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Classify the following ma te rials as substances or mixtures: table salt, wood,

mercury, air, water, seawater, sodium chloride, and mayonnaise. If they are
mixtures, subclassify them as homogeneous or heterogeneous; if they are
substances, subclassify them as compounds or elements.
2. 17th-century chemist wrote of the “simple bodies which enter originally into the
composition of mixtures and into which these mixtures resolve themselves or may
be finally resolved.” What is being discussed?
3. A sample of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is synthesized in the laboratory. It contains
30.0 g carbon and 40.0 g oxygen. Another sample of ascorbic acid, isolated from
lemons (an excellent source of the vitamin), contains 12.7 g carbon. Compute the
mass of oxygen (in grams) in the second sample.
4. Nitrogen (N) and silicon (Si) form two binary compounds with the following
Compound Mass % N Mass % Si
1 33.28 66.72
2 39.94 60.06
a. Compute the mass of silicon that combines with 1.0000 g of nitrogen in each case.
b. Show that these compounds satisfy the law of multiple proportions. If the second
compound has the formula Si3N4 what is the formula of the first compound?
5. Vanadium (V) and oxygen (O) form a series of compounds with the following
Mass % V Mass % O
76.10 23.90
67.98 32.02
61.42 38.58
56.02 43.98
What are the relative numbers of atoms of oxygen in the compounds for a given
mass of vanadium?
6. A liquid compound containing only hydrogen and oxygen is placed in a flask. Two
electrodes are dipped into the liquid and an electric current is passed between them.
Gaseous hydrogen forms at one electrode and gaseous oxygen at the other. After a
time, 14.4 mL hydrogen has evolved at the negative terminal, and 14.4 mL oxygen
has evolved at the positive terminal.
a. Assign a chemical formula to the compound in the cell.
b. Explain why more than one formula is possible as the answer to part (a).
7. Pure nitrogen dioxide (NO2) forms when dinitrogen oxide (N2O) and oxygen (O2)
are mixed in the presence of a certain catalyst. What volumes of N2O and oxygen
are needed to produce 4.0 L NO2 if all gases are held at the same conditions of
temperature and pressure?
8. The natural abundances and isotopic masses of the element silicon (Si) relative to
C 12.00000 are
Isotope % abundance isotopic Mass
Si 92.21 27.97693
Si 4.70 28.97649
Si 3.09 29.97376
Calculate the atomic mass of naturally occurring silicon.
9. Only two isotopes of boron (B) occur in nature; their atomic masses and
abundances are given in the following table. Complete the table by computing the
relative atomic mass of 11B to four significant figures, taking the tabulated relative
atomic mass of natural boron as 10.811.
Isotope % Abundance Atomic mass
B 19.61 10.013
B 80.39 ?
10. The isotope of plutonium used for nuclear fission is 239Pu. Determine
a. the ratio of the number of neutrons in a 239Pu nucleus to the number of
protons, and
b. the number of electrons in a single plutonium atom.
11. The americium isotope 241Am is used in smoke detectors. Describe the composition
of a neutral atom of this isotope for protons, neutrons, and electrons.