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Description of 500 MW C.S.T.P.S.

Turbine Cycle
500 MW Turbine is a 3 stage KWU turbine. The salient constructional features
of H.P.T, I.P.T. and L.P.T. are:
H.P. Turbine:
The Turbine consists of single flow Cylinder with barrel type casing. Initial
steam is admitted by 4 main steam Stop and Control valves. In this machine, the
stop valve and control valve are combined and has single body. The exhaust steam
lines, two in numbers, are connected to Reheater and Swing check valves are
provided on these lines to prevent Reheat Steam entry in to the H.P. Casing.
The outer casing is barrel type and has neither axial nor radial flange.
Absence of flanges reduces the mass and high thermal stresses. Due to the perfect
rotational symmetry, the wall thickness is uniform at all sections. The guide blade
carrier is axially split and kinematically supported. In H.P. Turbine, Main steam is
admitted in to the inner casing i.e. guide blade carrier, and it expands on the
number of moving and fixed blades. Exhaust steam is taken to boiler for reheating.
Arrangements are made in the steam supply line to let a part of steam to enter the
outer casing (barrel casing). To prevent leakage of this steam to exhaust, seals are
provided. U shaped seals are also provided to prevent leakage through shaft seals.
There are 2 locations from where Cylinder drains are taken out. This being reaction
turbine, the pressure drop takes place across the moving blades. To avoid inter stage
leakage, due to the difference in pressure between successive blade stages, suitable
sealing is provided. The HPT shaft is provided with balancing dummy piston at inlet
end to balance the thrust. Shaft seals are provided to seal the interior of the turbine
casing against the inrush of ambient air through passage around the shaft at
admission and exhaust side. Main oil pump is coupled to the turbine shaft through
geared coupling.
I.P. Turbine:
I.P. Turbine is of double flow construction. Attached in the axially split casing
is an inner casing supported kinematically, on which fixed blades are fitted. Reheat
steam is admitted to the inner casing from Top and Bottom center of the casing.
Exhaust steam, from inner casing enters in to the outter casing, thus subjecting the
joint of the outter casing to low pressure, low temperature steam.
L. P. Turbine:
The casing is double flow and is of three-shell construction. Shells are axially
split. The inner shell, taking the first rows of guide (i.e. fixed) blades, is attached
kinematically in the middle shell. Middle shell is independent of the outter shell and
is supported on four points no longitudinal beams. Two last rows of the guide blades
are fitted to the middle shell. Atmospheric relief diaphragms, 2 in numbers, are
provided on the casing. In the eventuality of Condenser getting pressurized due to
the failure of evacuation system or failure of Condenser cooling water system, the
diaphragms rupture and steam is released in to atmosphere and thus depressurizes
the condenser. LPT exhaust hood is directly placed on the condenser flanges and
continuously welded to form leak proof joint.
The entire turbine is provided with Reaction blading. The guide and rotating
blades of H.P, I. P. and first row of L. P. Turbine, with inverted T roots and shrouding
are milled from one piece. Last stages of L.P. Turbine rotating blades are of twisted
and drop forged construction, and the fixed blades are made of Sheet steel.

KTC/CH/ILK/GCT-8/02,Version1, Rev00, 10-12-2003

R.S. Kulkarni, EE(G), KTC
Prepared By Page 1 of 8 Approved By
H. P. Rotor is supported on two bearings. The front bearing is Journal bearing
while real one is combined journal and thrust bearing. I.P. and L. P. Rotors have one
Journal bearing each at end of shaft. Bearing temperature is measured by
thermocouples fitted at lower shell directly under the white metal lining. Thrust metal
bearing temperature is measured on two opposite thrust pads. HPT front and rear
bearing pedestals are based on the base plates. These pedestals as well as IPT
bearing pedestal move axially when casing expands. LP pedestal is fixed in position.
Th brackets at the sides of HP and IP parts are supported by the pedestals at the
level of machine axis. In the axial direction, HP and IP parts are firmly connected
with the pedestals by means of casing guides, without restricting radial movement.
Since the casing guides do not yield in response to the axial displacement, the HP
and IP casings as well as associated bearing pedestals move forward from the front
LP bearing pedestal on thermal expansion.
Governing System;
The Turbine has Electro hydraulic governing system. Turbine out put and RPM
is measured and controlled by electric system. The control and stop valves are
operated hydraulically and an Electro- hydraulic converter does the conversion of
electrical control signals to hydraulic signals. The hydraulic oil for operation of
Governing system is separate from lubricating oil. It is called F. R. F. (Fire resistant
fluid). The oil system for governing consists of F.R.F. Tank, Oil Pumps, Oil Cooler,
Filters etc. Turbine can be run up from barring speed to rated speed automatically.
Turbine Fixed points:
The fixed points of turbine are:
1) Bearing housing between IP and LP Turbine
2) Rear bearing housing
3) Longitudinal beam of LPT
4) Thrust bearing for the shaft
Technical Data:
Type: Three cylinder, reheat condensing turbine.
Single flow HP Turbine with 18 reaction stages.
Double flow IP Turbine with 14 reaction stages per flow.
Double flow LP Turbine with 6 reaction stages per flow.
4 main stop and control valves
4 reheat stop and control valves
2 swing check valves on cold reheat lines
2 LP Bypass stop and control valves
Rating: Nominal rating - 500 MW
Peak loading - 524.4 MW
Speed: Rated Speed - 3000 RPM
Max. Speed, no time limitation – 3090 RPM
Min. Speed, no time limitation - 2850 RPM
Permissible for Max 2 Hours in life time of turbine: >3090
< 2850
Speed exclusion range at Operation woth our load - 402 to 2850
Standard Over speed trip setting - 3330 RPM
 This speed range should be passed through in one smooth operation to avoid endangering
the blades due to resonance.

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Steam Parameters: All pressures are absolute pressures.
Steam parameters at Rated Rated Pressure, In special cases
Temperature ° C ata at no load
Initial Steam 537 170
Before 1st HP drum Stage - 156.0
Reheat steam at IP turbine 537 40.4
stop valve inlet
HP Cylinder Exhaust 343.0 44.9 500 °C
Extraction 6 343.0 44.9
Extraction 5 429.0 19.45
Extraction 4 302.0 7.57
Extraction 3 197.0 2.76
Extraction 2 137.0 1.42
Extraction 1 68.0 0.286
LP Cylinder Exhaust 43.0 0.0884
Limits of various parameters:
Parameter Alarm Trip
Low vaccume trip 8000 mm WC 7000 mm WC
0.31 ata
Low vaccume trip during bypass operation - 0.61 ata
HPT casing exhaust side temperature 480° C 500° C
Outer casing of LPT, exhaust side temperature 90° C 110° C
Temp difference between HPT casing top and ± 30° C ± 90° C
bottom, measured at HPT middle
Temp difference between IPT casing top and ± 30° C ± 45° C
bottom, measured at IPT front and rear
Bearing temperature 90° C 120° C
Absolute Bearing Housing Vibrations 35 μm 45 μm
Absolute Shaft Vibrations 120 μm 200 μm
Axial Shift ± 0.5 mm
Differential Expansion in mm – HPT +5/-3 +5/-3
IPT +8 / -2
LPT +30 / -3

Barring Gear:
Turbine is provided with Hydraulic Barring Gear. It consists of the hydraulic
turbine wheel mounted on the shaft between IPT real bearing and LPT. The wheel is
driven with the help of Lubricating oil obtained from A. C. Auxiliary oil pump. This oil
passes via a check valve in to nozzle box and then in to the nozzles. The jet of oil
emerging from the nozzle impacts on the blades thus rotating the shaft at speed
between 90 to 120 rpm. This Oil, after passing over blades, drain in to the bearing
pedestal, from where it returns to M. O. T. In case of non availability of the hydraulic
barring gear, mechanical barring of the turbine can be carried out manually.
Boiler Feed Pump:
There are 4 Nos. of B.F.P’s, 2 of which are Motor driven and 2 Turbine Driven.
MD BFP motor’s rated voltage is 11 KV and it is fed from 11KV station board. For full
load operation, two BFPs are in service. BFP is a 4 stage pump, has integral tapping
for Reheat spray and additional kicker stage, which is the last stage, for very high
pressure Superheat spray water. The pump is of horizontal, barrel type construction.

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Pump internals are designed as a cartridge, which can be easily removed for
maintenance, without disturbing suction and discharge piping. Pump shaft is sealed
at both drive and non-drive end by labyrinth glands, which in turn are sealed with
condensate injection system, which receives condensate from CEP Discharge header.
Two D.C. seal water pumps, suction of which is connected to Condensate storage
tank, act as standby source. The pressure of seal water going to glands is
maintained 2.0 to 2.5 Kg/ cm² above the pressure of feed water after labyrinth gland
through a DP control system. MDBFP is coupled with motor through Hydraulic
coupling, which is used for variable flow from main pump as per the requirements of
Feed flow control circuit. Booster pump is coupled with prime mover through geared
BFP specifications: (All specifications are design values.)
Booster Pump Motor driven Turbine driven
Sp. Gravity of liquid handled 0.9008 0.9008
Suction temperature, °C 166.6 166.6
Suction Pressure, atm Absolute 9.226 9.22
Discharge Pressure, atm Absolute 27 23.61
NPSH above impeller eye, m 23.5 15
Flow rate, m³/Hr 846 846
Runout Flow rate, m³/Hr, 1272 1272
Efficiency 72% 79
Speed , rpm 1494 1380
Power absorbed 509.4 419.8
Main Pump
No. of stages 4 + 1 kicker stage 4 + 1 kicker stage
Sp. Gravity at suction temp 0.9008 0.9008
Suction Temp, °C 166.6 166.6
Suction Pressure, ata absolute 24.44 24.44
Discharge Pressure, mlc 208 208
NPSH above impeller eye, m 55 55
Flow rate, m³/Hr 846 846
Leak flow rate, m³/Hr 270 270
Efficiency, overall % 81 80.5
Speed , rpm 5265 5265
Power absorbed, KW 5086 5086
BFP Turbine Specifications:
Type K1401-2
Max. Output 8175 KW
Design rating, (Most economical rating) 5621.4 KW
Speed, rpm 5295
Speed range, rpm 2000 to 6030
Initial steam pressure, Kg/cm², abs 7.1824
Initial Steam Temperature, °C 301.7
Exhaust Steam Temperature, °C 43.4
Exhaust steam pressure, Kg/cm², abs .0901
Inlet steam sources Warm up – Aux. PRDS
0-250MW- CRH
250- 500 MW – IP/ LP cross around
pipe( i.e. Extraction 4)
Over speed trip 6116 rpm

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Diff. Expansion trip, mm +3.5, - 4.0
Eccentricity Trip 90μm
Axial Shift tripping ± 0.7mm
Gear Box vibration trip, Input end 75 μm
Gear Box vibration trip, output end 100 μm
Bearing Vibration trip 100 μm

Lub oil pressure very low trip < 1.0 Kg/cm²

Governing pressure very low trip < 4.5 Kg/cm²
Live steam pressure very high trip > 12.5 Kg/cm²
Exhaust Steam pressure very high trip > 0.7 Kg/cm²,abs
Exhaust Steam temp very high trip 120°C
Booster pump Suction valve not open Turbine trip
Bearing temp. very high >110°C
C.I. seal Quench D.P. very low <1.2 Kg/cm²
Δ T across suction and discharge of Main >15 °C
Pump very high
Tripping of turbine through manual trip P. B. At control desk, and local panel
BFP Turbine salient operational features:
1) Electro Hydraulic governing controls turbine speed. Feed flow control (i.e.
drum level control) issues the electrical signals for speed control to the
2) When turbine is on load, inlet steam source selection is automatic through
Pilot Governor, which is controlled by turbine governing system.
3) Steam from the turbine Exhaust goes to main turbine condenser
4) Gland sealing steam for these turbines is obtained from main turbine’s
gland seal steam system. Gland seal exhaust steam discharge is to Gland
steam coooler of main turbine.
5) Turbine barring is through hydraulic turbine wheel and lubricating oil is
used for barring.
6) Turbine is provided with its own lubricating oil system. Lubricating oil is
also used for Electro hydraulic governing.
7) Two A. C. motor driven Main Oil Pumps, main and Stand by, supply oil for
governing and lubrication, onre low capacity D.C. lub. Oil pump is also
provided. D.C. pump caters to the needs of bearing lubrication only.
8) Turbine is also provided with Jacking oil pump, which is required to be in
service during barring.
9) Turbine is coupled to Feed Pump ( main pump) through a engagable
coupling. When coupling is disengaged, pump is isolated from turbine
shaft. The operation of this coupling can be carried out only when turbine
is stand still.
Hydraulic coupling for MDBFP:
The operating data for these couplings is as follows:
Hydraulic coupling bearing temp very high trip 100°C
Working oil temp. upstream of cooler very high trip 130°C
Working oil temp. downstream of cooler very high trip 85°C
Lub. oil temp. upstream of cooler very high trip 70°C
Lub. oil temp. downstream of cooler very high trip 65°C
Lub. Oil pressure very low, trip 0.8 Kg/ cm²

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Regenerative feed heating:
In regenerative feed heating system, there are 3 LP heaters and 2 streams of
HP Heaters. Each stream consists of two HP Heaters. Following diagram shows the
arrangement of HP Heaters.

From IPT Extraction

From CRH Extraction


Feed Water from BFP


Drip to Deaerator Heater Bypass

line for feed

Heater Bypass
(Motor operated)

All feed water heaters are horizontal. HP Heater drip is diverted to Deaerator
in normal operation, in abnormal conditions drip can also be diverted to condenser
flash tank, where as drip of LP Heater is always diverted to Condenser flash tank.
There is no drip pump. HP Heaters are taken in to service when Load is 150 MW and
above. LP Heaters are taken in to service on low loads also. All extraction lines from
Turbine extractions are provided with Hydraulic Swing Check valves. These valves
are hydraulically operated and governing system of the turbines controls the
operation of these valves. The FRF oil is used as hydraulic fluid for actuators of these
valves. In addition, motor operated extraction valves are also provided. There is no
tripping of turbine on Heater level.
Heaters operating data:
Parameter HPH 6 HPH 5 Deaerator LPH 3 LPH 2 LPH 1
Extraction Steam pressure Kg/ cm² 42.7 19.14 6.97 2.59 1.32 0.27
Extraction steam temperature, °C 340.5 430 301 196 137 68
Drain temperature, °C 214 171 163 109 68 66
Steam flow to Heater, T/ H 141 99.2 78.8 44.6 80.8 38.4

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Condensate Polishing Unit:
Boilers operating above 140 Kg/cm² require very high quality of water. Since
the condesate from Hotwell of condenser is fed to boiler continuously, mixed with
small quantity of D.M. water make up. Even though the D.M. water is treated to
achieve the specified limits before it is fed to the Boiler the quality of water does not
remain within specified limits under all operating conditions. Due to this fact,
continuos treatment of Condensate water is carried out by the Condensate Polishing
units. Condensate from C.E.P. discharge header is passed through Condensate
Polishing units first. C.P.U. serves the purpose of filtering the suspended particles
and mixed bed resins improves the quality of water. Advantages of CPU are :
1) It removes dissolved and undissolved contaminants from Condensate.
2) It reduces the unnecessary loading of boiler drum from creed and
dissolved salts and maintains the quality of Boiler water during
fluctuating load, start up and shut down.
3) It reduces deposit of salts on Boiler components and turbine.
4) During startup, silica concentration in boiler drum water does not
increase and hence reduces water wastage through blow down.
5) Possible contamination of D.M. water in storage tanks can be taken care
6) In case of condenser tube leakage, immediate shut down is not
The CPU is a spherical vessel of 2590 mm diameter filled with cation
and anion resins forming a mixed bed. When Condensate flows over this bed,
Cations such as Calcium, Magnesium, and Sodium are removed by cation
exchange medium. Anions such as Sulphate and Chloride radicals are
removed by anion exchange medium. In the process, the resin gets
exhausted and the CPU system is also equipped with the process of its
regeneration. Following table gives the analysis of water before and after
Concentration in Condensate, during Inlet Outlet
normal operation, ppb
Sodium 10 2
Iron 50 5
Copper 5 2
Silica 20 5
Ammonia 500 -
Crud 600 50
TDS ( Total dissolved solids) 100 25
Conductivity in μmho/cm 0.3 <0.1
Concentration in Condensate, during start up operation, ppb
Silica 150 -
Crud 1000 200
TDS 2000 150
Concentration in Condensate, during Condenser leak, ppb
Sodium 1000 5
TDS 3000 200
Run time of the charge of resins
Normal operation Before ammonia break point & 1 week.
Beyond ammonia break point & 3 weeks

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Start up 50 Hours
Condenser leakage 5 Hours
Condenser and Cooling Water System:
The condenser of these units is in two halves and provided with Stainless
steel tubes. Cold water from Cooling towers is circulated through condenser tubes
with the help of 3 CCW pumps. The design C.C.W. pump discharge is 18850 M³/ Hr.
Design velocity of cooling water through tubes is 2.0 m/s. Pumps are driven by
3.3KV motors and consume 1564 KW of power. Cooling Towers for Unit 6 consist of 9
cells and that of Unit 5 have 7 cells. Capacity of each cooling tower is 33000 m³ /
hour. Towers are designed for Dry Bulb temperature of 28.2°C and wet bulb
temperature of 27.5°C. Fans are driven by 415 Volts motor, and consume 63 K.W.
power (Unit 5) and 53 KW power for unit 6. Cold water sump is separate for all
Units. Auxiliary cooling water is also cooled in the cooling towers used to cool
Condenser Cooling Water. 4 Nos. of C.C.W. pumps (( 3 in service for full load
operation) and 3 Nos. of ACW pumps ( 2 in service) are installed on the CCW sump.
Air evacuation system:
For Condenser air evacuation, 2 Nos. of Electrical Motor driven Vaccume
pumps are installed. These pumps are single stage, liquid ring pumps( Pl. refer fig
1). Gas enters the compression chamber from two sides. Working liquid is water. An
impeller is fitted eccentrically to the driving shaft. Water forms rotating ring. Due to
the eccentric rotational movement of the impeller, the rotating liquid pulsates in the
pockets between the blades. When liquid moves outwards, gas is drawn in through
the ports arranged on the port plate. When liquid moves in, it compresses the gas
and drives it out through the discharge port. Shaft is sealed by packing in the
stuffing box. Working liquid is also discharged with gas hence the water in the
impeller is continuously replenished with fresh cold D. M. Water. Working fluid, i.e.
D.M. water also dissipates heat generated by compression and acts as sealing liquid
for the gap between impeller and port plate. Air discharge capacity of the pump is
higher with colder water.


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