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Department of Agronomy

Visayas State University

Visca, Baybay City, Leyte

AgSc 111
Post Harvest and Seed Technology
A. Seed Technology

Name: VERIL, JESSA MAY NALOS Date Conducted: Aug. 22, 2018
Lab. Schedule: Wednesday (7:00-10:00) Date Submitted: Sept. 5, 2018

Laboratory Exercise No. 2

Seed Germination Test and Seedling Evaluation


Seed germination is defined as the emergence of the radicle from the seed coat and the
growth of plumule. The main purpose of germination test is to assess the seed quality and seed
viability and to predict the performance of the seed under field condition. It also aid in obtaining
the information about the planting value of the seed sample and by inference the quality of the
seed lot.
Seedling evaluation will determine the number of seeds which can produce normal
seedlings after the germination test period. (Introduction to Seed Testing, J.C. Delouche)


1. To orient the student in seedling abnormalities.


The fieldwork of the study was conducted in the Department of Agronomy, Visayas State
University, Visca, Baybay City, Leyte.
Old seeds and new seeds of corn (Zea mays) were used for germination test. Each set of
germination testing were composed of 50 seeds for each kind and the damp paper towelling
method was performed.
Filter papers were soaked for 10-15 minutes and were hanged to let the water drip for 5-
10 minutes. The two sheets of filter paper were laid one above the other; seeds were then
arranged and covered with another sheet of filter paper. The filter papers were rolled; both ends
were tied using a rubber bond, and then were placed inside a sealed polyethylene bag.
After a week seedlings were evaluated based on the percentage of normal and abnormal
seedlings and those of dead seeds.
Data gathered were tabulated and percentage germination was computed using the
formula below:
𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑆𝑒𝑒𝑑𝑠 𝐺𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑
% 𝐺𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = × 100
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑁𝑜. 𝑜𝑓 𝑆𝑒𝑒𝑑𝑠 𝑆𝑜𝑤𝑛


Table 1: Germination Analysis and Seedling Evaluation of NEW Corn (Zea mays)
Normal 6 18 20 15 9 13.6
Abnormal 37 26 22 26 22 26.6
Dead 7 6 8 9 19 9.8
Classification of Abnormal
Damaged 23 20 12 25 12 18.4
Decayed 10 2 2 0 1 3
Deformed 4 4 8 1 9 5.2

Table 2: Germination Analysis and Seedling Evaluation of OLD Corn (Zea mays)
Normal 11 12 14 18 8 12.6
Abnormal 30 33 27 25 32 29.4
Dead 9 5 9 7 10 8
Classification of Abnormal
Damaged 18 24 15 18 32 21.4
Decayed 7 0 8 3 0 3.6
Deformed 5 9 4 4 0 4.4

The seedling evaluation for the sample of old and new corn (Zea mays) show that new
seeds has more normal seedling with 13.6 than that of the old seed with only 12.6. The new
seeds have lower number of abnormal seedlings with only 26.6 than that of the old seeds with
29.4. But the new seeds have more dead seeds with 9.8 than that of the old seed with only 8.
The germination analysis shows that old corn seeds have higher germination capacity
with 84.00% than that of the new corn seeds with only 80.40%.
Theoretically, new seeds should have a higher germination rate and should perform well
than old seed; results for this activity show a contradictory in terms of germination rate. There
are several factors for seed germination; seed internal factor and external factor which are the
oxygen, temperature, water or moisture and light. The same treatment were given to both old and
new seeds but uncertain with the internal factor of the seeds. New seeds may be is of different
variety; or there must have been a mistake in the production, processing and storage (days of
storage for both seeds is unknown) of the seeds that caused its germination rate to be lower than
the old seeds. (AgSc111 Lecture)
Old seeds with lower number of normal seedling but with higher germination rate, so
farmers can use lesser amount of seeds but would be unsure if it would be productive. New seeds
with higher number of normal seedling but with a lower germination rate, farmers then can opt to
adjust the amount of seeds to be sown to achieve the desired plant population.

New and old seeds didn’t pass the official standard of certification of seeds which
requires at least 85% germination rate. High germination rate and seeds with good performance
on filed condition are important characteristics of a good seed. Therefore, seed germination test
and seedling evaluation which assess the quality and predict the performance of the seeds are
essential tests to determine the variety or type of seeds to be cultivated to maximize productivity.



James C. Delouche
Seed Technology Laboratory
Mississippi State University
State College, Mississippi

Department of Agronomy
College of Agriculture and Food Science
Visayas State University
Visca, Baybay City, Leyte