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MARINE GUIDANCE NOTE

MGN 72 (M+F)

Navigation Safety
Notice to Owners, Masters and Deck Officers of Merchant Ships
and Skippers and Watchkeepers of Fishing and Recreational Vessels

This Guidance Note supersedes Merchant Shipping Notice No. M. 854

Summary

This notice draws attention to the need for systematic planning of all stages of a voyage. The Annex
provides guidance on passage planning for masters and watchkeepers.

Key Points

• Appraise all relevant information

• Plan the intended passage

• Execute the plan taking account of prevailing conditions

• Continuously Monitor the vessel’s progress against the plan

• Passage planning does not stop during pilotage.

1. Analysis of marine accidents continues to a) ensure that all the vessel’s navigation is
show that a contributory cause of 80% of planned in adequate detail with
navigational accidents is human error, and in contingency plans where appropriate;
many cases information which could have
prevented the accident was available to those b) ensure that there is a systematic bridge
responsible for the navigation of the vessels organisation that provides for:
concerned.
(i) comprehensive briefing of all
concerned with the navigation of the
2. Most accidents happen because of simple
vessel;
mistakes in use of navigational equipment
and interpretation of the available (ii) close and continuous monitoring of
information, rather than because of any the vessel’s position ensuring as far as
deficiency in basic navigational skills or possible that different methods of
ability to use equipment. determining the position are used to
check against error in any one system;
3. Masters, skippers and watchkeepers are
recommended to take the following (iii) cross-checking of individual human
precautions to ensure that they appreciate and decisions so that errors can be detected
reduce the risks to which they are exposed: and corrected as early as possible;

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(iv) information available from plots of c) ensure that optimum and systematic use is
other traffic is used carefully to made of all appropriate information that
ensure against over-confidence, becomes available to the navigational staff;
bearing in mind that other vessels and
may alter course and/or speed;
d) ensuring that the intentions of a pilot are
fully understood and acceptable to the
vessel’s navigational staff.

MSAS(A) Navigation & Communications


Maritime and Coastguard Agency
Spring Place
105 Commercial Road
Southampton
SO15 1EG

Tel 01703 329138


Fax 01703 329204

August 1998

MNA 51/17/002

© Crown Copyright 1998


An executive agency of the Department of the
Safe Ships Clean Seas Environment, Transport and the Regions

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ANNEX

GUIDE TO THE PLANNING AND CONDUCT OF PASSAGES

Responsibility for Passage Planning to Mariners, publications detailing traffic


separation and other routeing schemes, radio
1. In most deep-sea vessels it is customary for the aids to navigation, vessel reporting schemes and
master to delegate the initial responsibility for VTS requirements. Reference should also be
preparing the plan for a passage to the officer made to climatic data and other appropriate
responsible for navigational equipment and meteorological information which may have a
publications. For the purposes of this guide bearing on the navigational aids in the area
the officer concerned will be referred to as the under consideration – for example, any areas
navigating officer. subject to periods of reduced visibility.

2. On smaller vessels, including fishing vessels, 7. A check list must be available for the use of
the master or skipper may have the the navigation officer to assist in the gathering
responsibility of the navigating officer for of all the information necessary for a full
passage planning purposes. passage appraisal and the circumstances
under which it is to be made. It is necessary to
3. The navigating officer has the task of preparing recognise that more up-to-date information,
the detailed passage plan from berth to berth, to for example radio navigational warnings and
the master’s requirements, prior to departure. meteorological forecasts, may be received
In cases when the port of destination is not after the initial appraisal.
known or is subsequently altered, it will be
necessary for the navigating officer to extend or 8. The most recent editions of all the charts to
amend the original plan as appropriate. cover the areas through which the vessel will
proceed should be selected and corrected up
Principles of Passage Planning to date from the latest weekly Notices to
Mariners received on board. In addition they
4. There are four distinct stages in the successful must be corrected up to date in respect of both
planning and achievement of a safe passage: permanent and temporary Notices to Mariners
and existing radio navigational warnings. In
• Appraisal addition the appraisal will include details of:
• Planning
• Execution a) currents (directions and rates of set);
• Monitoring
b) tides (times, heights, direction and rate of
5. These stages logically follow each other in the set);
order set out above. An appraisal of
information available must be made before c) draught of vessel during the various
detailed plans can be drawn up and a plan stages of the intended passage including
must be in existence before tactics for its under-keel allowances for areas where
execution can be decided upon. Once the plan squat may be experienced;
and the manner in which it is to be executed
have been decided, monitoring must be d) advice and recommendations given in
carried out to ensure that the plan is followed. sailing directions;

Appraisal e) navigational lights (characteristics, range,


arc of visibility and anticipated luminous
6. This is the process of gathering together all range);
information relevant to the proposed passage,
including ascertaining risks and assessing its f) navigational marks (anticipating both
critical areas. It will of course be concerned with their radar and visual detection ranges);
navigational information shown on charts and
in publications such as sailing directions, light g) traffic separation, and mandatory and
lists, current atlas, tidal atlas, tide tables, Notices voluntary routeing and reporting schemes;

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h) radio aids to navigation (availability and paid to the need for advanced warning to
coverage of Decca and/or Loran, if used, be given on one chart of the existence of a
and their degree of accuracy at each stage navigational hazard immediately on
of the passage; availability of DGPS if transfer to the next. The planned track
used); should be plotted to clear hazards at as safe
a distance as circumstances allow. A longer
i) navigational warnings affecting the area; route should always be accepted in
preference to a shorter more hazardous
j) location of ferry routes, especially where route. The possibility of main engine or
high speed craft may be encountered; steering gear breakdown at a critical
moment must not be overlooked.
k) climatological data affecting the area; and
b) Indicate clearly in 360 degree notation the
l) vessel’s manoeuvring data. true direction of the planned track marked
on the charts.
9. An overall assessment of the intended passage
should be made by the master, in consultation c) Mark on the chart all radar-conspicuous
with the navigating officer and other deck objects and RACONs, which may be used
officers who will be involved, after all relevant in radar position fixing.
information has been gathered. This appraisal
will provide the master and his bridge team d) Mark on the charts any transit marks,
with a clear and precise indication of all areas clearing bearings or clearing ranges
of danger, and delineate the areas in which it (radar) which may be used to advantage.
will be possible to navigate safely taking into It is sometimes possible to use two
account the calculated draught of the vessel conspicuous clearing marks where a line
and planned under-keel clearance. Bearing in drawn through them runs clear of natural
mind the condition of the vessel, her dangers with the appropriate margin of
equipment and any other circumstances, a safety; if the vessel proceeds on the safe
balanced judgement of the margins of safety side of this transit she will be clear of the
which must be allowed in the various sections danger. If no clearing marks are available,
of the intended passage can now be made, a line or lines of bearing from a single
agreed and understood by all concerned. object may be drawn at a desired safe
distance from the danger; provided the
Planning vessel remains in the safe segment, it will
be clear of the danger. Parallel index lines
10. Having made the fullest possible appraisal should also be drawn where appropriate.
using all the available information on board
relating to the intended passage, the navigating e) If an electronic chart system is used to
officer can now act upon the master’s assist passage planning the plan should
instructions to prepare a detailed plan of the also be drawn up on the paper charts.
passage. This should cover the whole passage, Where official (ENC) vector data is
from berth to berth, and include all waters available an ECDIS provided with fully
where a pilot will be on board. compliant ENC data for the vessel’s
passage may be used instead of paper
11. The formulation of the plan will involve charts. Raster Chart Display Systems
completion of the following tasks: (RCDS) using official and up to date
Raster charts can be used in conjunction
a) Plot the intended passage on the with paper charts to assist passage
appropriate charts and mark clearly, on the planning and route monitoring. Hazards
largest scale charts applicable, all areas of should be marked on the RCDS as well as
danger and the intended track taking into on the paper chart. Systems which use
account the margins of allowable error. unofficial chart data should not be used
Where appropriate, due regard should be for passage planning or navigation.

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(f) Decide upon the key elements of the to consult the chart. Supporting information
navigational plan. These should include, relative to the passage, such as times of high
but not be limited to: and low water, or of sunrise or sunset, should
also be recorded in this notebook.
(i) safe speed, having regard to the
manoeuvring characteristics of the 13. It is unlikely that every detail of a passage will
vessel and, when restricted by have been anticipated, particularly in pilotage
draught, an allowance for increase of waters. Much of what will have been planned
draught due to squat, and heel when may have to be adjusted or changed after
turning; embarking the pilot. This in no way detracts
from the real value of the plan, which is to
(ii) speed alterations necessary to mark out in advance, areas where the vessel
achieve desired ETAs en route, for must not go and the appropriate precautions
example where there may be which must be taken, and to give initial
limitations on night passage, tidal warning that the vessel is standing into danger.
restrictions, etc.;
Execution
(iii) positions where a change in
machinery status is required; 14. Having finalised the passage plan, and as
soon as estimated times of arrival can be
(iv) course alteration points, with wheel- made with reasonable accuracy, the tactics to
over positions where appropriate on be used in the execution of the plan should be
large scale charts taking into account decided. The factors to be taken into account
the vessel’s turning circle at the will include:
planned speed and the effect of any
tidal stream or current on the vessel’s (a) the reliability and condition of the
movement during the turn; vessel’s navigational equipment;

(v) minimum clearance required under (b) estimated times of arrival at critical
the keel in critical areas (having points for the tidal heights and flow;
allowed for height of tide);
(c) meteorological conditions, particularly in
(vi) points where accuracy of position areas known to be affected by frequent
fixing is critical, and the primary and periods of restricted visibility;
secondary methods by which such
positions must be obtained for (d) daytime versus night-time passing of
maximum reliability; danger points, and any effect this may
have upon position-fixing accuracy; and
(vii) contingency plans for alternative
action to place the vessel in deep water (e) traffic conditions, especially at
or proceed to an anchorage in the navigational focal points.
event of any emergency necessitating
abandonment of the plan; and 15. At this stage it is important for the master to
consider whether any particular circumstance
(viii) reporting positions for voluntary or introduces an unacceptable hazard to the safe
mandatory reporting schemes. conduct of the passage. An example could be
the forecast of restricted visibility in an area
12. Depending on circumstances, the main details where position fixing by visual means at a
of the plan should be marked in appropriate critical point is an essential feature of the
and prominent places on the charts to be used navigation plan. This could determine
during the passage. They should also be whether that section of the passage should be
programmed and stored electronically on an attempted under the conditions prevailing or
ECDIS or RCDS where fitted. The main details likely to prevail. The master should also
of the passage plan should also be recorded in consider at which specific points of the
a bridge notebook used specially for this passage additional deck or engine room
purpose to allow reference to details of the personnel will need to be utilised.
plan at the conning position without the need

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Monitoring 19. On every occasion when the vessel’s position
is fixed and marked on the chart in use, the
16. The vessel’s progress along the pre-planned estimated position at a convenient interval of
track must be monitored continuously and time in advance should be projected and
closely. The officer of the watch, whenever in plotted. With ECDIS or RCDS care should be
any doubt as to the position of the vessel or the taken to ensure that the display shows
manner in which the passage is proceeding, sufficient “look-ahead” distance and that the
should immediately call the master and, if next chart can be readily accessed.
necessary, take appropriate action for the
safety of the vessel. 20. Radar can be used to advantage in monitoring
the position of the vessel by the use of parallel
17. The performance of navigational equipment indexing, which is a simple and most effective
should be checked prior to sailing, prior to way of continuously monitoring that a vessel
entering restricted or hazardous waters and at is maintaining its track in restricted coastal
regular and frequent intervals at other times waters. Parallel indexing can be used in any
throughout the passage. situation where a radar-conspicuous
navigation mark is available and it is
18. Advantage should be taken of all the practicable to monitor continuously the
navigational equipment with which the vessel vessel’s position relative to such an object. It
is fitted for position monitoring, bearing in also serves as a valuable check on the vessel’s
mind the following points: progress when using an electronic chart.

(a) positions obtained by electronic Pilotage


positioning systems must be checked
regularly by visual bearings and transits 21. Pilots make a significant contribution to the
whenever available; safety of navigation in the confined waters
and port approaches of which they have up to
(b) visual fixes should, if possible, be based date knowledge. But it must be stressed that
on at least three position lines; the responsibilities of the vessel’s navigational
team and officer of the watch do not transfer
(c) transit marks, clearing bearings and clearing to the pilot.
ranges (radar) can be of great assistance;
22. After boarding the vessel, in addition to being
(d) it is dangerous to rely solely on the output advised by the master of the manoeuvring
from a single positioning system; characteristics and basic details of the vessel
for its present condition, the pilot should be
(e) the echo sounder provides a valuable clearly consulted on the passage plan to be
check of depth at the plotted position; followed. The general aim of the master
should be to ensure that the expertise of the
(f) buoys should not be used for position fixing pilot is fully supported by the vessel’s bridge
but may be used for guidance when shore team. (See also paragraph 16).
marks are difficult to distinguish visually; in
these circumstances their positions should 23. Attention is drawn to the following extract
first be checked by other means; from IMO Resolution A 285 (VIII):

(g) the functioning and correct reading of the “Despite the duties and obligations of a pilot, his
instruments used should be checked; presence on board does not relieve the officer of the
watch from his duties and obligation for the safety
(h) account must be taken of any system of the vessel. He should co-operate closely with the
errors and the predicted accuracy of pilot and maintain an accurate check on the
positions displayed by electronic position vessel’s position and movements. If he is in any
fixing systems; and doubt as to the pilot’s actions or intentions, he
should seek clarification from the pilot and if doubt
(i) the frequency at which the position is to still exists he should notify the master immediately
be fixed should be determined for each and take whatever action is necessary before the
section of the passage. master arrives.”

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24. Mariners are also referred to the following
publications which contain valuable advice on
bridge watchkeeping in general and passage
planning in particular:

“Bridge Team Management - A practical guide”


published by the Nautical Institute and
“Bridge Procedures Guide” published by the
International Chamber of Shipping.

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