Anda di halaman 1dari 6


Plato (427-347 BC) Frobel (1732-1852)
Kant (1724-1804) Tagore (1861-1950)
Hegel (1770-1831) William T Haris (1835-1909)
Dayananda (1825-1883)

 -Adheres to the view that nothing exists except an idea in the mind of man, the mind of God or in a super or
supra-natural realm.
 To the idealist the reality is spiritual in nature rather than physical, mental rather than material. Ideas are
eternal and unchanging.
 An idealist’s concept of education is something which leads one to the highest moral conduct and deepest
spiritual insight.
 Education, according to idealism, is a spiritual necessity and not a natural necessity.
 Education must convert original nature of man into spiritual nature.
Idealism has greatly contributed to the aims of education. They are:
 Universal education.
 Enrichment of cultural environment.
 Cultivation of moral Values.
 Exaltation of Human Personality.
 Role model
 Friend, philosopher and guide
 Perfector of mind
 Compendium of all virtues.


 Idealism attaches great importance to those subjects which provide significant knowledge and wisdom.
 These experiences correspond to various activities through which one has to acquire the highest good and
inherent values

• Is a doctrine denying anything in reality that has supernatural significance
• Truth can be discovered only through nature

• There is only one reality, and that reality is nature.-Leucippus, Democritus, Epicurus, Lucretius and Spencer
• Reality is composed of bodies moving in space.- Democritus, Epicurus, Lucretius and Hobbes
• Force or energy is the ultimate reality.- Spencer

 Core skiIIs like reading,writing and arithmetic
 Teaching essential tacts and concepts on Science, Literature, Health and PE
 Hard Sciences, technical and vocational courses
 Arts for aesthetic expression
 Values of discipline, hard work, and perfect authority

Educational Aims of Naturalism

 To develop the individual in accordance with laws of nature of human development
(Self-Expression, Self-Preservation, Redirection of human instincts, Struggle for existence, Education according
to nature, Perfect development of individuality)
Implications to Education
 Education is, first of all, for the benefit of the child, not for the sake of any conception, however hallowed, of the
function of the teacher, or the curriculum, or the school .- Rousseau
 Education should be a practical preparation for life.-Rousseau
 All knowledge should be evaluated in terms of evolutionary naturalistic principles of education which must
conform to them.-Spencer
 The method of instruction should be based upon the psychological principles governing the development of the
child.- Rousseau
 Education teaches the moral primacy of the will.-Epictetus
 Education must provide first-hand contact with the child's physical environment.-Rousseau
 The knowledge that the individual acquires through experience and verifies and uses to solve his life problems,
is utterly superior to that knowledge supplied by traditional sources.-Spencer

 John Dewey
 Williams James
 S Kilpatrick
 Charles S Pierce

Pragmatism is midway between idealism and naturalism.
Believes in practical and utilitarian philosophy
Derived from the word Pragma which means activity, work done or to make or to accomplish
Pragmatism – lives in the world of facts not on ideas

The man who introduced Pragmatism in Education is John Dewey.

According to him, the real value of a thing lies in its utility for human development and welfare. Thus even education
is useless if it does not promote human welfare and so the system of education should be changed so that it
becomes both desirable and beneficial.
Education should provide real life experiences to the learners so as to make them dynamic, resourceful efficient and
enterprising. John Dewey characterizes education mainly as growth, as life, as continuous reconstruction of
experiences, as a social process (Singh, 2007). His philosophical implications made pragmatism also be known as
instrumentalism or experimentalism (Agarwal et al, 2010).

Also called Instrumentalism or Functionalism

Because it impacts on ‘Learning by Doing’
Also called Experimentalism - ‘Learning by experience’

In Pragmatism . . .
• Values are created through experimentation
• Educational practice – experimental
• Child learns by doing
• Curriculum – actively centered
• Moral Values cannot be imposed by the older upon younger generation
• Project method is the main method of teaching
Pragmatism insists…
• Education – practical and utilitarian
• Education – according to needs
• Education – solve own problems
• Activities should lie at center of all educative process
Methods of teaching….
• Gives importance to child than books or teachers
• Avoids outdated and rigid method of learning
• Methods include:
• Learning by Doing
• Provision of real life situation
• Project method (real and purposeful tasks)
• Discussion, questioning and inquiry
• Gives lot of freedom to children
• Teacher – guide – self Discipline
• Acts – carried in a happy and free environment
• Self Discipline – not exposed by authority
• Social Discipline – participation in school society
• Creates a real life situation – child interested to solve
• Keep student as – discoverer and experimenter
• Not impose anything – child will decide own aim, goal
• Not a dictator – only “leader of group activities”
• As a friend, philosopher and guide
• Can maintain a close relationship

 Realism is also sometimes called objectivism.
 It is concerned with the existence of things.
 Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) was a naturalist as a realist.
 Complete living is the aim of education and also the aim of life.
 Realism is the theory that holds the existence of objects is real.

 Aristotle (383-322 BC)
 John Locke (1690-1781)
 Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841)
 Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)

 Existence of objects is independent of knowledge.
 Qualities are inherent in known objects.
 Knowledge does not affect the object.
 Knowledge of objects is direct.
 Objects are common.
 Relation between object and thought.

 Worldly realities of everyday life are true.
 It does not believe in the existence of any absolute truth.
 It accepts only sensory experiences of the external world as real.
 It looks at man like a physical being controlled by rules and laws.
 Real knowledge is obtained by analysis and experiencing sensations.
 It advocates the methods and principles of physical science for acquired knowledge.
The realistic aim of education is a happy and integrated life.
According to the American educationalist Franklin Bobit, happiness in life may be achieved by fulfillment of
human responsibilities and obligations such as:
 Activities concerned with language
 Activities concerned with hygiene
 Citizenship activities
 Ordinary social activities
 Leisure activities
 Activities of mental health
 Religious activities
 Activities concerning race-preservation
 Vocational behaviour activities.
 Vocational activities.
 It prefers subjects and activities which can prepare children for day to day living.
 Science and vocational subjects enjoy predominant position in curriculum followed by arts, literature and
 Realist thinkers emphasize objectivity, knowledge of scientific facts and knowledge of the real.
 The method of teaching should change according to the requirement of the child


The ideas of essentialism were formulated by William Bagley and later developed by Arthur Bestor
and Admiral Hyman Rickover.

This philosophy is rooted in both idealism and realism and surfaced in the 1930s as a reaction to

It is a theory that asserts that education properly involves the learning of the basic skills, arts, and
sciences that have been useful in the past and are likely to remain useful in the future


Why teach?
 This philosophy contends that teachers teach for learners to acquire basic knowledge, skills, and values.
What to teach?
 Basic skills or the fundamental R’s -- reading, ‘riting, ‘rithmetic, right conduct-- as these are essential to the
acquisition of higher or morecomplex skills needed in preparation for adult life.
 Curriculum includes the traditional disciplines such as math, natural sciences, history, foreign language, and
How to teach?
 Essentialist teachers emphasize mastery of subject matter. They are expected to be intellectual and moral
models of their students.


Progressivism is developed from pragmatic philosophy and as a protest against perennialist thinking in education.

Progressivism is considered a contemporary reform movement in educational, social and political affairs.
Dewey viewed the school as a miniature democratic society in which students could learn and practice the skills and
tools necessary for democratic living.

Why teach?
 Progressivist teachers teach to develop learners into becoming enlightened and intelligent citizens of a
democratic society. They teach learners so they may live fully NOW not to prepare them for adult life.
What to teach?
 Need-based and relevant curriculum. This is a curriculum that “responds to students’ needs and that relates to
students’ personal lives and experiences.”
 More concerned with teaching the learners the skills to cope change. Change is the only thing that does not
 Natural and social sciences. Teachers expose students to many new scientific, technological, and social
developments, reflecting the progressivist notion that progress and change are fundamental.
How to teach?
 Progressivists teachers employ experiential methods. They believe that one learns by doing. (John Dewey)
 Problem-solving method makes use of the scientific method.
 “Hands-on-minds-on” teaching methodology (e.g., field trips during which students interact with nature or
society). Teachers also stimulate students through thought-provoking games and puzzles.


Perennialism is the oldest and conservative educational philosophy, is rooted in realism.

Concept of Perennialism
 Perennialism relies on the past.
 Universal knowledge and cherished values of society.
 A view of the unchanging nature of the universe, human nature, truth, knowledge, virtue, beauty and so on.
 As Robert Hutchins, a long time advocate of perennialism noted: “The function of man as man is the same in
every society.”
 The aim of the educational system is the same in every age and in every society where such system can exist, it
is to improve man.
Why teach?
 To develop the students’ rational and moral powers.
 Belief in the primacy of reason and in the human’s ability to make rational judgments about the goodness of
things (Adler & Hutchins).
What to teach?
 The perennialist curriculum is a universal one on the view that all human beings possess the same essential
 Heavy on humanities and general education.
 Great Books.
How to teach?
 The perennialist classrooms are “centred on teachers”. The teachers do not allow the students’ interests or
experiences to substantially dictate what they teach. They apply whatever creative techniques and other tried
and true methods which are believed to be most conducive to disciplining the students’ minds.

It is mainly European philosophy that originated years before the turn of the century but became popular after
World War II
 Maxine Greene.
 George Keller.
 Van Cleve Morris.
 According to existentialist philosophy, people are thrust into a number of choice making situations.
 A person creates his or her own definition and in doing so makes his or her own essence.
 We are what we choose to be
 The essence we create is a product of our choices, it may vary with individuals.
Why teach?
 To help students understand and appreciate themselves as unique individuals who accept complete
responsibility for their thoughts, feelings, and actions.
 Existence precedes essence.
 Education of the whole person, not just the mind.
What to teach?
 Gives a wide variety of options from which to choose.
 Emphasis on the humanities.
 Vocational education to teach children about themselves and their potentials.
 In the arts, students are encouraged to practice individual creativity and imagination.
How to teach?
 Focuses on the individual.
 Learning is self-paced, self-directed.
 Individual contact with the teacher.
 Teachers remain non-judgmental and take care not to impose their values on the students; since values are

Why teach?
 Student’s behavior is a product of his environment.
What to teach?
 Teach students to respond favorably to various stimuli in the environment.
How to teach?
 Arranges environmental conditions so that students can make the responses to stimuli.
e.g., well-managed classroom, use of attention catchers and incentives.

 The reconstructionist philosophy is based on early socialistic and utopian ideas of the 19th century.
 It is society-centered philosophy.
Theodore Brameld is often considered the originator of the term reconstructionism in 1950.

 The social issues of the 1930s according to George Counts involved racial and class discrimination, poverty and
unemployment which are similar to present issues.
 This is a crisis philosophy appropriate for a society in crisis, which is the essence of our society today.


 The reconstructionists seek a curriculum that emphasizes cultural pluralism, equality and futurism.
 Critically examines the cultural heritage of a society as well as entire civilization.
 Is not afraid to examine controversial issues.
 Is deliberately committed to bring about social and constructive change.
 Cultivate a future planning attitude that considers the realities of the world.
 Enlists students and teachers in a definite program to enhance cultural renewal and interculturalism.
 Strengthen control of the schools by and for goal-seeking interests of the overwhelming majority of mankind.
 For reconstructionism analysis, interpretation and evaluation of problems are insufficient commitment and
action by students and teachers are needed.
 Teacher should measure up to their social responsibilities.