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Designation: A 108 – 99 An American National Standard

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS


100 Barr Harbor Dr., West Conshohocken, PA 19428
Reprinted from the Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Copyright ASTM

Standard Specification for


Steel Bars, Carbon, Cold-Finished, Standard Quality1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation A 108; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.

1. Scope E 527 Practice for Numbering Metals and Alloys (UNS)5


1.1 This specification covers standard quality cold-finished 2.2 Other Documents:
carbon steel bars produced to chemical compositions. Standard SAE J1086 Recommended Practice for Numbering Metals
quality cold-finished bars are suitable for heat treatment, for and Alloys (UNS)6
machining into components, or for use in the as-finished SAE Handbook6
condition as shafting, or in constructional applications, or for Federal Standard 66 C Steel, Chemical Composition and
other similar purposes (Note 1). Grades of steel are identified Hardenability7
by grade numbers or by chemical composition. AISI Steel Product Manual for Cold Finished Bars8
NOTE 1—A guide for the selection of steel bars is contained in Practice 3. Terminology
A 400.
3.1 Definition:
1.2 Material furnished under this specification shall con- 3.1.1 standard quality—cold-finished carbon steel bars pro-
form to the applicable requirements of the current edition of duced from special quality hot-wrought carbon steel bars or
Specification A 29/A 29M. rods of equivalent quality.
1.3 Some end uses may require material superior to standard 3.1.1.1 Discussion—Bars of standard quality are commonly
quality involving one or more of the available designations produced in standard chemical grade compositions or to
shown under Supplementary Requirements. Supplementary mechanical property specifications and are subject to product
requirements shall apply only when specified individually by analysis tolerances.
the purchaser. 3.1.1.2 Discussion—The available sections and sizes are
covered by Specification A 29/A 29M. The bars are normally
2. Referenced Documents produced in cut lengths but some small sizes are supplied in
2.1 ASTM Standards: coils. The producer should be consulted regarding sections and
A 29/A 29M Specification for Steel Bars, Carbon and sizes available in coils.
Alloy, Hot-Wrought and Cold-Finished, General Require-
ments for2 4. Ordering Information
A 370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing 4.1 Orders for cold-finished bars to this specification should
of Steel Products3 include the following items to adequately describe the material:
A 400 Practice for Steel Bars, Selection Guide, Composi- 4.1.1 Name of material,
tion, and Mechanical Properties2 4.1.2 ASTM specification number and date of issue,
A 510 Specification for General Requirements for Wire 4.1.3 Chemical composition grade designation or limits,
Rods and Coarse Round Wire, Carbon Steel3 4.1.4 Silicon, if required,
A 576 Specification for Steel Bars, Carbon, Hot-Wrought, 4.1.5 Additional machinability-enhancing elements (see
Special Quality2 Footnote D to Table 1),
E 45 Test Methods for Determining the Inclusion Content 4.1.6 Condition,
of Steel4 4.1.7 Quality,
4.1.8 Shape (round, hex, square, etc.), size, and length,

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This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel,
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Stainless Steel, and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.01.
6
A01.15 on Bars. Available from Society of Automotive Engineers, 400 Commonwealth Drive,
Current edition approved March 10, 1999. Published June 1999. Originally Warrendale, PA 15096.
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published as A 108–26 T. Last previous edition A 108–95. Available from the Standardization Documents Order Desk, Bldg. 4, Section D,
2
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.05. 700 Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094 Attn: NPODS.
3 8
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.03. Available from the American Iron and Steel Institute, 150 East 42nd St., New
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Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.01. York, NY 10017.

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A 108
TABLE 1 Composition of Cold-Finished Carbon Steel Bars

NOTE 1—Grade designations and compositions correspond to the respective AISI designations and compositions.

UNS DesignationA Grade Designation Carbon, % Manganese, % Phosphorus, % Sulfur, %


B,C,D
Open-Hearth, Basic-Oxygen, and Electric-Furnace Grades
G 10080 1008 0.10 max 0.30–0.50 0.040 max 0.050 max
G 10100 1010 0.08–0.13 0.30–0.60 0.040 max 0.050 max
G 10150 1015 0.13–0.18 0.30–0.60 0.040 max 0.050 max
G 10160 1016 0.13–0.18 0.60–0.90 0.040 max 0.050 max
G 10180 1018 0.15–0.20 0.60–0.90 0.040 max 0.050 max
G 10200 1020 0.18–0.23 0.30–0.60 0.040 max 0.050 max
G 10220 1022 0.18–0.23 0.70–1.00 0.040 max 0.050 max
G 10250 1025 0.22–0.28 0.30–0.60 0.040 max 0.050 max
G 10300 1030 0.28–0.34 0.60–0.90 0.040 max 0.050 max
G 10350 1035 0.32–0.38 0.60–0.90 0.040 max 0.050 max
G 10400 1040 0.37–0.44 0.60–0.90 0.040 max 0.050 max
G 10450 1045 0.43–0.50 0.60–0.90 0.040 max 0.050 max
G 10500 1050 0.48–0.55 0.60–0.90 0.040 max 0.050 max
G 10950 1095 0.90–1.03 0.30–0.50 0.040 max 0.050 max
Open-Hearth, Basic-Oxygen, and Electric-Furnace Free Cutting GradesB,C,D,E
G 11170 1117 0.14–0.20 1.00–1.30 0.040 max 0.08–0.13
G 11180 1118 0.14–0.20 1.30–1.60 0.040 max 0.08–0.13
G 11370 1137 0.32–0.39 1.35–1.65 0.040 max 0.08–0.13
G 11410 1141 0.37–0.45 1.35–1.65 0.040 max 0.08–0.13
G 11440 1144 0.40–0.48 1.35–1.65 0.040 max 0.24–0.33
G 11510 1151 0.48–0.55 0.70–1.00 0.040 max 0.08–0.13
G 12110 1211 0.13 max 0.60–0.90 0.07–0.12 0.10–0.15
G 12120 1212 0.13 max 0.70–1.00 0.07–0.12 0.16–0.23
G 12130 1213 0.13 max 0.70–1.00 0.07–0.12 0.24–0.33
... 12L14F 0.15 max 0.85–1.15 0.04–0.09 0.26–0.35
G 12150 1215 0.09 max 0.75–1.05 0.04–0.09 0.26–0.35
A
New designations established in accordance with Practice E 527 and SAE J1086.
B
When silicon is required, the following ranges and limits are commonly specified: 0.10 % max, 0.10–0.20 %, 0.15–0.35 %, or 0.20–0.40 %.
C
When required, lead is specified as an added element to a standard steel. A range from 0.15–0.35 %, inclusive, is commonly specified. Such a steel is identified by
inserting the letter “L’’ between the second and third numeral of the grade number, for example, 11L17. A cast or heat analysis is not determinable when lead is added
to the ladle stream.
D
The elements bismuth, calcium, selenium, or tellurium may be added as agreed upon between purchaser and supplier.
E
Grades 1211, 1212, 1213, 12L14, and 1215 are not supplied with a specified silicon content.
F
Lead content shall be 0.15–0.35 %.

4.1.9 Report of heat analysis, if required, freedom from pipe and undue segregation.
4.1.10 End use, 5.4 Redraw Stock—The bars shall be produced from special
4.1.11 Additions to the specification and special or supple- quality hot-wrought carbon steel bars (Specification A 576) or
mentary requirements, if required, and from hot-wrought rods designated for cold-finished bars
4.1.12 For coiled product, the coil weights, inside diameter (Specification A 510).
and outside diameter limitations, when required. 5.5 Condition—The bars shall be furnished in one of the
NOTE 2—A typical ordering description is as follows: Steel Bar, ASTM following conditions as specified by the purchaser:
A 108, dated _____; SAE 1117; Coarse Grain; Cold Drawn; 6000 lb of 5.5.1 Rounds:
1.500-in. diameter by 10.0 to 12.0 ft long; Heat Analysis Required; Screw 5.5.1.1 Cold drawn,
Machine Parts.
5.5.1.2 Cold drawn, turned, and polished,
5. Materials and Manufacture 5.5.1.3 Cold drawn, ground, and polished,
5.1 Melting Practice—The steel shall be made by one or 5.5.1.4 Cold drawn, turned, ground, and polished,
more of the following primary processes: open-hearth, basic- 5.5.1.5 Hot wrought, turned, and polished, or
oxygen, or electric-furnace. The primary melting may incor- 5.5.1.6 Hot wrought, turned, ground, and polished.
porate separate degassing or refining and may be followed by 5.5.2 Squares, Hexagons—Cold drawn.
secondary melting using electroslag remelting or vacuum-arc 5.5.3 Flats:
remelting. Where secondary melting is employed, the heat
5.5.3.1 Cold drawn or
shall be defined as all of the ingots remelted from a single
primary heat. 5.5.3.2 Cold rolled.
5.2 Deoxidation: 5.6 Heat Treatment:
5.2.1 Unless otherwise specified, the steel may be rimmed, 5.6.1 Unless otherwise specified, the bars shall be furnished
capped, semi-killed, or killed at the manufacturer’s option. as cold finished except that when the maximum of the carbon
5.2.2 When required, the deoxidation practice, including range is over 0.55 % they shall be annealed for cold finishing.
killed steel, may be specified. 5.6.2 When property characteristics are required that are not
5.3 Discard—Sufficient discard shall be made to ensure available for the specified grade as developed in the as-rolled

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A 108
cold-finished condition, the following thermal treatments can elements required or restricted, shall conform to the ordered
be ordered: chemical composition subject to the permissible variations on
5.6.2.1 Annealed and cold finished, product analysis of the table (Permissible Variations for Prod-
5.6.2.2 Normalized and cold finished, uct Analysis of Carbon Steel) in Specification A 29/A 29M.
5.6.2.3 Cold drawn and stress relieved, or
5.6.2.4 Carbon restoration anneal to overcome surface de- 7. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance
carburization on cold-drawn bars. (For round bars produced by 7.1 Workmanship—The bars shall be free of pipe, cracks,
turning, surface decarburization is removed during the manu- and flakes. Within the limits of good manufacturing and
facturing process.) inspection practices, the bars shall be free of injurious seams,
laps, segregation, or other imperfections which, due to their
6. Chemical Composition
nature, degree, or extent, will interfere with the use of the
6.1 Chemical Composition: material in machining or fabrication of suitable parts.
6.1.1 The steel shall conform to the chemical composition 7.2 Finish:
limits specified in Table 1 for the grade specified by the 7.2.1 Unless otherwise specified, the bars shall have a
purchaser. commercial bright smooth surface finish obtained by conven-
6.1.2 Carbon steels not listed in Table 1 can be specified. tional cold-finishing operations such as cold drawing, cold
Steels may be selected from Specifications A 510 and A 576; rolling, or turning and polishing.
Federal Standard 66 C; the SAE Handbook; or the AISI Steel 7.2.2 When required, bars may be specified to be ground
Product Manual for Carbon Steel Bars. and polished, turned and polished, or turned, ground, and
6.1.3 When a steel cannot be identified by a standard grade polished.
number in accordance with 6.1.1 and 6.1.2, the limits for each 7.2.3 Bars that are thermal treated after cold finishing may
required element may be specified using the chemical ranges have a discolored or oxidized surface.
shown in the table (Heat Analysis Chemical Ranges and Limits
7.3 Oiling—The bars shall be given a surface coating of oil
of Carbon Steel Bars) of Specification A 29/A 29M.
or other rust inhibitor to protect against rust during shipment.
6.1.4 When additional machinability-enhancing elements
are specified in accordance with Footnote D to Table 1, the 8. Certification
specified content of the element or elements shall be agreed
upon between purchaser and supplier. 8.1 Upon request of the purchaser in the contract or order, a
6.2 Heat Analysis—An analysis of each heat shall be made manufacturer’s certification that the material was manufactured
by the manufacturer to determine the percentages of the and tested in accordance with this specification together with a
elements specified. The analysis shall be made from a test report of the test results shall be furnished at the time of
sample preferably taken during the pouring of the heat. The shipment. If bismuth, selenium, tellurium, or calcium are added
chemical composition thus determined shall be reported to the in accordance with Footnote D of Table 1, the presence of these
purchaser or his representative when required by the purchase additional elements shall be noted on the certification.
order, and shall conform to the specified requirements.
6.3 Product Analysis—A product analysis may be made by 9. Keywords
the purchaser. The chemical composition thus determined, as to 9.1 carbon steel bars; cold-finished steel bars; steel bars

SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS

One or more of the following supplementary requirements shall be applied only when specified by
the purchaser in the inquiry, contract, or order. Details of these supplementary requirements shall be
agreed upon in writing by the manufacturer and the purchaser. Supplementary requirements shall in
no way negate any requirement of the specification itself.

S1. Cold Working Quality requirements of individual application vary.


S1.1 The classification encompasses bars subject to severe S2. Special Surface Quality
cold plastic deformation such as, but not limited to, upsetting, S2.1 Special surface steels are produced with exacting
heading, forging, forward or backward extrusion. control and appropriate inspection and surface preparation to
S1.2 If the type of steel or chemical composition does not minimize the frequency and degree of seams and other surface
have adequate cold working characteristics, appropriate ther- imperfections.
mal treatments should be specified.
S1.3 When Supplementary Requirement S1 is specified, the S3. Special Internal Soundness Requirement
bars shall be produced by manufacturing practices and sub- S3.1 Special internal soundness is relative freedom from
jected to mill tests and inspection and freedom from injurious segregation and porosity, as evaluated by means of a macroetch
surface imperfections to the extent that the bars shall be test which is performed on representative billet or bar samples.
suitable for the manufacture of identified parts. The quality The test consists of deep etching a cross section in a hot acid

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A 108
solution and examination to evaluate soundness. An alternative S5.2 Hardenability band limits have been established for
method consists of fracturing a billet section and examination 1038H, 1045H, and 1541H as well as other grades that appear
of the fracture to evaluate soundness. in the SAE Handbook.
S4. Nonmetallic Inclusion Requirements S6. Grain Size
S4.1 The nonmetallic inclusion requirement comprises a S6.1 The steel shall conform to either the coarse austenitic
metallographic examination of longitudinal sections to deter- grain size requirement (except as stated in S6.2), or the fine
mine the nature and frequency of the nonmetallic inclusions. austenitic grain size requirement of Specification A 29/A 29M.
Experience indicates that samples taken midway between the S6.2 Certain elements, or combinations of elements, such as
center and surface of the bloom, billet, slab, or bar are most manganese, sulfur, and lead tend to produce grain refinement
representative of the average inclusion content of the lot and it is technically inappropriate to ensure coarse grain size as
involved. The test specimen is generally heated and quenched measured by the McQuaid-Ehn test on high manganese, high
to harden it before being polished to avoid polishing pits. The sulfur, and leaded steels such as 1144, 1151, and 11L41.
specimen is examined at 100 diameters. Methods for determin-
ing the nonmetallic inclusion content of steel are described in S7. Restricted Incidental Elements
Test Methods E 45.
S7.1 The purchaser may specify maximum requirements for
S4.2 For resulfurized steels, much of the sulfur is present as
copper, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, or other elements.
sulfide inclusions. For this reason, those steels are not generally
produced to inclusion rating.
S8. Thermal Treatment
S5. Special Heat-Treating Requirements S8.1 When required, the purchaser may specify that the
S5.1 Special heat treating (hardenability) is a term used material be stress relieved, annealed to specified structure,
when the purchaser specifies as a requirement the ability of a annealed to no specified structure, or normalized.
steel to heat treat to specified mechanical property values that
the purchaser must meet after his heat treatment. Care should S9. Mechanical Properties
be taken so that the desired mechanical property values are S9.1 When required, cold-finished bars can be supplied to
compatible with the chemical composition, size, and cross mechanical properties. Mechanical properties shall be deter-
section of the steel. mined in accordance with Test Methods and Definitions A 370.

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with any item mentioned in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such
patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.

This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and
if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards
and should be addressed to ASTM Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible
technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your
views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428.

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