay assume
thle form of )rol)osals by a competent )arty. Underwritten his estimates for the
wing,4, respectively, (including nearly the whole of the work and materials,)
Benjainin Severson, the diredtinr, engineer in erecting the present ceilings and
roofs, l)ms)esc5^ to execute a contract ait tilhe p)Iii'.< estate(, anid to give ainple se-
vurity for its l)erformllalce.
It the l)lan of improvement now submitted to the two houses be regarded
withi favolo, the commit tee recommend that the imnp)rovements of the Senate wing
be executed(l between tie terminhtion of' the present and the commencement of
the niext session of' Congress. There will be ample time for this purpose, and
4i0 advantage in concentrating attention and Aflba't upon the one wiing. Iln
)rocee(ling, subsequently, to the improvement of the House wi)g, the tempo-
rary roof, fixtures, (l npimplenienits used in the work upon the Senate wing Can
be transferred to the other; and ainy improvement or modification of details in
the gewn-al plani can be applied iii executing the work upon the 11 house wing.
Time expeniditure for the Senate wing, exclusive of the attic, will fully secrire
aill the clhanges and improvements prol)oseCd in the plain examined by the com-
mittee; in other wor(ld, 'ill secure the elevation of' the ceiling and roof, withI
side windows and all the arrangements of ventilation. Attics, however, will
proper ly follow the other proposed changes, and are required for architectural
effect. Marble, already on hand, can be, made available in their construction.
With this question of expenditure upon the proposed imp rovements, a collat-
eral one, relating to the wings, may be considered. The present plans of thle
Capitol extension indicate expensive colonnades upon th(e north, south, and
west sides of the building, to be placed upon the arcades already erected, and
a1ln.appropriation of $300,000, applicable to their construction, was made at the
last session. That appropriation remains unexpended, and the question arises,
whether it would not be well to withhold it from the volume of public outlay.
There is no necessity for the present expenditure of this large sum, and the
Utility and advantage of making it, at any time, is matter of debate. Mr.
Anderson, in his testimony, says:
' I recommend that you finish these arcades with cornice and balustrade at
the to), which will produce a good architectural effect by carrying out. the prin
ciples of a Roman structure more fully than to finish thein as heretofore pro.
posel. It is not intended to put porticos but colonnades over the arcad<s. 'T'he
plan is, to carry round the entablature on those colonnades. 'T'lmc effect of it
would bo simply this: A column before each pilaster has no object of an) kind
effected by it. It involves an additional exje)CISC of mnarble-work and excessive
weight, without any )ossible advantage. Standing ait right angles with the
building these columns would not be seen more than the pilAsters would which
stand imy thlem; they would inerely obscure, the pilasteLs, and at thee same time
depri e lie nimerous offices on (each side of the building of air anlid light. It is
an object in architecture never to introduce aiu ornament without a purpose. InI
every vell-designed architectural building there miever i.s an ornament introduced
that has not its object, Yhich this feature, of the design of the Capitol has not.
The saine observation is applicable to all of the four coloninaes-north, South,
and two west.'' * * * "1A balustrades would be a great de,,d cheaper than
the other plan, and it would, at the same timle, admit more air and lighlt."
These views seem to be forcible anid just, and are, therefore, brought to the at*
tention of Congress for consideration.
Upon(Idiue reflection, the committee are induced to subinit the question of
withldrawing the appropriation for the colonnd(les, or at least deferrimug the ex-
penditure, in view of ani inquiry through in appropriate committee as to their
utility and mnerit. If balustrades can be substituted for them without disadvan-
tage, -a very large amount of' money can be saved to thied treasury, and the bur-
den of the expenditure now proposed by the committee for real anid necessary
iminp'ovements in the Capitol wings 1)e mainly avoided.

T1' C T ' S R E P 0 It .
To the i/o/odrc th/e Joint Select Commnittlee 0 t/Iw .ituwCe and Htouse oy Repl)-
resentatives of ti/c Uniited States, on t/ec s/?jccl q/i lighting, h!?ating, ventil-
ating,, arid the acoustics of t/c two ihl/ls of Congress.
rThie report of (Chatirles Frederick Anderson, architect and civil (',nineer, of
the city of WaAshington, 1). C., most respectfully reprl'esents-
That in obedience to your al)pointmlent ald directions, made in pursuiance of
the concurm'ent resolution of the two houses of (Conwgresi of the 10th of May last,
the undersigned has diligently a)ppled himself' to a ininute examination of'
the various parts of the north and south extensions, and to the various plans
and drahvings of their several parts which will necessarily have to be used or
which wvill be slightly affected by the plan by which hle pI'oposes to improve
the lightilln, heating, ventilating, and acoustics of the halls of Conigress, with a
view to discover thue most direct, easy, anti economical manner iii which the
plan can be applied to the structure as it now exists.
riThis examination has the more strongly alnd clearly developed the errors of
those parties hIaving charge of thie construction of these extensions, in departing
from tie pl ans whiel the undersigned had the honor to furnish for the accom-
plishment of these objects, and which had been submitted to President Fill-
more, and been supported by MMr. Webster, then Secretary of State. During
the administration of' President Pierce these same plans were submitted to him,
And fully examined and approved by Montgomery C. Mcigs, then captain of
United States engineers aud superintendent of the Capitol extension, and by
Professors Bache and Henry, and were also approved by the Secretary of
WXar, uInder whose direction the works bad been placed, as will fully appear by
the documents appended to this rel)ort; 1nn( yet, strange as it may appear,
(Captain Meigs, in his actual construction of the extensions. not only rejected
this plan for the lighting, ventilating, and halatingof tlelegislative blis, but
actually revcrs('d the whole system, mnakring the error radical, anld therefore
more difficult now to remedy or correct. However, by a thiorouiglh study and
examination of all the parts, the undersigned flatters himself that he hlas (by
his accompanying plans) establishe(l tile means of making the desired improve-
ments with the least possible alteration or change in the interior arrangements;
onll, ill fact, whilih will occupy any material apartments or space of the exten-
sions, or injure or interfere with the present appearance and arrangement of the
halls of Congress in any way, except to lighten up and greatly improve their
interior appearance, as well as the exterior superstructure ; all of which will be
shown and explained by this report, and bsy the drawings and plans herewith
The erroncouis plan adopted by Captain. ieigs, which has beeii operating
Pincetlhe occul)ation of the halls, and now exists. in both houses, receives thle
exterior air ulnder the ground floor from off the surface of the overheated and
dusty terraces, furnishing muchil of'the ad air from beneath, carried to its sur-
falce by evaI)orat'on and side currents of air from the ground, and this air is also
tlinted with niutlh of' the odors caused by the machinery near whichi it plsses.
'T'he air iljtused by these causes is drawit to the openings in thle cellar or sub-
basement wt;lle by the action of' the f{it-wlheel, which forces it llp)under the
floors of the two houses, where it finds vent througli the gratings under the
members' desks, the risers in the floors, and openings roun(l the halls, and in
the galleries. J3y the action of these currents the vapors introduced fu'om below
rise from the floor of thle,halls, and keep in constant motion the vitiated air gene-
rated by the breath of the persons occupying thle floors and the galleries, of
Which carbonic acid gas, being heav icr tiin thle purer prnrt of the atmosphere of'
the chambers, is constantly tnd(ling to and settling upon the floors, and would
remain upon thle floors, like a malaria or noxious miasm, were it not kept in
motion near the floor by the currents of dirty ail corning up through thle grat-
ilng annd registers; there is added to this had air all the dust produced by the
walking or movements 1up)on1 the floor, independent of that brought from below.
'rlli5 atmosp)hlere of the halls, ats at present arranged, cannot be otlherwise than
un11wholesomle, and, were it not for thle frequent opening of' the doors leading
into the haSlls, would prove intucil more Oppressive anll(d intolerable than it is. To
persons of' weak lungs, however, the deleterious eflects of' the present arrange-
mr'nt are imore immediate and sooner felt than persons by blessed witli more
robust constitutions ; but even these may be taken sick without any apparent
cause, unless it caln be traced to the f'ict that the seeds of the sickness heave
been unconsciously inbibe(l while sitting quietly in their seats, and munch more.
so while engaged in speaking, or in the heat of debatee, when the lungs must of
necessity become inflated an(l irritated by this )ernicious atimosplhere.
From these remarks it will be manifest to tile plainest understandiuig that a
great error has been committed in attempting to furnish tile proper air to tue
hFalls, passing it through and mixing it upl) with thle vitiated air aus above cx-
plained, instead of introducing the pure, air into thoe upper elevation of tile
halls, and drawing down tile impure atmospllere through the gratings in the
floor. Having thus-simply explained the errors of thle Ipresent system, it is tile
purpose, of' the undersigned to explain tile pr'inciplep annd tile manner in w^eihli
lie prop)isc to remedy tile existing errors wind defects, and furnislh to the national
councils a pure, temperate, and refreshing atmosphere, of anl equal temperature
at all seasons, in Wlih members maiy with safety exercise their lutngs wlbile
conducting the bmiglh and important legislation of the country, with ease and
pleasure, and without any apprehension of receiving injury from the medium
through which their views, arguments, and business transactions nhy be ex-
pressed in thle two IIouses.
T'o accomplish this purpose, the undersigned will endeavor to be as succinct
as the nature and the iml)ortance of the case will admit of, and, with this view,
will divide his explanations as follows, viz:
1st. 'Thje undersigned proposes to furnish an abundant supply of fresh, un-
adulterated air, rarified in winter, hydrated, purified, and cooled down to any
desired temperature in sunmer, to the halls of Congress, so as to insure a uni-
form temperature at all seasons, with a healthy atmosphere, to be effected by
vertical air shafts to be built on the banks otl the west side of the Capitol ex-
tensioln, one for each wing, twenty-five feet high over the level of the flagged
terrace, and in the position marked onl the accompanying plans of thle sub-
basement floors, (.qecficed by thc red tinf; ) through these sh1alts pure air, pro-
cuiredl from that elevation, will pass into the 5air chambers on the sub-basement
floors, through dry tunnels, seven, feet six inches in diameter, built of' hard
brick and cement twelve inches thick, and cemented on the3 inside, so as to
make them impervious to danmp, with a fall to the vertical shaft, in which shaft
a jet of pure) waiter will play at discretion, and be cujable of adjustment in the
I tilhe sub-basement air chambers are iron tetandss on1 which to pile ice in hot
weatlhel, and through which the hydrated and purified air will have to pass to
thle fuin-wheel, which will force it upwards through the building to thme upper
air chamber arranged outside of the cliamnlber walls, and from which it will pass
into thle halls of Collgrless through close atir-tight, ducts, made of two thicknesses
of thin galvanized .heet iron four inches apart, filled ill between with crushed
paiiiice stone and liquid cement, passing through thle perforations in. the ceilingg
as through a sieve-thms perforated l)ortion of the ceiling forming the under side
of thcse air (dets.
'T'hIe large upper air chambers outside of the. halls will be arched over with
brick anied cemrent, so as to render them implervious to the influence of the exterior
atmlios)hlere, cit her hlot or cold, and the air ducts on the ceiling, which are fed
directly fi'om theoe large air chambers, are packed on three si(les with non-con-
ducting material, as before described, so as to transmit this purified, cooled, (or
raiiiied,) air to the huwll1s without being sullied by its passage through the atmnos-
shere over the glass ceiling.
The undersigned his arranged four new fan-wheels to carry out his Ijiala, two
to force the air up alnd two to withdraw the vitiated atmosphere from, time floors;
one for eachl house. These are so formed as to possess five times the power of
tilhe present ftin-wheel, but the power is completely tinder tile control of' adjust-
nient. Tlhe flow of air into the hatlls may be ats required, and will 1)e regulated
by thle speed of' tbeC fuin-wbmeel, which depends onl the action of tile engine.
Whemi very cool air is required in excessive hlot weather we can lower the
ternjperature of the exterior atmosphere to any extent desired, in the halls of
Congress, by placing ice in the vertical shaft as wvell as in the lower air chaM-
bers, and still furtheer by thle use of salt with the ice.
All this air passes frnom tile vertical air shafts tllrough the tunnel, which will
be built into and covered up from the effiects of the atmosphere by the present
lbatk of' earth extending to time basement air chiambers, and from thence up
thirogigh the building to tihe upper fair chianmbers which supply the air ducts, over
the ceiling; will be mmade close, clean, and pure, with a drain built at the bot-
tomr leading to tme, vertical shaft from the lower chamber and tlme ice cellar,
to lake off the water introduced by the jet, the melting of tile ice, or the rain
water ini the vertical shafts.
Tl'hc undersigned has also annexed the adjoining cellars in each wing (uow
useless) for stores or ice houses, where a supply cami be. kept convenient to the
lower air chambers for (daily use when required. In cold weather steam ad-
Rep. No. 128-2
nitted th r ugh tile cli ter of pipes low ill 1u-se, buit placed ill tihte new air pa.9-
a:lge, will ralify tih(' aii' ally) tenl('raIture
to reu(liired oil its passage to the ui pper
air'IIrInlJ('I', through -Vhi(ili chliiiber a stream of' pure water 'vill be TmI(le to
flow, SO as to hydlrate t~heI(
heated air before it ent('rs tile halls. Tis call be
e of either warm or cold1 water (to Suit t lie
accoin)lislled b)' allowing tlit( Stillam
temp('m i'tuire(of thle air) to filov over at coiltiliolis tray tih fill lenigthi of' tihe
pper'ailchabler, fitted w ithliagaSi'/e wire bottom and divided into compart-
iil'ellts, 11S to be able to a(l Just the atinounit of' minist tlh rough which the ascend-

illn, air will piiss at right angles. The temnperatunrc of' this air, subsequently,
will receive ad((litiomil protection at certain seasons by the admission of' air
t1i'oughl a l'('gister fr'Iom the tipper alir' chamber te the space over tile glass cCiling,
and tile illitience of' thel exterior atmosphei'e vill be kept off' tihe glass ceiling
b m(;lleanls of' a counter ceiling lalmiced( ol tile back of' tihe iron rafters which
supip)oi't the roof' and tihe ce'i iig, which rafters it *vill be necessary to s1rell-gthie
to (doub1)1le their' pi'esellt capacit y. ''llis counter ceiling \\'ill be compioSed of
crushed or broketi p)11 mice stmen', filled ill withI li(ii(l client, testingg Ol thinl
corlrug¢Aated galvailliized sheet iron ; it \\'ill be five inches thick, packed clnie,
uuuiide aii'-tight, :111d( lllaSter('(l (Oi top) vithI c('IenIIt. 'I'is counter ceilimig Vill
p'rove to be a1iow conid uctor of' heat, ('01(d, O'mrouin(1 o from tlie ext('i'ior cop per'
cz(4yN lig of' the roof, leaving a space of three fleet between th exterior' covering
mid1(1 this coliit.cer ('eilinig.
T lis hilal will I effectually pI'evenlt. the Changes il the vweather, either by leiat,
Cold, or storms, f'riomn af'octimg tile glass ceiling ats it does at present, amnd which
ha.s bt'(ell so Imich complained of'; ill flict, tihe temperature of' tiese halls could
le(i' bebuproper'ly r'('gulate(d 1olog a1s the ext.ei'ior atmoSpl're could control

the t('mliperl'ttire (of the space over the glass ceiling, 'whicll is -at pI'esenit assili-
it(led to a hot-hollse C ill of'sliii nr midi anI ice-houise ill winterl, besides transit ittilig
nlois(e from effects tie(' hail 1111( ri sltOrm, SO alluOyilng to tile Illeibers ot'
both hollses of Collgress. It will lie oidy falir to atl al)rti's that it should be
known that this system of' light tilg tile halls of' Congress by means of sky.
liglits is the onlly part of Mr1z. Walter's two (le'Figils which have been brought,
ilto ol)pe'ation by (Captail, 110now (GI'elnleal, M1 eigs, anl(d whlicll imjUdiCio(ls act is a
)I'il(i)pal calls(e of' thle heated ceilings and bad acollstics.
T1'le lundersignled p)'OpOS'., as ati extra or' auxiliary means of' heating the
halls of,' Conlgres.s, i v'e'y cold weat her, to place ol'nlainentall belIClces ill the
anlgles of' thile hulls and ill tihe ht t'oomns, filled wvith cois ofSteam pipes, to
Flispply aNliditioual h('at ol tie floor of'(aell house, which will obviate tllh lleces-
sity 'or
heathlig the upper cui'rentof' air too highly to be, pleasant.

2 'l'eletilndersigiled proposes to withidiaw the vitiatedl iri'fromi tie cblaiambrs

without its reinauilig above tihe floors to becomei)ljlli'iolis to tule oecu)lmits, l1(l
ait the mille timie to re'gula1te 511(1 inlsle good acoustics to both11a11ls of Congress.
'lo accomplish these obj( ets the present. system'Vill have to be completely
rr1Nse(ld b.yuising tile sau e ai)('l tiresrtor
' ' ithidraw hg thlevitiated air from the
hails of' both houses adi(l frol the gillevries that is at p)i-Seit uised f'or adinitthlug
tih(e air into these a ipa1t merits, being the regist('er onl the floors, i the galleries,
and(1 i tIh si'e('eus w'hmichi eIIclose the(lhuillh, &c., &c.
Tlhis be wil' ac('mpl)lieh((d by memiis of' powerfull fan wheels, made to work
in tile passages whmeIic at present uid it thle air, and i ats close proximity as
possible to tue openings unIdrl(' the floor,tlhrotglh which these fanM-wheels will
withdraw thle Vitiat(ed air. The po(wr of' these exIhustingfi wheels uponl thlis
air call always be regulated to t cer'taiilty by their velocity, which will be coml -
trolled by tile action of' the engine.
rbe current of' fresh air passing through th(e halls downwardly will also be
rcgulmed ii a great ineatim e by tile action of'these exhausting wheels, which
will regulate the acoursticts, ats will be made evi(ent from tile fiact that tilevoice
caU iilo iger ascendel
to the ioof mid be lost in the space over the ceiling, as at
present. The compressed air forced through the perforations in each the ceiling, as
thlrolgh aitsi've, will oblige the voice to remain in the body of holioise; it
being aln axiomi in the science of acoustics thint glass, next to water, p)o5s(es(
the greatest attraction for sound. T'l'h attractioii of the voice produced by thlie
gliss-paneled ceiling over both the halls of Cong-ress, an at present, will be ob-
viate(l altogether liy the introduction of the imperceptible flow of pureo air into
etach house fromn the ceiling. As sound always acuomnpanies the current of air,
it will he decoye(l from the glass ceiling, and conveye(l into the body of thie
clhamnbers mud into thle galleries, as above described, without a reverberation of
the voice produced by the lwe)r(s5ot lowv glass ceiling. The proposed elevation
of thle glass ceiling, besides imnproving tlhe architectural l)rol)ortioils of the
chamibers, will materially assist in establishiong good acoustics, as the large
field of attraction for the voice will be further remove(l from the floor, besides
being intercel)te(l or arrested onl its passage to the ceiling by the incoming flow
te' aurailr through tie inany apertures in the ceiling, nid a greater splce will
be afforded for the action of' that incoming current to mix with the air in the
clambers before it reaches the floors. Tlhe undersqined recommiiends that the
s)stenm lheretofore specified in the printed Cx plantations which he fiurnislhed su- to
Caiptain AMeigs in 1853, be now ado1)ted for convey ing andl dispersing the
1(ral)undl(laluce of sound onl the floors to the galleries, alnad to the reporters' desk
in l)mlrticlull'a, by iiiserting open slits in the surrounding screen, to which will be
attachied zinc tubes, whiclh will arrest the voice and convey its redundancy from
off the floor to the galleries. It will be 1)erceived tlhat by this system th( voice
cannot escape< froml the0 halls in consequence of this plan for addmitting tlh l)lpre
air, anti by means of' these tubes the vibration of' the voice or echo will ,bc
altogether (loneI away with, so that thle full effect, of' the voice will be rendered
m1ore agreeableC by this wholesome, atmospiliere, produced by purified and Com-
l)resse( airl. It will beC seenI, by the accompanying 1)lans, thiat this change can
he effected without interflrring, with tlle arrangements on1 tlel floors or galleries
ill either house, or thie surrounding corridors, pas.saIge(s, or offices, in any way
save by the occupation of one or either of several spaces, tlle selection of which
mai,1Yy well be left to the honorable, Committee on1 the Public Buildings, or any
other authority (eeined most appropriate, to select a passage for the pl)urC air
fromi tlle basem-lent to tlhe( upper air clanimber, whYic call be spared witi the least
incolivetnienlce, that is, if the passage laid down onl the pllans for the Senate wing
lie not approved of. Withi this excel)tion, it will be perceived by the (draw'ilngs
thlalt this plan for securing good ventilation, &c., interferes with nothing in the
1Halls that canll e visible under the level of tie cornlice( of tIme 1)1ese11t ceiling
whichl surrounds the halls of' Congress ; (everything below that level will re-
mimainl as at I)r('senlt arranged. According to this plni there will be two objects
attained first, tO establish what is required by the concurrent resolution ; and,
seconnd, that it mnay be effected with as few changes amid at as small an expendi-
ture of time and money ats is possible ; sluch a calling, however, ill thc present
lhalls of Congress mniglht le considered cheap at any cost, as it will insuire the
Iealth of the nation 's representatives.
3d. Tlhis plan will furnislh ia good and agreeable direct light by day from win-
dows opening onl the exterior atmosphere, w ith a steady, clear gas-ight by night,
desced(ling through the present glass-paneled ceiling, as, elevated, but without
the accompanying lheat produced by time great number of gas-burners at lres-
tlit distribiuted ill over the ceilings of tlme two halls of' Congress, numbering
about one thiousand four hundred over the ceiling of the House of Representa-
tives 1lime, the effect from which renders the heat of the glass and iron ceiling
particularly opp)ressive.
To remedy thfe present defects, it is proposed to raise the ceilings over the
two halls of' Congress about sixteen 'ecet, whiich will produce much better pro-
portioned apartments, as the height of the present ceilings is altogether at va-
riance with architectural rule, or the laws which goVerin nrchiteettirilplop"r-
I ions. wvillThis chniige, beside improving the architectural appearance of thlie
halls, afford room to insert. ai tier of wi(ldOw8 extending all around each
halltIIIder tht(eCorlice :aind over tihe3 gallery doors, as shown by the accomnpa-
nyi longittidinal Said
iwg cross sections. These windows will be the exact siZe
of, ti he Win(lows ill tiheConlnmi ttee roons onl the l)asemnnt floors ; aldiroct light
will be a(ldlitted th roiigrh thetunnerlImltf of these side windows, twenty-six iii
ii umber in the House,1n1(1 twenty-twVo i the Senate,a1s well as at borrowed
light through seveno f' the ed( window(lOWs in tIte Senate chabiebr, laid through
lill of, the(11(1 wind(lows pivots, i the House of Representatives. Thlielulpp)Ce half of'
tIheSasheswvill opet onl 11(1
a When open will adillit the air through the
htlls from the exterior atmnosphtere,butl which will never bere(riqired inColise-
(iien(ce ofof a slufficient slIpplt y of' better air being at allwindows
seasons withincomtlilnlll by
Illamlls thethleacoustics. These windows
above arrangement ; besides, woh(l
op)Clbe hIid from exteriord ofviewnecessity
daminage would b)y the
erection of tOle high parapet, (called anit attic il a'chtitectuire, ) oil which will be
plalced ti(me present balulistraded battlement, and which is recomirmended il Senla-
tor F'oot'sreport as necesisa-ry to relieve tihe present bad effixct of' tihetuier ni0o-
notonous straight line of the whole building, which is at variance with Romanll1I
architectiure, (tilecalled of the Capitol b)llil(li)ng.) 1.hIec increased elevation of tile
style for
wings is fin'thter il consequence of'thie, enormous size of' the itew domne,
(copie(l fromli the dolme of St.lPaul'.s il Lon(lon,) the, new (onie( of tle Capitol
being ftilly oiie-llthiid larger than it, should be if constrtucted i accordaniee with
the rules whlichl govern tIe ord(ler of' Rtonlwii arelliteettire to which the Capitol
building belongs. A (dome is at prominent ornianent to at classic structure, but
always subordinate to tIhe proportions and style of' thlo building ; but ili ourcase
the l)tild ing is mnade subordinate to tIhe dome. The p)mlb)lislied remarks of' all
l(clt(l tdnor'thiernthetourist are p)artecilarly applicable, 'hell 1 e terms it, '' The
great donln, with low buildings b hnentil, whicll forn the Capitol of' the United
8stiaLte."'1' le base of' tllis nlew dollme is actually made, to l)roject beyond tile
front walls of, the btmili(lding, and r'eSt on the p)r(ojectintg portico witlich fom'ms the
principal emmtrai'ce to tihe rotimid(ho. To elevate the winigs will il sonic lmeasilre
disguise thi architectural blunder.
Thtus it will be l)(prceivel that by this one, plan two great objects will be
effect('d-better ligliht will be given and better l)rop)ortionts to the hhlk, and(l ait
the .sam1le tinle it, will miater'ially iliprovethie exterior architectural appearance of
the, building. (See( accompanying Sections and elevations.)
The new windows will be filled ill with stained glass, which will prodiue a
soft aiid agreeable light.
It is piropXosed to light the Senat c('hiamlier at night by means of ('ighit circular
buirners of Fi ink's patent., with powem'1lil reflectors, one plaedIC over eacll ; amld
tihe houell of' Representatives witIi thirteen circular burners, having a reflector
over each, ly whllicll lleaslls time light can be ilici'rasd(I to tany anotiunt desired,
and thlie present objectionable heat fromt the great number of unprotected burners
on the ceiling will be altogether done awayt with, ats there will be placed over
eatch reflector a copper (IonIC, surmoionte((by Il copper chimney
root; whicil milst
eight inllhes ill
attract till the
diameter , passing vertically
out throtigh the
heat upward, while it reflects till time light downwairds. To etiCdiatte whicli
tIme undersigned submits 1:; 1CCaOmPanying (dlmawinpg of' Frink's patenttrellec-
tors, whichl 1lie would retooM-m!mellnd as the best mneanms of lighting the halls of
'T'tle air which this plan introduces through) a register from time upper air
chaniber into the ol)cp space between thc glass (ciliing and the new counter
ceilingoverwilltheincrease the draft upwards from the over burners under these reflectors
and glass ceiling, through the luies the reflectors, which will
remove the possibility communicating any
of heat from the burners to the ghlas
reiling, while the counter ceiling will protect the glass ceiling fromt the influence
,.t' heat orcol(l froth the exterior atlmosp)here.
The dunersigned begs leave to sbll)mitl(irawing of Reigart's improved fan-
wheel, b)y whichel })por)0p5s to suIl)l)ly 11(1 control the pure air to be fuirnishield
to the halls, and to draw the. vitiated air therefrom.
lie also begs leave to submit specifications aend detailed estimates for the
construction of the different works more fully (lescribe(1 by the p)lanls for the
;alterations, whichl lie hasthlie honor to submit in obedience to the inistruictioins of
the honorable joint.Committee.
'ro reiiove, all apprehienisioni up1)o0n lihe subject. the nd(lersigned would respect-
fully state that these plans vwill not interfere with the l)resenlt condition or
appearance of either of' the halls., below the level of the p)re(scnit glass ceiling,
whiie thel arrangements above will establish better architectural proportions,
Symmetry, anid( beauty t) these halls-a desi(eratiim wvhic li e truSts it will
not be considered out of' place for him to say would have been effected in the
original construction of thie north and south extensions of theC(apitol had his
plans been fully an(l fairly carried out.
l)esirinig to confine this report to l)plain and simple statemcint of wllat has
beeii required of hiin by the joilt resolutionnand the directions of' the joint corn-
muittee, tihe undersignied has omitted to introduce any reference, to the authorities
.sulstaining thle pli)CiplCs of' the plans which hte has tHe honor to propose; but to
aid the judgment aiid strengthen. the opiniolls of this honorable committee and
those of' the honorable members of the two Houses, who are so deeply interested
in the subject-matter under consideration, lie would beg leave to. append( notes,
coiiuiiuliications, and reports of high authorities, thereby removing thie idea of any
l):art ofa1ndpresenting
presumptionl on byhisscience aI plan whoose princih)les had not been
filly approved approval
practical eXpel'ienc', aind which the un-
(lersigield mad(1e himself fully awarc of before lie submitted his first (hesigln, in.
answer to the published invitation to the architects of the, United States, in the
year 1850, by practically investigating the different systems for ventilating
jiublic builings in Europe, in particular the Bank of England, the United Service
Club House in London, the new British hlotuses of Parliament, the Miltbank
Penitentiary, and them Pentonville Model Prison. HLi investigated thme system
of*entilation adopted in the two last-imeitioiied establishments under aI order
from the hoine Secretary, Sir Jamies Gralaian-whiich order will be found re-
cor(led in the visitors' book during the summer of 1845-a copy of which could
be had upon application in London, which would at o0eC prove jiq l)ractical
experience of this system which lie las throughout advocated. Under these
circumstances, the uiidersigned can with confidence assure the honorable com-
nittee that there can be no possible doubt as to tlme result, and it will be
1)ossible to successfully carry out the necessary alterations during the in-
terval. between the emdl of the present Congress and tlme regular annual meeting
of thme next Congress.
kor tIme more lnuanmite and particular explanation of his plan, the undersigned
begs leave to submit tlme following drawings, viz:
Senate Wing.
No. 1.-Plan of sub-basement floor, showing time alterations.
No. 2.-Plan of basement floor, showing tlme alterations.
No. 3.-Plan of the prinlciptll and upper floors, showing the alterations.
No. 4.-Longitudinal section of wing, shllowing the alteration8.
No. 5.-U'rosss section of wing, showing the additiois.
No. 6-Section showing the vertical nirpassage.
No. 7.-Plan of air ducts over the ceiling.
No. 8.-Frout elevation of north wing, showing the attic.
No. 9.-I)rawing of lReiga-rt's improved fan-wheel.
'No. 1D.-IDrawings of lFriaik's patent reflector.
IImAue of Representatives.
No. 1 1.-HI'Ian of' MIllm-baIm(mliellt floors, showing thle alterations.
^NI. 12.-IP'lan of' biaise'ilit floor, sliowitig tliiW altered tiols.
No, 1:3.-I'lan of rillci pal 11itd gallery floors, showing tlhe, alterations.
F0. 11.-I ,.ogitull illtki Msecin11tS>;,hWilig t143eAdditions.
No. 15..-('ro.s;i section, show ing the niterat ions ill roof.
No. 1W;.-S('etion0 shlowilIn the ve'rticadl air pass..age.
No. 17.-I'lti oftlie air dlutds over tile (cilillg.
No. I S.-l1:evat ion of* t-le s'titoi wing, sllowtiille. thwe additions.
No. 19.-Eistimunate, &c., from comnpetenlt partieA.
A111 of' which is mIost r's pecl tfilly isubmitted 1b)y
Cll AS. FREl). ANI)EtSON',
.Iresi/ect and Gicil Eiu,"incr, l ias/ington, D. C.
December 5, 1864.

REP 0 '' ( ?F C A P T A I N M13E I[ G s.


Jasatington, May 19, 1853.
KA:. v1Sun: Riving verbally, in my interview wit)) the President nid your-
melf, fitll y expl ainted tie piropioseil cl(anges, witli thie aid of' large (drawitigs,
showing tlhe,clfcomilodlation to bc aflforuded, it is not icwessary IIere to enter into
deitil. Theic tv'ere tM /1/c e 1irauin± /Ur/li.S/
ris 1J (2F. AAftleor~n.I
I will only repeaLt my own cot ivietion, tilat th11 proposed changlip will secure a
better room for speaking, and lihering, and better acclmlmlo(latiOns for the5 mem-
bers afid officers, and business of' the House.
I linve prepalred(l sone llotCH Upon tei application of' tile general l)rincil)les of
ICcousti('e s111(1 ventilation, which blave guided rue in devising tlle plan which I
They contain the Views I expressed t.o you verbally, and which I propose to
write out for submission to some geiitlernen of enlinent scientific reputation.
While I feel confident thlt I am correct, I shlall be happy to be sustained l)y
their ill) proval if right, aind will be, much better satisfied to be corrected if wrong,
than to Ie permitte(d to go oil amid fail in, so important an undertaking.
The changes wilich I recommends in the )lan of the south wing, in order to
carry out the above views, are shown upon (Irawinlgs which have already been
XJII killed to you.
would like to hlave an opportunity to shlow thenm to the gentlemen to whom
you will refer the^o notes.
rTo lay (lown general p)rincihles correctly is not sufficient security that the
application of them will hejudiciouslyy made.
I aum, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
M. C. MEIGraS,
Captain (f Bnginecrs in cla/rge (f Capitul Extension.
secretary of JWar.

Extrarts from " Notes on Arouei*t und Ventilat;on with retference to the 'new
Hl411s qf congresss," by CGaptain Meigs, United States Corps of Engineers;
Magel, lt853.;;
Experience shows that, the human voice, llnIder favorable circumstances, is
enjptble of filling a larger
walls ol a single room.
space than was ever probably enclosed %within the
If somid be prevente(d from spreading, an(l losing itself in the air, either by
pipe or an extensive flat sturfatce, as it wail or still water, it IIIIy be conveyed to
at greater distance.
it pure atmosphere being favorable, to the, speaker's health and stre-ngth, will
give him greater power of voiet' and more en(liranice: thtus indirectly inproviing
the bearing b)y strengthening the source, of' sound, an(l also by enablingr) the
he(!arer to give his attention for a longer period u',tatitued.
Thbe common mode of warming and(1 ventilating public rooms is fatal to per-
fection of hearing.
One( or several colmnins of intensely heated air are introduced through holes inl
the, floor. B(eing much wnrmer than the air of the apartment, thoy immediately
rise to the ceiling. If the exit apertures for foul air are above, this fresh and
heated air above escapes, having done nothing for the apartment except to
CaUMe whirls and currents, such its we see in a column of smoke passing from a
chininey on a calm day. The irreuilar refraction of so11n(1 through these cur-
rents of' equal (lenlsity tends greatly to produce confusion.
It time exits for foul air are, below, the hot air accumulates at the top of the
room, aind, gradually displacing the cooler air, forces it out through theassage.
Pfofessor Iteid relates that he has foun(l the air near the ceilingv of a room at
the boiling teml)crature while those on tihe floor were complaining of col(l.
Here we haveit strata of different densities and unequal refractive power, and
hlence comitmsion of sotind.
As the warmer air muist ascen(l to the top of the room, I propose to let it do
so in at large, trunk outside of the apartment, pass into at space aIthove thel Ce'iling,
and thence, by numerous holes, find its way, ais through a sieve; into the room.
a!y steam driven fin, or other mechanical means, we can pump air, in any
desHired q11uantity, into any spot into which W' Choose to directt it.
I wou (1 (Irive all the air required for the spl)ply of the room through a maze
of' hot-water pipes, raising the whole of' it to the tempeatute desired-600 or
80°, as thie case might be.
If the room be thirty feet in height, and it be desired to change all the air in
it every tif'teen minutes, enough air should be puimped in above to cause at general
descent of the, whole, body of air in the room, at the rate of two feet a minute.
Th'lmis would be an imnpei'ceptible current. The exit should be by numerous
holes in the, floor, perhaps through the carpet, or the risers of the platforms on
which are the memibers' chairs.
T'h'ree iml)ortant advantomges would thus be gained: The avoidance of all
eddlies, a nearly homogeneous and tranquil atmosphere, and the immediate removal
downwards of any dust from the carpet, which would thus be prevented from
rising,'to be inhaled into the lungs.
To lirevent tihe disturbance and contamination of the atmosphere by tile gas-
lights, I would-place them above the glass of the skylights-the space between
those( in the ceiling and those in the roof being separated from the chamber into
which thae fresh air should be admitted.
In summer, the same apparatus which sends in warm air in winter would
supply a constant breeze; and, if the temperature of the external air wan too
higli, it might h.e cooled by jets of water from pipes in the passages, or even by
mnel,!ig ice.
I f;clconfidlenit that, by observing the above p)rescril)ed precautions, we will
Obtuil 3'()()ilrlS 1s near p)erfCction 11s is i)OsSil)le-" rooms ill Whicll o Vitiated Itir
shaill injure the health of the legislators, It(Il in which the voice from eacl inern-
ber's devsk shall he easily milde audible in tll parts of the room." [ This 'was
Mr. ,lnd(erason's plan.]
This wals the )roblemi proposed to me for solution.
In conclusion, I have the lhonor to repeat the reqUest maide verialy some
days hince, that the,, above notes and observeations mnay be subinitted to somne
persolnls of' scieitilic repufittionI, the weigiht of' whose authority imay Sustain lm11
if I ilin right, or correct them if wrong.
Res1ectfillly sul)lnitted to tse htilorlnoele Jefferson Davisi, Secretary of War,
by h6i-s obedient Hervant,
Capl/ain qf Engineer.s, in charge of Extension (f&
United Sta tes Capntol and Washington Aqud(luCt.
Subsequently, tbe Bul)ject having been referred to Professors Blachie and Henry,
those gelitl(elmne~ addlresse(l a comminunieition to tih(e ,Secretariy of \ar ats follows -
Silt: ' u'luds1|igile(d
du have examined, as you requested, the pirincipke.s pro-
os(8(l by Cpltain6 C.Meigs., oi the Clorp)i of'Enigineers, with refurence to the
acouStics, hIeIating, 111(1 ventilation of tilethtl1l of' Repiesentaita'es.
They ilre, now Pre)a'lred to report that the p)rineiples presented to then by
Capi)tain Meigs are correct, andI that they are' jumidiciously pI)p)lied.
They are of' oYinion that ilhe l)lans should be provisionally adopted, ill order
thlat thl(e buildhlig may not I)e delayed, subject to such modifications in the detailss
as mImay result front the, fllrtlher S ldyOt of' them by Captitlln eig.s, or fiol1m the' eCx-
pe)riti tts aId( observationIs ol' the eoititissllo.
1This ge-neral dtll)tAatioi of' the plans will not, it ii believed, interfere with any
change's of (letails likely to 1)0 found desirable.
Very respectfully, yours, A . BAC1LE.
"?ccretary (jJ8 ar.l

Senate CGhaamber-abstract estiun ate.
Alterinig roof and raising ceiling, &c ..... ............ $27, 979 20
Scafidlding and machinery for all work .................... 10, ()0 00
Brick work inl raisiing the chamber walls..................,. 11, 929 05
Air ducts over tile ceiling, two thicknesses ..... ...... . ....... 6, 693 00
New wilndo"ws round Senate chamber. . ................. 3, 600 00
]Belt course ullder thl(e windows .,......................... 784 00
Gutters and evecornice . ., ................................. 3, 700 00
temntodelling tflank roof' and gutters ........................ 5, 000 00
Workmtanship) onl attic walls and balustrade ....... .......... 37, 600 00
Mason's woik in alterations air-shaft, and tunnel .............. . . 20, 000 00
NeW stemu engine ...................................... 2, 000 00
Two new fitn-wh
leels .... ... .............. ... ... . 3, 000 00
Eight reflectors, fixing and pipes .......................... $9, 600 00
Rearranging, rar'efyinig steam jpipes, &c. . 5, 000 00
Lining upper air-chamber so as to make it water-proof, with hot
and cold water pipes and sieve, thel entire lentgth............ 5, 000 00
150,685 25
The above calculations arc inade at the present priices for labor ant)( materials.
Arch itect and Civil Engineer.
HaIl of Pejp)csentativsc-atbstrw(z t estimate.
Altering roof and raising the ceiling, &c., &c................ $38, 970 10
Raising the 1)rick walls round the hall ..................... 13, 925 45
New windows round the hilll.............................. 4, 400 00
New belt course under win(lows ........................... 928 00
Air ducts over ceiling,, two thicknes.,eis...................... 6, 783 00
(hitte'rs n(l leave cornice ............................... 4, 500 00
Remodelling flank roof and gutters......................... 6, 000 f00
Workmanship on attic wall and balustrade ................. 37, 500 00
Alterations in mason's work, air-shaft and tunnel ........... 15, 00() 00
A new steam engine .................................... 2, 000 00
Two niew powerful fall-wheels ........................... 3, 000 00
rliljilte(en reflectors, including fittilln alld pl)cs, &c............ 15, 600 00
Rearranging, rarefying steam pipes, &c.................... 3, 00( 00
Lining upper air chamber so as to make it water-proof, with hot
and (,l(1 water jiipes and Hieve......... ........... *), 000 00
Seaffolding alln( machinery. . 10, 000 000
$166,606 55
The above calculations are made at the l)resent prices for labor an(d materials.
.Architet and Civil E,'ngineer.

Estimates and proposals for altering and raising the roqfs and ceilings qf the
Senate chamber and 1all of Repjresentatives; tk'? brick wa//s surroundind ,
these apartments, and the windows within, these walls ; thle large air-chambers
Wvnit/h their water arrangements ; the air-duclts over the ceilings, and t1/c work-
mans/lip qf covering tle roqlb complete; also all necessary scq/bj/ding, and
temporary rofJing ,/br protecting the interior of these chambers dTuring the
prozgres.s of the work; all to be done substantially, in a workmanlike manner,
and con/~detel in strict accordance with, the plans and printed spec iications
prep)a(red by C. F. Anderson, architect, and su.ject to his approval.
In altering these roofs, it is proposed to use. the main ties in their present
form, as these are known to be comp)ose(l of excellent material, and to have been
tested to the extent of ten thousand poullds strain to the square inch of cross
Section ; but the rafters and braces will be altered, and made to conform to the
iml)roved rootf, and there will be seven-eighths added to the size of' tlc rafters,
so as to give to them a cross sectioni of fifteen square inchies-Heven inches more
thlan the old rafters have. iThis will make their strength practically equal to
that. of' the ties with which they are connected, which is not the case with the
old rafters; having only eight inches in cross section.

The enie(wr of the old roofs made a grave mistake in making the size,3s of
the ties allid rafters nwerly eqrit1. Ie seenis to have actdA upon tlh(e theory
that. as the" teltxsive mtrainis ill thle ties, ard the, pressure ill the rafters, are about
eq1ill il11ti(lliiIl.iiti(lde, a1l(1 Ili it is known to require abotit equal miglitidlues of
po.itiye Ilattivye
ie folCe(sA to crush wroughtt, iron b)y pressure, n(Itl to tear it
almidt!(1 er ).ty teiiioll, that thlierefo'te thle sizes of tlhes raf'ters alnd the ties inmust atI 5
be( vptnal to give to tht('m corresp)omtiliiig strength. But he seetm tint to have
cotlsidlerod thte faclts (developed ill practice, that rafters formed atid Iite(l upllo a
ill theset rooft's, will fill by lateral deflection, itt(lder inuch less pt'essuire thtan iS
>1(ji'dl trru/I.
I) the material of whichi they ai' composed, Corn) tit thatt tlt(' corre-
olnl~llillug uttuomlit of' tenlsinlt (1dtu to the tiei catnnot., by dieflectioti, or (1istortion of
aity kind, i npair their normal strt'emthi Thierefor'e, thotigh theoreticall/y right
its to tit,, i ll- u-ittide of tili( forces acthilg ill o0))posite (directitiows ill tlhe iflt'rs andI
iln te(. tii's, yet, ill not providing for the, differencee ill their effects, has resul ted
ill ulscUiJltyi contstriuctioti, ill roofi tltuit have, practically, not mlore titall htlf
tili( streltgtIt thtiit thIteory ass;igis to theill. This errol' will be obviated ill the.
propot)se(d roof'1 l)y adn(li rg seven-eilithis to the size of the rafters ; while the ties
remit iiitItiltatge(l.
For the plirpose of ascertaining to what aimnoint of strains tile l)arts of tho
modlififdl roiifs iwiy be sibjected, and thereby (deteriuine the sizesA aid strei(Lthi
re('iiiited for' each 1paLl't, I hallve- miade a compuitation of' the weight of' the rioofi,
witll tihe eiliug.A, attd smicit other plrts as will be) sustained hby the ioofi ; anid I
filltidlh'se lt I0 (I(f
e eiq to fifthtyi-tree pount(ls to eiu'hll squaiae foot of toirizolital stir-
face Covered, to which 1 ad(l teti l)otiiln(1 to the floot for possible loads of' sioow
-totaIl, si t)y- ilr'ee potlildiF to the foot.. 'TIhis nit large allowance for stiow ill
tits (clifiltt', aitt(l thue hiighl tid ioiidOiti piositioii of' these roof's will pr'eclud(Ie thie
postsibliiility (if drifts Collect ill" up(otn themil. The roofs, thins loaded, *vill 1)ioduce,
t iptI)'v s5rilitS ill t ll ties eq ual to 8,784A pontinds to the square iticht of' cross
se'ctimut , auItIl 4,685 1-15Ioi tids pressinre to thlie s(lare inch inl thle tafter).8 ; which
is oly aIabitut. olne-sv'ellt oIle o,' tiltiiiiiitae stretgti of' good iron. TIe other' parts
will be si inIilIaly p)r'O1)Oi'tiotie(l as to ,siz( of' parts to the strains.
.s E N A'r k: C' I I A MBE
13 E:It.
Alteritig roof, raising it, anti t(! ceilitig, as per plhtin .$........ $27, 979 20

(Ihittt(!'i'm d eave-cori'tice romitd the raiisetl roof'... . . . . . . . ... . 3, 700 00

]Biick wiull s irromnitd chamtbnther, ins pet' lim . ................... 11, f92 05
Scaffoldiiitgat( temporary rooffitg so as to protect tile old work. 10, (00 (O
lRlvod(ll tig flank roof's an(l gutters, its per i~''plani ..... . .. . . 5 000 00

hitilng ntppi'r' itir-chanuiber, so a.s to make it water-tiglht, with lhnt

atidl ('old water p)i)es, ain(l sieves.. 5, 000 00
Air-ducts over ceiling, two thicknesses .5............ . . ..... 6 , 59:3 0()
'New witidows around the chamber, as per' planii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 600 00
Belt course under these wind1ows, as per pn. . . . . ...... .. " .. 784 00
Maisotn work in tuntinel, aith in new tlit'ir-shft.' 20, 000 (0
Rt('atrmatugimtg raref'yiig Hteam-pipes, &e., &c., &c. r, 000 00
Work oll att walls id balunstr'ade. .37, 500 00
136, 085 25

I will exe,-cute this work, as ahove set forth, for the sum of one hinindred and
thirty-six thotsiand eighty five (lolla's atnl twenty-five centits, ($136,085 25,) and
will give amnple security for the due performance thereof.
WASHIN(rNoz', December 2, 1864.

Altering roof, raising it and the ceiling ................... $38, 970 10
Glitters anl(l eave-cornice round the raised roof .............. 4, 500 00
Br3ick wvall lroun(l the hail, as perpln ...................... 13, 9'25 45
Scaflol(ling aniid templ)orary roofting for protection. 10, 000 00
JRemodelliig tflank roof Ian( glitters, as per plaiu........... 6, 000 00
Lining upper air-chamber so as to make it water-tight, with hot
ail( cold water pipes, and sieves ........................ 5, 000 00
Air-ducts over ceiling, two thicknesses .................... 6, 783 00
New windows around the hall, ts per section. ................. 4, 400 00
Belthcolure underthlleset Will(lows, s1 per section ........ 928 00
Mas9on work in tunnel, and air-shafts, also alterations ......... 15, 000 00
Rearranging rarefying steam-pipes, &e., &c., &c............ 3, (00 00
Work on attic walls and balustrade ........................ 37, 500 00
146,006 55

I will execute this work ats above set forth for the sum of oileh, hundred and
forty-six thiOsand and six lolliess and fifty-five cents, ($146, 006 55,) and will
give ample security for the du(e pefrformanic(e thereof.
131,NJAM1IN SEVERSON, 359 E street.
WASHINGTON, Dccenmber 2, 1864.

NOTE.-\VIlille thoso pityfi are golig tli n gr i the presm tho attention of the (onlliittee is
(lir(ct((l to )1Oiloi l'11tv 1(epol't p)oll volltilatitll1byM exSrs. Sm dd nid EdSoii, civill (ligineerts,
to it c(oliliiiitte(' ot' to 'N1w Saclitclmetts liotiso (;t' repres.entitiyes, dit(ed *Jill Inary 1, 1865.
Copious IXtl'll(ts 1toni '
thIkS valuallble papol" 111(1 givell ill tho paiC(!edIllg ppges, 111)O11 the (1le.4
10t1s (t' llioistillfe il t le lilr11-1( the (loow ilwaf(l miiovolliilit ill velilflation1. T'liie viewS ilfO(IIte(d
by)' thisi (c111titttee ill tho foregioig vop1)ovt r(e!e'i'e, ill those oxtracets, ai intvlligenIt allaI weighty
(eIdo(liSelImilt, 'T'hli act(iill 111,11 Slie'(vSetil appl icatiiIon of tile domvnillad Illov oll(ont by (el-lnei
Alorill Ill thie I fall of the Uolnsoivutoi)' of A its atwl gradess, aind by M1r. (-ntility ill t le H houses
of Panrliaii(ii t, und ill ('olirt.liouses and otheir l)I ie)11i1(liidi li .1"il
li Satti8st 0tir' 1111ii (eil(' eo illi favolr oh tiho
llgh(1,id i list lie rtg"iifded
clieeilusioll to whiel the eomilillittooe I avoairi'v('ed.
In fitet, the ctiniuuit ou' uutlurity at this time, uis %voll as sound roasoll, is tor tho proposed

Extrarcts from tie report on ventilation qfJ. Ilerliert Shedd and William Edaon,
(a1iTr*x, civil ew.;,incers, m),ade to a committees of the Mlassac/usetts House e'f
l1y7)resentatives, Jl3stwo, January 1, 1865.
Scientific and medical authorities generally concuir in the opinion that in-door
air, tftr lieatig,, shiolild contain nearly the same, I)ro)ortion of' mnistire as the
av'(lgter of' otit-(loor air of the same teiperawtrue ; buIt when air is brouighit in from
out of doors fit the tet'iiperature of 'z/Aro, and raised by heaters to sixty-eigbt dc-
grees, it would I0e(uiire th( ad((lition of 4-1-j-R-- grains of water per cubic foot of
air to bring it upe to the reqlizired degree of moisture. For the proper moisten.
iug tIhen of frushl wvarnied air intro'liuce(l it the rfate of twenty cubic fleet a minute
for each onelcof' tree i nndzr'ed
average (l('dgree of' moisture, persons
two hours, the air taken at zero and at
no than fifty-niine gallons of water would
require to *1b added. * # # # #
9 # #
]exactly hIoWmiuich vapor, or what per cent, of moisture is the most healthy,
liats not yet, been (le'ternined. FIro0i much observation, we have, taken sixty-five
per cent. ofmsthiration als the anmonit mnost likely to prove llealtlhy.

emiean relative htrnidity of the air aIt Phlbiladelphia for the year 1863
was 67.2, and thef
mean anualn
tel average for twelve years, 68.5.
rThe essential point of ventilation is constant change, of' air, the removal of
the atir that, becomlefs 11d(llewith the secret ions of' tih(e body, al(l its r'eilaceliellt
by fresh air. In nattiure this cliange is generli'ly elected by ctirrents of' wind
thait rap)i(lly sweep away anI renew thie air. Inl addition, ita,'ordinig as the atir
is cool('rtihan thl(e body, tihte, portion comililni ill contact with tih(e.person is warmed,
Andl, becomingill Jighter thain the rest, has a tendency to rise aind give place to
nlew atir. q'I.'1m telndelnl y is shown by selisitive wind-wheel, in low temper'a-

tilure', at, the distance of' a few incheis f'roin the body .
T1the heat(of the breath alsolhlas been assulne(l to bp the special provision for
its remioval an(l replacement with fresh air. This hlals been it favorite theory
evein ainotg scientific men. Mr. Gurney was onl(e of the, first to stoutly deny
tih( fact ; in Mii tesimnonmy before coininitte-es of' Parliaimienit in 1854, he, alserted
tilit tiwllownwvard propuilsioni which thi breath received by the 1)osition and
directionof' the nostrils dlid not cease, so fiir as the impurtirities with whiich it is
laden are coticenitd), till it(del)podite(l tho'in otl the grout(ln. We have not been
able to verify Mr. 0 z'niey's assertion, that 01o t frosty daythel vitpor from at
pers01's mon ti inay beseen to describe aparabolic curve to the ground ; but

any one niaiy see the vapor of the breath driven from tihe nostrils taking ait first

al (IMNolonVArdl coulrl.4e. t breath of' Fair strength, with the therrnoilieter near
the freezing p)oint, lmaiy bel seel by its condellnsed vilpor,(rivendownwardd and
slightly-otawar(ls, forai foot or more. TheSlo)jOiedsketch is an acciritte rep-
r'esentation of the visible breath seec3 i ill ai' of' twenty-six degrees Fahrenheit,
theo rate of' breathling being twenty-one to twenty two tilnes at inuite. [The
fires oIlli tte(l.]
Ini thlis observation, the wind-wheel m-noved rapidly near the body, and steadily
at a(distanllee of six illhes ill front, and also aIt two feet above the hend. Not-
withstanding this upward current,thle breath wis strongly marked by the con-
d(enos(l inoistui'e, fourteen inches below the nostrils, and would doubtlessbave
been s('en furtherdown but for the(( dissipation oftlme moisture. In at room with
the air at sixty-fivedegrees,thl(e same wit(l-wheel was in mioction close to the
vital parts of the body, but stopped entirely at two or three inches distance
from tho body, or above the head. This was to be anticipated, because tho
force that carries the wheel is the rising of the air in consequence of its greater
heat an(l lightness than thatt of the surroud(ling air, and is proportiotned to the
differences of tEmperature.
In order to determine the amount of heat operating to cause the air to rise, a
thermometer was) placed within the clothing iiear the vital );lrts of the body,
where it wvas found to stand at eighty-two (legrees, while the person remained
in air at sixty-five; on going into air at,; twenty degrees, with additional
clothing, the thermometer stood at seventy-six degreess. 'T'lie air arollO(l the
1)ody illna warm room, therefore, would rike wtith a force not far from seventeenl
degrees, while in outter air ait twenty degreess it would rise with a force not far
from fifty-six (legrees. In point of' fact we suppose the air woulmi rise with a
velocity somewhat less than these figures, but, relatively, we think they are
nearly correct. A more sensitive instrum(nt wotil(l have been affected at a
greater (1istaLnCe, but the( same wheel sliowe(l tlditinict downward motion of' the
breat h fifteen inches below the nostrils, in opposition to all the rising tend(elcy,
by reason of the varnith of' the breath, ind of' tile air about the body; an(l this
motion also wvotuld have been shown to a greater distance by a mnore sensitive
Let uts now suppose, to he well within bounds, the breath to be moved twelve
ilnchlesl below theil ce. 'T'lie (downward notion having cease(, the upward mn-
tioni should then begin which is to carry thel breath ill) out of the waly. This
o0(1 l)breath has about 0110 second in %Wlich to m'ise(, f'r'omn rest or reverse motion,
more thiat twelve inches, ill order to he otl of thle wily at, the next inhlattion.
'T'hle, (liflerenlce of' teml)erature necessary to give( the breath this movement of
twelve incheils in the filst second, if tile )reatili rises by heat alone, will surpris e
alny one( not familiar with such calculationis. It is not less than one( hun(lred
antd eighty (legrees; thatt is to say, tle breath, in order to start from rest and
rise twelve inches ill one second through air at sixty-five degrees, would have to
be tit i temQ11perature of two hundred :111(1 forty-five degrees.
'Pl'e absurdity to which thlis calculation :1ll(ldxperilinent reduce the idea that
our breathl is -carried away from the fatcel by its lupwvar(d tendency from heat, is
incrcase(l by the observation, which every one may make, that a thermometer
at sixty-five degrees cannot be raise more than on(e degreee by breathing upon
it at nilne inches distance, and that at ten inches no effect, can be perecived.
But the upward tendency of thoe breath is doubtless much increase(1 from the
diffusion and ligihtness of its aque(ots vapor, and possibly from other causes,
tholugll, un1dller the most favorable circumstances, all causes combined are. not suf-
ficient to carry the expired breath llp lout of' thc waly * before another inalatution,
as mnaty be seen on at fro-sty dlay; in(l it, is evi(leut to aill that the air contaminated
by the b)od(ly, if' carried upward, muitst in soime1 measure be inhled.
Thme fact, theno, in rewar(d to the removal of' thle exlire(l air from thle face is
rather thlie r'eVe'rso of the theory that it is carried upward out of' the waly. It is
caLrrie(l (lwnwvard at orilinary temperatures with force, as of' t steanm-jet, that,
for nalght we know, deposits it withr its impurities, as Mr. Gurney says,-at the
floor. '1liough, we have not traced its (lescent more than a third of' thi distance,
ia calculation of' its downward impulse shows it to be sufficient to overcome all
the upward tendency of itS own heat, and that of thoe ai' about the body to a
conlsiderably greater distance thatm thiat of the floor. 'l'he supply of fresh air
for ilialatiotm cotmns in from above and laborut tlme face, to supply the partial
vacutim created by the downward jet; and in thuis jet, as Mr. Gurm y has
pointed out, not in the upward tenilency of' the( warm breath, is thle admirable
provision of' nature for carrying away the expelled air before more is to be ill-
We are not, however, to conclude that the rising force imparted to the air
about a person, by heat of skin and lungs, is absolutely notinl-,, although in
warm rooms it is practically of small account. More heat is given off from the
body by radiation than by contact of air. Enclose a person in a non-conduct-
ing cylinder not inuch above his size, and the accumulation of heat about him
would give somII force to the air. And so, in an assembly, the heat accumu-
lated aro ind andl among the persons gives the air a certain amount of rising
force. 'Taking for at basis Pteclet's estimate of the amount of heat given off by
an individual inj moderate temperature, the upward force given to air by three
hundred( persons in Aim hour would be equal to the power of five pounds of coal.
'T'bis is an extreme outside calculation of time force of time heat imparted by the
body. It thelusual d(l(luetionis should be mnade for thle wasteful innmier of' this
implications of' heat to raise thle air, less thain half this amount of' coal would be
seen to l)alanice the elevating effect on the air of three hundred persons.
Yet, on tih( asuInl)tion of' an effective lifting power in the heat given off from
tihe body his been based the p)revailing systein of' ventilationi-that is, of
taking the fresh air in at the bottom of the roomi and tihe foul air out tit time top.
T'hlis is claimed to be tihe n'itural system, aind, therefore, the cheapest and best.
'Vihe claim is ad(lmlissibleJ in cases where- io power exists t chatnge tihe air except
this slight differeniee of temperature; but what becomes of it in cases where tonis
of coal are- burnt atday for the sole purpose of' producing a powver to move, the
air, and where, ats is commnli), dll the air taken out It the to) is b)rollght down
again in p)il)pes to the ground before being sent off through it chimney shaft? Is
it not 1m1ore nturainl, cheaper, tand better to go on ns nature begins, and take time
foil air of' breath and body directly dowIn through the floor to its eXha.usting
chiilney ?
These two theories of ventilation have bwein often argued aid both l)racticed
with varyillg success. We will consHider the circumstances of a 1lar, hall of
assemb ly, and show the operation of tiec two systems.
We Imiust, suppose at floor well packed with people, at the bottom of a cubical
or hemispherical halil ; stippose' tnibe to have n(ltered at omice, the Intil being pre-
viously filled with pure air; directly the w'hole- lower stratium of air, in which
the 11(dience Ilre, is contaminated by their (exhailatioins timid eanallations. Now,
the problem is to get that tranttumi of i (out, of' the hall before aily of it can
coiIcO to use migaini, and(1 to rej)lace it with freshi air of the right tenll)lernture It
is obvious that it cannot be taken out sideways, because then mainy would have
to breathe over again the breath of' others. It caitm be taken onily either lup or
down. It' it is taken up, the fresh air that is to Sujpp)ly its plihace mnustj enter at
tim(e floor from which the( foul air rises, for no air will leave a spot till other air
is rea(ly to fill its place. In order, thien, to lift the whole of the foul air bodily
f'oin the floor, it is necessary that thme whole floor should be open for the admis-
Sion of' fresh air. Wherever there is at piece (f solid floor thriugh which the;
air Cannot pass, there will be a (lead space of foul air above it, which vill not
rise with tih(e rest, but will remain to be gradually mixed with tihe fresl. air en-
terinig arouiolnd it. If the dead space is considerable, tIme whole amiouit of' air
required(l iust center in time limited spac(e of' the op)eiings, and the velocity must
b' psro)portionately illieeased. According as this space- is reduced an(l the veho-
city inereaLe(l, time air (entering hai at force that carries it ull) beyond tih p)lacee
where- it is to l)e ase(l, and mixes it with the foul air pastilng off; a part of
which mixture, will retlurni in couimter-cum'rents and1 gradually replace the air in
time, (lead spaces. The operation may be1 seen by a simple expom'iwnemt.
'I'lPke a bucket-full of turbid water and lower it into at tub of' eleair water of
equal temperature andl detisity. If the bottoin of the bUcket could be removed.
without disturbance, the sides might be lowered gently and the clear water
would replace the turbid water iii time bucket completely, without -miuch mixing.
So, too, it' thme bottom of' tile 1) ucket is entirely perforated, leaving v'ery slender
partitions between the perforations, the clear water may replace the turbid with
little disturbance andlin mixing. But if the perforationsi arec limited to holes of,
say, halt' the space thie bottom, on pushing down the bucket the clear water
will rush up into the midst of the turbid water, and the turbid water on the
soli(l spaces of the bottom will remain, till, mixed by friction and coullter-cur-
rents with the pure water, it is gradually carried up. The fewer and smaller
the lholes the longer the turbid water will remain in the (dead spaces ; and, if its
tulrbi(lness is from a constant source, it will be likely to increase rather than
Dr. Reid, the most scientific and experienced, perhaps, of the advocates of the
upward system, seeing this necessity for introducing his fresh air through the
whole extent of' the floor, when, after experience itl the temporary houses of
Parliamntit, lhe was called upon to arrantge thle ventilation of' tle new Botuse of
(JConinons in Westmilster Palace, hlad theo entire floor made of' perforated iron.
This was afterwards covered with hairclotlh carpeting, and througlh nearly its
whole extent the fresh air was admitted. No expense was spared, and the
system was tried for some years under thle most falvorable circumstances. '1'le
result wats, tliat, on account of the raising of duist by the entering air, and still
niore on1 account of' the uncomfortalde dratughts brought up against tlic lhonora-
ble members' legs, nine-tenthis of' the floor came to be covered With slheet lead
under the carpet. And wheni the entrance for freshly air Wids thllUs limlited, it be-
ing througlh the carpet but a fraction of the nominail extent, complaints beceltin
so loud both of' strong currents and of fotilnes of' air, that the whole matter of
ventilation wats turned over to Mr. Goldswortlhy (GIurney, who unldertook it on
the opp)ositc system of' introducing the fresh air above and taking out tlh(e foul
air ait thle floor.
In thle French senate chamber, formerly supplied with fresh air through the
rising steps behind the members' seats, these openings were close4(d because of
tle, (dralglltM about the senators' legs, and, according to Morin, in 1862 they
had no ventilation at all.
Suclh are s(omc of' thle difficulties of changing the air of a crowded hall by in-
troduCing it aIt time bottom and taking it out at the top. rlo avoid themn, Sir
Ci'kle's Barry, the architetd of the new housesi of' Parliamenit, introduced his
mrain supply of' fresh air in the Hous.e of' Lords through the middle compartment
of the ceiling, expecting it to descend to the floor, thenl to riso at the sides, an(l
to be taken out in the side compartment s of the ceiling. This was expecting
too muheli of' atinosplheric nature, aid, after at few years' trial, th0is lall, too, wis
given over to Mr. Gurney, who proposed to take the air out at tile floor. We
shall ntot (dwell onl the systern of talking both the freshi air in and the tFoul air
out at the top, or on that of' taking the freshly air in and the foul fair out at the
bottom, because these systems, to be equallyy effectual, must double thel amount
of current that would be caused l)y taking thle air in one way and1 out the
other, and are, for that reason not, to be recommended for large halls, whl-ere the
great difficulty is to change thle air falst enough wvithlout making unpleasant cur-
Initroducing- the air at the upper part of a lhull, and taking it out at the bot-
toin, known as downwardd ventilation, hins certain obvious advantages : 1. It
takes til(e (elmanations of' the skin and lungs out of the room immediately after
they are given off, before they hIave a1 chatnieC to be inthatled. 2. Consequently,
the freslh air corning nnimnhUairedl directlyy to the heads of the audience, a much
less supply is required to secure the fresliness of what is inihledle thin is leces-
sary whiei the new air is brought, first to tlhe- foet, or becomes mixe(1 with foul
currents, 3. The warm air intr'o(luced hlas the opportunity of spending some-
thing of its heat on the ceiling and walls before it comes to be breathed, instead
of being breathed at its highest temperature. 4. 'The fresh air is diffused over
the whole area of the hall, even if introduced through few apertures, before
reaching the audience; by wbich means the air is brought upon them more
gently than it' it came directly upon them through limited apertures. The
greater the number and area of aopertures for the exit of the foul air at the

floor, thcel better, and the less will the current be felt. But this current, being
(lowlnwtrds, will always be felt in a muclh less degree than at similar current up-
,"ardls a lt tlim lege, for obvious reasons; anid the dust alnd odors of' the floor
will be carriedl (down, limited of' u) into the air to be breathed.
For illhstration of downwardd ventilation, take, as before, a bucket of water,
turbid near thle bottom, fand sink it in a tub of clear water. Suppose thle bot-
tomn to be well perforate(l, or even butt partially so, clear water coming ill at the
to), a.s tflie buteket is raiised, will force, out the turb)id water very eff'ctiially at
thle bottom, whaltever may be thlie position of the openings sat the top). In other
wor(5, air passing through at rOll will (hive out more thoroughly and uniformly
tlle iil ltt t lhC si(lde it whliclh it goes out tatfil that lat tilhe ide it litersrs.
'1'lie gain(effected by br'ingiig tile fresh air to t.e fitlC, to be breatlhed before
it sweeps. thlie body, is quit-e important. It may be estimated by considering
how 1ilicl('hi less sully of fresh a ir would lie sufficient for a uiioi (mlnelose(l inia
Cylind(ler just lIrge elloligh to hold hii, inl case tihe( air caine dowII to iliS heaL(d
first, Illail ill calls( it clitilne to his(isfet' first, and ll) by hiis body to thle face. A
erowd'(I assembly mlly be Coilsidere(l' sU it set of sluch cylinders4, closely packed
togellter, witlh their occupants like bees ill theirc('lls. Tll(e great a(lviatiage, ill
pOint ol'( ecoillOly of' freslhnePss, o(' sending I lie air downIIwards, instead of up-
wards., Iwe v'er'y apiltrent.; andt it. is ()lviols tlllt ill tlle oll0 (elSls nlny be) olj-
tiin('d perfeet purity of the air, while ill the other it annevr !ll be molre thanl mu
'l'h 11' Iiting of' the walls, v iling", floor , alld fill-nituire of a hiall is of great im-
(irt ll'ee. )( 0illerwitse, very l it alir will inot, slflice to keep I lie ocellpllatits coil-
hzotiulb e. If; its ill Illost llsws, thlis heatili, is to be don(e. by tile warm air' adlle,
tie Illore there is lecom plislbed beforeI the air is breaitlhed, thie le:ss will be the
"Ipi-tive. hleat of thle. ailr elltering thle hings.
Tl'hais we CoiIsider, in itself, 5t decided advantage, aind it is obtained ill greater
d(erre( i,'hit'i1 tilie warm air is introd(lce(l above than wlhen it (ent(ers ntt iall)y
1)JlttS thtrougli the floor,
\V'blen thie air is intro(luced at the top) of a husill an drawn out ait the bottom,
it is rapidly d(itfused flhroughl the whlole Upper Space, alnd thle lieginse to deseelnd
slowly anled very uniformly to the floor. ''lhiisi the case, (evei a l)resenlt ill our
!)reprsenlatives utli welllre tile warmi air enters ait at single o(pellillng Above thle
Speaker's hlair. hIds air rises utt once into tile dome of, thle lhall, as sween by
eX pceilliental bailloolls, where it is ((liackly dithused, an1d then (dl('seei(ls almoAt
vertically il all parts of' the hall to the floor. This arrnigenment, tlholugh de-
signed only as at templj)oil'ry,.,,,1d expe'riinitatl step to tile still better plan of
introducingtlhe air duiretly inito the, (ome1, prooves, ill a(1 egree, tilhit match1 greater and liniftl'mity of muotioiu, withi freedom from needle(11s earein('it$, u1ay
beo o(itaiie(l wv ib (lowilwar(d ventilation than it is possible to lave w itl upwaai'd
ventilbatiintl. For, in, the litter, the rising air can occupy but vet mucl lees
Fpflc(, imust lalive, ait tie level( f, thle au11dielce, proportionally greater velocity,
and(l ust alternate with add i ional comaiater-ctirreiits.
'The objections to tile (ownwar(d system aire : 1. Its siupjposed antagonism to
the natural laws of, upward movement of' heated air. 2. T1hei mippm-()(lA greater
heat of' the upper air inl tle biall under thlat system.
'Tilte first objection we lhave( already siUfliciently considered. Practically, even
those whlo favor lpwlarcl v('ntiation admit that there is ito difficulty ill taking
the foul air olit at tile bot tom1 by the application of at moderate force; nld(1 11otll
inig ill the art of ventilation is more universally admitted thanl thle necessity,of
unledr any form of ventilation, in till public buildings, for tilhe employment
some special power.
Nor is the objection strengthened materially by the common impression of
greater foaalness tt the top than at the bottoin of a crowded room. 'I'liere is some
truth in this impression, in regard to rooms which bave no ventilation, though

most careful experiments by eminent chemists fail -to show any considerable or
uniform increase in carbonic acid in the upper part of crowded halls; perhaps
as many experiments have shown the greater amount at the bottom as have
shown it at thc top. What slight increase there may sometimes be at the hot-
test state, is probably more thaii lost as the heated carbonic acid cools, and, to
some extent, sinks from its weight. Sensitive observers, too, have found that
though the upper portion of a heated, ill-ventilated hall smells most offensively,
and, from its heat, is oppressive, the lower portion most seriously affects their
state of health. In our representatives hall, there hias been the most serious
complaint of oppression on the lowest portion of the floor, around the Speaker's
desk. Iii point of fact, we believe, the idea of the greater foulness of air at the
top arises mainly from crowded evening assemblies, where the heated products
of combustion from gas-liglhts contaminate the upper air to a great extent.
It is of the utmost consequence that. these products should have somo direct
means of removal. Tllls is provided for in the best ventilated halls by so dis-
posing the gas-burners that they may have direct and independent outlets for
their .moke anud ga1s. KAnother obvious exl)anation of the frequent greater im-
purity of the upper air in crowded, ill-ventilated halls, is that, without special
force of' supply, there is always a rush of' fresh air into the hsall through the
floors as they are frequently opened ; this air being cooler, of course, forces the
warm foul air upwards. After all, the greater heat. at the top of the room is
probably the chief cause of the impression o, greater foulnes , though with the
heat may be associated somleC light odorous gases. J3ut all this is of no import-
ance against systematic downward ventilation. When the foul air is taken off
alt the bottom, it is no longer found iln excess at the top.
Mforin's very accurate experiments in the smaller hall of the Conservatory of
Arts and Tra(les, ventilated from above downward, show, on the avn erage, a scarcely
l)Crceptible difference between. the temperature of the air-above and that below.
In our own representatives' hall, where now the warm air is introduced thirteen
feet above the Speaker's platform, and the foul air taken out at thel floor, though
the arrangrnemnts for supply and exhauust are, at present, quite limited and much
less thain wev should desire, we have found as the average of over five hundred
observations in eigh ty-six different positions, Withl tle exhaust ducts open, the

temrperatutre opposite tfl gas-butrner above the gallery only about two and one-
hlalt' degIree abl)ove the average throughout the hall ; while that of the lower
Seats rwas not two mid one-halt' degrees below the average. When, however,
in the mnitlst of these observations, the exhauslit (ucts were temporarily closed,
the (litfTerelle soon doubled, thoulglh the whole avernlge' temn perature wts slightly
To giv(! tlheeiesul ts- more ill detail
Observations in level plaimes.
! pen. Closed.

iv(rago il de ) of'h1 l ............................l....... . - 6 i ..50.

Averag,'e ol)p)osite gas-lights above ghl('li ....................... 71. 40'; 73. 540
AVeMUg 0j)8I)t(pSit gls-lighlts below gallery ......................... ,,, 570 (1(. 5jO'
Avel lget ill the Seats.(.... ,|1
..................................... (w3.
(ii3. 72u
Avelrage througwut the hilll ..............................($. 816, (5$. 17"

It is essenltial to the system of' downward -ventilation, as well as to all other

systems, that n constant current should be maintained by keeping the inlet and
outlet always open. When less hfelt is (lesired, thie chance must be effected,
not by stopping the warm-.air inlet, but by letting into it cooler air. And when
the heat of the roorm goes off too faet, especially when it is empty, the heat
Rep. No. 12S-3
may be economized by letting the air at the floor back into the heating cham-
ber instead of out of doors.
In support of the downward system, we will only refer to Mr. Goldsworthy
Gurney's testimony before the cominittees of both houses of Parliament, who
has for thle last tenl years had charge of the ventilation of the houses of Par-
liament, and who has introduced the downward system with great sucemos, in
court-houses and other public buildings, in E ngland; to the book of Mr. Itut-
tan, of Canada, who has introduced the system most successfully in railway
cars, onl some,> of our roads, as well as in buildings ; and to the conclusions of
General AMorin, well known for his valuable scientific works on different de-
partments of engineering, and the author of the latest and most elaborate work
on ventilation, (Etudes sur la Ventilation, Paris, 1863, 2 vols. 8vo, pp. 1017.)
General Mforin says, ill treating of the ventilation of large halls:
4 The numerous observations which I have gathered, and which any one
may repeat, have shown me, as I hnave already said, that there arc very tiensi-
ble inconveniences ill inaking the newv air, warm or cold, enter near the (ecu-
pants of a hail.
This air is always necessarily at a teinpcr.itture different from that of the
hall; warmer, if it is (desiredl to raise or OVCtl sonmetimnes to maintain thle inside
temperature, ts is tile Case inl winter, to compensate the cooling effect of the
wall, an(d when there are fowllpresent; and, on tile other hand, cooler, if tile
outer temperature is somlCewiht high, and if there are m1an)y OccUpmlflt.3.
In the one' ease, as inl the other, time neighl)orhood of tile apertures for the
entrance of air is disngre('able, and, whatever care is taken to limit the velocity
by giving tile aperturi(. tile greatest possible extent, it is celdoin that tile
velocity can l)e less than 1.:3 to 1.7 feet l)cr seconol, from which there is solile-
tilnies nil Unlcomifortable, sensation.'
After referring to the eq)erience inl tlie English House of Conmmons, and to
that ill the French senate clhmiber, in both of' which the apertuires for tlhe
admission of air had been gradIilly closed, beciasel of thoe objectionable cur-
rents, till ventilation had ahnost ceased, (General MAorill continues:
1' It does not seem to me, thein, suitable for amphitheaters, or for any other
place of t shinilar kind, to admit the new air through the floor, by thel steps or
the step risers. Oni the contrary, lihere s elsewhere, the air should be madc to
enter as far as possible from the audience; and als it may be often necessary tile,
same day, and from time to tinme, to vary the temperature of tile air admitted,
within certain limits, arrangements must be' adopted which will render the mix-
ing of warm and cold air as complete ain(l as easy to modify as possible, before
it comes ill contact with the anldience. This, it must be said, is4 tile most deli-
cate condition to well fulfil, and(1 amphithentres aire', pei'hrps, tihe case in which
the difficulty is p)r(esented in the imighest degree.
itAfter having reflected imuch and observed well the various effects of tile
introduction anld evacuation ot the ailr, thi.s is tihe solution wilich has Beemed to
me the surest, and whichi I bave- settled upon for tile aniphitheatres of the Con-
servatory of Arts and Trades. It linhs ilrady beemi applied to one of them as
completely as tIle local Comnditions would p)ermit ill a building of ol0( construction.
The vitiated air being that wliich it is necessary to draw out, it is desirablee to
binder it from diffusing in the hall, and consequently to extract it at tile spot
whore it is vitiated, tilat is to say, a4 1mear' as possible to the inidii'idual occu-
pants, through perforations, ill t lc risers, or backs of the steps, in order to make
it pass out under the aml)hitllcatre.
"The introduction of' fresh alir presents two principal bases, quite distinct.
'sIn the first, wbich precedes the arrival of' the people, the amphitheatre
should be brought up to a moderate temperature, which may, however, be raised
to 64.40. At tlmis ionoment it is evident that the movement of air from inside to
outside of the hall should be, in general, completely interrupted; and in order
that there may be established throughout the hall a suitable temperature, it
seems natural to allow the warm air to be introduced then by passages commu-
nicating with the heaters and opening through the floor at the lowest points.
"In the second period, on the contrary, soon after the entrance of the audi-
ence, and according to their number, more or less, we must extract a portion of
the air now vitiated and more or less heated, and replace it with pure air. But
this fresh air would be, as is daily observed, very uncomfortable if its temper-
ature were much lower than that of the air of the hall, and especially if it
flowed in too near the audience.
"From this results : 1. The necessity of introducing the fresh air first into
a receiver, which we call the mixing chamber, where, by the simultaneous en-
tranoe of hot air and cool air, in proportions which can be easily regulated, the
means are kept of admitting into the hall only air of the desired temperature.
2. 'rhe obligation, not less imperative, to place the openings for the admission
of this fresh air as far as possible from the audience, that is to say, about the
ceililng of the amphitheatre, if the circumstances of the place permit, or at least
at a considerable -height. In general, whenever the construction will permit, it
is preferable to bring the fresh air through the ceiling or the cornice by open-
ings so proportioned that the mean 'velocity of the air will not exceed 1.3 to 1.7
feet per second."
T'le general rules adopted by Morin are as follows:
" 1. Place the exhaust orifices as near the points where the air is vitiated as
"1 2. Have as many orifices of exhaustion ats thel construction of the building
will admiit of.
$ 3. Orifice of exhaustion should be so pro)ortione(1 that the velocity of air
passing through them may bc from, 2.6 to 3.3 feet p er secon(l.
4. Unite the different gm-oups only by entering them into the common con-
dlit, or into the, chimney of exhaust, nnd as far as poisible froin their openings
into the rooins. Arrange in such at mannU' tlait the)y can be easily examined
and repaired. Protect from cold.
"l)o not pIlace the oriflces for thec entrance of fresh air near the floor; it is
proved, in the French Senate, that where the orifices were near the floor, cur-
rents of warin air, havin-g a velocity of' fromt one and three-tenths to one and
seven-tenths feet per second, were disagreeable; currents of' cold air should be
avoided for much stronger reasons.
"The abovc is agreeable to the conclusions of both French and English en-
The whole discussion of the matter of ventilation before committees of Par-
liament for twenty years, ending eome ten years ago, is full of interest and in-
struction; through it all Mr. Gurney appears ill behalf of downward ventila-
tioln, ill opposition to Dr. Reid, who, for thlat time, was attempting to ventilate
the houses of Parliament satisfactorily on the upward system. When, in
1854-5, the committees of both houses determined to give their ventilation into
thc hands of Mr. Gurney, they seem to have adopted the conclusion of Mr.
Robert Stephlenson, who, himself a member, was examined by a committee of'
the House of Commons in 1852, and testified that for a crowded hall he pre-
ferred downward ventilation, unless the, gas-lights should interfere; and that it
was as easy to draw the air out downward as upward.
I)r. Morrill Wyman, whose little treatise on ventilation contains more scien-
tific and sensible information on the subject than almost any other book in the
English language, though he gives assent to the prevailing theory of upward
ventilation, says:
"'iThere is no impossibility, however, of producing a constant and equable down-
ward movement, which shall also cffectually prevent all respired air from being
again presented to the organs of respiration. The first movement of expired air
is from the mouth, ]horizontally, and from thel nostrils, downward, before it be-
gins to rise; consequently, a downward (current may, without inuch difficulty, be
brought to bear upoun and remove it. "
As regards tle manner of' applying power t,) effect the change of air, it i8 some-
times applie(l to the exhaustion of the foul air, ands-ornetimes to the supply of
fresh air. Either way is effcitual in a degree, but neither alone accomplishes
quite all that i5 to 1)b (desired. Forcing the fres. air in abunda;ntly will drive
out the air already in the, hall at every outlet, ald(l it is essential for security
against the intrusion of cold currents through cracks ;and doorways. But it will
drive the air out mainly at the Pasiest outlets, and s0om11 ofo the most important
may be neglected, because of being out of thme easiest way for tilc air to pass.
rThlie omly sure way to get the air out just where you waint it to go out is to ap-
ply tnll exhal"ustill force at the outlets, to guide and isusist time expelling force.
'T'he filling method is called the plenum method, and the exhausting time vacuum
method. A5uch has been said about the superiority, for working vigor, of air in
* plenum, or over-plressure condition. There is no doubt of the fact that under
* high atmospheric pressure a mIan has greater powvoer than under a low pressure.
But tLe amount of superior I nessure that call be, obtained in a common hall is
very slighlt, and can hardly mlave a p)erce)tible effect. A nearly even balance
of the filling and exhmaustiug forces, making thei in-door barometer about the same
as the out-(loor, but with the filling, force enough in excess to keep out all air
seeking to enter without leave, is the ummost economical an(l satisfactory condition
to obtain.

Il' V I I) lE N C lI
WDrMNESDAY, January 25, 1865.
CJommnnittee rnet at 7 o'clock p. in.
Present :
-Mr. BUClA LEW, chairman,
Mr. 1PIKF.
D)r. rTi110,11A. siANT'ISELL, called almd exammied(l.
By the chairman :
Question. State wheII(ther you bave examined the plans of' Mr. Anderson which
alre before the conunittee.
Answer. I aveb (Extninedl his plans, and I have also reald hisIkpaper exp)lalla-
tory of them.
Question. I will ask you, in reference to shtafts outside the building, say
thirty feet high, for obtaining the air in the first instance ; Ywhether that plan
ias eligible, and what wsoul(l be its advantages over the pr's.ent system of ob-
taining air from the level of thle terrace?
Answer. 1 do not think a slhaft of that heiglht is necessary', because this
building is placed so far above tme average surface-levCl of' thle country as to
relieve the air from thel effect of immediate contact wvitlu the ground. The air
lying immediately on thel ground without motion is cool for three or four feet,
and thlerefore a shaft three or four fect highl would be all thwart is needed. A
high shaft. is objectionable in consequence of' increasing the friction caused by
the air passing through it; of course requiring increase(I power to overcome
time friction.
Question. Would there not lbc an advanitiige in sllafts of sone elevation in
order to avoid the (lust aned dirt ?
Answer. I
not. think
would liave You
higher than
thirty feet to give any considerable protection against dust.
go twenty-five or

Question. ''hCll the degree of

effect produced in that regard would depend
upon the height, would it not ?
Answer. The height of twenty-five or thirty feet would not j)roduce 1much
differencee respect
in We sboul0d1 to dust.
take air the immediate not from
tact with the ground, which is cold, but three or four feet elevation would ob-
viate that difficulty.
Question. Would there some, impurities contained in the
there or five feet of the gronn(d that it. woul(l not contain twenty-five orwithin
not be air

feet above?
Answer. I do not think there would be aInly material difference.
Question. I
understand v%oln to
speak with reference to
p)articular location
of the Capitol'?
Answer. I amn.s)eakincg with reference to this particular point or )Ilce.
Question. Trhat you are not pronouncing a general judgment, but applying
your opinion to this particular case ?
Answer. Yes, sir.
Question. With reg-irdi to thesecond
or jets of
l)Oiit iii these of providing aI jet
water iiear the entrance where the air is drawn into the building, the
jet projectimg into the current of air, is tblat, in your judgmnent, an idea of utility
and vtalu(, or not.
Answer. 'I.'hiat,

alny existing carbonic acid that eight exist in original

believe, is
no )lort, of'
phn. wouildI remove the It

external air,hut would not, thel

I think, remove any solidl)odies the airmight contai.
to the powr
Anderson siigfesti the
proposedI propelling the air toward for

the halls, erection. fani thatpurpose; (lesire of a for I

to knowv whether, in your opinion, that isaI proper instrument?

Answer. is the most effective,
l)ut not thl most economical. Theli chief e

poweler shouldbJehl:Ie( the point where the air

at thrown ouit removed is or

from the building.

look the firnt fn as
secondary importance, corm
with thefitil Whichii; placed at. the point where the air is removed.

object is, to
the air that has become impure ; a(l nia:y
Th1 e

easierand( witIIn(J re certainty the ow( i.i applied at the removing point.
if done, much e


Question. Would fi lbe the proper

meleas, ill your opinlioln,of accomplishing
that Object ?
Answer. the ost
is ml effective power for a building of'
I think ,
thltii lgni-

( T
udel r. are other kinruds of'

ed; such
al the aspirating
chiinies, causing the expansion of the air,
and the ordinary mode of
andill windows, which is impracticable in the
present arran cement of th is build inn
Question. Then thie question is between fIIs and chimnlies
Answer. Yes, sir.
Question. Il admittingthir ithi
ntmo the chamber above or below, what is your
opinion of its admissiono n by diffusion through numerous openings ?
Answer. That would be a necessity ; otherwise,ill admitting the amount of
air required for tlhese
large roos, terrible current would be, created. a is It

necessary that s
it hould be distributed.
Question. Inl short, distribution its
at the time of entering the room is neces-

sary for successful ventilation?

Answer. Yes, sir; the single
amount of air
inl a public required for a

room is
anl hour; and tic
introduction, in single current,

air required for one of tile chambers in this building, would produce a perfect
e a
of the

whirl Wild.
Qtiestion. With regard tie mode of exhausting the air or removing from
the halls, do you speak of the fan as the most efficient power for accomplishing
that purpose ?
Answer, Yes, sir; it is the most effective.
Question. What is the effect upon the character of the air of taking it, as we
do at present, at a temperature of 300, passing it through a closed dry space,
heating it to the temperature of 750 ?
Answer. By increasing the hcat 450 the air is expanded forty-five four hun.
dred and cightieths, or one-twelfth of its bulk. Thl'e result of that expansion is,
that the same quantity of water which was itl a cubic foot originally is now in
a cubic foot and a twelfth. The moisture is therefore relatively diminished, and
the air becomes drier. The fact that air becomes drier in the process of ex-
pansion constitutes one of the great difficulties in ventilation.
Question. Is not the air very much changedl in reference to the moisture it
contains, by this process, from the condition of the eternal air at the isame
temperature ?
Answer. The quantity of water in the external air depends upon the temper-
ature, and upon nothing else. TIlhere is a certain amount of water in a cubic
foot of air at a temperature of 750; being a little more than four times as much
as is contained in a cubic foot of air at 32°.
Question. Is it necessary then, in cases like that of our building, in order to
secure the proper condition of air in the chamber, to hydrate it?
Answer. It is.
Question. How, in your judgment, can the hydration of the air passing into
these chambers be accomplished most efficiently and conveniently?
Answer. It may be heated most readily by passing it against furnaces of red
hot plates; but that burns the air, and it is objectionable on account of the
odor. It may also be heated by passing it over hot water or steam pipes.
Question by Mrr. Howard:
What do you mean by burning the air?
Answer. I mean that as the air ordinarily exists it contains microscopic forms
of animal and vegetable lifc; these are burnt whexi thrown upon the surface of
red-hot plates, and the air is thereby injured.
Question by the chairman :
I wish to call your attention particularly to the most convenient and efficient
mode of imparting moisture, artificially, in our arrangements here,
Answer. I think that sprays of water, at the ordinary temperatune, or slightly
increased, thrown at right angles to the currents of air would be the most effect-
ive mode. If thrown directly against the current it would too much impede its
force, and require too great power to overcome it. Passing it at right angles is
the natural mode by which the air is moistened. Meanly a shower falls above
which never reaches the ground, thus showing that sprays of water are absorbed
by the air.
Question. Will yol state whether admitting the air to a chamber by diffusion
through the floor is not liable to the objection that a considerable amount of
dust and solid matter is carried up into the atmosphere of the room ?
Answer, Certainly; the current of air carried upwards through the floor
would take with it the duist upon the carpet or floor with which it came ill con-
tact, and for that reason that locality for admitting the air has been given up in
nearly all large buildings. It is generally admitted from the sides, near the
floor, but not through the floor.
Question. Do you consider the application of power for the removal of air
from a chamber more important than for its introduction?
Answer. Certainly; that is the main point. The main power should be ap
plied where the air is to be removed, and for this reason: you are never sure in
driving air in, that it arrives at the point desired; but if you take it out of the
room the thing is palpable.
Question. In a room occupied by a large audience, sitting for several hours,
is there not a very large amount of carbonic acid gas generated I
Answer. A very large amount. The extent to which the air is affected by
it, however, depends upon the closeness of the room.
Question. At what temperature would that be thrown into the atmosphere
from the lungs?
Answer. At very nearly 900, sometimes at 85' in the winter time.
Question. In other words, it would exceed the temperature of the air in the
room on ordinary occasions'?
Answer. It always does.
Question. And the result would be that that gas would ascend in the room ?
Answer. Yes, sir.
Question. Assuming that it would come in contact with a comparatively cool
surfitce, such as the sides of the room, or windows, or glass roof, what would be
the effect upon the gas?
Answer. Its temperature would be lowered to that of the surrounding air, and
it would pass up or down, as the case might be, with the cv:,rcnts of air in the
Question. When of the same temperature as the air, is not this gas heavier
than air I
Answer. Two and a half times heavier, when pure. That thrown off from
the lungs, however, not being pure carbonic acid, is not so heavy as that.
Question. I understand you that carbonic acid gas, upon coming in contact
with a cold surface on ascending, is liable to be thrown into the air, to be again
breath cd I
Answer. Certainly; it is very liable to the power of diffusion.
Question. Is not that one of the reasons why an efficient mode of removing
the air from, the room by a power appropriate to the purpose is necessary?
Answer. In all rooms there is a necessity for force to remove the air, because
air has a tendency of itself to remain still. Even while resting upon the ground
it will not move unless there is a wind to force it. It is absolutely necessary
that it should be removed by force.
Question. Have you reflected upon the subject of the effect of this large area
of glass roof over the two chambers of Congress upon the ventilation of the
chambers; the air and gases being admitted to immediate contact with the roof
throughle1rforatio11s in the ceiling; what would be the effect of bringing it in
contact with the roof at this cold season of the year?
Answer. When a glass roof to a building is made use of, it must be for the
purpose of admission of solar light, and as this agent is always accompanied by
heat, these two agents always are introduced together, and it is because they
arc so introduced that this plan is adopted by horticulturalists. A glass roof
converts a building into a green-house and destroys the advantage of a roof,
whose design, in domestic structures, is to be a defence against the alternations
of season and changes of temperature. Glass is especially pervious to tile rays
of solar heat, and hence in summer time admits a great amount of heat. If the
air space be in direct communication with the air in the rooms below, the whole air
will of course be related up much higher, and if the air drawn in had been pre-
viously cooled it would heat it again. If the vitiated air had to pass through
such air space, it would become so heated and expanded that its current out-
ward would be impeded, and deficient ventilation be the result.
In winter time a glass roof would admit only light, and it would, to some
extent, diminish the temperature of the air in the air space, and if the ventila-
tion were to be carried on by the plan now proposed by Mr. Anderson, such
material for the roof would be objectionable as being a greater cooling agent than
the ordinary materials of a roof.
Question. What (lo you say as to the construction of windows, if they were to
be placed in our balls; Phould. they bc single or double'
Ins^er. Windows are for light; they should never be designed, primarily,
for the admission of air, and therefore should be double, so as to protect the room
from the influence, of external heat and cold.
Question. I desire to asle you, having looked ait Mr. Anderson's l)lalns,
whether the introduction of air at the ceiling and its removal at the floor is
feasible, and likely to effect the object designed by it ?
Answer. It is feasible, certainly, with sufficient power applied. It is against
the natural ten(lenicies of air; it is contrary to gravity; and so fair requires ad-
ditional ovower to overcome tlhe natural tendency of pleated air to rise. If tile
plan were varied so as to admit the heated air from below, an(d escape above, I
think it might he ani advantage, as it would cons.ilt the natural tendencies of
the air. in regard to the object that might he gained by this reversion of the
current fromn above, dowlnwards, with respect to sound in the( room, I must
speak hesitatingly. My impression is that not much would be gained by this
reversion of thc current. Ilt is true tliat a strong current of' air will, to a cer-
tain extent, affect tlle passage of soun(l, A person speaking against n strong
current of win(d will he heard morc distinctly in hiis rear thanl from the same
distance in front. But in this case hie current would not, I suppose, he stronger
than three or four feet in a second-more than that would create a breeze that
would be olJectionable-and as sound palSeS 1,180 feet in a second, the ad-
vantage, if any, woulld be very slight. If the, air can be kept perfectly still, I
believe that is a condition most falvorable for hearing. It is for thflat reason
that the, old Gotliic chlurclies are more favorable, in respect to acouistics than
large square loomns. This plan, however, has never, to my knowledge, been
tried, an(d therefore, I I cannot speak confidlently. I (10 not wisli at aill to
impresS my opinion upllon the committee als to the effect of thel downwardd cur-
rent upon acoustics, buit lmy imln)ressioll is that the diflercnce would h e sliglht in
the point gained, while the disadvantage would be nore (decide(l in ow.ercoming
the natural tendencies of air.
Question. Have you ever made exper'inients, wIicll are2 in y'otlr recollection,
as to thie amount. oft'f re neceCSsary to move' a coliun of air downward in a
given 4paCeI, t3o ttilt 'oul Could speak as to the general application of M1r. Ant
ders(on's P)lall in thiS respect ?
Answer. t hiave D11im(ie no suceht experiments. It, is a complicate(l (fuestioll.
A certain amount of' air is driven ill by thef lirust machine. It is then heated,
and its htulk inlereae(el at least one-twelfthi, ill tile plan. I)propo(sed, by rarefication.
A larger, atinolt. of' air is therefore required to hev reinoved, and more power
liust! 1)e applied ti, the exhillisting fan.
SATURDAY, J(Inuarg/ 28, 1S65.
011ARLE- F. A NDE)-11SON :,architect , exalnilled.
By the chiairinaii :
Question. Will youl state your Views6 of the projections of the Cal)itol
Answer. Ini the l)lan I made for thie new wings I brought thcem forward toward
the cast so as to commence then onl har(d ground, this avoiding, the new embank-
ment. Another reason for doing so was to complete tile outlille of a Roman
building, as the ol( Capitol was of Roman architecture, so as to provide a collrt-
yard in front on tile cast. We have numerous authorities for that arrangement.
I gave in my description to P'resident Fillmore, at the time, as authority, Buck-
ingham palace and St. Peter's at Rome, both of which lhave large court-yards,
nnd, in fact, I gave different private residences in which many of the nobility
ived, as illustrations. There is really hardly a regular Roman building that
bas not a court-yard in. front. These court-yards are generally entered through
a triumphal arch. The college of architecture in which I studied was a Roman
structure built by the D)uke of Leinster for his own mansion. It was an cx-
tensive Roman building, something like the Capitol, but with a large court-yard
in front, entered by a triumphal arch of peculiar beauty. 1 could give numer-
ous instanecs of the same kind. Thoe first time I saw the effects of building
these wings on the. original surface below the new embankment was immediately
after the lHouse was roofed and before it was plastered, which was about the time
Mr. Buchanan came, into office, at the commencement of 185;7. I found the
west brick wall of the Senate wing cracked from top) to bottom ; the crack was
widest at the, top and large enough to put your band in. I afterwards saw it
filled tup with brickbats and mortar. I next observed that the north side of this
west corridor, opening on the west side, had opened from end to end. They
stopped it up; it opened it second time, and I siaw them stopping it the second
time with plaster of Paris.
By Mr. Toward:
Question. How long time intervene(1 between the first and second time ?
Answer. About two years. I next observed an opening in the joints of the
marble work on the. north end. I was preent when the men were stop)p)ing up
these openings, and saw them stopping them up and pointing them. up to hide
thlem. General Franklin's report to Congress, under date of November 6, 1860,
(ia report on thel Capitol,) states, that '' in Jmly litst the levels of the cornice of
the two wings of the Capitol extension were taken. It appears from the levels
that, at the tof) of the granite basement cornice, the west si(le of the south wing
is four and one-ei-lhth indes lower than the (east side, and at the corresponding
point Ol the north wing the, west side is two and seven-eigliths inches lower
thanr onl the east side. 'T'lese figunres are given, not b cause. any danger is an-
ticipated, but only to p)laee the data onl record ini l)ertmlllent formi." I recom-
mend that you finish these arcades with cornice and balustrade at the top, which
will prodiceo} a good .architectural effect, by carrying out the principles of Roman
structure, morefully than to finish them as beretofore. proposedl; ina-smutch as
they never intende(1 to put at portico there, hut merely a, colonnade over the
arcade. They intended to carry round the entablat iure on that coloiiniade-the
same enlitabllature that they havel onl the end of' the, building. Tle effleet of it
would be simprly this::a colmnn before('COachl pilaster uac 1nO olject of atnly kind
affected by it. It involves an additional expense of mnarblel work, and excessive
weight, without any possible advantage. Standing at right anglefU with the
building, these columns would not be seen more thanr the pilasters would stand-
ing, by them; they merely obscure, the pilaLsters anl(1 d1e)rive the numerous offices
(on e'ach side of tme l)buil(ding of air and of light; it being an object in architecture,
never to introduce an ornament without a purpose, and object. In every well-
lesigned architectural building there never is an ornament intro(luce(1 that has
not its object, which this feature of the design of tile Capitol has not. r1'lie
same observation is apl)licable to all of the flour (olonnad(s-nortll, south, and
two West-with this exceptionn, tflat there is no necessity for precaution in re-
spect to weight on thel north and south sides.
By the chairman:
Question. Is the proposed work you have spoken of very expensive, accord
ing to the present design ?
answer. There have. been two al)l)ropriations made for finishing the steps
and portico of the building on the east side. Th'liere has been one appropriation
of $300,000 for finishing these four colonnades, no part of which has been ex-
pended. Thr3 only way I can get at the price of that work is the amount of
that appropriation. I went to the 1Register's room, where thie agreements for

this work ought to be filed, and got a certificate from the officer there that they
never bad been filed. I could not, therefore, give their exact price. The cost
of the balustrading would be exactly the same as that already on, for it would
have to conform to it.
Question. But you cannot state what that would be I
Answer. No, 8ir; no account has been filed of what anything cost, and, there-
fore, I cannot state precisely. It would be a great deal cheaper than the other
plan, and it would, at the same time, admit more air and light. It may not be
out of place for me to remark that, although this marble attic which I propose
to erect around the two wings will add weight to the building, it will be on a
perpendicular line with the building itself. It will not involve any leverage, as
these columns do. Then, again, let ine remark, that the attic need not be built
while the ceiling is being raised and the windows inserted; that is to say, you
can finish the ventilating arrangements without making the change required in
the outside of the building, and afterwards the outside work can go up while
you are sitting in the chamber.
Question. I will ask you as to the general appearance on the building of ele-
vating the wings as you propose, and the reasons for doing it, in respect to the
architectural appearance of the building?
Answer. Tihe old building being Roman Corinthian architecture, it was es-
sential, in carrying out the style, to break the sky-line of the building so as to
form al) irregular line. One of the principal differences between Roman Corin-
thian and Grecian Corinthian is, that Roman architecture must have a broken
sky-line, while the Grecian must have a horizontal line. the Roman building
must have balustrading, the Grecian building must have none. Whenever there
ix a deviation from these rules you have what we term bastard architecture and
not pure architecture. I refer you to the Post Office building, which is Grecian
Corinthian with no balustrading, and also to the Patent Office, which is a Doric
building of Grecian architecture. The Treasury building, with its columns on
part of it, was intended for Grecian Ionic, but they went and put a balustrade
round it and broke up the architecture and made it a hideous thing.
Captain RICHARD R. MOFFATrr called and examined.
By the chairman:
Question. State whether you have studied architecture.
Answern I studied it while in the west.
Question. I will ask you, if you have examined the subject, your opinion as
to the architectural eftect upon the Capitol building of an elevation of the
wings ?
Answer. I have taken a great interest in architecture, and have paid )articu-
lar attention to the Capitol building. I find in it a long-continued line of cornice
without break. I think such an elevation as is shown will add to its beauty,
giving it a more Roman Corinthian style of architecture. It will add not only
to the appearance of the exterior but to the interior of the building. I think,
in the hall of the House of Representatives particularly, the ceiling is too low
for acoustics or proportion.
January 31, 1865.
ExaMinatioll of WILLIAM FO'OSYTI'I, Watsllhington, C., city surveyor.
of' D.
By the chairman :
Question. State whether you took the levels of the(Capitol wings to-day t
Answer. Yes, I have taken the levels of the north and south wings this
Question. State how you found theixin.
Answer. I found that the northwest corner of the north wing is 2j inches
lower than the northeast corner of the same wing. I found also that the south-
west corner of the south wing is 44 inches lower than the southeast corner.
Examination of ISAAC BASSETT, of Washington, D. C.
By the chairman:
Question. State whether the two papers shown you are statements of tem-
peratures in the Senate chamber taken under your superintendence at the
dates mentioned?
Answer. Yes, sir.
Question. Are they correct?
Answer. Yes, sir, as far as I sec.
Question. They were taken 'by request of the committee ?
Answer. Yes, sir.
[T'he statements are annexed to this record.]
iExamination of Dr. JOHN A. ROWLAND, of Washington, D. C.
By the chairman:
Question. State how you arc employed.
Answer. I am employed as clerk in the Attorney General's office.
Question. State whether you have experimented by adding moisture to the
air of the office ?
Answer. I have in some of the rooms during the present winter and the winter
before. I have added moisture to the atmosphere with good effect by evaporat-
ing water in the rooms. It has produced a very great improvement in the air of
the rooms, and I have no doubt that such a statement would be made by the
Attorney General and his assistant. I have heard them both remark very
favorably Upon it.
Question. State whether you have examined works on the subject of mois-
ture in the atmosphere, and have made out a statement of citations which you
now submit to the committee?
Answer. Yes, sir. Thiis statement is from what I believe to be reliable
[T1lie statement is annexed to this report.]
Witness. T1lme office of the Attorney General is located in the south wing of
the treasury building; it is warmed by heated air sent up into the room through
flues. To counteract the dryness of that air we introduced gas stoves by which
we evaporate a large quantity of water during the six or seven hours we are
there-say two or three gallons in each room. The rooms are twenty and
twenty-two feet by fourteen feet high. We found that to improve the comfort
of the rooms very much. When the room seems supplied with moisture the
openings for the escape of the air are permitted to act. The opinion at which
I have arrived in respect to it is, that in these rooms, even with the large
amount of water Ns e evaporate, there has not been any day too much moisture.
It seems that the more we have been able to evaporate, the wrore comfortable
have the rooms been. I have arrived at a strong conviction that if, in addition
to heating the air, the feature of introducing the necessary amount of moisture
were .adopted, the air in the rooms would be as comfortable as the air out of
(loors is at the same temperature.
The chairman submitted thel following statement of temperature in the Sen-
afte chamber, as observed by him, the observations being made from a thermom-

eter on thc right hand side of the president of the Senate. and from one oppo-
site on the south Fide of the chamber:
qJanuary 19, 124- o'clock, 69.4; 24 o'clock, 70.
74. 75.
January 235, 2 o'clock, 70.
.January 27, 84 o'clock, 71.
.January :30, 124 o'clock, 70j; 4 o'clock, 69.
76i. 72.--
EIXamination of CHIARL.ES B. CLU.SKE-Y, of Washivgton city, D. C., architect
and civil engineer.
By the clairnnan
(Question. How long have youl been engage(l in thwe practice of yout plrofes-
siol 'I
Answer. About thirty-four years.
Question. Have you been frequently en)loyed in the ('exlnination of public
buildings and public works ?
Answer. I have.
Question. And of government buildings ?
Answver. I reportedly onl the- government buildings here for the Commnittee on
Public Buildings of thc 30th Congress, which report is nmllibered 90.
Question. Have you examined the wings of the Capitol and determined what
settlement, if, any, hasi takeiu place ill their foundations since reported on by
Captain Franklin ?
Answer. 1 have ; and with the exception of the foundations of the Fteps on
the wvest end of the south wing, no material settlement ]has taken place, of the
foundations proper of (itlher wing since the rel)ort of that officer.
QueCstionl. hIlve you examined the plans p)repared by Charles P. Anderson
for improving thel architect ure of' thee exterior of' the Capitol, aLn(d the Ietating,
ventilating, and lighting of' the halls ?
Answer. ,1 have
Question. 1 desire to ask your opinion as ai professional antil as to the effect
of elevating the wvinlgs by an attic, both as regards the architecture of the wholc
exterior, and the lighting of the halls through windows in the proposed inner
attics instead of the present sky-lights ill the roofs ?
Answer. '1'The architectural effect would be essentially improved by an aittic
on each wing, is they would give elevation where required, and break up the
present continuous horizontal sky-line; and I would further suggest, that if the
roof of each uwing, when raised on its attic, was surmounted by a semii-dome
(cupola) harmonizing in detail with the dome proper, and all projections above
the line of' the balustrades of the old building removed, and increased projection
given to the east portico, so ats to correct the defect created by the excessive
proportions of the doine, the magnitude, grandeur, and unity of the whole com-
positiotn would be greatly improved. As it regards the lighting of the halls
through windows in the inner attic walls in place of the present skylights, the
effect would be to give height of ceiling, illuminate the hallIs uniformly through-
out, give to them a cheerful instead of their present gloomy appearance, and
shut out the noise created during heavy rain or hail storms, which frequently
disturbs the progress of business.
Question. Would you recommend the win(lows to be made double ?
Answer. I would.
Question. WVhat object would be accomplished by that ?
Auswer. Double sashes, properly constructed, with a space between them,
would aid very materially in preserving the uniform temperature of the air in
the halls in both winter and summer.
Question. What other benefit would be gained by windows over the present
skylights ?
Answer. The advantage of their being thrown opcn when necessary, and par-
ticularly after the adjournment of Congress, thus filling the hall with a volume of
pure air, and correcting whatever remains of the impurities created, (particularly
when the galleries are crowded,) which may not have been drawn off by the me-
chanical means designed to control them.
Question. What improvement, if any, would you recommended in the present
mode of lighting thel halls at night ?
Answer. rhe substitution of reflectors, ats they would greatly lessen the
number of distinct lights now used, and would be more economical, and equally,
if not more, effective than the present mode.
Question. Is it your judgment that a very considerable loss of heat in the
halls is produced by the present glass roofs ?
Answer. It is, particularly during such weather as we had the present
winter; for, from careful experiments, it has been found that 800 superficial feet
of glass will cool down over 1,000 cubic feet of air as many degrees per minute as
the internal temperature of the. room exceeds the temperature of the external air.
Question. Is not the effect of a cold glass surface to throw down currents of
cold air ?
Answer. It is.
Question. Did you hear the statement of Dr. Antisell in reference to the up-
ward movement of dust from the floor by the ascent of the air as introduced at
Answer. I did.
Question. Do you concur with hin in his views I
Answer. I do.
Question. Would not the effect of Mr. Anderson's plan of removing the air
below be to obviate this difficulty?
Answer. It would.
Question. Would the downward movement of the air tend to produce greater
uniformity in the action of the air towards the floor?
Answer. All things. being equal, there would be no difference between the
unity of an ascending, and descending current, for as Mr. Anderson's plan is to
use one fain to supply the pure air, and another to draw off the impure, the air
would be controlled by the power and harmonious action of the fuans and not by
its increased or diminished temperature, as it is at present, to a great degree.
Question. What effect, in your judgment, would the plan of bringing down
the air have on the action of sound in the House?
Answer. M1y opinion is that the hearing would be improved.
QueCtion. Would the air descending be broken by currents and of unequal
temperature or would it be uniform throughout?
Answer. It would be nearly uuiform-an inappreciable portion ot' it only
affected near the floor and ceiling, provided the apertures in the ducts through
which it enters the halls are of uniform size and numerous, like a sieve, and the
apertures for the exit of the imp)ure air alike numerous and uniform, and dis-
tributed close to the floor line.
Question. In your judgment would the air be less broken by currents than at
Answer. In my judgment it would, for as the air now enters the halls, the
currents are inanifest aind numerous; and from the disparity in the dimen-
sions of the apertures through which It passes and the irregularity of their dis-
tribution, it cannot be otherwise.
Question. Is a fan the. proper instrument for introducing and exhausting air I
Answer. It is so considered by architects generally, and I know of no better
Question. In your opinion could or could not this downward action of the air
be controlled by a fan as proposed?
Answer. In my opinion it could.
Question. By this plan of Mr. Anderson would it or would it not be possible
to introduce the air into the chamber above, and remove it below, or to reverse
the movement?
Answer. It would.
Question. In reversing the action what changes would be necessary?
Answer. The location of the hydrating apparatus and of the heating ap
parat us.
BENJAMIN SEVERSON called and examined.
By the chairman:
Question. Will you state in what capacity you were employed in the con-
otruction of the Capitol wings, and what was done by you?
Answer. I was employed -on the Capitol roofs and ceilings, in putting up the
iron work, and generally as mechanical engineer. The work was performed
under the direction of General Meigs. I was sent for in the first place to raise
these iron roofs.
Question. On whose recommendation I
Answer. That of Stephen Colwell, Philadelphia.
Question. Did you put up the glass roofI
Answer. I put up the iron roof' and then covered it with glass, copper, &c.
I then had the supervision of putting up the ceilings.
Question. Will you state how the ceiling is made; whether it is capable of
being removed and replaced readily; and it' so, your reasons?
Answer. The ceiling is made of cast iron, in the form you see it. It is generally
about a quarter of an inch thick, made in convenient pieces for handling, and
put together with screwed bolts. I think there is not a rivet about the fasten-
ings; I think it can be all unscrewed. That is my impression, and I inquired
of the contractors, who told me the bolts were all screwed. It can be readily
taken down, the plates laid aside and put back again when required. It will
require nice care of course to replace the parts relatively, so that there shall be
io mistake.
Question. Have you made estimates of the expense necessary to accomplish
that purpose?
Answer. I have taken considerable pains to get at that reliably, and I have
given my estimate in the form of a proposition. When I was asked the question
at the last session I did not like to state until I could make a reliable estimate,
which I have since done.
Question. Have you planned or designed buildings in your time?
Answer. That has been my business for the last twenty-five or thirty years.
Question. Have you designed churches, court-houses, &c.?
Answer. Yes, sir.
Question. Did you design the marine hospital at New Orleans for the govern-
Answer. Yes, it was designed by me. After the government architect here had
given me the number of rooms they wanted, I made the design, making the entire
exterior of iron. I made the design of the roof of the custom-house and post
office at Baltimore, and several other buildings of that kind.
Question. What effect would the elevation of the wings as shown on Mr.
Anderson's plan have upon the general appearance and architectural appearance
of the building?
Answer. I do not pretend to be a finished architect, though I have some ex-
perience. in these things. My opinion is that it will be decidedly favorable. I
think the plan requires it. I think it would be.a decided advantage to have
such an elevation.
Question. What do you know of the settling of the new work of the Capitol
on, the west side of the two wings?
Answer. I cannot give the exact amount, but I know that in 1856 they were
settled so much that we had to make an average of it in setting the iron work
around the rooms. The building had settled less on the east side than on the
vest, there being a more perfect foundation on that side.
Question. What will be the effect df putting these proposed colonnades or
porticoes on the west side of the wings?
Answer. Tbhe effect will be very injurious, for the reason that these porticoes
are, as it were, detached from the old building, and will not have the advantage
of its support. They will act with a leverage, as it were, being detached, and
break their connexion. In my opinion it ought not to be done. That portion
of the portico already up is yielding. I think you can see it on both wings,
worse perhaps on the north than on the south wing.
Question. Could these spaces be finished with simple balustrades?
Answer. Yes, something of that sort; the architect could arrange it. I would
riot put up the columns as projected on the wesdt side. I would dispense with
the columns and entablatures both.
IJACOB D. FORNEY Calledl and examined.
By the chairman:
Question. Has the book now produced by you been kept by yourself or under
your own supervision?
Answer. It has been kept under'my own supervision.
Question. It contains, does it not, regular statements of various work, and
particulars regarding the temperature of the hall of the House?
Answer. Yes, sir.
Question. Will you state where your observations of temperature were taken?
Answer. In the hall of the House of Representatives, three times a day, at
9, 12, and 3 o'clock. I took the average of the hall.
Question. How many thermometers?
Answer. There were six, I believe.
Question. And your statements show the average temperature by these ther-
mometers ?
Answer. Yes, sir.
Question. Do you believe these statements to be accurate?
Answer. Yes, sir.
Question. State what you have charge of in thei Capitol.
Answer. I have charge of the heating and ventiIltiug apparatus in the House
of Representatives.
Question. How long have you been in charge of that apparatus ?
Answer. Since February, 1864.
Question. Will you state your opinion as to the place of obtaining the air in-
troduced, and its effect upon it?
Answer. In my opinion, in the summer time the temperature of the air is
considerably raised by the rays of the sun beating upon the terrace and upon
the sides of the building where the air is taken in. T1be air is taken from be-
tween the wings and the old Capitol, about the level of the terrace. I find that

the current of air thus taken into the south winlg carries dirt and dust with it,
and piles it up around the cutranec against the sides of the building.
Question. Does the air pass a window on its way through?
Answer. There are two windows in the air chamber on the basement floor,
and threo on the upper floor.
Question. Do you find great irregularity in thle thermometers at the same
level in the hiall ?
Answer. Yes, sir, they vary on tlhe average about three (legrees on opposite
sides of the hall.
Question. Ilhave you taken observations in the galleries?
Answer. I have not.
(Question. Nor in the space: between the ceiling and roof.
Answer. No, sir.
Question. Have you charge of the roof?
Answer. Yes, sir.
Question. Can you state what inconveniences you find in connexion with the
roof or upper part of' the building ?
Answer. l)uring storms, or very heavy cloudy weather, it becomes very dark,
and we have to liglht the ceiling at different times during the day. During rain-
storms, it is almost impossible to hear anything in the House hall, on account
of the hound from the copper roof. Last Sunday I noticed particularly, when
the ice began to slide there was a tremendous sound, like distant artillery,
which alarmed almost everybody in the house.
Question. State whether there is any leakage in the glass roof.
Answer. Yes, sir; it leaks probably in ai dozen places.
Question. Iow do you remove the water?
Answer. We have to sponge it up.
Question. Does the space between the ceiling and roof l)ecome very much
heated by the gas-lights't
Answer. Yes, sir; a main could not stand there ten minutes wben the gas is
lighted. I can stand considerable heat, but it drives me off.
Question. How many jets of light arc there ?
Answer. Over 1,200, 1 think.
Question. What is the, effect of their being lighted on the temperature of thle
hall, if you have observed it ?
Answer. In my opinion it increases the heat of the hall.
Question. Have you ever taken an observation of thme heat onl thee floor before
lighting the gas and afterwards ?
Answer. 1 know it is much hlotter after night in the hall, when the gas is
lighted, thtan durin lthe day. When the thermometer was 3t 80' or 830 during
the day, I hlave swen it run up to 65" or 87° at night.
Question. What is the practical eflet, of' the registers admitting air through,
the floor into the hall of the House ?
Answer. tThey are used as much for spittoons as for admitting air, and there
must be considerable nauseous effluvia arising f'roi themn from that cause. Tlhey
are also used to sweep the dirt into.
Question. Are not the air chambers below Very dirty'
Answer. We have( found them very dirty.
Question. You have found them to contain ' ol0( sogers," and Sltumps of cigars,
have you ?
Answer. A p!enty of' thenm. Under thie large registers we have found dried
tobacco juice lalf' an inich thicik.

lle Conilillitt}e Ilet.

February 2, 1S65.
Present: MtessI's. Biuckalew, Pike, and Sinaiters.
Examination of General Al C. ilWi.;s.
By thle chairnll:an
(lQuestion. State whether the work of' Professor Rei(l is unic of' those books
that yoU consi(Ier standard works onl ventilation.
Answer. I tiink Professor Ueild's work a very valuable o1e; but I thliik
Professor Reid makes a great manl iniistakes. H1is works are very valuable,
hut I do not believe in all Ilis conelusiotis by any menus.
Question. What do you say as to the worklof' Professor NVyinma
Answer. Wyman's work I have read, but it is onily a very general and
rather superficial work, I think.
Question. Is it, in your ju(lglnent, ia stan(lard work onl that subItject '?
Answer. .1 should not like to express anl opinion abol)lt that. I do not re-
collect tlhat 1 learne(l anything from it at all. I ml not sure whether it contains
errors or whether it is all righlt. Th'liere is a French book on heatinlg, by P6.
clet, wilich is otne of the mllost Cxhaus118tive w orks oln the subject, an(d gives aill the
latest information, up to the time of it.. publication, oln the sub ject of thle art in
Question. What is your opinion of' thle present systein of vt'ntilating our
Answer. I think it i.s time very best that can be (levise(l.
Question. Eq ual to anythiing in the world ?
Answer. I think it is the very best in the world. [ have no (louibt (>c it.
Question. Call you. suggest any improvement iii it?'
Answer. None, it' you have an intelligent man to regtulate the elat.
Question. I anm speaking of the plan.
Answer. No, sir, I cannot.
Question. In introducing air through the floors of the halls, (lo you eonifier
tls present plan of vertical ascent preferable to its introduction tlhroumgh the
risers of the step)s?
Answer. Yes, sir, and I call give you mny reasons for it. In first arranging
thle details of' the ventilation of' the Senate chamber I introdatced the air
through the raisers of the Liteps, following Dr. Iteid's ideas, making the open-
irugs as large as possible, so that tlme air should be difflsed over the greatest
area, and placing several thicknesses of' wire gatuze l)ehii1 these Oppelilgs so as
to prevent a current of' air as much as pos(Sible, a1nd get ats large it quantity of
air ais possible without its being felt between tile person's legs. Tilhe hall was
occupied by the senators very soon after thlisarrangement was completed ; and
before 1 hlad time to make ainy experiments and( ascertain the result; I soon found
a, general complaint that the current of airai'as sensible, acting on. the backs of
the legs of the gentlemen who were seated onl the various terraces on, the floor,
producing great discomfort, rheutinitismn, and suich effects. T'ht compelled
me to change the whole tIming', and let tIhe air come ill vertically. I tried that
whole tliing completely, and had to give it tip.
Question. Did you also inake a change by inmtrod'm'imin-g air into the sidrC3 of the
rooms I
Answer. At the sides of the rooms I placed shields before thle O)eningS so as
to deflect the currents. People sitting on. the sofits ill the Senate chamber com-
llained of' the currents of air, and I sat there myself' and found it so, I had
not sufficiently realized thie fact that warm air pro(luces cold as well as cold air.
It produces evaporation of' moistumrc, and that pmroduccs cold.
IRep. No. 128- 4

Q(tw Aiol. You speak tfrin exj)(riTm1enIt ?

AiII N Cr. I tr idl tile t linug 1111(1 failed and had to gie it ll ).
Question. D)o yol'sean'y ob action to
col ilex ion wtilt thle .eintilationll o t e llchimbers ?
placing aI glss root over tfle halls in
Answer '('liere is . glass roof' tliere now.
uiest ion. 1D)o vonl thi nk tiere is aniy diffiellty eelvated ill tile ventilation by
thle glass root ?
An.iswver. No, sil; tIliI gl:is. roof't iis o)peinlg.4% thi rioughi whlich the air canl
e.capt*. I le(T ope(llil.s all around the edges of tIlat,glass., roof, so that the air
uiniight (-.ealCe generally t lirougl tfli ceiling as well a rs I rougli the corilices.
Q Ii(stioll. Wollld it lot be fll iunl)roenlllent it' theo glass roof' were(- doubled 1
Anis e(r. It, is a I ready (1011uh1le(1. Thlliere glass roof alnd a glass ceililln. I
do) iot, see whant w('oiul be gained by p)utting a third one in.
Quest ion. Would it not prevent t lie loss (ol leait very mu-111ch ?
A answer. It wNoultld if' the alir ii tlie room were still. Of course, the greater
thickness you give to the roof the, less hea-it wNould bte lost b)y ra(liatiol. But.
1oul ae nlo (ldepen(ding For tIle heat of' the room lipon the telmlperaIture of the
air inutro(dIiced(. If you ('ain bri n in a certain quantity of auir, of' a certinin
teimi perature, evei'y u-iintite, iinl let, it escape. it makes w1'(I iflfele wlhithller the
ceiling is thick or not.
By3, Mf r. Pike:
Quest ion. Pheire are apurt lIre.s elnolug to cllhgile tIlle ai', how oftell ?
Aiisw e. 1h11erer re alw)CiIli'(us enough, 1 tlhiik, to ha'tnge it every five illilites.
In tle hall of tll(I loluse, I tliik. 50,000 cubic feet of air can be siupplied every
iillilt(e. It. is long siiice I looked sit thll' figures. and I (enuanot trust. my ili lelmory
to speak with, icc('ur'alcy.
1By the( c 1lil t1na1l :
Qull(.tiiest III voiii' jil(dgullenilt, nio ex hioustting power is required(l or ventilatioii n
A nswer. No, Sii' ; tihe vent ilation is suftfcient it' tillw Iaclllery is kept. ill
Quesltill. Stlat(e NVlhat ohbj ecltion exi.>4ts to plall ouin 1r1 hlhls at tlie si(les of t lie
wvin, ?
A nsw( . W hetl I took chargee of tih (Capi tol ext eiiio 1 fI ound atplan being
cxecuti'd ill N'lieill the hall of the Ilollse of' ReprUsenlitatiNes Wwa placed at tlle

wsv.4t end (if thle south wving, with win(lows on tihle three sides. I coilsidleetd
that there was dam(eiau r of interference withI (dleate in. legislatioll by thle (Ifect of
exterior nOis0',4 whlicll would come ill through tle windows. I lloticcd thlat ill
SoMe1 p)ulic roonis in New Yoik, ehurelies, and otilel buildings which I ha(l
visited, this was a very serious iniconvenience. Trhen the glass, cooled by con-
tal('t with tile externall air, wollld piroluce currents of cold air within the room
itself, which are sources of' discomfort in the winter. It seems to me that
members, occuplied in the business of' legislation, did not need, and would not
have time to enjoy, any external prospect. I could secure a greater uniformity
of' temperature by placing the room in the centre of thle building, removed from
the external walls, and greater facility of' ingress and egress by having corridors
aind galleries all around the hall. 1lTie(waiting rooms, smoking rooms, com-
iiittee rooms, &kc., whcli are p)lance(d against the external walls, could thus be
aI'ranged so as to be of' convenient access to members whlen not occupied in
debatee or le-i.ilationl.
0 All these consi(derations had their weight in inducing me
to alter thle plans atnd d(lopt those that haNve been executed.
Question. WVould thc ire'not be another obj. etfion to a side exposure, fromii cross
lights I
Answer. Yes; 1 had forgotten to mention that. I should add that onet seri-
o01s objection to Nwini(wovs on external walls is tie dikagreeable effect ulpon a
Speaker ot' hlmving a bright light shining into his eyes when his face is turned
toward any part of his aufdictce. This, I think, was mentioned in the memoir

Which I prepared onl tll(he sluject at the time I took charge of thle build igi allnd
recommend(l(d the alteration of the plans.
Question. 1Y tlhi're 1II1v OlbjectiOli to obtaninigii the nir, ns at p)reVseit, from the
Answer. I think niot. It has beeni suggested, id1 I tlhought of it myself, to
take the ajir from a higher Ojillt. It is a favorite idea, to take the air for ven-
tilation from a high toweIsr,)but I do niot think thlat anlly real advantage woul(l bd
gained from it. 'T'his terrace is clean, lad it is eighty f'eet above the surface of
tile water. It Ioul draw thle air through aI shaft leading pll) to thle roof' of the
lbiildillg you would lbe taking it at the level at which all foul afir shalifts discharge
-It which all. Chimileys (discliarge their smoke-anid yoti-w'ould( be liable to
draw :a11( force illto thle iliterior of tlhe buildnig' the very impurities which have
beeii j tlst ex1pelled.
Quest ioll. State w*wthetll t l em)lm(t arai)gelmell it ill ventilatiom is, tiroiuglh-
(.Itt, youjr .zzallrrellenl
l t?
Answei'. I allott say tlh at. it is entir(ly mlyl) design or illmy work, bee"11se8 1
hla(l most skilfill assistalnts.
Qnlestioll. Is tile present pdaii of' ventilatillg tile Capitol yell)' arragll-emen1t?
A lswer. Yes , it is my arrallgemeln t, with tile assistail('e of, n11eil of' A.kill.
By Mr. Snllitllers
Qesltiloll. Yo app)ove(d it'?
il;\se. 1'.es. 1 sa that -ill appropriate ionl. ot' -,00 mwads m lastyears for
somic clhanges. What those clumces werC1e I (1lo ilot kinow; nor (10 I kinow
wilct her any alteratiolls ill my plan have b)ee made. But, illess there, have
been ellal )e.s within the last, year 0' so, it isi as I made it.
By twe ellairil-an,11:
Questiosln. I afsk ou youIl ulgllleXlt of'atileepa)acity of' Mr. Walter 01 the sulbject
of' vvrlltilaltiofl ?
AnVswer. I woulol rath ('l not ailswer that. I thlilik AIxr. Waltei' a very skilful
archlitct, all1 a mnallu of' taste ill his proflessiol ; but I think he lhas niot eveii a
snmattelillg of' science, alld CII all scienltific luest ionsll.. hiis opilliOll is of '11o valu.e.
I7s*.D, Ji'chruiary 2S, 186i(5.
Jb-r(z02il nltin Of Benl(jam in Ser'(so' .

By t le clairmanll:
Qufestioni. Sttate' wliethler yol have. lil('asule(l tIle ext'eilt of the glass r'oof'i on
both - of tile Capitol.
Answ er. Yes.
Qut'estiol). State tile dilif(llisimns of thle glass roof of' the Ilotise aud Sellate,
Answer. The area of the glass surface of the House root' is 4,0495) square,
feet, anid of' the Senate 3,4 1221 square feet.
Question. It is a1 single roof?
Answer. 'Yes, a si-lge tlhickziee:s.
fo,1} D. F"orney.
JRe-e.'ami action ( .r,
By the ehairmaIlln:
Questions. State the capacity of the fan ill use in the lHouse for deliveril)g air
to the liall.
Answer. I never made all exact calculation of it, but, AS a mechanic, I made
an eCttinifite that the fanl, r1un.1ninig ft thle revoltitionis We rim it now, delivers
about 60,000 cubic fet of airper inituite. We mUl1 it froi1 45 to 5( revolutioiws
a in!Itlte.
Qttu.etioin. How mnclh Wouldl it. deliver if you us-ed its power ?
Answer. If tle engines were properly constructed so thit it could he rim up,
I could make it deliver doublee that quantity.
By Mr. Smitliers:
Question. What caIuI it (lelivle 110a ni. w constructed 1
Answer. I cannot run that enlgine with safety over o0 re(woitionis at inuitite,
from the simple, fact tlhiat the mjonrials of the shluft arc so sInull that they become
lreilte1 aind require to b1e cooled(l downi.
By tile chailmall:
Question. There is another flin used (leFir for erikrig air to the pa-ssages, corri-
dors, nud cominitt!ee rooms ?
An sw er. Y' s.
Questiol. That flan is less Powerfuil ?
Answ'r. Yes, it lhus iiot more than half tile 1)p 'ri.
Question. Stmte whether there have been any of the air pa-ssages under the
House closed, and, if s), for what olbject ?
Answer. Last s1111111umme I found considerable comphlint that there was not suf-
ficielnt venlitilationl ill tile hall. After goinl, under the floor of' the hail inld mnak-
iilg ani eXanihi: tion myselff, I found a great mamiey of' tie registers under, the
floor Closed.
Qllestioll. For wh1lmat lillpose' ?-
Answer. That I cannot, saly
Questionl. WXlhat (1o yoll say its to the ))luihibiilg generally, under thle floors-
bas it been -,'ehl execuite(l-can you readily anke rel)pairs there
Answer. There is ai great. (liffielilty ili making repairs there, espec ally to tile
water piipes, g;ls pipes, &C. Being almost thoroughly imbedded in cement, it
requires at cutting up of the tile-floors to get t:) tilhe ipes.
Question. Have you charge of the roof anidl of the upper part of the build-
ing I
Answer. Yes.
Questionl. State whether storms beat in at the vemitilators ?
Answer. Several dill'rent times, to my knowledge, rain has conme ill through
the ventilators to thle ceiling, an(l through the ceiling to the floor of the House.
13y Mr. Smithiers
Question. In an)y (quantity ?
Answer. It wa9s consi(lCrublbe enough to wet the floor and the desks of inem-
bers in several places. I had to place buckets on1 the ceiling to catch thel drip,
and also to sponge the water off the ceiling. I bad also, several times, to place
buckets on the, floor of' the hudil to Catch the Water from the Ceilillg.
By the chairman :
(Question. What is the consumnption of gas for lighting thle haIl of the House
of Relprrescntatives ?
Answer. About 7,500 feet per hour.
Ques.tion. Iii order to light the hall, (lo you use the fill power of tile burlners?
Answer. Yes, we give then tIle full pressure of the gas, just so that the
burneLs shall not blow, as w c iull it-so that gas does not pass through without
beitig consutied.
Q ucesion. Is not the effect of lighting your jets to produce a considerable
amoui)t of heat in the hall ?
Aimswer. I have been always under the impression that it has that effect. I
have noticed plarticularly the tIherinonieters rising at night, ivhien the hall is lit,
from tivo to five degrees.
Question. Is not the amnit of heat produce(l in thle space between the ceil-
ing and the roof extremely great ?
Answ%,er. Yes, very great-so great that a iiman is not able to stand the lheat
there Over ten minutes.
Question). After henti)g yc;ur halls in the mourning, do you not reduce tbh
power of' the f'iu ?
Answer. No, sir, l)llt wve reduce te l)ressulle of' steam. When the hail is
)rol)erly heated by 10A o'clock-say up to 6S degrees-I generally close off
theilmlill flow of steai anld put on the exhaust. It, l)y 11A o'clock, thel haill is
sufficienly warmn I shunt off thle exthauist from the engine entirely and blow
noting, but cold air into the hiall for the remnlainder of' the (lay. The brick-
work tunderneath tile floor of the halil becomes very warin from tile amoulint of
heat forced into it, an-d thaiat keeps thle air waril during the remainder of the
day. I fil(, no ditfichulty in heating the h.all, but great difficulty in cooling it.
That i.s tlie maini(lidiicul ty withi me.
(Questioni. 'Fhme effect of introducing anll unuisuial amiouit o)f air would be to
produce currents in the marll ?
Amimsw(er. Yes, if the fan was (Ilivell at sufficient velocity.
By Mr. Sinithers :
Questions. Do )oyol Iimd it necessary to do that?
Anisw%,er. Througl time summer I cannot get sufficie nt current through the
Qulecstiol. OwN injg to thle wVan11t of al)elrtulles
Answer. I cannot tell whether it is owhimm to the wanllt of apertllrcs'or to the
fhlulty eommstruuctioiu of tihe air ducts.
By the chiair1anll :
Question. Have you observed the dificrence in temperature in the suimier
between tlme air at the terrace and the air in the hall ?
Answer. I can tell you by referring to my record liere. I find that it runs
about equal ; that is, time temperature in tIme fin room and the temperature in the
Question. I ask( you of thle difference of temperature between tile terrace and
tlme hall ?
Answer. 'Taking it daily, there is aI difference of about three degrees ; that is,
it is about three degrees cooler in tile hall than in thle tail, room. But taking the
average throilholht, it runs about equal-the same temperature in thle ha.11 as
Question. What degree of difference in termperamt.ure have you observed
between tlle opposite sid(l of' thle hall ?
Answer. About three degrees.
Question. Which side is the wvarmest ?
AnSwVelr. The west side of' tle hall.
Questions. Is that the side where the alir is introduced ?
Answer. Yes.
Question. Your record, as I ul(lnerstand, is a record of averages of tempefraL-
ture ?
Answer. Yes.
Qullestionl. Of' several thermometers in thle hail ?
AnIISwer. Yes, of six thermometers.
Avre'rage empceraturc b1y thcrmnmeters in tMe hail {f t(e House of 'i prcienta-

liar irek en(lingLMay 15, 18641.

1 v) o elot k. ;'. o'cloc k.
. 770 790
* 77 81
WVednesday 77 79
Thurs(lay 72 74
Friday . /3 7:3
Saturdnl) . 783 71
For ireck (,n(li'n-,,' July :3, 1
I *, lt* k. : o'czlov ii.
Alonday . 87 87
. 77 78
Wcdnes(1nay . 76 79
'T'hlurs(lay . 75 76
Friday . 82

Saturday 85 82
I'or ulC(ck 'ntlin-.g' Decembl'er 1S, 1864.
1 2 o'eloek. ;; o'clock.
Mond(1ay 70 7.3
Tuesday 70 74
Wednesday 70 75
r'llprd(lay 70 75

Friday 68 73
Saturday 72 73
J,'Or week ending JAnuary 2 2, 1865.
I " o'clo( lh. :i o'clock.
Alonday . 70 71
'ueslday 70 72
Wednesd(ay 70 72
rT1h1urs(lay 69 72
Friday 69 73
Saturday .... 68 72
February (.

.John Killbg examinedl.

Bythel chairman.
Question. How are you erployed(l at tli(h Capitol ?
Answer. I arn actingr cliefc enwinieer of the Senate for heating and ventilatiun
depart ment.
Q auction. By whoinm employc(l?
Answer. By (eorge 'P. Brown, Sergeant-at-armis of thle Senate.
Question. What do you usve in the warming pipes-hot water or steam ?
Answer. Steam.
Question. Steamy exclusively ?
Answer. sir.
Question. there any arrangement for ejectipg steam into tIlle ir between
the fiew lan( the Senate clirnnnlwer'?
Answer. There is none.

Question. But there is sdich an arrangement as to the air for time committee
rooms an(l passages ?
Aiiswer. Yes, sir.
Qutestionl. B3lit itl) ilpetice yotido and passtlge('
((1 ot utse steaLil for the r)(oint
Anisw'er. No, 4ir. rf'lll( r'esoln is, if I useS it to aiiy largeextent I make the
filrIlittillre, ghts's, alId Nv'iiils ieek with swveat. I found siici ('feet,ciuised l)y ac-
cidenltal breakage of' steal in the voil.9. I think the effet (if' steam or hot air
is to Clilise ai11uipleasntint O(l:dr.
QtlI(stion. vIlhat ('Xplanationll (lo yOuI give otf the d ifference otf telnpearietir on
o0)p)osite slides of telle Senaite hllaliber?
Answer. Some of' th open ilings are closed oil till lrthl Piidv. 'I'l'y' call be
o peied1.
Questioul. WlIait p1r('silr11e of' steauim (dlo you use 011 tlie pipe)CS ?
Answvr('. I stippose xll averae,> pe.vstire of' 8 or 10 pounds to the square inclh,
say rrom f. to 15) potilidi(15. It di('n'u(1 p temnr)a'lttlil' of' ext(eIrld 11'.USd.
n111011 ir

1 )r. 'T'uio.N AS; A N'irI1'.I1,1, re-eXalluiiliC(l.

By tle cliarirnal:
Qllestioll. HavPe yoll givenl iei(onllnl examl nat iou to tl( Ntltilatiilg arr'ange-
mIn'ilts of' t1he Senlate wvilg of' the Capitol 1
Answer. I havel ; the day before yesterday.
Q(uestioll. What caiitil defectst, it' atnly, (1i(1 you find inl t he v'en tilhation ?
Aniswer'. 'T'liat o10 Iyd(llatioln (of thl( 1Wir tlSeCtlIre(d, £ill(l tlhat thi& removal of
lie vitiat(e( aji' above was incomiplete.
Qulesti(o). What do you say a1s to tbe heating lirraiigeiniet 1
Answer. rTlie nloulnt of' leati' surface, of' the pip's i. ample, but if' an") of
the coinpa)rI'tlilents of' pipes become effectivee their C(euivalenit cannot be supplied.
Tlhea'rrangement for lbyd(lr'atig the air passage. is (lefectiv'e and inopeiative.
'1'llce place fromt which the air is pitituped or taken is objectionable, as liable to
lerive iipl)urities both fromn tile flagging all(l the walls of the build ing.
Q 11 stiOIi. Were. you ill the gallery of' tile Senate cliaullhlll', and what observa-
tion1 (lid you make there ?
Anvsw\er. I was in the' gallery and observed tlhat the air had a strong
sinelli of Tmen atid(1lotiling ; sh(o1wing that the vitiate(l air wa'uis not fully removed.
Qluestiolo. D)i(d )(ll o ielCl pl'rocee( to the all'irspace above, next thl, i'oof'?
Answer. Yes, sir ; and we there foudflthat the ventilation wva,s acconiplislhed
by f'ouirnil' chllilnin(ys, 30 by 30 inhei('s eahi, covered with at calpl( o cowl. This, AMr.
Brownl, thle sergeant. at-arnis, ilnfolred mne w'as 1i, arralngemnent, supersedilng tile
ridlge veiltilatiol of former plani. Noow, Wlie'l we eontrast tOle capacity of those
four air chimneys with tile capacity of tle supply passing', we filld tile former
to havet ailrelva of' twellty-five square tfcet, while tile arert of' tile 5titily shaft or
panssa-e is at little over thirty. There is, therefore, a want of e(quivalnllt eapa-
citfy. Then thle crirleilt in tile supply siaf't is at the rate of between six aend
SeveInT miles per lhour, while tilat of' the air escaping front tile tir shafts of thei
roof does not. amount to four miles per'honir. '1'her is, thilerefore, a deficient
('apacity eq(11ul1 to one-sixth, allnd a deficieuit movemienit (q(jual to oi('e-thlirld.
Question. What do you say as. to the roof !
Answer. The materials of't heioof glass and mietal-al'e very olijectionable
it' the air space below is to be utsed as ait present. ilhe glss warsis it unidilly
ill silmilliel, fnd thie metal co0o1 it indilly in wvilnte'. If tile air is to be brolight
into the chainber fioni abov(', (ats plrop(ose by Mr'. Anderson's plan,) there silould
he air duicts over the ceililig, well 1)rotected from externlal heat and cold.
Question. Wrolild anil ilner roof, counter'-CCilC(l or covered wiitil a noni-conidtct-
ing material, exclude thle noise of storms from tile chlamiber ?
Answer. 'I'le double-roof itself; wvith aii air space between, would be one of'
the b !st arrangementsi for the non-conduction of sound.
Question. Would the filling in 01r covering tile inner roof, as suggested, have
,r)G l l

adddluwitl efh'cet ill xe luding, the, iilflvneie of, the, extter;il atmnosl)lerv llpoll tflev
.air be(t weel tt1(- hinerl roof'it(] tll- eviliml,,
Answer. Yvs, certainlyly.
Quemostn)1). F*or fIillit,,, ill or(o oo'rimiw tie itiner roof, is brokell lnlnjlici' stole,
wi tih I iq 1d1(1 ev'Int('itt, a proper Ilater'ri;1l ?
Antswver. I kno10w nothlintg )1tt(r; (colill)illill . ns it, (ld('r, li ghi tness(. solidity,
,II1(d ino,,,,listib~ilit.
Qll)esti oll. Whlt:at is thIe (f'fi-et of' t Ite 11o) :air lutidel.' thlie rooft
Anl$W('lr. It s ac(cumlaltt it tionl thtrv, withIout Stllli(cilnt itienti1ls of' ('SCOpv. i4 to
')bak- tip ;wtmlint thlie oitt-goiing ('i r'lieti fromll H it Sv'ilate cli m1wtanid l preven t
their (es'5Catp.
Q11e.9tionl. \ litdl)
Yrc/h'ctftrs ?
t y'otl :t s if)tt ,,t14 u-se otf flwer light. ove'ltle( c*ilit.L2', with
Ants'we'. Tlhore is ad Vaitm-tpet)illtlinlty liilgt ill andIC i h iofthesS :1111 Iighttei'
sbado(lwV~s, ull tas ilt aIs rlit twiwrtig(l tlei ti'(' llt oblestriletit'll to ventilatioit.
F ewser li'dits, wsithl relctor
t ls, Ini-rlit be( c(Ilvllyx saltislntol.)lt, xlud ;aid tile v enltila
tioll vatlytl
Q2llc.mionl. \\(1(oid nlot
(lf(ict of, (lt't 1.'.itv ill
tlll' d1(S((vi ot' tt( ;air inl the( 11;lll.; obvialte tilel
thOroom fromti the floors ?
Ans.4wer. (C'rttintly.
Qte-,stioz. Ill (cltaiging thle cosefll-f' thv alt' ill thelalls fri'omti a; ll uupwlrld(I to
it downwa rdl Illovel~lvlt, wIIt vffi¢ttt wouldl bet produf11c('# 11po0 til4' alir 11(war the(
f1oot', as to unitifot'ity of nmovemtent, a 1d(1 t('Itil)Plperai e ?
Anlswerl. ''1(. tu lllip-rturv \woldf 1be more lllit;ol-11, azlld ws to Illovlm zllll thast,
would(1 (dlep)en(1 ut ll t li! 1e`6ce of, I114 ('eXlhllstitlg Fill.
Quest ioll. \ott-Ild lire he aill ad lultage ill chtilltnies withlihe, propose5(l lighlts
itS shtowntt ill the lIWv 1)plials ?
A tiswer'.'S,Y d'r, 1 lby r'vinovi g Ilie. i llttiliate prod(lultt of' conibil;ltiotl lroin
the lights, 111nd y)) X(tiltillog teil nitsspce Itl)bove tle. (ililig'.
Q(1to('tiOl. Would11wr t(l' IhWl'ss hi'at hi'4wit dlown iliti thil' halls the
lights than at, pr('esnttt
A it$W'i'1. (Ce(''ta1iiinly, 1)b' thelpro( (itS.;Oire('1tovial of jI'p(liducts of('tclbltstiont iuti
tlhe ha'titcdidi !'.
QLustioll. WOtul(ldl('t'(' IwrSbe a t ilg(itf'eati))' t 114! ('lIltilge ?
Answevr. I t-hink so.
Questtion1. W1illtt do yOlu sy)' as to the ft'easiility atid succes of Mr. And(1er0-
sOlll'swhohl 1)111, 15 Comp)aIlt'ediflwilit the pri'S('tlt ai't'it)ttgeletmt ?
All1' V(' It, wotul(d ib (t m tfoh'l'
o 'r;eff tiv('e fltuit tlelej.t'csent plill, auttd feasibile
in itSi details.
Question. (all the plani be exaitctly ev'('cI'('(lldas to (1ireltion of' tie(' Illovemlienlt
of tie(tair, it' (desire(d lierentf'ter, ;isittllilg that it sh1oul(d llow 1we adopted ?
Ants Wer. CeI'titinly, wvith little Cx pC'utse aitd ahLeration.
Qlestio(ll. Mhiatt Credit i$ 1t)h' attacliv' to P'rofessor' wymn'lliollt'(k onil ettl-
tilatioll ?
Answer. It is Ii very) v'a1 lt'abz 0a1(1driell(abe work oil tit slie ellct. 'We woldl
refer to it ot'r p)t'tincijis antd rules, ratlher tIlian 1o1' practical details.
Th( wittiess 1tdd(14:
T1h1e present miteiutts of esc(al)e in tI(! a lpetue(s iii tile Senate ceiling, ave not
in my 01inion1 suflficitly ex tenlsive ; 1111(1, if' M'. Antdeteo'sot plan 1)1 sh1 31111(1
u be
adopted, would ntot suffieileit PO' tie( iltngrts (if' the ni'. Placing wire gauize
screens ill the pnraillelogrami sInacen along tile sides of the( ceiling would afford
increased ficilitieis f'or the entr'aitce (If' the air.
With regard to nidmittintg the air at tith si(les of tte Settll:ato cllihlnber, anld its
cooliln effect 1lj)oti ind(lividuals, (which hiav'e been metit ioned,) stielt effect is not
so muAh due to tile velocity (f' tile air As to its aridity. Whteni I mtood in the
air passnac below, withl the air blowing at full velocity, lie cefect was chilli-
mess of tle, surfitce, the air btinllg at 70 with an out-door moisture of 30°.
F1y lie eliA 1. 18nr.n
DI'. CHARLPIIS 11. AVET 1x1F,1.m v Xam~lillevd.
13N, t11(. cha~irman~l
(Qul) ion Have you to e t te dew point in t lie senatel (iluvine thiis wintter
wvit Iinjst ri Illi its ?
I\.iiss'Y. v('s, o(l two,v, e(;sion0ss, aJlawirv 24 an1d1 Fel)ritalry 9. eI( fi rst. day
the olisse' were itS follows
- I)t' bl.
I Aet bulb R[Ilative lii "iuiulity.
2.1 1. "' 7 -2- 5i-3 237'
n r dip)lonla:tic gallery, '
eo., 40 1,. ii . 7.)' . .27
ei venltilatimr fhn, 8
1) .lin 2. 2.2
ill ji.,st .29.8
... ............

ilfiC(e, lealr the window, 1,1 p). Ill. 6.!9 51 .81'3 41i
Do)., Io n etl-piece, Sa111me tilm ....... 70.2 )
Qmestioti. What is iii'alluit by '' I'elhtive humlidity
Aits wer. It n isan,4 thlie amorionit ,),t' 1oIS t re, re-wilt , witI.etli'to'I'lGii' t.I) s;liull-
tiOII tk :ik;(i iS I 00.
Qu'-;tiln. What obhservat ions dill you0 niinik onl Fe'le 9l) ry )
Aniswert'. Tlie air ilterittilg 1lh fie (thlie fai;i maki ri, 45 revolutions per imiiliite)
hind :i teitil}pe'ra;ltim'e oft ,36 8).b antldtheI rtive lttliidit v was 55 '. 'I'liis s at A
1i i11. Il, l,,
the li1il tist cortiet of S('!Silt(' Chut1beml;, ()i1 (evel with desks, ilt 3A
1) Il., t lle t('villplat.til( Was 70.9) ', and tile relative humlitii(dity '(20. In (1iplomatict~ic
gaIllery, it 1 o'clock, the temnpe'rat.tir- W;Na (;i8;,' itid it., re'lattive' hi1ii1i(mity 21. Iln
tlieP illuillilalting lotft, Or airil siae('' boet en'('ii t.l1'(e(j jil 1111(gidof), ill lltorIt(et
Cot'0it'r, at 1.3() 1). ill., the tiillp('nlt.liv was \ (610, mnd its relative hliumid ifly 27.
QueI'st ioll. What, is tihe' atge relative lllli(lity of0 .ll(,plpir t air
Alswer. According to lite results of' the meteorological observations made itt
tell( SiIli hsonian I ustitmtion, pulildsiled ill (eXecutive doctlioli'tits for 1st S('$S.;ioIl
86th1 olul-lgess, tie(' lnlil relatitve 111111iltitv fitI' WahiSIiiitoii iii .JI11i(', 1859, wras,
1. 56 ; flr 9 1i. in , 7(6. he minimu111;1;1ll r'etilts ftor tile'
flor 7 1. i11., 75 ; for 2 I). lt
.4111 hi outvs, (1dturing same inotih
tIi, were 42, 3 1 , and
1(1fi. For m1ontth11 of Frub)iatIY,
FOr sain'm yeart, tileI 1(ea1i relative( hiiimi(dity wai, at 7 it. tn., SO ; at 2 1). in1. 62
att ! 1). in., 71; and thc mininiumn For tiose hours was 36,8;4, and 83. II. E.
lioscot' state thait in tie I loutse of' Lords the air is pleasallt, to breathe When its
relative lihiumi(dity 1' inge.3 )etwVen i5land
5t 82. 1[He a!Yo states that the iean
aiit1itmO rIlative humidity for England is a bout 75.
LAl tile re(Ille8st (it' tho4 votllilllittev, Mr. Anesont~.itl .ilates thei follim-intr palrijliclarsW oft Ifis
I rn 6(i years of' aige ; IIhave been studyinrig andliact-icihg imy p)rof'v:5sioi ex-
.lisi'ev iui(d witholit, illteriti..$ionl siICe thlie year 1819 ; wa-s eduicatel tat the
ein)toy c(jl(ege, in class w itl )I Dr. Shelton Mackenzie, of' the 1Philadelphia
Press; stud it'(l classic architecture 1di(?le lMessr. 1I arrison and Iflarrarve 1as
alippreiitic( flor five Years ; afterwards studied Gothic, biaroniajl, ecclesiastical, rsnd
iioiitmlientil atreliitetttie itiidr1i1eisust'. I)nij, Of Londo(nti, while archlitects to tie
('eclesi-a.ficl. commission for I relIand. While ulider their instruictioni, I 1Upermn
tel(i(e'd the c;.)istruct'ion of' Enly catlh edral, 11d(1 ltit(l cosi1dCrab)le experience
in, heating 111(1d ventilatingtn ecclesiastical edifices, with vIiew
t to good ventilatirl-a
ninidl teoustis. I comnienced practice oil my owit account in, 1829, by corn-
))Pting f-or and winning tht(e, premium for the approved design of the great
Caitehlie ftor Irelanid, tit 'hiurles, near the ancient city of' (j'ashiei.
Nv~lill' col~lduci(till" tile ('(ll-tl'll(ti()ll o)t Ihtilt b)lildtin1t- I deIsignedil alild ('I('(t(!(
S"tpriiig Hll ,se, ('exte'llsive(' ll s~lifSi(lil ItIr ,Jolili Low, tyq. ; aI'llsba (.isth- f;61 the
Io rd1 livilte(mlit olt' thei counlty: !n:s I I '1.l 1 (:CII6. 1,. ]be'ille(t, es.(1;andl~ til
E'piscopiol :tlic'li ai(i tnitional sclih'11 biiildliitilli the towin of' Tippf:u'VlS ; 11150
toni the' t illt l)t AI('Nlinidler Nimiilio. lietll'i ;'ii'l'r-ill-chliet to i lie IBritishi g overl-
Inl('iit, aii(t was viiipllyI'ed with his two W(b'rodtic'l'5s-ill-lhw. Mef ill auid Slimpson, ill
Ille (constriuctioni of tli; wvolks oil tihe Shl:imiiii, :iiid the Limerick lridwlg, tile
greatest work if' the kind ill Britaini. Afitenw:irds t..'olthiet('(l Ille ciectioll of the
bridge aII'ISS r t1ll- ri'ir ITay, att sI1 .1:d ) ll%', :llIl thie 1) ri(ldg a1cr" a55lll-Illll o (tlilt
Sel lit, 81111 'Nvoile; :also the waiter lhtterl at )iliialoll folt, whicihlI glliailsk the
rivei' Shili', wlhere ( 1'ii'i'1l "1ald' was ill ('commlliland(. I Yillct'r'illteliii'dI the t'i'e
o ti 11\V(1 ('(\lijef ejail Wait'le'Forthe, andite tlv Jtail Indc'till-t-llsof ill M tiddle
ton,, comlyll , (',,,rk. I Nvo,,, 1,, -ovrnmentl,,, premi,,,in, 1;,, thel chs;.,-;:fivtio'lti
prisoin tlOI ircz~lan, whtich b,,l,,1ght me1( lilltO lmlt~ic. 1 NN-11.4 pu(I'rltrill'iltly ('IilplOy('
itS llrchitv'tt Slnd~chliolt l'll-illev'l' oil Il~le I'Ytaltv o'() v presv111''4'1t. Etjlll'l (lit K~ingstonl)
andl bulilt :l great .1,el For, him., AIs', blilt, a mnsioni for Lord Massey. I de-
Sigi('(l 11ld(1 si ilul d i'd hiibilitliuig of' AAh H ill (clastit', Im. lyi, Elvalls, e( ..
Caltlt I fi'lo It 1 lls, t'sl..ali1 I'Farlney ('lst h'^ fiw Capt;ain
For ( Ai'riiitl'(110il
I colltitcted the ildil( :g i1l tw Im02 law (iii;IIIiSiSiill, ill tihe! ('co tii(' of Clork
lait t ipperar(I. I wsIV ('eXt ellsi v'tl (illotiltved t0 itil( tli t( of' thie EaIrl of'
Bantiri'y, :-ir (0, vor"e C(ilmrttliist. \1. P'., Sir Wiillitii W\iN('i lB'ie'her. adl Sir
lRobeirt Abercrobihty.
I desigiietl iiiittbuilt .\i-1itn(' l ; ' llie Nit '. hi('hilhis
c 11tri'hett Mand''vieNJi,
coils ill to t lie MaIitjlis oft Wa:tt'iflorid ; aIls *,'1vikinisto wil castl', ftir till' sister of'
thi(' Alli-qui.' ofi SlI'ewsblilv, ; :1101 Milltownl bIll(IISl', for ( coi'rnet (Tiihbilli. I
itiudi' someiv beal t if'il buildings hO1 j. Po~w'i', .M PI ., f'(it,G"I1tee'ii qtvp'i'soln to Ilit'
Ilio t.U. L. 5110],Illa't('i' oti tll' iit ih lilinit ; also folk hi brothler,
' S Sir John
P)(I', of, K;ilf;lli. I aklo 1ci'tiimodell( 'IT 1r' 1111 f'or1 ,tl1d TaI:ri, alnid biI;t thIe
D)v'er I 'aik house, il('ar ( Jlsill', Cl Ii lion. .J olil I hr( ; 1aintry liolist, f'or .J.
( )'lColiiell, ;nti tizX i'rt'slyteriail culiiiri ill thle city of' Kilkeniny . I ealilged
the( course of Othe1 rIveI\ BJ;lackwi}tti Im) M.LI (.lilt,' of' N\r(xF;)rd1 mid~dei-ned;~\((
Augentiit(e house orT''I'loinIS 1011owi, iSI., cou1sili to BIrIown the hlainker, oft Bl-
tilloI'e ; wit il ial)y Othi(r txt'isivIv works, ovelnlpy ing ia sulccessfiul plracti(e of'
tWeIty )y(viii's, 111nt1I t'e 1pingi, 11an fi-lillili( of 'TI, wheii I 111e eflty
f tiatv ('oiillti'
to joill ily lliiil i 'tltivts, bog se' illit' ;lIlited States. Ill. 1 8-49 1
rlrive'(d iil NewIN York. 1 1h1(d :lil inlti'idiu'tioii to .Jildige Edltlilldis, of the(!
slpc'(in' t'(o)ilt, inisil)(('tol' gIen'lrdl Of lii'isons, wX'lho induced liit' to 'oIliiii't e for it
pI't'liliilli adtle'rit iset by flit' It'll govn'i'onlO's f'tOr tilt' bet. planflor tilt p)en'iteltiairy)
worklhou1se il Slliiiii 1 p)i'S( etd lCI ai d ltsigii anti hin)i ill Six wt'k(kt
after'l 111,)' 1l'lriv'l .111( >1 th pl-vl'litilliJ Uwith i-l(;,1t(tev11 d1;st;ilmidled1(IrcSII (letS
and woll
1i1Y ('omriietitors. 1li1 f'lew mioths 115iflt't'r won the aidlv'er'tist'd i-I''illillil toI thI(
Ilaltiltno)u(' house of'()t'fuge fI' ('or() ju vXellile tdelInqluelts ; also, thlt' Newt klew
city hlosi utal, ai1d for IIt' (e1uii-t'iit 1151 uospital aniin New York; also, flu tdiflein'iit
churi11chles- r)r. Stli'(11.11tld'soX 4*l1-YIreti't'ttt, IlI;IlOtll 1iii flit' great
atltlliled'J11 lit St. J1olii's, New Brusw it'k. I 1115.4) o1tllit(l; thle advtr ist'd premiu;111
foi'ttlie fliprov(lan i' (lie 1, i I('i5Iit)y (of t.' SootIIt,to lt ciecttd oI ((11111-
berliui ltd mo Ullti, i;1 TI'niessev, (j vist lh'oi'r' le war ('011OlIt'tl('t'tl,) cominpet iitg
jHulllS be'ilig pr't'st'ltt'dl fitoll t't'(ry cit v of' nott' ill I his ('Ollitr'y', o)rth id south.
Amonog lmy ('mituit'tir01Swe't Geeratl'I IRosecral'si anld Mr[. Itl gel's, 511pit'ivisinig
:1I ct(t of X,( th 1trea1.91), dIeparItmen1t . I 1 15 prvetd(liwh1;(Ihfir11 t dei(Sgn1wa~s
I%))J|1{S ftt
the{ Capi)tol ex§tension01, ill a1IIs(ive tO 4)it l)ib(lc avI-I;.i(}Ill1nD,
\ de2Ysign
prl)ty IvedI I111(1 which(1 ob1tail;led 111 co-Itial pr~lopotion1 of' the4 dver(i;sedI pre'~iniillS
witi fol'tli' othtlir.('l'-M'.Watiter li' iiot h'vilig iuuilog Iit'eil, aIlhis pilatns ITiemlarkedi
r1t'cted, anId were ile(( differ'eotlroll afm(fnl of' thile l1 IIfteir'wa
; (rdlswied.
Iii 1853 I f'tirnids ted to C('il-erlil Mleigg f'o' tlit' use oif' tlhe government, lily
second(l 01r lilfdilied(lesigni, p)r'eparel in J.8- 1 at,. the sturgestion of Pr'esi(ldent Fill -
rcure, with verbal and p)rinte(l inistructiOnls, detailillg the tsystenli of ventilation
whiclih I recommllin(dl(Ied. 'I' i(ls ):ll)ers ;pIn 111(1 liiex
X itations were used by General
1teigs ill hiS rel)port, wIvllch (wa lJ ndorsMed by 1P'rotles rs Bilache aid HItenry. I
acted itS Genierail Mlortol'is chiet' (ivil engiln(cr 011 th(e aquldulllct works, andl( (dc-
sigineldv II niw
t l, 1ieiiitentilary, anid house of irrect ion ftor juiveniile (dleill(lnelntS
flor hll(e.District of' C(olumbia. I alo( designed(1 plans for new law court lbuildinugs
,111(1 pOst oflice' t(l' the city (if New Ylork, 1n1(1 lately futivnished the Spanish gov-
cruiItenit, through t11(eir W\shliniigtoii lili:tc(, the lihituis tor the great iaitionial
ex'libitioll b)lilill to lie erected( :at. MI;ldri(]. I complete( two wvors onl arehi-
lectilre, )11 1)l1)ili:4'ed ill E'uIrI'op)e, "'[Tlhe Anuicienit Church Edifices of' Eingland,'
t1l other, "' Andlerson's Americant Villa Ar'chitI ecture," ptiulished ill New York
ill 1,;5:1. I have also been professor of architecturee anidl civil e'igilleclilig ill
two (liffelrelit. Colleges, o0i(e ill Emrope anu dli oneill Al ieiric. VlIlllall apprentice
I acecouplpiedl ( rd.' l 'lgrav(e o l)roelvssioial touro through tle principal cities
ill Eurolle aid(l illvestigated their principal 111(ili It wvnS ill the French
thieatreI, ill old r)ui'ry lille thel(atre, aniid ill St. Pauiil's ctathl('(lAlrl ti'itt I obscrveid
tie tilne systemli or planl ftor convelnig soun(d nd(1 avoiding reverberation s. I had
pei.sotial kinowl(lgge of tihe fililltre of Dr)r. Reid's eystemli t6 thle ventilation of' the
new housellses of, Parlilamenit and tIlhe Millbhank pIen ite(nit-ia I',)' llk Chlililiney JiaID
hliis heeni ai voided ill hte public stnctill'.ues ill E'l:liiid 1111(1 tlihe ftil substituted.

TI/fycir(I/urd (o/' M/ &sc/(c ('ha n'.cr..

0)I tue1 f I'',,r. 1n flu -i

(. i;erv.


.11ii. IS (6!) 70.1 : I. o'cldk 71 78 7: :i o'cli Jk

7tl digrevls.
It ()69 69 4 C H81 73 I '' 72
!2M 70 71 4 * ,Wi - 7 2 :11 6. 70I 4
241 69A 70 44 ' 7(A 78 -2 I1A '~71
r)'!2 (!69
I 2
75. 4.5
73A 4.'
27,2s {is1
E;6A Jl l.
1.2 ! 7 1 84Al '
791 71. 7:1
741'4A 7
{ 7 70j, 4.'2, "' 7'2


12 (It'c(lock, In,. :i o'(I0vii, i. III. Ad Joui lvd.

1 863.
.tlu11. ,8 70)4 div'grees. . 72 *,-noes.:. o'douh, . 72.4 de-revse.
I)9 7 1 ........... 71 A
. .... I . 7:3
23 7" . . . "I ........
'24 72) 7:1 ' ........... 4 " 7
*252) 72)7!2 " ......... 7343
. ..... .

73 4.5
........... 7:1 ........... .. ' 7 2)A
27 70 ........ .. 74 ........... I 7:1
'28 68 . . ......... 7'A
......... 4.i2 5*. I

Dr. Youmans represents the capacity of air for moisture by a di(agranm. As-
sulning the c:ipaicit.y of' air for inoisture at 100 degrees of temperature to be
represented l)y the number 100, then its capacity at 60 degrees wouldlte about
31, and alt 32 degrees 12A. (See. 308.)
Porter's clminstry represents the capacity of a cubic yar(1 of air for moisture
-t. (lifferellt temperatures to b)e as follows
At ',() degreess, 4 cub)ic inch vapor of' water.
75 (do 1 (10 d o.
100 d o 2 (10 d o.
TI'he Amnerican Agricultinii3t gives the following statement. as to the absorbing
power of' air in at room 1.2 by 15 by 9 feet, containing 1,620 cul)ic feet, rega'rd
being hlid to teniperatutre :
A t :.32 degrees, ab1)Aorp)ti on 3,807 g rs. ._ 1)t. vapor of' water.
50 (du} do 6,869 grs. 1 )t. d*o.
70 d o do1) 12,863 gi's.- 2- p ts. (1O.
100 (10 (0 :30,975 grs. - pts. do.
Trhie capacity of one cubic foot of :oil' moisture, by Weight, alt (lifflrol
telmpertulles is als follows:
00 zero, 18 griins vapor of' watel'.
.32 (lderrr(s, 2.35 do (1o.
40 (10 3.06 10i do.
50 d(o 4.24 (10 (lo.
6 0 (lo 5.82 (10 (lo.
70 (1o 7.94 (10 (1O.
80 (10 10:73 (10 (1o.
9 0 (10 14.38 d1o (lo.
100 do 19. 12 (10 (10.
Air at 32 degrees w^'ill contain -,; of its wveigh t of Vapor.
59 (10 Rii) do.
86 (10L do.
113 do J20 do.
140 do J.l. do.
(Yourmans, Sive. 286.)


SiRt: In answer to )yom' inquiries, I lhvie tlhe leisuree to state that tilere are
ul)right air shlaftt3, each about f;ur feet in the clear, created at each end of a
longitudinal hoi'oiontill passage or tuniiel under the basement floor, through
which thle frIesh1 air is supplied. '1'Tlis air is a(]mitte(1 ilnto a series of small air
chambers, through valves 10 by 14, which are conuecte(d with tihe iaili fresh
air tunnllel. In tilese small air chambers the air is rlarefied by meCans of steam
pipes in coils, and from these small air chambers the rarefied air ascends to
the different wards tbrouigh flues ill tile walls opelling into the wal'ds, by means
of tile registers placed about two fect from the floors.
The ventilating flules, or flues for taking off the impure air, are ini the side
walls of the different wards, situated close to the floors, and also about ten inches
from the ceilings, wilich flues are connected with the foul air chambers at tile
top of the building, into which they discharge their foul air, the cllambers being
kept constantly heated by a coil of stemn pipe placed in the top, and inumedi-
ately under these openings above the roof.
This is a self-acting system, using steam only without the usre of ai fan.
107i Avenue D, New York.
Hon. (JIIAS. 11. BuC(KASLEW\.


.ANCewv York, December 5, 1864.
SSIR: In com)lplialneC With your (.Lsire, I have much nlleasure in furnishing
you with the information you require, as to the system wN~hich has been adopted
for ventilating the new emignfrant hospital, nowN ini course of' erection onl Ward's
1st. The buildings is under the control of the commissioners of emigration.
2d. The air which is supplied to the different awards is brought through ain
elevated shalft, placed at some distance from the building.
3d. The air is collected in aIn air-chamber, under the level of the basement.
floor, from whence it is forced, by the action of a fail Wheel, through large brick
ducts, which run under each building; fiorn thIence it is taken, through hollow
iron shafts, to the different wards in controllable quantities.
4th. The impure air is withdrawn by means of flues in the valls, situated in
the piers behind the patients' beds, in each ward.
5th. This impure air is attached to the great upper foullair shaft, which dis-
charges its contents at at height over the roofs. The fuln. is only usi-ed for the
purpose of securing at proper quantity of purec air at all seasons to the wards,
independent of the win(lows.
Very respectfully, your obedient, servant,
lion). (CIAS. It. BuCKAL.Ew,
United States Senate.

Allay 9, 1864.
Resolved by the Senate, (t1/c HIouse '?f Rej)r(sentaltives concurring,) That a
joint select committee, to consist of three members on the )art of each House, be
appointed by the respective presiding officers, to examine into thel present con
dition of the Senate chamber and hall of the I-ouse of Rcpresentatives, as
regards the lighting, heating, ventilation, and hearing, and the defects and dis-
advantages existing in the same. That the said committee obtain from Charles
P?. Anderson, architect, a statement of the principles upon vhiclihe plroposes to
regulate those )articlllars, with a view to their improvement, so as to secure the
better adaptation of those halls to the purposes of legislation, and the preserva-
tion of the health of those occupying themn ; and that the committee also obtain
a statement or estimate of the expense that vill attend the necessary alterations.
and the probable time that will be required for making them; and the said
committee shall be authorized to report, by bill or otherwise, at the present or
next regular session of Congress.
Attest: J. W. FORNEY,

IN,T''llIoi si (IF Il4-l. s.INT LI,

' 'V : . S.,
M11ay 10, 1864.
RICSo/l('ed, Tlhlt the HIOuse o1' IWV})i'CS('liltivts' CoIiCUr ill the forCeoing reso-
lution of' the Senate, p)roviding f1o0 tde aippointinleit of' n ,joint select comllinlittee
to exitninme into the present condition of' the Senilte ('lii l)Cmer' anti hail of the
IIouse' of, RepresentltaiVes'.
Ordered, flalt 'li-'. Morrill, Mr. SImitlhers, ;udu M,
Mi'. 'glid be appointed thit'
,;aidl coniniit('I' on thlie jiri'1 of tlhe Muose.
Attest EJW). AMJTH E RS()ON, (Y'lerk'.
IN T'l'lE SPNATE OF-' T'I'-ll,, |TNTl'J'EI) ST'A'A''ES,
May 10, 1IS65.
The IPriesideiut pro (1'mport a)pl)ointed(
i Mr. Buickallew, Mr'. H{owaird, and M'r.
Ilendersoin t he ('Omlit)lift('o0tnhe pai't. of' the Senate, uInder the flo'regoilig i'Pso-
lu ti on.
Attest J IV. FORNE Y,
SScre tar y.
[N TIlE Ilori.; 0OF I.'n ESEN'rA'rlVEs,
JaflnuaoryI/ 5, 1865.
lie St)peaker aIpp)Oinitet( Mr'. Pike(' tl iendlwir of'theoj~illt eommnittec (selvet) oil
ventilation, in plv (24Mi. M XoirillI,; ox cised(
Atte,. EDWA R'I) Mci'IIE',RSON,
Cler k.
By (;rLIN'.o(N) ILOrYD),
ch jif (J/'rk/.'.
,4A)propr;i'jait/ ii, ero1864.
ds .e/aiclusI/ 'llmsc ('lnomUs (/Jj)poriation (ic/ 1Y'.Ii,/,,1 ,
[-awrs ,,f 18(;3-'4I, page 362.
For p)lans .und(I detailedd drawings for pIro'os)0 ll change -ill the Ca)pitol wilgp,
to secur1(e imIprovements in the ventilation, heating, and acoustics of the halls oft
Congress, tie sitni of' fifteellhundred dollars, o1' so much thereof' as maty 1h
necessary ; the slid outlay to be authorized atid app)r'oved biy the joint s('ivCt.
committee of' the two lrh1IFouses upon the ventilhtion &ce., of said hallh, nd tobe
paid out of' tue af'orespaid alpiprop)1'ition for tvC('Capitol eXtenlision.
Andtsoill,Ch ei ., pot . .............................. I rl
IT." StilitesX -.. ---..
*-. -...................................
- -

Testintlelm ...
Anfits-,(I, D r. Th'Iomais,
Stat}(,1'emen testfinion.N ...............................................
t..1........................................................ 3~I-, 55"
lhwie, Prof. A. 1) ........................................................ 524
Bassett, Isuiie, tesfiotiti. ................ ............................ -13
chl'sliey, chades B., testilliolly . ......................................... .. .........44
Forney, Jac.ob) D)., testiliolly ..................... .. ........................ 17, 5.1
TI'alble.s ofr lolluso lidl teilluiprittlre ...........
. .

.. ...... ...... .. .... .... ::4

1F$6thI WXilli1lil, testilion3y...................... ...............

I l enry, I 'rol.Joseph ................................ ........................

K ilb), .Joliln, test inou............ .................. ........................ 1!*)

NIe.tlhaiuttiui, iB. P., letttr........................... ........................

AIeimg.s, ('enral Al. C., testilmiolly ..................... ........................

Old 'eport ................................... ........................

'Notes oil alcOUStics .......................... .... .... ...... .. . ... .... '3
Nloflatt, Cuptain RuicIhrnd Ri., testimony ............... ....... ................

Resolution for appointment of committee .............. .... ...... ...... .... 4:1'I
liitcli, .Jolin ., letter .............................. .. ...... ...... . . ... ...

RotWlIa1nd, D)r. John A., testimoln.o1 .................... ...... .... ...... .... .... 1°5
Authorities cited by ...........................
Soversnll, BVeIjamiil, testlioll)................................................
E'stillti tes luld p)rop~osalsw . ......................... .. .. .@z...... ..

Shedd EkEdsoln, report o(i ventilatioln ......................................... 128

NWet-herill, D)r. ChIIdrle.s NI., tv.stilliolly ......................................... 57