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 Aerobic Respiration
1. Oxidation of food substances in the presence of oxygen with the release of a large amount of energy.
2. Glucose + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
3. Multi step reaction catalyzed by enzymes present in mitochondria

 Anaerobic Respiration
1. Breakdown of food substances in the absence of oxygen with the release of a small amount of energy.
2. Glucose + Ethanol Carbon Dioxide + Energy
3. Anaerobic Respiration occurs in yeast where it is also known as Alcoholic fermentation.
4. In humans, it occurs in our muscles during vigorous exercise.
5. Glucose Lactic Acid + Energy

 Gaseous Exchange System in Humans

1. The Nose
i. Air enters through the two external nostrils that are lined with a moist mucous membrane and cilia.
ii. The nostrils lead into two nasal passages
iii. Air becomes warmer here and moist
iv. Air is filtered here
v. Harmful chemicals are detected by the sensory cells in mucous membrane
2. The air goes from the nasal passages into pharynx, to the larynx and then into the trachea through the
3. The Trachea
i. Traps unwanted material
ii. Ciliated cells send trapped material to pharynx
iii. Lies in front of the esophagus.
iv. Extends from the larynx to the chest cavity.
v. Supported by C-shaped rings of cartilage making sure it remains open at all times.
vi. It’s lower end divides into two tubes, the bronchi [singular: bronchus]
4. Bronchi
i. Two of them, one for each lung
ii. They divide repeatedly into Bronchioles
5. Bronchioles
i. Branch like tubes
ii. End in a cluster of air sacs called alveoli
6. Alveoli
i. One-cell thick wall helps in diffusion of gases
ii. Moisture lining on the inside. This allows oxygen to dissolve in it
iii. Covered in blood capillaries. The flow of blood maintains the concentration gradient of gases
iv. Numerous in number, thus, increasing the S.A to Volume ratio
v. Gaseous exchange takes place here
7. Diaphragm
i. Dome shaped sheet of muscle and elastic tissue
ii. Changes the volume of the thoracic cavity
8. Intercostal Muscles
i. Two sets of muscles [External and Internal]
ii. Found between the ribs
iii. Antagonistic Muscles
iv. Change the volume of the thoracic cavity
 Breathing mechanisms in humans
1. Inspiration or Inhalation
i. Diaphragm contracts and flattens
ii. External Intercostal muscles contract while the Internal Intercostal muscles relax
iii. The ribs move upwards and outwards
iv. The thorax enlarges, pressure inside the thorax decreases, the air goes into the lungs
v. Volume of thoracic cavity increases
2. Expiration or Exhalation
i. Diaphragm relaxes and arches upwards
ii. External Intercostal muscles relax while the Internal Intercostal muscles contract
iii. The ribs move downwards and inwards
iv. The thorax returns to its original size, the pressure inside the thorax increases, forcing the air
outside the lungs
v. Volume of thoracic cavity decreases

 Gaseous Exchange in the alveoli

i. Blood entering our lungs has a lower concentration of oxygen but a higher concentration of carbon
dioxide than the atmospheric air entering the alveoli in the lungs
ii. A concentration gradient is set up between blood and alveolar air for the two gases
iii. Oxygen diffuses from the alveolar air into the blood.
iv. Carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the alveolar air.

 Pathway of air into the lungs

External Nostrils---------Nasal Passages---------Pharynx-----------Larynx------------Trachea-------------Bronchi----

 Bacteria that are trapped by the mucus go through the pharynx into the esophagus where it forms
 After inhalation, O2 goes into the blood and oxidizes food, CO2 is produced, CO2 diffuses out in to the
alveoli and then outside. This Process is known as Gaseous Exchange.