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Workshop ‘Potensi Bisnis Alternatif di Lahan Gambut’

Bogor, 18 December 2017

Paludiculture Value Chains

- Kim Janssen, Kitri Widaretna &
Wim Giesen

Potential for paludiculture

• Definition:
“Sustainable cultivation of economically beneficial peat swamp
species on wet or rewetted peat“

• So, this does not mean:

o cultivation of dryland species such as buah naga, pineapple, etc...
o cultivation of peat swamp species on drained peat


Potential for paludiculture

§ >1400 angiosperms in Indonesian lowland peat
swamp forests
§ >500 of these have a known use Useful peat swamp
forest plant species.
§ >80 have known major economic use (PROSEA) Other uses
§ ongoing BGPP project in Sumatra: 20+ species 192
selected for further investigation
§ BGPP: 5 species selected for value chain studies: Timber
jelutung, kayu putih, sago, kemiri & tengkawang 222 221

Giesen, W.value chainnon-timber

(2015) - Utilising studies byproducts
forest BGPP colleagues
to conserve Indonesia’s peat
swamp forests &emissions.
reduce carbon Kitri Widaretna
J. of Indonesian Nat. Hist. 3(2):10-19.

Stakeholders in a value chain

(Post)- Proces- Consu
On-farm Distribution
harvesting sing -mer
• Government: • Buyers: village • Buyers: factories, • Buyers (retailers,
Forestry Dep, collectors, processing facility manufacturers)
Plantation Dep, district traders • Government: • Government:
Agriculture Dep • Government: Industry Dep Trade Dep
• Universities/ Forestry Dep, • Universities/ • Bank/ finance
Research Plantation Dep, Research options
• Farmer groups Agriculture Dep • Bank/ finance • Farmer
• Universities/ options cooperatives
Research • Farmer • Village enterprises
• Bank/ finance cooperatives (BUMDES)
options • Village • Marketing groups
• Farmer groups enterprises • Radio/ telecom-
(BUMDES) munication
• Marketing groups


Paludiculture case 1: jelutung rawa

• Dyera polyphylla (syn. Dyera lowii)
• Jelutung latex: mostly used as a gum
base for chewing gum (in past, also:
insulator, dentistry)
• Harvested in natural peat swamp
forests in Jambi for many decades,
including Berbak NP

The case of jelutung rawa in Jambi

• Cultivated in Jambi by PT Dyera
Hutan Lestari on 2,000 ha (8,000 ha
area) from 1992-2004 (tapping
started after 5-6 yrs)
• Consecutive peat fires destroyed
much of the plantations (which were
heavily drained!)


The case of jelutung rawa in Jambi

• Cultivated in Jambi by PT DHL on
2,000 ha (8,000 ha area) from 1992-
2004 (tapping started after 5-6 yrs)
• Consecutive peat fires destroyed
much of the plantations (draining!)
• From 2005, small-scale jelutung
cultivation continued in Jambi by
farmers in State Forest areas, REALU
project ICRAF, Perkebunan, ...
•Permits NTFP harvesting regulations in
required for harvesting NTFPs. Government Regulation
No.41/1999 followed
and No.54/2016.
No.6/2007,by strict
& MOEF enforcement
Regulations No.46/2009

in Jambi
Permits ledprocessing
required for to disruption ofRegulation
NTFPs. As per jelutung
latex trade chain
Permits to trade NTFPs. Forestry Ministerial Decree No.55/2006
requires permit holders to present NTFP freight invoices..
Taxation of certain NTFPs (such as jelutung). Trade Ministerial
Decree No.12/2012 states that for Jelutung latex, IDR60.000/kg
needs to be paid; this decree also covers other NTFP products.

Market potential for jelutung?

• Until recently, jelutung latex
was still traded from Sampit
(Central Kalimantan) to a food
company in Japan
• Supply has however been
unreliable and unable to meet
demand – this affects the
image of jelutung latex as a


Commercial potential of jelutung

30-year jelutung monoculture plantation:
• Net Present Value: IDR 32,611,353.-
• Benefit-Cost Ratio: 1.5
• Internal Rate of Return: 11.8%

Jelutung latex cultivation is commercially

feasible and profitable

However, case in Kalimantan shows that traders and exporters have

maintained very high margins on jelutung latex (68-76%), whereas
village and district collectors account for 30-33% (= unbalanced)

Reviving jelutung as a commodity

The following will be needed to revive jelutung as a commodity:
• Strategic and targeted marketing effort, as product has lost ground
with end users / consumers
• Revision of regulations that currently prevent development of
NTFPs such as jelutung
• Forming of village enterprises (BUMDES) so that farmers capture a
larger percentage (and not middle men)
• Technical improvement: fires (& termites) are due to lack of
rewetting peat; proper water management & higher GWLs needed.

The latter is a more widespread issue: many

programmes focus on dryland crops on
drained peat; this is not paludiculture, but
‘business as usual’


Paludiculture case 2: Kayu putih

• Kayu putih, locally known in Sumatra &
Kalimantan as gelam
• In Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan: mainly
Melaleuca cajuputi (in Eastern
Indonesia also M. leucadendra)
• In coastal areas between mangroves &
peat domes, on peat & mineral soils,
tolerant of acid sulphate soils, flooding
& (mild) fires
• In Mekong Delta, Vietnam, cultivated on
deep peat (3-5 m)
• Products: cajuput oil, honey & beeswax,
wood/pole production for construction,
pilings, paper (Vietnam), charcoal, sawn
timber, etc...

Kayu putih – value chain

Cajuput oil:
community members collect and
sell kayu putih leaves NPV: 4,403,727 IDR
BCR: 1.18

Perum Perhutani &

KPH Yogyakarta Retailers

Community-based oil production Collectors/

traders Retailers
in Moluccas & Papua

NPV: 258,686,275 IDR

BCR: 1.90 BCR: 1.72


Kayu putih – value chain

Forest honey and beeswax:
• Honey from Apis dorsata bees is harvested
by communities throughout Indonesia (not
yet specifically linked to Melaleuca
• Indonesian Forest Honey Network (JMHI)
and various NGOs support communities
with distribution & marketing of forest
honey & beeswax
• Commercial distributors of forest honey &
beeswax throughout Indonesia, selling
online, targeting high-end markets

Kayu putih – value chain interactions

Example of collaborative effort between stakeholders in
the forest honey value chain:
Under the Heart of Borneo initiative (WWF,
Governments of Indonesia, Malaysia &
Brunei), an MoU is in place in Kalimantan
between farmer groups, government
departments and civil society players to
establish a Centre for Entrepreneurship
particularly for the production of forest


Honey – value
chain interactions
Honey in Danau Sentarum NP,
Kapuas Hulu, West Kalimantan
<1992: honey market ‘captured’ by
local traders who gained 80% of profit
1992-95: ODA-funded project (with
AWB): introduce better processing via
Dinas Perindustrian: lower water
content, hygiene, simple bottling
machines, organize local collectors
2017: now several honey centres in
Kapuas Hulu & association of

Kayu putih – markets

Cajuput oil:
- according to Indonesian government
research institutes, demand for cajuput oil in
Indonesia 1500 ton/yr.) is about 3x as high
as the domestic supply (450-500 ton/yr.)
- Indonesia currently imports eucalyptus oil
from China to fill the supply gap of cajuput


Kayu putih – markets

MOEF estimates domestic demand for honey at 7,500 tons/yr.
Annual production only reaches 2,000-4,000 tons/yr.
Research shows that “gelam” honey has medicinal qualities similar to
high-value “manuka” honey from New Zealand
Used in cosmetics and for industrial manufacturing (e.g. candles,
polishers, batik printing). Cosmetic companies in Indonesia prefer
import beeswax from China as of better quality, even though more

Kayu putih as investment

• Preliminary economic calculations show
that 10-year old monoculture kayu putih
stand 30 hectares, producing cajuput oil,
honey & beeswax could result in:
NPV: IDR161,492,870
IRR: 25.4%
Benefit-Cost Ratio: 1.33

• Past economic studies in Vietnam show an IRR of >40%,

if wood & poles are also harvested
• Investment plan for gelam (wood) production Kalteng
being developed by GGGI


Promoting kayu putih as commodity

Needed to promote kayu putih as a commodity:
• Private & other investments , with promising returns, especially
with multiple products.
• Technical improvements: lots of variation within the species in
terms of growth, oil production, performance, etc...
• Not known for growing on peat, which it does, and well.
• PR problem: in some circles has poor image: ‘invasive’; trying to
establish a tree cover on highly degraded peat is only good.
Taxonomic confusion:
M. cajuputi (3 sub-species) M. leucadendra

Aspects of Value Chain Development

• Connecting with markets (farmer-merchant
ATM- Access to meetings)
Market • Direct linkages farmers-buyers
• Price standardization (via joint marketing groups)

• Price Information (SMS, Radio, Newsletter etc)

ATI – Access to • Standardizing quality control (Quality Control
Information Training / ICS)
• Information on government programs
• Credit schemes of Financial Institutions and
ATF – Access to Banking
Finance • BLU P2H - Forest Development Financing Center
• Investors


Thank you for your attention

For more information:

Kim Janssen:

Kitri Widaretna:
Wim Giesen: