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Number

1
CHAPTER

1.1 Properties of whole numbers


A factor of a number, x, is a number which divides into x an exact number of times.
So 3 is a factor of 12 because 3  4  12
3 and 4 are called a factor pair of 12
3 is not a factor of 10 because 10 leaves a remainder when divided by 3
A multiple of a number, y, is a number which divides exactly by y.
The first three multiples of 5 are 5, 10 and 15
21 is not a multiple of 5 because 21 leaves a remainder when divided by 5

Example 1
Find all the factors of 20 Write them in factor pairs.
Solution 1
1, 20
In each case the product
2, 10 of the two numbers is 20
4, 5

A number which has exactly two factors is called a prime number.


So, 2, 3, 5 and 23 are prime numbers but 1, 4 and 15 are not.
1 is not a prime number because it only has one factor, 1

Example 2
2 is the only even prime number. Explain why.
Solution 2
2 is a prime number because it has exactly two factors, 1 and 2
All other even numbers have at least 3 factors, 1, 2 and the number itself.

A common factor of two numbers, x and y, is a number which is both a factor of x and is also a
factor of y.
So 4 is a common factor of 12 and 20
3 is not a common factor of 12 and 20 because 3 is not a factor of 20

Example 3
Find all the common factors of 12 and 20
Solution 3
1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12 These are the factors of 12

1, 2, 4, 5, 10, 20 These are the factors of 20

1, 2, 4 are the common factors of 12 and 20 These three factors appear in both lists.

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CHAPTER 1 Number

Exercise 1A


1 Which of the following numbers are factors of 18?
a 12 b 6 c 9 d 3 e 36
2 Which of the following numbers are factors of 30?
a 1 b 20 c 15 d 3 e 6
3 Find all the factors of 50 Write them in factor pairs.
4 List all of the factors of the following numbers.
a 8 b 10 c 16 d 24 e 28
f 32 g 36 h 40 i 60 j 100
5 List all the common factors of
a 6 and 8 b 6 and 9 c 6 and 10 d 8 and 12
e 12 and 15 f 10 and 20 g 15 and 20 h 18 and 24
6 a Write down the first three multiples of 4
b Write down the first three multiples of 10
c Write down the first four multiples of 8
d Write down the first four multiples of 7
e Write down the first three multiples of 23
7 State whether the following statements are true or false.
a 12 is a multiple of 2 b 14 is a factor of 7
c 24 is a multiple of 3 d 72 is a multiple of 9
e 12 is both a multiple of 6 and a factor of 36 f 9 is a factor of 27
g 6 is a multiple of 1 h 4 is a multiple of 12


8 Show that 33 is a factor of 3003
9 Find the first multiple of 29 which is greater than 2000
10 Find two prime numbers between 110 and 120
11 Bertrand’s theorem states that ‘Between any two numbers n and 2n, there always lies at least
one prime number, providing n is bigger than 1.
Show that Bertrand’s theorem is true i for n  10 ii for n  34
12 Find a number which has exactly
a 4 factors b 3 factors c 7 factors d 10 factors

1.2 Multiplication and division of directed numbers


A directed number is a number with a  or a  sign. 4 and 3 are examples of directed numbers.
Often a directed number is written in brackets, for example (4) and (3).

Multiplication
(3) is the same as 3 (2) is the same as 2
so (3)  (2) is the same as 3  2  6
3  2 also means 2  2  2 3  (2) means (2)  (2)  (2)
so 3  (2) or (3)  (2)  (6)
2
1.2 Multiplication and division of directed numbers CHAPTER 1

Look at the patterns in the multiplications on the right. (3)  (2)  (6)
The blue numbers are decreasing by 1 (2)  (2)  (4)
(1)  (2)  (2)
The orange numbers are increasing by 2 0  (2)  0
The pattern continues like this. (1)  (2)  (2)
The rules are (2)  (2)  (4)
()  ()  () positive  positive  positive (3)  (2)  (6)
()  ()  () positive  negative  negative
()  ()  () negative  positive  negative
()  ()  () negative  negative  positive

Division
326 632 and 623
(3)  (2)  (6), so (6)  (3)  (2) and (6)  (2)  (3)
The rules are
()  ()  () positive  positive  positive
()  ()  () positive  negative  negative
()  ()  () negative  positive  negative
()  ()  () negative  negative  positive
When multiplying or dividing two directed numbers you can remember the rules by the following
if the signs are the same, the answer is positive
if the signs are different, the answer is negative.

Example 4
a Work out (5)  (3) b Work out (16)  (2)

Solution 4
a (5)  (3)  (15) The signs are different so the answer is
(15) is also written as 15 negative and 5  3  15

b (16)  (2)  (8) The signs are the same so the answer is
positive and 16  2  8
(8) is also written as 8

Exercise 1B
1 Work out
a (2)  (4) b (3)  (5) c (4)  (6)
d (3)  (5) e (2)  (5) f (4)  (5)
g (3)  (8) h (1)  (9) i (4)  (4)

2 Work out
a (6)  (3) b (8)  (4) c (10)  (5) d (12)  (3)
e (8)  (4) f (12)  (12) g (14)  (2) h (12)  (4)

3 Find the missing directed number.


a (10)  ( )  (2) b (8)  ( )  (2) c (3)  ( )  (12)
d (5)  ( )  (20) e (5)  ( )  (25) f ( )  (4)  (20)
g ( )  (3)  (4) h ( )  (4)  (5) i (16)  ( )  (2)
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CHAPTER 1 Number

4 Work out the product of


a (6) and (3) b (5) and ( 4) c (3) and (5) d (6) and (6)
e (3) and (4) f (4) and (9) g (5) and (4) h (3) and (2)

1.3 Squares and cubes


The square of a number, x, is the number which is the product x  x.
The square of the number x is written x2.
So the square of 10 is written as 102  10  10
The square of 10 is 100
The cube of a number, y, is the number which is the product y  y  y.
The cube of the number y is written y3.
So the cube of 4 is written 43  4  4  4
The cube of 4 is 64
The square root of a number n is the number which when squared gives n.
The square root of the number n is written n .
So the square root of 16, written 16
, is 4 since 42  16
Since (4)2  16, the negative square root of 16 is 4
It is not possible to find the square root of a negative number.
The cube root of a number m is the number which when cubed gives m.
3
The cube root of a number m is written  m.
3
So the cube root of 1000, written , 1000 is 10 since 103  1000
It is possible to find the cube root of a negative number.

Example 5
3
Work out 23  
27
Solution 5
23  8 2228
3
27
  3 because (3)  (3)  (3)  27
3
23  27
5 8  (3)  5

Exercise 1C


1 Work out
a 32 b 52 c 112 d 132 e 152 f 1002

2 Work out
a (2)2 b (4)2 c (10)2 d (12)2

3 Work out
a 33 b 13 c 53 d (10)3 e (4)3

4 Work out
3
a 4  32 b 52  100
 c 23  32 d 8
  42
3
e 1000
  100
 f 4 2
3 3
g (1)3  23  (3)3
3 62
h 42  (3)3 i 125
  81
 j 2
2
4
1.4 Index laws CHAPTER 1

5 Here is a number pattern


12  13
(1  2)2  13  23
(1  2  3)2  13  23  33
Show that the next line of the number pattern is also true.

1.4 Index laws


As well as squares and cubes it is possible to represent a number multiplied by itself any number of
times. For example,
● 24 (2 raised to the power 4) means 2  2  2  2
● 36 (3 raised to the power 6) means 3  3  3  3  3  3
Another name for power is index.

Example 6
Work out a 34 b 26
Solution 6
a 34  3  3  3  3  81
b 26  2  2  2  2  2  2  64

To work out one number raised to a power multiplied by the same number raised to a second power
you add the powers.
For example 23  24  27 because 23  2  2  2 and 24  2  2  2  2
and (2  2  2)  (2  2  2  2)  234  27
To divide one number raised to a power by the same number raised to a second power you subtract
the powers.
333333 333333
For example, 36  34     cancelling all the 3s
3333 3333
on the bottom with four of the 3s on the top.
So 36  34  364  32

Example 7

a Work out 24  25. Give your answer as a power of 2


b Work out 58  55. Give your answer as a power of 5
c Work out (32)4. Give your answer as a power of 3
d Work out 4  47. Give your answer as a power of 4
Solution 7
a 24  25  245  29 b 58  55  585  53
c (32)4  32  32  32  32  32222  38 d 4  47  417  48

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CHAPTER 1 Number

Example 8
74  76
Work out 
78
Solution 8
74  76 710 ‘Work out’ means ‘evaluate’ the expression rather
    72  49 than leaving the answer as a power of 7
78 78

Exercise 1D


1 Write as a power of 2
a 24  25 b 23  24 c 22  26 d 24  23 e 24  26

2 Write as a power of 3
a 34  32 b 35  32 c 34  3 d 36  32 e 310  34

3 Write as a power of a single number


a 44  42 b 57  52 c 34  32 d 64  63 e 104  102

4 Find the value of n


a 3n  32  33 b 85  8n  82 c 25  2n  210 d 3n  35  39 e 26  23  2n

5 Work out
a 34  32 b 45  43 c 25  22 d 104  102 e 65  65

6 Write as a power of 3
33  35 3  37 39 32  310
a  b (33)2 c  d   e  
34 34 34  33 32  35

7 Write as a power of a single number


23  24 34  33 53  55 108  103 45  4
a  b   c  d  e 
25 34 56 107 42

8 Work out
55 34 47 23  24 3  37
a   b   c   d   e  
52  52 32  32 42  43 24  22 34  32

9 Work out the value of n in the following.


a 40  5  2n b 32  2n c 50  5n  2 d 48  3  2n e 54 2  3n

1.5 Order of operations


Some expressions include powers and other operations.
BIDMAS gives the order in which operations should be carried out.
Remember that BIDMAS stands for
Brackets
Indices
Division
Multiplication
Addition
Subtraction
6
1.5 Order of operations CHAPTER 1

● If there are brackets, work out the value of the expression in the brackets first.
● Square roots are carried out at the same stage as indices.
● If there are no brackets, do multiplication and division before addition and subtraction no matter
where they come in an expression.
● If an expression has only addition and subtraction then work it out from left to right.

Example 9
Work out
a 2  62 b 102  103 c 16  24
Solution 9
a 62  6  6  36 Squaring is carried out before multiplication.
2  62  72

b 102  103  100  1000  1100 Squaring and cubing are carried out before addition.

c 16  24  16  16  1 Working out indices is carried out before division.

Example 10
Work out
a (2  4)2 b (12  2  5)3 c 9
4
Solution 10
a 2  4  8, then 82  64 Expressions in brackets are worked out first, then indices.

b (12  2  5)3  (12  10)3  23  8 Multiplication is carried out before subtraction.

c 3  4  12 Square root is found before multiplication is carried out.

Exercise 1E


1 Work out
a 2  52 b 2  42 c 3  22 d 5  102
e 4  32 f 6  22 g 8  12 h 5  22

2 Work out
a (2  5)2 b (7  3)2 c (5  5)2 d (12  5)2
e (4  4)2 f (8  5)2 g (20  10)2 h (18  9)2

3 Work out
a 20  32 b 17  42 c 17  42 d 27  42
e 36  42 f 25  52 g 14  42 h 22  52

4 Work out
a 24  22 b 44  22 c 50  52 d 100  52 e 36  32
f (10  2)2 g (12  2)2 h (15  5)2 i (21  3)2

5 Work out
a 42  32 b 42  32 c 52  42 d 62  32 e 102  32
f 62  12 g 62  42 h 72  32 i 62  82
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CHAPTER 1 Number

6 Work out
a 2  9
 b 4  4
 c 5  100
 d 4
2
e 9
5 f 25
6 g 36
5 h 100
7

1.6 Using a calculator


Arithmetical expressions can be worked out using a scientific calculator.
To work out 6.42 key in 6 . 4 x2  which gives 40.96
For working out cubes, some scientific calculators have a cube key x3 .
To work out 1.13 key in 1 . 1 x3  which gives 1.331
All scientific calculators have a power or index key. This comes in two forms.
● The first form is a yx key.

To work out 1.13 key in 1 . 1 yx 3  which gives 1.331

● The second form is an upwards arrow key  .

To work out 1.13 key in 1 . 1  3  which gives 1.331


Not all calculators are the same so make sure you know how to calculate powers on your own calculator.

Example 11
Use a calculator to work out
a 4.52 b 2.33  3.14
Solution 11
a 4.52  20.25 Key in 4 . 5 x2 

Key in 2 . 3 yx 3  or key in 2 . 3  3 
b 2.3  12.167
3
Write down the answer 12.167

Key in 3 . 1 yx 4  or key in 3 . 1  4 
3.14  92.3521
Write down the answer 92.3521

2.33  3.14  104.5191 Finally add the two results.

A more efficient method would be to key in


2 . 3 yx 3  3 . 1 yx 4 
which does not involve writing down the separate results for 2.33 and 3.14.
Sometimes an answer has to be given correct to one decimal place. The answer to b correct to one
decimal place is 104.5

The usual method of finding a square root is to use the square root key on the calculator.
All scientific calculators have a square root key  .

8
1.6 Using a calculator CHAPTER 1

Example 12
2.43  4
 3.56
Work out  
3.5  2.52
2

Solution 12
The numerator is 20.424 Key in 2 . 4 yx 3   4 3 . 5 6 

The denominator is 6 Key in 3 . 5 x2  2 . 5 x2 

The answer is 3.404 Finally divide 20.424 by 6

The expression can be worked out more efficiently using the key sequence
( 2 . 4 yx 3   4 3 . 5 6 ) 

( 3 . 5 x2  2 . 5 x2 ) 
1
The reciprocal of a number n is the number  or 1  n.
n
The reciprocal of 2 is 12 or 0.5
The reciprocal of 1.25 is 0.8
When a number is multiplied by its reciprocal the answer is always 1
All numbers, except 0, have a reciprocal.
11
The reciprocal button on a calculator is usually shown as 
xx
or x1
1
.
Dividing an expression by a number is the same as multiplying the expression by the reciprocal of
that number.

Exercise 1F


1 Work out
a 8.42 b 9.22 c (3.6)2 d 242 e 15.42

2 Work out a 134  212 b 231  312 c 37  232 d 502  352

3 Work out a 232  312 b 252  232 c 192  222 d 352  452

4 Work out a 200  142 b 20  1.42 c 356  172 d 366  162

5 Work out a 576


 b 1024
 c 625
 d 1296


6 Work out, giving your answers correct to one decimal place


a 200
 b 300
 c 80
 d 128
 e 125


7 Work out, giving your answers correct to one decimal place


a 2.43 b 3.74 c 0.953 d (1.7)6 e 1.0510

8 Work out, giving your answers correct to one decimal place


a 3.33  2.5 b 2.33  5.62 c 3.43  12
 d 6.42  2.53

9 Work out, giving your answers correct to one decimal place


a 6.37  2.42 b (12.5  9.8)3 c 3.4  (2.7)2 d 20  1.62
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CHAPTER 1 Number

10 Work out, giving your answers correct to one decimal place


6.32  3.32 80.6 3.53  8.5 8.7  30

a  b   c  d 
7.5 2.5  10
3
2.6 6.5
17.4  2.42 5.52  1.52 4.53  18 3.93
e  f 2  g   h 14.6  
4.5
 2.2  5 3.42  10 2.6
6.42  20
 3.63  4  20

i  j 
20
  30 3.6  4 20
3


11 Find the reciprocal of each of the following numbers.


a 4 b 8 c 40 d 0.625 e 3.2

1.7 Prime factors, HCF and LCM


A prime factor of the number n, is a prime number which is a factor of n.
The factors of 30 are 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 15 and 30
The prime numbers in this list are 2, 3 and 5
So the prime factors of 30 are 2, 3 and 5
Prime numbers can be thought of as the basis of all whole numbers because all whole numbers are
either prime or can be written as a product of prime numbers.
For example, 15 is not prime, but can be written as the product 3  5
12 is not prime, but can be written as the product 2  2  3
For small numbers it is easy to see what prime numbers to use.
For larger numbers use the following method.

Example 13
Write 72 as
a the product of its prime factors b the product of powers of its prime factors.
Solution 13
a The prime factors of 72 are 2 and 3
2 72 Divide 72 by 2

2 36 Divide 36 by 2

2 18 Divide 18 by 2

3 9 Divide 9 by 3

3 3 Divide 3 by 3
1
72  2  2  2  3  3
b 72  23  32

The highest common factor (HCF) of two numbers is the largest number which is a factor of both
of the numbers.
For example, the highest common factor (HCF) of 8 and 12 is 4 because it is the largest number that
is a factor of both 8 and 12
For larger numbers, it is useful to list the factors of each number and then pick out the largest
number that appears in all the lists.
10
1.7 Prime factors, HCF and LCM CHAPTER 1

Example 14
Find the highest common factor (HCF) of 24 and 36
Solution 14
The factors of 24 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24
The factors of 36 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, 36
The numbers which appear in both lists, that is the common factors, are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12
So 12 is the highest common factor of 24 and 36

The lowest common multiple (LCM) of two numbers is the smallest number which is a multiple of
both numbers.
For example, the lowest common multiple of 8 and 12 is 24 because it is the smallest number which
is a multiple of both 8 and 12
For larger numbers, it is useful to list the multiples of each number and then pick out the smallest
number that appears in both lists.

Example 15
Find the lowest common multiple (LCM) of 15 and 20
Solution 15
The first few multiples of 15 are 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, …
The first few multiples of 20 are 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, …
The smallest number which appears in both lists is 60
So the lowest common multiple of 15 and 20 is 60

The HCF can be worked out for large numbers if each of the numbers is written as a product of its
prime factors.
For example, for the numbers 120 and 144 the products are
120  2  2  2  3  5
144  2  2  2  2  3  3

So 2  2  2  3  24 is the highest common factor of 120 and 144


In terms of products of powers of their prime factors,
120  23  3  5
144  24  32

Their highest common factor 24 ( 23  3) is the product of the lowest power of each of their
common prime factors.

Example 16
Find the highest common factor (HCF) of 750 and 225
Solution 16
750  2  3  53 Write 750 and 225 as the product of powers of their prime factors.
225  32  52
The common prime factors are 3 and 5
HCF  3 52  75 The lowest power of 3 is 1 (as 3  31) and the lowest power of 5 is 2

11
CHAPTER 1 Number

To find the LCM of 36 and 120, list the multiples of 36 and 120 until the same multiple appears in
both lists.
The multiples of 36 are 36, 72, 108, 144, 180, 216, 252, 288, 324, 360, …
The multiples of 120 are 120, 240, 360, …
The LCM of 36 and 120 is 360
As a product of its prime factors, 360  2  2  2  3  3  5
As a product of their prime factors the numbers 36 and 120 are
36  2  2  3  3
120  2  2  2  3  5

The LCM of 36 and 120 (360) is the product of the common prime factors and all other prime
factors, that is 2  2  3  3  2  5
In terms of products of powers of their prime factors,
36  22  32
120  23  3  5

Their lowest common multiple, 360 ( 23  32  5), is the product of the highest power of all their
prime factors.

Example 17
Find the lowest common multiple (LCM) of 750 and 225
Solution 17
750  2  3  53 Write 750 and 225 as the product of powers of their prime factors.
225  32  52
LCM  2  32  53  2250 The highest power of 2 is 1 (as 2  21)
The highest power of 3 is 2
The highest power of 5 is 3

Exercise 1G


1 Find the two prime numbers that are between 30 and 40

2 Find two prime numbers which have a sum of 7

3 Find two prime numbers which have a product of 14

4 Find two prime numbers which are factors of 20

5 Find two prime numbers which are factors of 24

6 Find two prime numbers which are factors of 33

7 Write the following numbers as a product of two prime factors.


a 10 b 15 c 21 d 22 e 33 f 39

8 Which of the following show a number written correctly as a product of prime factors?
a 12  2  2  3 b 18  2  9 c 20  2  2  5
d 16  2  2  2  2 e 56  2, 2, 2, 7 f 10  2  5  1

9 Write each of these numbers as a product of its prime factors.


a 30 b 42 c 48 d 36 e 60 f 63
g 54 h 80 i 76 j 88 k 68 l 66
12
1.7 Prime factors, HCF and LCM CHAPTER 1

10 Find the highest common factor (HCF) of the following pairs of numbers.
a 12 and 14 b 6 and 9 c 6 and 8 d 8 and 10 e 6 and 10

11 Find the highest common factor (HCF) of the following pairs of numbers.
a 12 and 18 b 10 and 15 c 16 and 20 d 18 and 24 e 24 and 30

12 Find the lowest common multiple (LCM) of the following pairs of numbers.
a 6 and 8 b 6 and 9 c 6 and 10 d 9 and 12 e 10 and 15

13 Find the lowest common multiple (LCM) of the following pairs of numbers.
a 12 and 15 b 12 and 24 c 12 and 18 d 18 and 24 e 20 and 24

14 a Find the number of multiples of 3 that are less than 100


b Find the number of multiples of 5 that are less than 100

15 Frank has two flashing lamps. The first lamp flashes every 4 seconds.
The second lamp flashes every 6 seconds. Both lamps start flashing together.
a After how many seconds will they again flash together?
b How many times in a minute will they flash together?

16 As a product of its prime factors, 360  2  2  2  3  3  5


Write 720 as a product of its prime factors.

17 The number 48 can be written in the form 2n  3 Find the value of n.

18 The number 189 can be written in the form 3n  p where n and p are prime numbers.
Find the value of n and the value of p.

19 The number 120 can be written in the form 2n  m  p where n, m and p are prime numbers.
Find the value of each of n, m and p.

20 x  2  32  5, y  23  3  7
a Find the highest common factor (HCF) of x and y.
b Find the lowest common multiple (LCM) of x and y.


21 2 3 5 7 21 22 24
a Which of the numbers in the list are factors of 288?
b Which of the numbers in the list are factors of 550?

22 Write each of these numbers as a product of its prime factors.


a 105 b 539 c 231
d 847 e 1001

23 Find the lowest common multiple of these pairs of numbers.


a 24 and 30 b 27 and 36 c 28 and 35
d 36 and 42 e 54 and 72

24 Find all the integer values of n less than or equal to 10 for which 2n  1 is a prime number.

25 a Any square number which is even is always a multiple of 4. Explain why.


b Investigate what the corresponding answer is for square numbers which are odd.
c Explain why the number 1050  3 cannot be a square number.
13
CHAPTER 1 Number

Chapter summary

You should now know that:


 the power or index of a number shows how many of the number are multiplied together, for
example, in 25 the 5 is the power or index and five 2s are multiplied together, that is
22222
 the square root of a number is that number which when squared gives the original number
 the negative square root of a number is that negative number which when squared gives
the original number
 the correct order of working out an expression is obtained by using BIDMAS
1
 the reciprocal of a whole number n is the fraction 
n
 the highest common factor (HCF) of two numbers is the largest number which is a factor
of both of the numbers
 the lowest common multiple (LCM) of two numbers is the smallest number which is a
multiple of both numbers.
You should also be able to:
 use the rule for adding powers when two of the same number raised to a power are multiplied
together
 use the rule for subtracting powers when one number raised to a power is divided by the same
number raised to a power
 use a calculator to work out the square root of a number
 use a calculator to work out powers of a number
 write any whole number as a product of its prime factors
 find the highest common factor of two or more numbers
 find the lowest common multiple of two or more numbers.

Chapter 1 review questions


1 Work out
a 402 b 70002 c 100
 d 4900


2 Work out
a 23 b 103 c 53 d 13 e 303

3 Work out
a 42  25
 b 23  23 c 33  23 d 53  103

4 Work out
a 3  25
 b 4  36
 c 10  9
 d 8  49


5 Work out
a 42  8 b 43  82 c 103  102 d 33  3
14
Chapter 1 review questions CHAPTER 1

6 Work out
a 5
2 b 10
2 )2
c (9 d (5  1)2 e (2  3)2

7 Write each of the following as a single power of 2


a 23  24 b 26  24 c (23)2 d 2  28 e 26  2

8 Write each of the following as a single power of 3


3  34 32  33 35  34
a  b  c  
32 34 32  33
9 Each of the following represents a number written as a product of powers of its prime factors.
Find the number.
a 23  32 b 2  33  5 c 23  3  7

10 a Express 108 as a product of powers of its prime factors.


b Find the highest common factor (HCF) of 108 and 24 (1387 June 2004)

11 a Express 120 as a product of its prime factors.


b Find the lowest common multiple (LCM) of 120 and 150 (1387 November 2003)

12 Find the reciprocal of 3.5 Give your answer as simply as possible.

13 The number 40 can be written as 2m  n, where m and n are prime numbers.


Find the value of m and the value of n. (1387 June 2005)

14 a Write as a power of 5
i 54  52 ii 59  56
b 2x  2y  210 and 2x  2y  24
Work out the value of x and the value of y. (1387 June 2005)


15 Work out
a 1.32 b 13.69
 c 253 d 14


16 a The length of the side of a square is 4.8 cm. Work out the area of the square.
b The area of a second square is 576 cm2. Work out the length of one side of the square.

17 a Use your calculator to work out


(6.2  3.9)2

1.25
Write down all the figures on your calculator display.
b Put brackets in the expression so that the statement is true.
14.5  2.6  4 .5  3.6  49.95 (Mock 2003)

18 Work out the value of each of the following. Give each answer correct to one decimal place.
14.7  21.2 18.7  21.8 20
 0  8.62
a  b  c 
2.5 2.5  3.7 12.5

19 Work out the value of 3.82  75



Write down all the figures on your calculator display. (1387 June 2005)

15
CHAPTER 1 Number

x2  4x
20 y2  
2t2  6t
x  6.4, t  4.6, y is a positive number.
a Work out the value of y. Write down all the figures on your calculator display.
b Round off your answer to an appropriate degree of accuracy.

21 p is a prime number not equal to 7


a Write down the highest common factor (HCF) of 49p and 7p2

x and y are different prime numbers.


b i Write down the highest common factor (HCF) of the two expressions
x2y xy2
ii Write down the lowest common multiple (LCM) of the two expressions
x2y xy2 (1388 January 2005)

16