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Ex. No.

: 1

PERFORMANCE TEST ON A FOUR STROKE DIESEL ENGINE

AIM
To conduct the performance test on a twin cylinder four stroke diesel engine.

THEORY
Internal combustion engine generally operates within a usual range of speed. Some
engines are made to run at fixed speed by means of a speed governor which is its rated
speed. At each speed within the useful range of power output varies and it has a maximum
usable value. The ratio of power developed to maximum usable power at the same speed is
called the load. The specific fuel consumption varies with the load and speed. The
performance of the engine depends on inter-relationship between power developed, speed
and the specific fuel consumption at each operating condition within the usual range of
speed and load.
The following factors are to be considered in evaluating the performance of an
engine:
i. Maximum power or torque available at each speed within the useful range of speed.
ii. The range of power output at constant speed for stable operation of the engine. The
different speeds should be selected at equal intervals within the useful speed range.
iii. Brake specific fuel consumption at each operating condition within the useful range of
operation.
iv. Reliability and durability of the engine for the given range of operation.

Engine performance characteristics can be determined by the following methods:


i. By using experimental results obtained from engine tests
ii. By analytical calculation based on theoretical data

Engine performance is really a relative term. It is represented by typical characteristic


curves which are functions of engine operating parameters. The term performance usually
means how well an engine is doing its job in relation to the input energy or how effectively it
provides useful energy in relation to some other comparable engines.
Some of the important parameters are speed, inlet pressure and temperature, output,
air-fuel ratio etc. The useful range of all these parameters is limited by various factors, like
mechanical stresses, knocking, overheating etc. Due to this, there is a practical limit of
maximum power and efficiency obtainable from an engine. The performance of an engine is

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judged from the point of view of the two main factors, namely engine power and efficiency.
Besides the overall efficiency, various other efficiencies are encountered when dealing with
the theory, design and operation of engines.

DESCRIPTION
The hydraulic dynamometer is coupled to the engine shaft and is mounted on a M.S.
channel frame. Panel board is used to fix burette with 3 way cock, digital rpm indicator and U
tube manometer.

Twin Cylinder 4 Stroke Diesel Engine Test Rig

INSTRUMENTATION
1. Digital RPM indicator to measure the speed of the engine.
2. Differential manometer to measure the quantity of air drawn into the engine cylinder.
3. Burette with manifold to measure the rate of fuel consumed during the test.
4. Digital temperature indicator to measure various temperatures.

ENGINE SPECIFICATION
Make : Kirloskar
BHP : 14 HP
Speed : 1500 rpm
No of cylinders :2
Compression ratio : 17.5 : 1
Bore : 87.5 mm

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Instrument Panel

Stroke : 110 mm
Orifice diameter : 20 mm
Type of ignition : Compression ignition
Method of starting : Crank start
Method of cooling : Water cooled
Method of loading : Hydraulic Dynamometer

LOADING SYSTEM
The engine test rig is directly coupled to the hydraulic dynamometer. By allowing the
water on the impeller of the dynamometer, the load can be applied on the engine. The load
can be varied in steps of ¼, ½, ¾ and full load by operating gate valve provided.
FUEL MEASUREMENT
The fuel supplied from the main fuel tank through a measuring burette with 3 way
manifold system. To measure the fuel consumption of the engine, fill the burette by opening
the cock measure the time taken to consume X cc of fuel.

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AIR INTAKE MEASUREMENT
The suction side of the engine is connected to an air tank. The atmospheric air is
drawn into the engine cylinder through the air tank. The manometer is provided to measure
the pressure drop across an orifice provided in the intake pipe of the air tank. This pressure
drop is used to calculate the volume of air drawn into the cylinder. The orifice diameter is 20
mm.
LUBRICATION
The engine is lubricated by mechanical lubrication.
Lubricating oil recommended – SAE 40 or equivalent

PROCEDURE
1. Connect the panel instrumentation input power line at 230 V, 50 Hz, single phase
power source.
2. Connect the inlet and outlet water connection to the engine and to the hydraulic
dynamometer.
3. Fill fuel into the fuel tank mounted on the panel frame.
4. Check the lubricating oil in the engine sump with the help of dip stick provided.
5. Open the fuel cock provided under the burette and ensure no air trapped in the fuel
line connecting fuel tank and engine.
6. Decompress the engine by decompression lever provided on the top of the engine
head. (lift the lever for decompression)
7. Crank the engine slowly with the help of handle provided and ascertain proper flow of
fuel into the sump and in turn through the nozzle into the engine cylinder. Crank the
engine and pull the compression lever down, now the engine start. Allow the engine
to run and stabilize at approximately 1500 rpm. (the engine is a constant speed
engine, fitted with centrifugal governor)
8. Now load the engine by allowing the water to the dynamometer by operating the gate
valve.
9. Note down the required parameters, indicated on the panel instruments on each load
step.
a. Speed of the engine from digital rpm indicator
b. Fuel consumption from burette
c. Quantity of airflow from manometer
d. Different temperatures from temperature indicator
10. Turn off the fuel knob provided on the panel after the test.

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TABULATION OF MEASUREMENTS

Sl. S N H1 H2 Time for 10 cc of fuel


T1 (°C) T2 (°C) T3 (°C)
No. (kg) (rpm) (mm) (mm) consumption (s)

1 0

2 5

3 10

4 15

5 20

CALCULATIONS
1. Brake Power
2NT
BP 
60
where,
N - speed (rpm)
T - s x r x 9.81/1000 (kN m)
s - spring balance reading (kN)
r - radius of the arc  310 mm

2. Mass of fuel consumed


0.83  X  3600
MFC  kg / hr 
1000  T
where,
X - burette reading (cc)
0.83  density of diesel (gm/cc)
T - time taken (seconds)

3. Specific fuel consumption

SFC 
MFC
kg / kWh
BP

4. Actual volume of air sucked in to the cylinder

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Va  c d  A 2 gH  3600 m 3 / hr 
where,
w
H 
h
 m of water 
1000 a
d 2
A - area of orifice 
4
d  20 mm
h  manometer reading (mm)
w
 density of water  1000 kg/m 3
a
c d  coefficien t of discharge  0.62

5. Swept volume
 d 2 N 
Vs    L   60   2
 4 2 
 
where,
d - bore  87.5 mm
L - stroke  110 mm
N - speed of the engine (rpm)

6. Volumetric efficiency
VA
v   100
VS

7. Brake thermal efficiency


BP  3600  100
 bth 
MFC  CV
where,
CV - calorific value of diesel  42500 kJ/kg

8. Mechanical Efficiency
BP  100
 mech 
IP
9. Indicated Thermal Efficiency
IP  3600  100
 bth 
MFC  CV
where
IP - Indicated Power(kW)

RESULT
Thus, the performance test on a four stroke diesel is conducted and the performance
parameters are determined.

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Ex. No.: 2
DETERMINATION OF HEATING VALUE OF A FUEL

AIM
To determine the heating or calorific value of the given solid fuel by bomb
calorimeter.

APPARATUS
Bomb Calorimeter
Water jacket
Stirrer
Pressure gauge with stand
Pellet press
Crucible
Ignition wire
Given fuel

THEORY
Bomb calorimeter is normally used for determining the higher calorific value of solid
fuels. However, it is also used for liquid fuels. The combustion of the fuel takes place at
constant volume in a totally enclosed vessel. Thus higher calorific value at constant volume
is determined. If the combustion leads to reduction in volume of the products when reduced
to initial temperature, the values obtained are different from actual heat liberated.
i. Calorific value of fuel (Cv): the calorific value of fuel is defined as the amount of
heat liberated by the complete combustion of a unit quantity of fuel. In SI units, for
solid and liquid fuels, it is expressed in terms of kJ/kg of fuel and for gaseous fuels in
kJ/m3 at STP. The two types of calorific values are higher calorific value and lower
calorific value.
ii. Higher Calorific value (HCv): the higher calorific value of fuel is defined as the
amount of total heat obtained by the complete combustion of a unit quantity of fuel
when the products of its combustion have been cooled down to the temperature of air
supplied.
iii. Lower Calorific value (LCv): the lower calorific value of fuel is defined as the net
heat obtained when the heat absorbed by water formed during the combustion is not
recovered.

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DESCRIPTION

Bomb Calorimeter
The bomb calorimeter consists of a strong stainless steel shell which is known as the
bomb. Inner surface of the bomb is coated with special enamel to prevent corrosion of acids
formed as a result of combustion of fuel containing sulphur or nitrogen. The capacity of the
bomb is 303 cc and it can withstand a pressure up to 300 atm. bottom of the shell is screwed
in a cover which forms the base of the shell. Though the threads are gas tight, water is filled
in the bomb to a specified level to act as water seal; also a hydraulic ‘U’ type rubber joint is
used. Thus undue tightening of base cover is avoided. The oxygen connection and the
pressure release valve are placed in the top cover. Bottom cover of the bomb supports two
uprights, one of them carrying a ring to support crucible made of stainless steel. The upstairs
are provided through the bottom with two insulated firing plugs through which the leads from
the main supply are taken via a rheostat. During a test, the bomb is placed in a copper
vessel known as calorimeter which contains 2000 cc of water that is agitated by stirrer run by
a motor at a speed of 800 rpm. The calorimeter is surrounded by an outer double walled
vessel with water jacket and air space between these two containers to reduce radiation
loss. A fitting for the thermometer is provided in the calorimeter.

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
A known amount of the sample is burnt in a sealed chamber (hereafter we shall refer
to the chamber as bomb). The air is replaced by pure oxygen. The sample is ignited
electrically. As the sample burns, heat is produced. The rise in temperature is determined.
Since, barring loss of heat, the amount of heat produced by burning the sample must be

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equal to the amount of heat absorbed by the calorimeter assembly, knowledge of the water
equivalent of the calorimeter assembly and of the rise in temperature enables one to
calculate heat of combustion of the sample.

PROCEDURE
1. About one gram of the fuel is weighed in the crucible; a weighed piece of firing wire is
stretched between the electrodes in such a manner that it is in close contact with the
fuel so that it may be ignited.
2. Often the powdered coal is made into small pellet with the fuse wire inserted in it,
weighed and placed in the crucible.
3. The cap is screwed down on the bomb and oxygen is filled in the cup to a pressure of
about 30 atm. the bomb is then placed in a weighed amount of water, taken in the
calorimeter.
4. Electrical connections are made, stirring is started and temperature reading is taken
with a thermometer reading to 0.01°C.
5. When the thermometer shows a steady temperature the electrical contact is made to
fire the fuel and temperature readings are continued for 45 minutes after the
maximum temperature is attained.
6. The water is stirred during the experiment.
7. The bomb is then removed and allowed to stand so that the acid mist may settle
down. The pressure is slowly released and the contents of the bomb are carefully
washed.
8. In actual practice correction needs to be made for the heat of fuse wire.

PRECAUTIONS

1. Do not use too much sample. The bomb cannot be expected to stand with the effects
of combustible charges which liberate more than 10000 calories. This generally limits
the total weight of the combustible material (sample plus gelatin, firing oil or any
combustible aid) to not more than 1.1 gram. Do not charge with more oxygen than is
necessary and do not fire the bomb if an over charge of oxygen should accidentally
be admitted.
2. Keep all the parts of bomb especially the insulated electrode assembly in good repair
at all times. Do not fire the bomb if gas bubbles are leaking from the bomb when it is
submerged in water.
3. Stand back from the calorimeter for at least 15 seconds after firing the above all,
keep clear of the top of the calorimeter. If the bomb should explode, it is most likely
that the force of explosion will be directed upwards.

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CALCULATIONS

Energy equivalent of calorimeter

H  M   E1  E 2
We 
T
where,
H - Heat of combustion of given fuel in calories per gram  26539.8 kJ/kg
M - Mass of given fuel sample in grams  0.95  10 - 3 kg
T - Temperatur e rise in deg celsius  T2  T1  2.6  C
 
T1 - Initial temperatur e  C
T2 - Final temperatur e C 
E 2 , E1 - correction for heat of combustion of firing wire (16.8 kJ), benzoic acid if present
(26539.8 kJ/kg) respective ly.

Therefore, W e  10223.77 J/  C

We  T  H  M
where,
W e - water equivalent of calorimete r  10223.77 J/  C
T - rise in tamperatur e
H - Calorific value of the sample (J/kg)
M - Mass of the sample taken

W T
Therefore, H  (kJ/kg)
M

OBSERVATION

Mass of the sample, M =

Initial temperature, T1 =

Final temperature, T2 =

Water equivalent, W e =

Sl.No. Time (s) Temperature (°C)

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T
E
M
P
E
R
A
IGNITION
T
U
R

TIME

RESULT
Thus, the heating value of the given fuel is determined using Bomb calorimeter.

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Ex. No.: 3

DETERMINATION OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF METAL ROD

AIM
To determine the thermal conductivity of given metal rod.

THEORY
From Fourier’s law of heat conduction

dT
Q   kA
dx
where
Q  Rate of heat conduction W 
 
A  Area of heat transfer m 2
k  Thermal conductivi ty of material W/mK 
dT
dx
 Temperatur e gradient K  
m

Thermal conductivity is a property of a material and may be defined as the amount of


heat conducted per unit time through unit area, when a temperature gradient of unit degree
is maintained across unit thickness.

DESCRIPTION OF THE APPARATUS

Thermal Conductivity of Metal Bar Apparatus

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The apparatus consists of a brass rod, one end of which is heated by an electric
heating coil while the end protrudes into the cooling water jacket. The rod is insulated with
glass wool to minimize the radiation and convection loss from the surface of the rod and thus
ensure nearly constant temperature gradient throughout the length of the rod. The
temperature of the rod is measured at five different locations. The heater is provided with a
dimmerstat for controlling the heat input. Water is circulated through the jacket and its flow
rate and temperature rise can be measured.

SPECIFICATIONS
Specimen material : Brass rod
Size of the specimen : 20 mm dia, 450 mm long
Cylindrical shell : 300 mm long
Voltmeter : Digital type, 0 – 300 volt, AC
Ammeter : Digital type, 0 – 20 amp, AC
Dimmer for heating coil : 0 – 230 V, 12 amps
Heater : Band type Nichrome heater, 250 W
Thermocouple used : 11 Nos
Temperature indicator : Digital type, 0 – 400 V, Cr-Al

PROCEDURE
1. Power supply is given to the apparatus.
2. Give heat input to the heater by slowly rotating the dimmer and adjust the voltage to
say 25 V, 50 V etc.
3. Start the cooling water supply through the jacket and adjust its flow rate so that the
heat is taken away from the specimen constantly.
4. Allow sufficient time for the apparatus to reach steady state.
5. Readings of voltmeter and ammeter are taken.
6. Note the temperatures along the length of the specimen rod at 5 different locations.
7. Note down the inlet and outlet temperatures of cooling water and measure the flow
rate of water.
8. Repeat the experiment for different heat inputs.

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OBSERVATION TABLE
Water
Voltmeter Ammeter Heat Temp Volume
Metal rod thermocouple
Reading Reading Input (°C) flow rate
Reading (°C)
‘V’ ‘I’ VxI of water,Q
Inlet Outlet
(volt) (Amp) (W) (cc/min)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11

CALCULATION
Plot the variation of temperature along the length of the rod. From the graph, obtain
dT/dx, which is the slope of the straight line passing through / near the points in the graph.
Assuming no heat loss by radiation or convection, heat conducted through the rod is equal to
the heat carried away by the cooling water.
dT
Heat conducted through the rod   kA
dx
Heat carried away by the cooling water  m w c pw T11  T10 
where
k  Thermal conductivi ty of metal rod (W/mK)

A  Cross sectional area of metal rod 


d 2
4
m 2 
d  diameter of the rod  20 mm
c pw  Specific heat of water  4.187 kJ/kgK
m w  mass flow of water kg/s 

Thus, the thermal conductivity ‘k’ of metal rod can be evaluated as follows,

mw c pw T11  T10 
k
A  dT
dx

RESULT
Thus the experiment is carried out in a metal bar setup and the thermal conductivity
of brass bar is determined.

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Ex. No.: 4
DETERMINATION OF THERMAL RESISTANCE OF COMPOSITE WALL

AIM
To determine the overall heat transfer coefficient for the composite wall and to
compare the same with the calculated value from the equations.

THEORY
A composite wall comprises of a number of layers of different materials, widths and
thermal conductivity. Composite walls find in many applications namely, in furnaces,
electrical cables, nuclear reactors, pipe lines carrying steam etc.

Composite Wall with Three Layers


The heat conducted through composite wall is given by,
AT1  T4 
Q
 L1   L2   L3 
       
 k1   k 2   k 3 

Q  U  A  T
where
Q  Rate of heat conducted, W
U  Overall heat transfer coefficient, W/m 2K
A  Area of heat flow, m 2
T  Overall temperatur e difference ,  C

1
U
 L1   L2   L3 
       
 k1   k 2   k 3 

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where L1, L2 and L3 are the thicknesses and k1, k2 and k3 are the thermal conductivities of
the three layers respectively.

SPECIFICATIONS
1. Heater : Coil type, capacity 250 W
2. Heater control unit : 0 – 230 V, 0 – 2 amp
3. Voltmeter range : 0 – 300 V
4. Ammeter range : 0 – 20 amp
5. Temperature indicator : 0 – 800 °C, AC, 230 V (Digital type)
6. Thermocouple used : Teflon coated, chromal – alumal
7. Thickness of each slab : 6 mm = 0.006 m
8. Diameter of each slab : d = 150 mm = 0.15 m
9. Thermal conductivity of steel : k1 = 45 W/mK
10. Thermal conductivity of asbestos : k2 = 0.1662 W/mK
11. Thermal conductivity of brass : k3 = 110.7 W/mK

DESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS

Thermal Conductivity of Composite Wall Apparatus

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The apparatus consists of three slabs made of mild steel, asbestos and brass having
same thickness. The three slabs are clamped on both sides using bolts and nuts. On one
side of the composite wall, a heater is provided. The heater input can be varied using a
dimmerstat. The thermocouples are embedded at three different places in each section to
find out the average temperature. On the outside of the wall, cooling water jacket is provided
which takes away the heat conducted through the slabs. The mass flow rate of water and its
raise in temperature can be determined.

PROCEDURE
1. Connect the equipment to the power supply.
2. Adjust the power input to the required value.
3. Allow sufficient time to attain steady state.
4. Note down all the temperatures by operating the knob.
5. Measure water flow rate and its raise in temperature.
6. Repeat the experiment for different heat input.

OBSERVATION
1. Heater input
Voltmeter reading, V = ----- volt
Ammeter reading, I = ----- amp
Heat input, Q = V x I Watt
2. Temperature measurements, °C
i. Hot end, T1 = -----; T2 = -----
T  T2
Mean temperature, Th  1
2
ii. Contact layer between M.S. and Asbestos
T3 = -----; T4 = -----
T  T4
Mean temperature, Tms & asb  3
2
iii. Contact layer between asbestos and brass
T5 = -----; T6 = -----
T  T6
Mean temperature, Tasb & bra  5
2
iv. Cold end, T7 = -----; T8 = -----
T  T8
Mean temperature, Tc  7
2

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v. Water inlet temperature, T9 = -----
vi. Water outlet temperature, T10 = -----
3. Flow rate of water, V = ----- cc/min

TABULATION

Heat input Temperatures (°C)


Sl.
No. V I VxI
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10
(volt) (amp) (Watt)

CALCULATION

To find overall heat transfer coefficient, U;

d 2
i. Area of the slab, A  , m2
4

ii. Overall heat transfer coefficient (theoretical) is given by


1
U th  ,W
 L1   L2   L3  m2 K
       
 k1   k 2   k 3 
iii. Heat input to composite wall is equal to heat carried away by cooling water.

iv. Heat carried away by cooling water = m c pw T9  T10 , watt

 V  1000
v. Mass flow rate of water, m  , where V is in cc/min
10 6  60
vi. Overall heat transfer coefficient (experimental) is given by
Q
U exp  , W/m 2 K
ATh  Tc 

RESULT
Thus the experiment is carried out on a composite wall and the theoretical and
experimental values of overall heat transfer coefficient are determined.

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Ex. No.: 5
COP TEST ON VAPOUR COMPRESSION AIR CONDITIONING TEST RIG

AIM
To conduct a performance test on air conditioner trainer (duct type) and to find out
coefficient of performance and relative humidity at different psychrometric processes.

SYSTEM COMPONENTS
1. Hermetically sealed compressor ( 1 ton capacity) – Kirloskar make
2. Air cooled condenser
3. Fan motor with blade
4. Expansion device – capillary tube & thermostatic expansion valve
5. Rotameter
6. Hand shut off valve – 3/8 inch
7. Filter – drier
8. Energy meter (5 – 10 A)
9. Solenoid valve (3/8 inch)
10. Thermostat
11. Pressure / compound gauges
12. Digital voltmeter (0 – 300 V, AC)
13. Digital ammeter (0 – 20 A, AC)
14. Digital temperature indicator (-50° to +150°C)
15. Thermocouples ( K type – Cr/Al)
16. LP – HP cutout
17. DP switch for mains
18. Refrigerant R-22
19. Evaporator coil placed inside the duct
20. Liquid receiver with control valves
21. Finned heaters for dehumidification process with electronic dimmers
22. Boiler for producing steam for humidification process
23. Density of R-22 = 1172.48 kg/m3 at liquid state

This air conditioner is a laboratory model with total instrumentation mounted on a portable
trolley made of MS square tubes. The panel and base are also of MS, totally powder coated.

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Air Conditioner Trainer (Duct Type)
THEORY
This air conditioner works on vapour compression refrigeration cycle.

Vapour Compression Refrigeration cycle


The standard vapour compression cycle consists of the following processes:
1. Process 1-2 represents reversible adiabatic compression from saturated vapour to the
condenser pressure or superheated vapour.
2. Process 2-3 represents reversible heat rejection at constant pressure, depreheating and
condensation.

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3. Process 3-4 represents irreversible constant enthalpy expansion from saturated liquid to
the evaporator pressure.
4. Process 4-1 represents reversible heat addition at constant pressure ( evaporation to
saturated vapour)

The refrigerants such as R-12, R-22, R-134a (commercially known as freons) are used as
working medium because of their properties which are required in refrigeration cycles.

AIR CONDITONING
Air conditioning signifies the automatic control of an atmospheric environment either for
comfort of human beings or animals or for the proper performance of some industrial or
scientific process. The purpose of air conditioning is to supply sufficient volume of clean air
containing a specific amount of water vapour and at a temperature capable of maintaining
predetermined atmospheric conditions within a selected enclosure.

The air conditioning systems are broadly classified into two groups namely
i.Comfort air conditioning
ii.Industrial air conditioning
The comfort air conditioning systems are subdivided into three groups:
1. Summer air conditioning:
The problem encountered is summer air conditioning is to reduce the sensible heat
and the water vapour content of the air by cooling and dehumidifying.
2. Winter air conditioning:
The problem encountered in winter air conditioning is to increase the sensible heat
and water vapour content of the air by heating and humidification.
3. Year round air conditioning:
This system assures the control of temperature and humidity of air in an enclosed
space throughout the year when the atmospheric conditions are changing as per the
season.
Industrial air conditioning provides air at required temperature and humidity to perform a
specific industrial process successfully. The design conditions are not based on the feeling
of the human beings but purely on the requirement of the industrial process.

PSYCHROMETRY AND PSYCHROMETRIC PROPERTIES:


Atmospheric air always contains water vapour and water vapour plays an important role
in comfort air conditioning.

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The sciences which deals with the study of the behavior of air and water vapour mixture
is known as psychrometry. The properties of water vapour and air mixture are known as
psychrometric properties.
Following are some psychrometric properties:
Specific humidity
The amount of water vapor in the air can be specified in various ways. Probably the most
logical way is to specify directly the mass of water vapor present in a unit mass of dry air.
This is called absolute or specific humidity (also called humidity ratio).
Atmospheric air and dry air
Air in the atmosphere normally contains some water vapor (or moisture) and is referred to as
atmospheric air. By contrast, air that contains no water vapor is called dry air.

Dry-bulb temperature
The ordinary temperature of atmospheric air is frequently referred to as the dry-bulb
temperature.
Wet-bulb temperature
Thermometer bulb is covered with a cotton wick saturated with water and to blow air over the
wick. The temperature measured in this manner is called the wet-bulb temperature Twb.
Dew-point temperature
The dew-point temperature Tdp is defined as the temperature at which condensation begins
when the air is cooled at constant pressure. In other words, Tdp is the saturation
temperature of water corresponding to the vapor pressure.

PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
A chart which shows the inter relation of all the important properties like relative humidity,
WBT, specific volume, enthalpy, DBT, specific humidity is known as psychrometric chart.

Psychrometric Chart

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PSYCHROMETRIC PROCESSES
Sensible heating or cooling

Many residential heating systems consist of a stove, a heat pump, or an electric


resistance heater. The air in these systems is heated by circulating it through a duct that
contains the tubing for the hot gases or the electric resistance wires, as shown in Fig. 14–21.
The amount of moisture in the air remains constant during this process since no moisture is
added to or removed from the air. That is, the specific humidity of the air remains constant
during a heating (or cooling) process with no humidification or dehumidification.

Cooling with Dehumidification

The specific humidity of air remains constant during a simple cooling process, but its relative
humidity increases. If the relative humidity reaches undesirably high levels, it may be
necessary to remove some moisture from the air, that is, to dehumidify it. This requires
cooling the air below its dew point temperature.

23 | P a g e
Heating with Humidification

Problems associated with the low relative humidity resulting from simple heating can be
eliminated by humidifying the heated air. This is accomplished by passing the air first
through a heating section (process 1-2) and then through a humidifying section (process 2-
3), as shown in Fig.
THERMOCOUPLE DETAILS
T1 – temperature of refrigerant at inlet of compressor
T2 – temperature of refrigerant at outlet of compressor
T3 – temperature of refrigerant at outlet of condenser
T4 – temperature of refrigerant at outlet of expansion device
T5 – ambient temperature
WDB1 – wet and dry bulb temperature of air at inlet of duct
WDB2 – wet and dry bulb temperature of air at outlet of duct

OPERATING PROCEDURE
1. Plug in the mains cord of the system.
2. Switch ON the DP switch so that the digital panel meters indicate corresponding
readings.
3. Switch ON the condenser fan and blower. ( CF & EF)
4. Start the system by switching ON the thermostat by opening the corresponding valves
depending on solenoid and thermostatic expansion valve or capillary expansion device.
5. Allow air flow through the air conditioning chamber and let it stabilize for few minutes.
6. Record T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, P1, P2, V, I and Rota meter reading. Also note down wet and
dry bulb temperature inlet and outlet.
7. Take 3 to 4 readings for every 10 minutes.
8. For humidification operation:
i. Fill the water through water inlet valve to the boiler about half to ¾ and close the valve.

24 | P a g e
ii. Switch on the boiler for about 45 to 60 minutes.
iii. When steam is formed close the glass tube valve and open steam inlet valve and allow
it to flow about minutes. (say 10 min)
iv. Record wet and dry bulb temperature at inlet and outlet.
9. For dehumidification operation:
i. Switch on the heater switches.
ii. Vary the electronic dimmer up to the corresponding indicator glows.
iii. Allow it for few minutes.
iv. Record wet and dry bulb temperature at inlet and outlet.
10. Then switch off heaters / boiler, thermostat and after about 5 min switch off CF, EF and
main.

CALCULATION

 Theoretical COP
h  h4
COP = 1
h2  h1
From R-22 p-h chart,
h1 – enthalpy in Kj/kg corresponding to P1 and T1
h4 – enthalpy in Kj/kg corresponding to P2 and T3
h2 – enthalpy in Kj/kg corresponding to P2 and T2

 Carnot COP
T1
COP =
T2  T1
Where T1 – temperature of refrigerant at inlet of compressor in K
T2 – temperature of refrigerant at outlet of compressor in K

 Actual COP
Q Refrigerat ion Effect
COP = 
W Compressor Input
Q  ma  c pa  Ti  To  kJ
where,
ma - mass flow of air
ma  velocity of air  area of anemometer  density of air

25 | P a g e
By using anemometer the velocity of air can be found.
c pa  specific heat of air  1.005 kJ/kgK
Ti  air inlet temperatur e
To - air outlet temperatur e from duct
density of air  1.197 kg/m 3
mass of air  0.2015 kg/s

V I
 Compressor input W  kW
1000
V - volts from voltmeter
I - current in amps from ammeter

 Relative COP
Actual COP
COPrel 
Theoretica l COP
 Mass of refrigerant
mref   ref  Vref (kg)
Rota meter reading  m 3 
Vref 
1000  3600  kg 
 
 ref at T3 condenser outlet temperatur e  from R - 22 table
 ref  ____ kg
m3

RESULT
Thus the experiment is conducted on a vapour compression air conditioning test rig
and the theoretical, actual and relative COP values are determined.

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Ex. No.: 6
COP TEST ON VAPOUR COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION TEST RIG

AIM
To conduct performance test on vapour compression type refrigeration tutor and to
find out coefficient of performance and efficiency of the cycle.

SYSTEM COMPONENTS
1. Hermitically sealed compressor – 1/3 HP capacity
2. Air cooled condenser – 1/3 HP, size: 12” x 13” x 2 rows
3. Fan motor with blade, 1/3 HP
4. Expansion device – capillary and thermostatic valve
5. Rotameter - 0.4 to 4 LPH (Eureka)
6. Hand shut off valves – ¼”
7. Filter drier
8. Energy meter: 2.5 – 5 amps
9. Solenoid valve
10. Thermostat
11. Pressure / compound gauges
12. Digital voltmeter 0 – 300 V, AC
13. Digital ammeter 0 – 5 A, AC
14. Digital temperature indicator: - 5 to + 150°C
15. Thermocouple selector switch
16. Thermocouples – k type(Cr/Al)
17. LP / HP cutout
18. DP switch for mains
19. Refrigerant R-134a
20. Evaporator coil placed in a chiller
21. Density of refrigerant (134a) = 1374 kg/m3

DESCRIPTION
The apparatus is a laboratory scale working model of a refrigeration cycle unit,
portable trolley mounted, housed on a MS square tube frame with powder-coated metallic
platform to give elegant finish.
The compressor is fitted on the platform with fan-cooled condenser. The evaporator
(chiller) – made of copper coil, placed in a insulated stainless steel vessel with fiber glass
coated interior, housed in a wooden chamber.

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The Rota meter, thermostat expansion valve, solenoid valve, pressure / compound
gauge, LP / HP cutout, voltmeter, ammeter and temperature indicator with selector switch (
to measure temperature at different points of the refrigeration system) are mounted on the
panel. Hand shut off valves are provided at different points to control the flow refrigerant.

THEORY
The major difference in theory and treatment of vapour refrigeration system as
compared to the air refrigeration system is that, the vapour alternatively undergoes a change
of phase from vapour to liquid and liquid to vapour during the cycle. The latent heat of
vapourisation is utilized for carrying heat from the refrigerator, which is quite high compared
with the air-cycle, which depends only upon the sensible heat of the air.
The substances used do not leave the plant but are circulated through the system
alternately after condensing and re-evaporating. During evaporation, it absorbs its latent
heat from the brine, which is used for circulating around the cold chamber. In condensing, it
gives out its latent heat to the circulating water or air of the cooler, the machine is therefore,
known as Latent Heat Pump. It absorbs its latent heat from the brine and gives out in the
condenser.

Refrigeration Tutor

28 | P a g e
All the principal parts are shown in the diagram, and path of the refrigerant flow is
also shown. The pressure is maintained at different levels in two parts of the system by the
expansion valve (high side float valve). The function of the expansion valve is to allow the
liquid refrigerant under high pressure to pass at a controlled rate into the low pressure part of
the system. Some of the liquid evaporates passing through the expansion valve, but greater
portion is vaporized in the evaporator at low pressure (low temperature). The liquid
refrigerant absorbs its latent heat of vaporization from the air, water or other material, which
is being cooled. The function of the compressor is to increase the pressure and temperature
of the refrigerant above atmospheric, which will be ready to dissipate its latent heat in the
condenser. In passing through the condenser, the refrigerant gives up the heat, which is
absorbed in the evaporator plus the heat equivalent of the work done upon it by the
compressor. This heat is transferred to the air or water, which is used as cooling medium in
the condenser.

The standard vapour compression cycle consists of the following processes:


1. Process 1-2 represents reversible adiabatic compression from saturated vapour to
the condenser pressure or superheated vapour.
2. Process 2-3 represents reversible heat rejection at constant pressure, depreheating
and condensation.

Vapour Compression Refrigeration cycle

29 | P a g e
3. Process 3-4 represents irreversible constant enthalpy expansion from saturated liquid to
the evaporator pressure.
4. Process 4-1 represents reversible heat addition at constant pressure ( evaporation to
saturated vapour)

The refrigerants such as R-12, R-22, R-134a (commercially known as freons) are used as
working medium because of their properties which are required in refrigeration cycles.

PERFORMANCE OF STANDARD VAPOUR COMPRESSION CYCLE


Process 1 -2 is the compression process wherein mechanical work is to be supplied
(usually in the form of electrical energy) to a compressor. This is the quantity to be spent.
Process 4 -1 represents the useful refrigeration effect. The index of the performance is
defined as coefficient of performance ( not as efficiency, as for heat engines).

COP is defines as follows, (theoretical)


Useful refrigerat ion output  h h
COP   1 4
Network compressor work input  h2  h1
Carnot COP
A Carnot refrigeration cycle consists of all reversible process. It will have the highest
coefficient of performance when operating between any temperature limits.
T1 TLOW
COPcarnot   
T2  T1 THIGH  TLOW
T  Temperatur e in Kelvin

Note: Carnot cycle COP depends only on condenser and evaporator temperatures. Carnot is
an ideal cycle. It cannot be constructed in practice. However it is used as a guideline for
comparison.

THERMOCOUPLE DETAILS
T1 – temperature of refrigerant at inlet of compressor
T2 – temperature of refrigerant at outlet of compressor
T3 – temperature of refrigerant at outlet of condenser
T4 – temperature of refrigerant at outlet of expansion device
T5 – temperature of water at chiller
C – Condenser, E – Evaporator

30 | P a g e
Let P1, P2 be pressures, h1, h2, h3 and h4 be the specific enthalpies of the refrigerant
respectively. These are to be found out from relevant p-h chart.

OPERATING PROCEDURE
1. Switch On the main through the DP switch.
2. Fill the chiller with a known quantity of water.
3. Select either capillary / thermostatic expansion through solenoid valve and open the
corresponding valve.
4. Note the initial temperature of water and time.
5. Switch on the condenser fan and compressor by rotating the thermostat in clockwise
direction.
6. Allow the operating system to run for a known time.
7. Note down the corresponding readings.
8. Change the operating system and repeat the above steps from 4 to 7.

CALCULATION

 Theoretical COP
h  h4
COP = 1
h2  h1
From R-22 p-h chart,
h1 – enthalpy in kJ/kg corresponding to P1 and T1
h4 – enthalpy in kJ/kg corresponding to P2 and T3
h2 – enthalpy in kJ/kg corresponding to P2 and T2

 Carnot COP
T1
COP =
T2  T1
Where T1 – temperature of refrigerant at inlet of compressor in K
T2 – temperature of refrigerant at outlet of compressor in K

 Actual COP
Q Refrigerat ion Effect
COP = 
W Compressor Input

31 | P a g e

Q  mw  c pw  T f  Ti kJ 
where,
m w - mass of water  14 kg
c pw  specific heat of water  4.18 kJ/kgK
Tf  final chiller wa ter temper ature in deg celsius
Ti - initial chiller wa ter temper ature in deg celsius

n  3600
 Compressor work input = W 
t  EMC
Where,
n – no of revolutions of energy meter disc
t – time taken
EMC – energy meter constant = 1500 rev / kWh

 Relative COP
Actual COP
COPrel 
Theoretica l COP

 Mass of refrigerant
mref   ref  Vref (kg)
Rota meter reading  m 3 
Vref 
1000  3600  kg 
 
 ref at T3 condenser outlet temperatur e  from R - 22 table
 ref  ____ kg
m3

RESULT
The performance test is carried out on a vapour compression refrigeration test rig
using solenoid valve as expansion device and COP values are determined.

32 | P a g e
Ex. No.: 7
VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM OF FOUR CYCLE DIESEL ENGINE

AIM
To draw the valve timing diagram of the given four stroke cycle diesel engine.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
1. Four stroke cycle diesel engine
2. Measuring tape
3. Chalk
4. Piece of paper

THEORY AND DESCRIPTION


The diagram which shows the position of crank of four stroke cycle engine at the
beginning and at the end of suction, compression, expansion, and exhaust of the engine are
called as Valve Timing Diagram.
The extreme position of the bottom of the cylinder is called “Bottom Dead Centre”
[BDC].IN the case of horizontal engine, this is known as “Outer Dead Centre” [ODC]. The
position of the piston at the top of the cylinder is called “Top Dead Centre” [TDC].In case of
horizontal engine this is known as “Inner Dead Centre” [TDC]. In case of horizontal engine
this is known as “inner dead center “[IDC]
In an ideal engine, the inlet valve opens at TDC and closes at BDC. The exhaust valve
opens at BDC and closes at TDC. The fuel is injected into the cylinder when the piston is at
TDC and at the end of compression stroke But in actual practice it will differ.

Inlet Valve opening and closing:


In an actual engine, the inlet valve begins to open 5°C to 20 °C before the piston
reaches the TDC during the end of exhaust stroke. This is necessary to ensure that the
valve will be fully open when the piston reaches the TDC. If the inlet valve is allowed to close
at BDC , the cylinder would receive less amount of air than its capacity and the pressure at
the end of suction will be below the atmospheric pressure . To avoid this inlet valve is kept
open for 25° to 40°after BDC.
Exhaust valve opening and closing
Complete clearing of the burned gases from the cylinder is necessary to take in more
air into the cylinder. To achieve this exhaust valve is opens at 35° to 45° before BDC and
closes at 10° to 20° after the TCC. It is clear from the diagram, for certain period both inlet

33 | P a g e
valve and exhaust valve remains in open condition. The crank angles for which the both
valves are open are called as overlapping period. This overlapping is more than the petrol
engine.
Fuel valve opening and closing:
The fuel valve opens at 10° to 15 °before TDC and closes at 15° to 20 ° after TDC.
This is because better evaporation and mixing fuel.

Cut Section Model of 4 Stroke Diesel Engine


PROCEDURE
1. Remove the cylinder head cover and identify the inlet valve, exhaust valve and piston of
particular cylinder.
2. Mark the BDC and TDC position of flywheel
This is done by rotating the crank in usual direction of rotation and observe the position
of the fly wheel, when the piston is moving downwards at which the piston begins to
move in opposite direction. i.e. from down to upward direction . Make the mark on the
flywheel with reference to fixed point on the body of the engine. That point is the BDC for
that cylinder .Measure the circumference. That point is TDC and is diametrically opposite
to the BDC.
3. Insert the paper in the tappet clearance of both inlet and exhaust valves
4. Slowly rotate the crank until the paper in the tappet clearance of inlet valve is gripped
make the mark on fly wheel against fixed reference. This position represent the inlet
valve open (IVO). Measure the distance from TDC and tabulate the distance.

34 | P a g e
5. Rotate the crank further, till the paper is just free to move. Make the marking on the
flywheel against the fixed reference. This position represents the inlet valve close (IVC).
Measure the distance from BDC and tabulate the distance.
6. Rotate the crank further, till the paper in the tappet clearance of exhaust valve is gripped.
Make the marking on the flywheel against fixed reference. This position represents the
exhaust valve open (EVO). Measure the distance from BDC and tabulate.
7. Then convert the measured distances into angle in degrees

TABULATION

35 | P a g e
RESULT
Thus the valve timing for the given four stroke diesel engine is found out and is
drawn.
Inlet valve opens =
Inlet valve closes =
Exhaust valve opens =
Exhaust valve closes =

36 | P a g e
Ex. No.: 8
PORT TIMING DIAGRAM OF A TWO STROKE PETROL ENGINE

AIM
To draw the port timing diagram of given two stroke cycle petrol engine.

APPARATUS REQUIRED
1. Two stroke petrol engine
2. Measuring tape
3. Chalk

THEORY AND DESCRIPTION


In the case of two stroke cycle engines the inlet and exhaust valves are not present.
Instead, the slots are cut on the cylinder itself at different elevation and they are called ports.
There are three ports are present in the two stroke cycle engine.
1. Inlet port
2. Transfer port
3. Exhaust port
The diagram which shows the position of crank at which the above ports are open
and close IS called port timing diagram. The extreme position of the piston at the bottom of
the cylinder is called “Bottom Dead centre “[BDC]. The extreme position of the piston at the
top of the cylinder is called “TOP dead centre “[TDC].

Cut Section Model of 2 Stroke Petrol Engine

37 | P a g e
In two stroke petrol engine the inlet port open when the piston moves from BDC to TDC and
is closed when the piston moves from TDC to BDC. The transfer port is opened when the
piston is moved from TDC to BDC and the fuel enters into the cylinder through this transport
from the crank case of the engine. The transfer port is closed when piston moves from BDC
to TDC. The transfer port opening and closing are measured with respect to the BDC. The
exhaust port is opened, when the piston moves from TDC to BDC and is closed when piston
moves from BDC to TDC. The exhaust port opening and closing are measured
with respect to the BDC.

PROCEDURE
1. Remove the ports cover and identify the three ports.
2. Mark the TDC and BDC position of the fly wheel. To mark this position follow the same
procedure as followed in valve timing diagram.
3. Rotate the flywheel slowly in usual direction (usually clockwise) and observe the
movement of the piston.
4. When the piston moves from BDC to TDC observe when the bottom edge of the
piston. Just uncover the bottom end of the inlet port. This is the inlet port opening (IPO)
condition, make the mark on the flywheel and measure the distance from TDC.
5. When piston moves from TDC to BDC observe when the bottom edge of the piston
completely covers the inlet port. This is the inlet port closing (IPC) condition. Make the mark
on the flywheel and measure the distance from TDC.
6. When the piston moves from TDC to BDC, observe, when the top edge of the piston
just uncover the exhaust port. This is the exhaust port opening [EPO] condition. Make the
mark on the flywheel and measure the distance from BDC.
7. When the piston moves from BDC to TDC, observe, when the piston completely cover
the exhaust port. This is the exhaust port closing condition [EPC]. Make the mark on the
flywheel and measure the distance from BDC.
8. When the piston moves from TDC to BDC observe, when the top edge of the piston
just uncover the transfer port. This is the transfer port opening [TPO] condition. Make the
mark on the flywheel and measure the distance from BDC
9. When the piston moves from BDC to TDC, observe, when the piston completely
covers the transfer port. This is the transfer port closing [TPC] condition. Make the mark on
the flywheel and measure the distance from BDC.

Note:
1. The inlet port opening distance and closing distance from TDC are equal.
2. The exhaust port opening distance and closing distance from BDC are equal.
3. The transfer port opening distance and closing distance from BDC are equal.

38 | P a g e
TABULATION

Port timing diagram of 2 Stroke Petrol Engine


RESULT
Thus the port time for the given two stroke petrol engine is found out and the port
timing diagram is drawn.
Transfer port opens =
Transfer port closes =
Exhaust port opens =
Exhaust port closes =

39 | P a g e
Ex. No.: 9
DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC HEAT OF SOLID
AIM
To determine the specific heat of a metal using calorimeter.

THEORY AND DESCRIPTION


When a substance is heated, the motion of its individual particles increases, resulting
in increase of its temperature. The more heat that is added per gram of substance, the
greater the temperature change. The relationship between the heat added, the mass of a
substance, and the temperature change it undergoes is known as specific heat.

Specific heat is defined as the amount of energy necessary to produce a temperature


change of 1°C per gram of substance. The specific heats of different substances vary, and
therefore this quantity may be useful in identifying an unknown. The measurement of heat
changes is called calorimetry. In this lab, calorimetry will be used to determine the specific
heat of an unknown metal. This will be done using a coffee cup calorimeter containing water.
A calorimeter is insulated so as to minimize any loss of energy to the surroundings.
Therefore, when a heated piece of metal is placed into the calorimeter, all of the energy
should be accounted for. In other words, the energy released from the metal should be
gained by the water, with no loss to the surroundings. This is based on the Law of
Conservation of Energy, which states that energy is neither created nor destroyed. We will
assume no heat loss to the calorimeter.
Energy released by metal = Energy gained by water

Calorimeter

40 | P a g e
There are five measurements that must be made to determine the specific heat of the
unknown metal:
1. Determine the mass of the piece of metal.
2. Heat the metal piece to a known temperature and measure this temperature precisely.
This is the initial temperature of the metal.
3. Determine the mass of the water in a calorimeter.
4. Measure the temperature of the water in the calorimeter. This is the initial temperature of
the water.
5. Place the metal piece into the water of the calorimeter and measure the highest
temperature reached by the water. This is the final temperature of both the metal and the
water.
The energy change of water is calculated by rearranging the specific heat equation.

Energy Change = Mass of water x Specific heat of water x Temperature change of water

Since the energy gained by the water equals the energy released by the metal, the
specific heat of the metal is calculated as follows:

MATERIALS REQUIRED
1. Unknown metal
2. Bunsen burner
3. 18 mm x 150 mm test tube
4. 400 mL beaker
5. Ring stand and supports
6. Thermometer
7. Calorimeter (Styrofoam cup)
8. Test tube holder
9. Wire gauze

PROCEDURE
1. Obtain a calorimeter. Weigh it as precisely as possible. Fill the calorimeter with about 40
mL (or enough to cover the metal) of distilled water at room temperature. Reweigh the
calorimeter.
2. Weigh the unknown metal as precisely as possible (should be at least 25 g). Place the
unknown metal into a 18 mm x 150 mm test tube.

41 | P a g e
3. Set up a water bath using a 400 mL beaker. Fill the beaker halfway with water and add
several Boileezers. Place the test tube into the water bath (see figure, right). Heat with a
Bunsen burner until the water is boiling. Continue heating for 10 minutes.
4. Measure the temperature of the boiling water. This is assumed to be the initial
temperature of the metal piece. It may be necessary to replenish the water in the beaker,
as it should not be allowed to boil to dryness. Be sure that the level of the water in the
beaker remains higher than the metal piece in the test tube.
5. Measure the temperature of the water in the calorimeter. Immediately remove the test
tube from the water bath, using a test-tube holder. Carefully transfer the metal piece into
the calorimeter by sliding it out. Use a glass rod to guide it, if necessary. Be careful not to
allow any water from the test tube to enter the calorimeter. Do not allow any water from
the calorimeter to spatter out.
6. Perform the calculations on the next page. Once you have determined the identity of your
metal based on your calculations, see your Lab Assistant. You must bring your metal
and your lab to the Lab Assistant in order to have your answer checked and your lab
initialed.
7. Cleanup Clean your lab area and glassware before being signed out.

TABULATION
Details Trial 1 Trial 2
Mass of calorimeter
Mass of calorimeter and water
Mass of water
Mass of metal
Temperature of boiling water bath
(initial temperature of metal)
Initial temperature of water in calorimeter
Highest temperature of water in calorimeter
Calculations
Temperature change of metal
Temperature change of water
Specific heat of unknown metal
Average specific heat

RESULT:
Thus the specific heat capacity given metal / liquid is determined.

42 | P a g e
Ex. No.: 10
DETERMINATION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF PARALLEL FLOW AND COUNTER FLOW
HEAT EXCHANGERS

AIM
To determine the effectiveness of parallel flow and counter flow heat exchangers.

THEORY
Consider the double-pipe heat exchanger shown in Fig 1. The heat transfer rate at
any distance x along the tubes between the hot and the cold fluids is given by
qx = UA (Th –Tc) …………………….. (1)
where
A - surface area for heat transfer consistent with definition of U
Th - temperature of hot fluid
Tc - temperature of cold fluid
and U is the overall heat transfer coefficient based on either the inside or outside
area of the tube.

Parallel and Counter flow Heat exchanger


If U is based on the inside area Ai of the tube it is given by

43 | P a g e
and if it is based on the outside area Ao

where
ri = inner radius of the tube
ro = outer radius of the tube
hi = convection heat transfer coefficient at the inner surface of the tube.
ho = convection heat transfer coefficient at the outer surface of the tube.

Temperature variation across the tubes

The fluids may flow in either parallel flow or counter flow, and the temperature
profiles for these two cases are also shown in figure. As it is seen the temperature of the hot
and cold fluids change along the tube and so in order to calculate the heat transfer between
the two fluids equation (1) should be integrated between the inlet and outlet conditions. If this
is done, the heat transfer rate can be expressed as

44 | P a g e
where ∆Tm is the suitable mean temperature difference across the heat exchanger and it
can be found to be

This temperature difference is called the log mean temperature difference (LMTD)
and is valid for both parallel and counter flow conditions. The derivation of equation (5) is
based on two important assumptions: (1) the fluid specific heats do not vary with
temperature and (2) the convection heat transfer coefficients are constant throughout the
exchanger. The second assumption is usually the most serious one because of entrance
effects, fluids viscosity and thermal conductivity changes etc.
The heat loss from the hot fluid flowing in the inner tube can be determined from

where
m - mass flow rate
Cp - specific heat
Thin - temperature of the hot fluid at the entrance to the heat exchanger.
Thout - temperature of the hot fluid at the exit of the heat exchanger and subscript h refers to
the hot fluid.

Similarly the heat gained by the cold fluid flowing in the space between the inner and outer
pipes can be determined from

Although the outer surface of the concentric tubes is insulated some heat is lost through the

45 | P a g e
insulating material to the surrounding air so that qc is less than qh. Accordingly the efficiency
of the heat exchanger may be defined as

The effectiveness of a heat exchanger is defined as

The actual heat transfer may be computed by calculating either the energy lost by the
hot fluid from equation (6) or the energy gained by the cold fluid from equation (7). Since
some of the energy gained by the cold fluid is lost through the insulating material to the
surroundings we shall use the energy lost by the hot fluid as the actual heat transfer in
equation (9). To determine the maximum possible heat transfer for the exchanger, we first
recognize that this maximum value could be attained if one of the fluids were to undergo a
temperature change equal to the maximum temperature difference present in the exchanger,
which is the difference in the entering temperatures for the hot and cold fluids. The fluid
which might undergo this maximum temperature difference is the one having the minimum
value of mCp.
So, maximum possible heat transfer is expressed as

The minimum fluid may be either the hot or cold fluid, depending on the mass flow rates and
specific heats, and so the effectiveness ε is

In the counter flows heat exchanger if the minimum fluid is the cold fluid then Th - Tc = ∆T
will converge at the hot inlet end. Alternatively if the minimum fluid is the hot fluid ∆T will
converge at the cold inlet end. In the parallel flow heat exchanger ∆T will always converge at
the outlet end.

EXPERIMENT SETUP
The equipment consists of a concentric tube exchanger mounted on a support frame.
The external surface of the exchanger is insulated. Three temperature measuring devices
are installed in both the inside and outside tubes, to measure the fluid temperatures
accurately. To minimize losses in the system, the hot water is fed through the inner pipe,
with the cooling water in the outer annulus. Control valves are incorporated in each of the
two streams to regulate the flow. The flow rates are measured using independent flow
meters installed in each line. The hot water system is totally self – contained. A hot storage

46 | P a g e
tank is equipped with an immersion type heater and an adjustable temperature control,
which can maintain a temperature to within approximately ± 1ºC. Circulation to the heat
exchanger is provided by a pump, and water returns to the storage tank via baffle
arrangement to ensure adequate mixing. The cold water required for the exchanger is taken
from the laboratory mains supply. A readily identifiable valve arrangement allows simple
changeover between parallel and counter flow configurations.

PROCEDURE
1. Set the hot and cold fluids in parallel flow across the heat exchanger
2. Set the hot water temperature control to 60°C
3. Adjust the hot water flow rate to 2000 cc/min
4. Adjust the cold water flow rate to 1000 cc/min
5. Take readings of the hot and the cold water at inlet and outlet once conditions have
stabilized.

TABULATION
Cold water
Hot water inlet Hot water outlet Cold water inlet
outlet
Temperatures temperature(Thi) temperature(Tho) temperature(Tci)
temperature(Tco)
°C °C °C °C

CALCULATIONS
1. Calculate qh from equation (6)
2. Calculate qc from equation (7)
3. Find the efficiency of the heat exchanger using equation (8)
4. Find LMTD using equation (5)
5. Find the overall heat transfer coefficient U from equation (4) using q h as the heat transfer
rate.
6. Find the effectiveness of the heat exchanger using equations (11), (10) and (6)
7. Tabulate the results
Heat lost by Heat gained Logarthmic mean Overall heat
Effectiveness
hot water by cold water temperature difference transfer coefficient
ε
qh (°C) qc (°C) ∆Tm (°C) U (W/m2K)

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8. Draw the temperature profiles of the hot and cold fluids along the heat exchanger.

RESULT
The experiment on the concentric tube heat exchangers are carried out in parallel
flow mode and counter flow mode and the corresponding effectiveness values are
determined.

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EXPERIMENT BEYOND SYLLABUS

DETERMINATION OF VISCOSITY OF OIL USING REDWOOD VISCOMETER

AIM
To determine the absolute and kinematic viscosities of given lubricating oil at various
temperatures starting from room temperature.

APPARATUS
Redwood viscometer
Thermometers
Stop watch
Measuring flask (50 cc)
Spirit level
Glass jar
Oil (SAE20 / SAE40)

THEORY
i. Absolute viscosity (  ): Absolute viscosity is a measure of resistance to relative
translational motion of adjacent layers of a fluid. It is the property of a fluid. The unit
of viscosity is poise or centipoise (cp).
ii. Specific viscosity: specific viscosity is the ratio of the viscosity of fluid to the viscosity
of water at 20°C. Since the water has a viscosity of 1 cp at 20°C.
iii. Kinematic viscosity (  ): kinematic viscosity is defined as the ratio of absolute or
dynamic viscosity to the density of the fluid.

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON VISCOSITY


Increase in temperature causes a decrease in the viscosity of a liquid, whereas
viscosity of gases increases with temperature growth. The viscous forces in a fluid are the
outcome of intermolecular cohesion and molecular momentum transfer. In liquids the
molecules are comparatively more closely packed, molecular activity is rather small and so
the viscosity is primarily due to molecular cohesion.

DESCRIPTION
The redwood viscometer consists of a heavily silver plated oil cup with a dished
bottom placed in a bright chrome plated water bath. The water bath is mounted on a stand

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with leveling screws. The level to which the oil is to be filled into cup is given by and index
fixed to the inside wall of the oil cup. A standard size jet of stainless steel is fitted at the
centre of the bottom of the cup for the flow out of oil of liquid to be measured. The cylindrical
water bath is provided with a tap for emptying.

Redwood Viscometer Setup


The bath of liquid is stirred manually by means of a cylinder surrounding the oil cup
provided with three vanes, having their upper and lower portions in opposite directions.
The valve for starting and stopping the flow of the liquid from the oil cup consists of a
ball carried on a stiff wire, both heavily silver plated.
The oil cup cover is fitted with an insulated handle and has suitable slots for the slots
for the oil cup thermometer and valve rod. The circular spirit level is mounted on a plate to fit
on the upper end of the oil cup.

Redwood Viscometer

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PROCEDURE
1. The oil cup is cleaned with a suitable solvent, for example, carbon tetrachloride and
then dry it thoroughly using tissue paper or some similar material which will not leave
any fluff. Examine the jet and ensure that it is clean and not obstructed.
2. The viscometer is leveled by using the level feet. The viscometer bath is heated to a
few degrees above the desired test temperature.
3. The prepared sample of the oil is poured into the oil cup through a filler of metal
gauge not coarser than BS 100 mesh. Mesh size indicates the number of holes
divided in one square inch area.
4. The temperature of bath is adjusted until the sample in the cup is maintained at the
test temperature. Stirring the contents of the bath and cup during the process be
assured, preferably using continuous stirring for both.
5. The sample is stirred during the preliminary period, for example, by means of ball
valve, closing the bottom of the jet by suitable means, but not during the actual
determination.
6. When the temperature of the sample has become quite steady at the desired value,
the liquid level is adjusted by allowing the sample to flow out until the surface of the
sample touches the filling point.
7. The oil cup cover is placed and the oil cup thermometer is swung towards the closed
and of the curved slot in the cover.
8. The clear, dry, standard 50 cc flask is placed centrally below the jet with the top of
the neck a few mm from the bottom of the jet. Redwood viscometer is suitable for
measurement of viscosity less than 2000 seconds.
9. The flask is not insulated in any way. The ball valve is lifted and simultaneously the
time recorder is started.
10. The time recorder is stopped at the instant the sample reaches the graduation mark
of the flask and the final reading of the oil cup thermometer is noted.
11. The procedure is repeated for various temperatures and the time in seconds is noted
at each temperature and the results are tabulated.

OBSERVATION

Oil sample:
Mass of the collecting flask, m1:

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Mass of flask
Oil Time taken to Kinematic
with 50 ml Oil density, ρ
Sl.No. temperature ‘t’ collect 50 ml of oil, viscosity,
collected oil, m2 (kg/m3)
(°C) ‘R’ (seconds) ν (m2/s)
(kg)

CALCULATION
1. Kinematic viscosity,

  A  R  centistokes 
B
R
where,
A and B are viscometer constants
A  0.26
B  171.5
R - time in seconds for collection of 50 cc of oil in the flask

2. Absolute viscosity = Kinematic viscosity x Density


     centipoise 

GRAPHS
1. Absolute viscosity Vs Temperature
2. Kinematic viscosity Vs Temperature
Redwood Seconds

Temperature 52 | P a g e
Kinematic viscosity

Temperature

RESULT
The absolute and kinematic viscosities of given lubricating oil at various temperatures
are determined using Redwood viscometer.

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VIVA QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

1. Define heat transfer.


Heat transfer can be defined as the transmission of energy from one region to another due
to temperature difference.

2. What are the modes of heat transfer?


1. Conduction
2. Convection
3. Radiation.

3. What is conduction?
Heat conduction is a mechanism of heat transfer from a region of high temperature to a
region of low temperature within a medium [solid, liquid or gases] or different medium in
direct physical contact.

4. State Fourier’s law of conduction.


The rate of heat conduction is proportional to the area measured normal to the direction of
heat flow and to the temperature gradient in that direction.
Q α – A dT / dx
Q = -kA dT /dx
Where, A – Area in m2
dT / dx – Temperature gradient, K/m
k – Thermal conductivity, W/mK.

5. Define Thermal conductivity.


Thermal conductivity is defined as the ability of a substance to conduct heat.

6. What is conduction?
Heat conduction is a mechanism of heat transfer from a region of high temperature to a
region of low temperature within a medium [solid, liquid or gases] or different medium in
direct physical contact.

7. State Fourier’s law of conduction.


The rate of heat conduction is proportional to the area measured normal to the direction of
heat flow and to the temperature gradient in that direction.

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Q α – A dT / dx
Q = -kA dT /dx
Where, A – Area in m2
dT / dx – Temperature gradient, K/m
k – Thermal conductivity, W/mK.

8. Define Thermal conductivity.


Thermal conductivity is defined as the ability of a substance to conduct heat.

9. Write down the equation for conduction of heat through a slab or plane wall.
Heat transfer, Q = ∆ Toverall / R
Where, ∆ T = T1 – T2
R = L / kA – Thermal resistance of slab
L – Thickness of slab
K – Thermal conductivity of slab
A – Area

10. Write down the equation for conduction of heat through a hollow cylinder.
Heat transfer, Q = ∆ Toverall / R
Where
∆ T = T1 – T2
R = 1 / 2πLk in [r2 / r1] – Thermal resistance of slab.
L – Length of cylinder
k – Thermal conductivity
r2 – Outer radius
r1 – Inner radius

11. What are the factors affecting the thermal conductivity?


a. Moisture b. Density of material c. Pressure d. Temperature e. Structure of material.

12. What is heat exchanger?


A heat exchanger is defined as equipment which transfers the heat from a hot fluid to a cold
fluid.

13. What is meant by Direct heat exchanger [or] open heat exchanger?
In direct contact heat exchanger, the heat exchange takes place by direct mixing of hot and
cold fluids.

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14. What is meant by Indirect contact heat exchanger?
In this type of heat exchangers, the transfer of heat between two fluids could be carried out
by transmission through a wall which separates the two fluids.

15. What is meant by parallel flow heat exchanger?


In this type of heat exchanger, hot and cold fluids move in the same direction.

16. What is meant by counter flow heat exchanger?


In this type of heat exchanger, hot and cold fluids move in parallel but opposite directions.

17. What is meant by cross flow heat exchanger?


In this type of heat exchanger, hot and cold fluids move at right angles to each other.

18. What is meant by Shell and tube heat exchanger?


In this type of heat exchanger, one of the fluids moves through a bundle of tubes enclosed
by a shell. The other fluid is forced through the shell and it moves over the outside surface of
the tubes.

19. What is meant by LMTD?


We know that the temperature difference between the hot and cold fluids in the heat
exchanger varies from point to point. In addition various modes of heat transfer are involved.
Therefore based on concept of appropriate mean temperature difference, also called
logarithmic mean temperature difference, the total heat transfer rate in the heat exchanger is
expressed as
Q = U A [∆T]m
Where, U=Overall heat transfer co-efficient [W/m2K],
A=Area, m2
[∆T]m = Logarithmic mean temperature difference.

20. What is meant by Effectiveness?


The heat exchanger effectiveness is defined as the ratio of actual heat transfer to the
maximum possible heat transfer.
Effectiveness ε = Actual heat transfer / Maximum possible heat transfer = Q / Qmax

21. Power requirement of a refrigerator is___________.


Inversely proportional to COP.

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22. In SI units, one ton of refrigeration is equal to _________.
210 kJ/min.

23. Define tons of refrigeration and COP.


A tonne of refrigeration is defined as the quantity of heat required to be removed from one
tonne of water [1000 kg] at 00C to convert that into ice at 00C in 24 hours. In actual practice,
1 tonne of refrigeration = 210kJ/min = 3.5kW.

24. The capacity of a domestic refrigerator is in the range of ___________.


1 to 3 tonne.

25. Name four important properties of a good refrigerant.


1. Low boiling point.
2. High critical temperature & pressure.
3. Low specific heat of liquid.

26. What is the difference between air conditioning and refrigeration?


Refrigeration is the process of providing and maintaining the temperature in space below
atmospheric temperature. Air conditioning is the process of supplying sufficient volume of
clean air containing a specific amount of water vapour and maintaining the predetermined
atmospheric condition with in a selected enclosure.

27. Name any four commonly used refrigerants.


1. Ammonia [NH3].
2. Carbon dioxide [CO2].
3. Sulphur di oxide [SO2].
4. Freon – 12.

28. What are the advantages and disadvantages of air refrigeration system?
Advantages:
1. The refrigerant used namely air is cheap and easily available.
2. There is no danger of fire or toxic effects due to leakages.
3. The weight to tonne of refrigeration ratio is less as compared to other systems.
Disadvantages:
1. The quantity of refrigerant used per tonne of refrigeration is high as compared to other
system.

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2. The COP of the system is very low. Therefore running cost is high.
3. The danger of frosting at the expander valves is more as the air contains moisture
content.

29. What is net refrigerating effect of the refrigerant?


Refrigerating effect is the total heat removed from the refrigerant in the evaporator.
COP = Refrigeration effect / Work done.
Refrigeration effect = COP x Work done.

30. Define refrigerant.


Any substance capable of absorbing heat from another required substance can be used as
refrigerant.

31. What is psychrometry?


Psychrometry is a study of properties of moist air.

32. Define DPT and degree of saturation.


DPT [Dew point Temperature] is the temperature to which moist air is to be cooled before it
starts condensing.
Degree of saturation is the ratio of specific humidity of moist air to the specific humidity of
saturated air at temperature.

33. Degree Relative Humidity [RH] and Specific humidity.


RH is the ratio of the mass of water vapour [mv] in a certain volume of moist air at a given
temperature to the mass of water vapour [mvs] in the same volume of saturated air at the
same temperature. i.e., RH [or] φ = mv / mvs
Specific humidity [ω] is the ratio of mass of water vapour [mv] to the mass of dry air in the
given volume of mixture. i.e., ω = mv / ma

34. How are air-conditioning systems classified?


I. Based on construction of components:
[i] Unitary system, [ii] Central system, [iii] Package system, [iv] Split units.
II. Based on fluid flow methods:
[i] Direct expansion [DX] system, [ii] Chilled water [DX] system, [iii] Chilled water air washer
system.

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35. How does humidity affect human comfort?
If the humidity is above a certain level, water vapour from human body moisture cannot be
absorbed by the atmospheric air. It results in discomfort because of sweating.

36. What are the various sources of heat gain of an air-conditioned space?
[i] Solar gain through glass panes.
[ii] Solar gain through roof and walls.
[iii] Heat gain from occupants.
[iv] Heat gain from appliances and lights.
[v] Duct leakage.
[vi] Infiltration.
[vii] Vapour transmission.

37. Define bypass factor [BPF] of a coil.


The ratio of the amount of air which does not contact the cooling coil [amount of bypassing
air] to the amount of supply air is called BPF. i.e., BPF = Amount of air bypassing the coil /
Total amount of air passed.

38. What factors affect by pass factor?


1. Pitch of fins.
2. Number of coil tubes.
3. Air velocity over the coil.
4. Direction of air flow.

39. What are the requirements of comfort a/c?


1. Supply of O2 and removal of CO2.
2. Removal of heat of occupants.
3. Removal of moisture of occupants.
4. Good air distribution.
5. Maintaining air purity.

40. What factors affect effective temperature?


1. Climatic and seasonal differences.
2. Clothing.
3. Age and sex.
4. Activity.
5. Stay duration.
6. Air velocity

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