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 Change in size and proportion and muscle strength support

new gross motor skills. The child’s body becomes more

streamlined and less top-heavy.
 The shift of the center of gravity improves balance, agility
and flexibility supports refinements in running jumping
Body Changes hopping and ball skills


 Change in size and proportion and muscle strength support new gross motor skills. The child’s body becomes more
streamlined and less top-heavy.
 The shift of the center of gravity improves balance, agility and flexibility supports refinements in running jumping
hopping and ball skills


TRY THIS! Try writing the first letter of your name using your non-dominant hand with these grasps!


(1-1 ½ yo) (2-3yo) (3½ - 4yo) (4½ - 6yo)
The brain is already 75% of its adult size by age 2 but the functions that
make us most human develop further after infancy.
BRAIN DEVELOPMENT By age 5, 90% the brain’s adult size is already achieved.

_ - Myelin, a fatty coating on axons, speed
up signals between neurons.

 Effects of myelination are most noticeable

 in early childhood

  It is due to myelination that preschoolers

are able to be much quicker than toddlers
and also be less clumsy

For 3 year olds
 Provide art and craft materials for experimentation: crayons,
 clay, scissors, glue, etc.

Provide 3-wheeled tricycle: build eye-hand-foot dexterity

Gather packing blocks, short nails and small hammer to

 improve hand-eye coordination

For 4 year olds

 Encourage all kinds of outdoor activities

Continue to stimulate child’s interest in drawing and painting

 by providing new materials: using household items to paint
e.g. sponge, toy car, amrbles etc

Play indoor volleyball with a balloon

 For 5 year olds

Provide inexpensive materials (scraps) for cutting, pasting,

 coloring, folding, etc.

Plan cooking activities that allow children to chop, roll out,
measure, mix and stir.

Set up improvised target games to promote hand-eye

coordination: basketball, ring or beanbag toss. Ensure
RED FLAGS opportunities for vigorous play: in jungle gyms, using wheel
toys etc.

Draw hopscotch figure

Create Obstacle courses that involves hopping,

crawling, jumping over etc.
(Jean Piaget) - Stages of Cognitive Perceptual and cognitive development
Development  Listens attentively to age-appropriate stories.
 Makes relevant comments during stories, especially those that relate to
THE PREOPERATIONAL STAGE home and family events.
2-7: preschoolers – symbols to  Likes to look at books and may pretend to “read” to others or explain
represent sensorimotor discoveries pictures.
Extraordinary increase in  Plays realistically:
representational or symbolic activity o Feeds doll, puts down for nap, covers it.
- Magical and self-centered o Hooks truck and trailer together, loads truck, drives away making
- Lacks logic motor noises.
 Attempts to draw; imperfectly copies circles, squares, and some letters.
 Understands triangle, circle, square; can point to requested shape.
Dual representation: exposing young
 Sorts objects logically on the basis of one dimension, such as color,
children to diverse symbols helps them
shape, or size; usually chooses color or size as basis for classification.
appreciate that one object can stand
 Shows understanding of basic size-shape comparisons much of the time;
for another
will indicate which is bigger when shown a tennis ball and a golf ball; also
Language development is a key understands smaller of the two.
benefit to symbolic thought  Names and matches, at a minimum, primary colors: red, yellow, blue.
 Counts objects out loud.
A child must understand that
letters symbolize sounds, that words
symbolize things or actions, and LANGUAGE AND SPEECH DEVELOPMENT
sentences symbolize idea units  Talks about objects, events, and people not present.
Written language is symbolic:  Talks about actions of others.
without symbolic thought, children are  Answers simple questions appropriately.
unable to recognize that written  Asks increasing numbers of questions, particularly about location and
language means something identity of objects and people.
 Can keep a conversation going
 Calls attention to self, objects or events in the environment.
Play in the same room as other
 Recites nursery rhymes, sings songs.
children but they play next to others
 Speech is understandable most of the time.
rather than with them
 Produces verbs with “ing” endings; uses “-s” to indicate more than one;
Language / Speech:
externalize thoughts rather than to often puts “-s” on already pluralized forms: geeses, mices.
communicate  Indicates negatives by inserting “no” or “not” before a simple noun or
verb SOCIOphrase: “Not baby.”
 Answers “What are you doing?”, “What is this?”, and “Where?”
questions dealing with familiar objects and events.

o Toddlers pretend to be people they

Perceptual and cognitive development
 Indicates if paired words sound the same or different:  Understands concept of same shape, same size.
sheet/feet, ball/wall.  Sorts objects on the basis of two dimensions, such as
 Near the end of this year, may name eighteen to color and form.
twenty uppercase letters and write several; print own  Sorts a variety of objects so that all things in the
name; recognize some printed words (especially those group have a single common feature (classification
that have a special meaning for the child). skill: all are food items or boats or animals).
 A few children are beginning to read simple books,  Understands the concepts of smallest and shortest;
such as alphabet books with only a few words per page places objects in order from shortest to tallest,
smallest to largest.
 Likes stories about how things grow and how things  Rote counts to 20 and above; many children count to
operate. 100.
 Delights in wordplay, creating silly language.  Recognizes numerals from 1 to 10.
 Understands the concepts of “tallest,” “biggest,”  Understands the concepts of less than.
“same,” and “more”; selects the picture that has the  Some children can tell time on the hour.
“most houses” or the “biggest dogs.”  Knows what a calendar is for.
 Understands the sequence of daily events: “When we  Beginning to count and save money.
get up in the morning, we get dressed, have breakfast,  Asks innumerable questions: Why? What? Where?
brush our teeth, and go to school.” When?
 When looking at pictures, can recognize and identify  Eager to learn new things.
missing puzzle parts (of person, car, animal).


 Produces elaborate sentence structures.  Vocabulary of 1,500 words or more.
 Uses the prepositions “on,” “in,” and “under.”  Tells a familiar story while looking at pictures in a book.
 Uses possessives consistently: “hers,” “theirs,”  Defines simple words by function:
 States the name of own city or town, birthday, and
 Speech is almost entirely intelligible.
 Begins to correctly use the past tense of verbs. parents’ names.
 Refers to activities, events, objects, and people that  Answers telephone appropriately; calls person to
are not present. phone or takes a brief message.
 Changes tone of voice and sentence structure to  Speech is almost entirely intelligible.
adapt to listener’s level of understanding.  Uses past tense of irregular verbs consistently
 States first and last name, gender, siblings’ names,
 Uses past-tense inflection (-ed) appropriately to mark
and sometimes own telephone number.
regular verbs
 Answers appropriately when asked what to do if tired,
cold, or hungry.
 Recites and sings simple songs and rhymes.


 Children practice and strengthen newly acquired representational schemes
 Toddlers pretend to be people they are not (Policeman, Superhero) CONCEPTS
 Symbolic play: cardboard box is a racecar
 3 y/o - flexibly understand that an object may take on one fictional identity in one pretend game and another fictional
identity in a different pretend game
 4-5 y/o - build on one another’s play ideas, create and coordinate several roles, and have a sophisticated
understanding of story lines

Sociocultural Theory by Lev Vygotsky

By the 4th birthday, the child should
 Have intelligible speech most of the 3 year olds: ACTIVITIES
time  Collect books + daily reading sessions.
 Understand and follow simple  Have trips to the library! Child should make own book
commands and directions selections.
 State own name and age  Walk and explore: name things along the way.
 Use three-to-four-word sentences  Sort blocks according to color, size, or shape.
 Ask questions  Play find the matching piece / other half!
By the 5th birthday, the child should
 State own name in full 4 years olds:
 Recognize simple shapes  Fix puzzles with 5-10 pieces.
 Speak so as to be understood by  Use simple scientific and math materials.
strangers  Spontaneous rhyming, chanting, silly name-calling, jokes,
 Appear interested in, and responsive to, riddles.
surroundings  Child retells a story.
 Respond to statements without  “Looking things up”
constantly asking to have them  Talk about the changing seasons.
repeated  Experiment: Sink or float?
By the 6th birthday, the child should
 Speak in a moderate voice 5 year olds:
 Follow simple directions in stated order:  Acting out of family and worker roles with dress-up and
 Use 4-5 words in acceptable sentence props.
 Visit and talk about community activities
 Encourage play with puppets and cut-out cartoons.
 Sit still and listen to an entire short
 Experiment: Why does it appear to have more water in a tall,
story thin container than in one that is short and wide?
 Plan a meal or snack that children in another culture might
 Encourage children to paint to music. Have them tell a story
RED FLAGS about their work

Sociocultural Theory by Lev Vygotsky

 Cognitive development = product of the person’s interaction with the environment
 Learn from the more skilled members of the community
 GUIDED PARTICIPATION: skilled mentors help novices learn not only by direct instruction but also shared
involvement in the activity
 Children as “apprentices in thinking” develop intellectually through the simulation or direction of older and more
skilled member of the society

1. _ r _ _ p e _ a _ _ o _ _ l S _ _ g _ is Piaget’s second stage in which rapid development of representation

takes place.
2. M _ _ e - _ e l _ _ v _ P _ a _ is a kind of play where children are able to practice and strengthen newly
acquired representational or symbolic schemes.
3. D _ _ l r _ p _ e _ _n _ a t _ o _ is the exposition of young children to diverse symbols helps them
appreciate that one object can stand for another
4. _ _ r _ l _ _ l P l _ y is a form of limited participation in which the child plays in the same room as other
children and plays with the same materials but does not interact with them.
5. According to Lev Vygotsky’s S _ c _ _ c _ l t _ _ _ l _ h e _ _ y, cognitive development is a product of
the child’s interaction with his environment. Children learn from the more skilled members of their community.

7. At age three, the child is able to sort objects _ o _ _ c _ l _ y on the basis of one dimension. Sorting may be
Erik Erikson’s “Initiative vs. guilt” Emotional Regulation AT AGE 3
 Has occasional nightmares and fears the dark, monsters, or
Erikson’s third psychological crisis, in which fire.
children undertake new skills and activities and  Shows affection toward children who are younger or children
feel guilty when they do not succeed at them. who get hurt.
 Often talks to self.
___________________________is saying  Defends toys and possessions; may become aggressive at
something new, extending a skill, & beginning a times by grabbing a toy, hitting another child, hiding toys.
 Engages in make-believe play alone and with other children.
 Joins in simple games and group activities, sometimes
____________________________ makes them
afraid to try new activities  Observes other children playing; may join in for a short time;
often plays parallel to other children.
_____________________________ the belief in
one’s own ability, a personal estimate of
success and worthiness
Making friends, building relationship with
______________________________ is a peers
person’s understanding of themselves, which  Outgoing; friendly; overly enthusiastic at times.
 It is quite normal for 4-year-olds to prefer to play alone rather
encompasses not only self-esteem but also
than with strangers. (Berger)
awareness of traits such as gender and size.  •Cooperates with others; participates in group activities.
Emotional Regulation
________________________________ Erikson  Moods change rapidly and unpredictably; laughing one
recognized that typical young children have minute, crying the next; may throw tantrum over minor
immodest self-concepts holding themselves in frustrations (a block structure that will not balance); sulk over
high self-esteem being left out.
 Relies (most of the time) on verbal rather than physical
aggression; may yell angrily rather than hit to make a point.
CONCEPTS  Name-calling and taunting are often used as ways of excluding
other children.
 Boasts, exaggerates, and “bends” the truth with made-up
stories or claims of boldness; tests the limits with “bathroom”
 Shows pride in accomplishments; seeks frequent adult
 Often appears selfish; not always able to take turns or to
understand taking turns under some conditions; tattles on
other children.
Initiative vs. guilt
 Insists on trying to do things independently, but may get so
frustrated as to verge on tantrums when problems arise.

Play (drama and playing)

 Enjoys role-playing and make-believe activities.

 Establishes close relationships with playmates; beginning to
have “best” friends
Functionalist Approach to Emotion Making Friends, relationship with peers (Play)
emphasize that the broad function of emotions is
to energize behavior aimed at attaining personal  Enjoys friendships; often has one or two special
goals playmates.
________________________ arise from ongoing  May not engage in cooperative play with unfamiliar
exchanges between the person and the peers in cultures that value individualism. (Berger)
environment, flexibly serving different functions as  Is often generous: shares toys, takes turns, plays
the individual’s circumstances change cooperatively (with occasional lapses).
 Participates in group play and shared activities with
Functionalist theorists: “emotions are central in all other children; suggests imaginative and elaborate play
our endeavors- cognitive processing, social ideas.
behavior, and physical health.”  Is affectionate and caring, especially toward younger or
Contribute to emergence of self-awareness injured children and animals.

1. Emotions and Cognitive Processing Initiative vs Guilt

-impact of anxiety on performance
Generally does what parent or caregiver requests; follows
-emotions powerfully affect memory
directions and carries out responsibilities most of the time.
-relationship of emotion and cognition:
bidirectional-dynamic interplay. Emotional regulation

2. Emotions and Social Behavior  Has better self-control; fewer dramatic swings of
-children’s emotional signals (smiling, crying) emotions.
affect behavior of others, vice versa.  Likes to tell jokes, entertain, and make people laugh.
-social referencing-checking others’ emotions  Continues to need adult comfort and reassurance.

3. Emotions and Health Pride

-stress reactivity
Boastful about accomplishments.
C. Moral Development (in school)
Reward & Punishment
3 years old
 Watch a children’s videotape talk about
Stage 1 Might Makes Right: maintain appearance feelings and emotions that are portrayed in the
of obedience; avoid punishment (egocentric), videotape
advance self-interest  Set out lots of simple hats, clothing, and shoes
for pretend play. An old mirror makes this
Stage 2 Look Out For Number One: being nice to activity more exciting
others so they will be nice to you
4 years old
 Appreciate (and sometimes join in) the child’s
5 years old spontaneous rhyming, chanting, silly name-
calling, jokes, and riddles
 Continue to collect props and dress-up  Involve the children in cooking activities. Have
clothes that allow more detailed acting them wash the fruit, stir cake batter, cut out
out of family and worker roles - visit and cookies. Have them set a table, carry plates to
the sink for washing
talk about community activities
 Teach them responsibility. Have them feed the
 Encourage play with puppets
hamster, bring in the newspaper, dust the
 Assist in creating a stage (a cut out caton furniture, fold laundry
works well)

3 years old
 Stay with an activity for three or
four minutes; play alone several BIBLIOGRAPHY
minutes at a time.
 Enjoy playing near or with other
Berger, K. (2009). The Developing Person for se
edition. New York, NY: Worth Publishers
Childhood, 5th
 Understand and follow simple
commands and directions.
Berk, L. (2009). Child Development. Boston: Allyn and Bacon
4 years old
 Appear interested in, and Allen, K. (2000). By the Ages: Behavior and Development of
responsive to, surroundings. Children Pre-birth through 8. Africa: Delmar-Thomson
 Respond to statements without
constantly asking to have them

5 years old
 Maintain eye contact when spoken
to (unless this is a cultural taboo).
 Play well with other children.

RED FLAGS for se