Heat Exchanger is generally used for transfer the h eat from one end to another end. There is various type of heat exchanger in that helical coil tube type he at exchanger shows better result among them. In helical coil tube heat exchanger two types of flow generally used Parallel flow and counter flow. In this paper by using counter flow analysis of helical coil tube is done. The contours of temperature of the tube were calculated and plotted using AN SYS FLUENT 15.0. Cop per was chosen as the as metal for the construction of the helical tube. The fluid flowing through the tube was taken as water. First law of thermodynamics concept is play vital role in helical coil tube heat exchanger .
https://www.ijiert.org/paper-details.php?paper_id=140567

© All Rights Reserved

3 tayangan

Heat Exchanger is generally used for transfer the h eat from one end to another end. There is various type of heat exchanger in that helical coil tube type he at exchanger shows better result among them. In helical coil tube heat exchanger two types of flow generally used Parallel flow and counter flow. In this paper by using counter flow analysis of helical coil tube is done. The contours of temperature of the tube were calculated and plotted using AN SYS FLUENT 15.0. Cop per was chosen as the as metal for the construction of the helical tube. The fluid flowing through the tube was taken as water. First law of thermodynamics concept is play vital role in helical coil tube heat exchanger .
https://www.ijiert.org/paper-details.php?paper_id=140567

© All Rights Reserved

- Final Paper
- Design and Optimization of Coil Finned Tube Heat Exchangers for Cryogenic Applications
- Mathematical Modelling of Heat Exchanger(Mini Report)
- Shah2003-Ch9.pdf
- Nomenclature
- Module 7: Short Questions
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- booklist.pdf
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- day-2.pptx
- Hx Sizing Guide
- 3_avaliacao_Grupo1.pdf
- Review of Experiment on Spiral Heat Exchanger
- Condensation Heat Transfer of R-134a in Horizontal
- 8.Numerical Investigation of Vertical Helically Coiled Tube Heat Exchangers Thermal Performance
- Heat exchanger
- References
- OAU Heat Transfer Lecture 4 Heat Exchangers 1
- Melab Ht Fall2015

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[IJIERT]

ISSN: 2394-3696

VOLUME 3, ISSUE 1, JAN.-2016

TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

Pramod Deshmukh,

Mechanical Dept. of BVCOE, India

Vikram D Patil,

Mechanical Dept. of BVCOE, India

Prof. Baviskar Devakant,

Mechanical Department of BVCOE, India

ABSTRACT

Heat Exchanger is generally used for transfer the heat from one end to another end. There is various type

of heat exchanger in that helical coil tube type heat exchanger shows better result among them. In helical

coil tube heat exchanger two types of flow generally used Parallel flow and counter flow. In this paper by

using counter flow analysis of helical coil tube is done. The contours of temperature of the tube were

calculated and plotted using ANSYS FLUENT 15.0. Copper was chosen as the as metal for the

construction of the helical tube. The fluid flowing through the tube was taken as water. First law of

thermodynamics concept is play vital role in helical coil tube heat exchanger.

INTRODUCTION

The most important fluid flow heat exchangers are HVAC, process industry, refrigeration etc. The

purpose of constructing a heat exchanger is to get an efficient method of heat transfer from one fluid to

another, by direct contact or by indirect contact. There are three mode of heat transfer 1.Conduction

2.Convection 3.Radiation.Heat transfer is negligible in radiation as compare to conduction and

convection. Conduction takes place when the heat from the high temperature fluid flows through the

surrounding solid wall. The conductive heat transfer can be maximised by selecting a minimum thickness

of wall of a highly conductive material. But convection is plays the major role in the performance of a

heat exchanger. Forced convection in a heat exchanger transfers the heat from one moving stream to

another stream through the wall of the pipe. The cooler fluid removes heat from the hotter fluid as it

flows along or across it

TUBULAR HEAT EXCHANGERS

Tubular heat exchangers are built of mainly of circular tubes there are some other geometry has also been

used in different applications. This design can be modified by length, diameter and physical arrangement.

This type is used for liquid-to-liquid (phase changing like condensing or evaporation) heat transfer.

Again this type is classified into shell and tube, double pipe and spiral tube heat exchangers.

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The double pipe or the tube in tube type heat exchanger consists of one pipe placed concentrically inside

another pipe having a greater diameter. The flow in this configuration cane be of two types: parallel flow

and counter-flow. It can be arranged in a lot of series and parallel configurations to meet the different

heat transfer requirements. Double coil heat exchanger is widely used; knowledge about the heat transfer

coefficient, pressure drop, and different flow patterns has been of much importance. The curvature in the

tubes creates a secondary flow, which is normal to the primary axial direction of flow. This secondary

flow increases the heat transfer between the wall and the flowing fluid. And they offer a greater heat

transfer area within a small space, with greater heat transfer coefficients. The two basic boundary

conditions that are faced in the applications are constant temperature and the constant heat flux of the

wall.

Fig 2 Fig 3

HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT

The value of ‘h’ depends upon the properties of fluid Convective heat transfer, is the transfer of heat from

one place to another by the movement of fluids due to the difference in density across a film of the

surrounding fluid over the hot surface. Through this film heat transfer takes place by thermal conduction

and as thermal conductivity of most fluids is low, the main resistance lies there. Heat transfer through the

film can be enhanced by increasing the velocity of the fluid flowing over the surface which results in

reduction in thickness of film. The equation for rate of heat transfer by convection under steady state is

given by,

Q = h A (Tw – Tatm)………… (1)

Where

H-is the film coefficient or surface coefficient (W/m2.K).

A is the area of the wall

Tw is the wall temperature

T atm is surrounding temperature.

Within the film region; hence it is called ‘Heat Transfer Coefficient’. It depends on the different

properties of fluid, dimensions of the surface and velocity of the fluid flow (i.e. nature of flow).

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The design of a helical coil tube in tube heat exchanger has been facing problems because of the lack of

experimental data available regarding the behaviour of the fluid in helical coils and also in case of heat

transfer data, which is not the case in Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger. For that we are doing numerical

analysis was carried out to determine the heat transfer characteristics for a double-pipe helical heat

exchanger by varying the different parameters like different temperatures and diameters of pipe and coil

and also to determine the fluid flow pattern in helical coiled heat exchanger. The objective of the project

is to obtain a better and more quantitative insight into the heat transfer process that occurs when a fluid

flows in a helically coiled tube. The study also covered the different types of fluid flow range extending

from laminar flow through transition to turbulent flow. The materials for the study were decided and fluid

taken was water and the material for the pipe was taken to be copper for its better conducting properties.

DESIGN METHODOLOGY

Usually abbreviated as CFD, is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical analyse and algorithms to

solve and analyse problems that involve fluid flows. Computers are used to perform the calculations

required to simulate the interaction of liquids and gases with surfaces defined by boundary conditions

with high-speed supercomputers, better solutions can be achieved. Ongoing research yields software that

improves the accuracy and speed of complex simulation scenarios such as transonic or turbulent flows.

Initial experimental validation of such software is performed using a wind tunnel with the final validation

coming in full-scale testing, e.g. flight tests. The fundamental basis of almost all CFD problems are the

Navier–Stokes equations which define any single-phase (gas or liquid, but not both) fluid flow. These

equations can be simplified by removing terms describing viscous actions to yield the Euler equations

further simplification, by removing terms describing vortices yields the full potential equations. Finally,

for small perturbations in subsonic and supersonic flows (not transonic or hypersonic) these equations

can be linearized to yield the linearized potential equations Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of

the system starts with the construction of desired geometry and mesh for modelling the dominion.

Generally, geometry is simplified for the CFD studies. Meshing is the discretization of the domain into

small volumes where the equations are solved by the help of iterative methods. Modelling starts with the

describing of the boundary and initial conditions for the dominion and leads to modelling of the entire

system. Finally, it is followed by the analysis of the results, discussions and conclusions.

GEOMETRY

Heat exchanger is built in the ANSYS workbench design module. It is a counter-flow heat exchanger.

First, the fluid flow (fluent) module from the workbench is selected. The design modeller opens as a new

window as the geometry is double clicked.

SKETCHING

Out of 3 planes, XY-plane, YZ-plane and ZX-plane, the YZ-plane is selected for the first sketch. A 4 inch

line for the height of the helical structure is made. A new plane is created in reference with the YZ-plane

which is termed as plane 4. 4 new sketchers are added under the new plane, i.e. plane 4. In sketch 2, a

circle of diameter 0.545 inch at a distance of 3 inch from origin. In sketch 3, two circles of diameters

0.545 inch and 0.625 inch are made concentric to previous circle. In sketch 4, two circles of diameters

0.625 inch and 0.785 inch are made concentric to previous circles. In sketch 5, two circles of diameters

0.785 inch and 0.875 inch are made concentric to previous circles.

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SWEEP

Sketch 2, 3, 4 & 5 are swept along the line made in sketch made in sketch 1 using the” add frozen”

operation to construct the 3D model with different parts. The helical sweep is of 2 turns because the twist

specification is defined in number of turns.

MERGING

After sweep operation, it will show the model as 4 parts and 4 bodies. For merge operation, all the 4 parts

are selected using control and merged as 1 part. At the end it will show as 1 part and 4 bodies. The 4

bodies within 1 part are named as follows:-

ANALYSIS OF CFD

MESH:-Initially a relatively coarser mesh is generated. This mesh contains mixed cells (Tetra and

Hexahedral cells) having both triangular and quadrilateral faces at the boundaries. Care is taken to use

structured hexahedral cells as much as possible. It is meant to reduce numerical diffusion as much as

possible by structuring the mesh in a well manner, particularly near the wall region. Later on, a fine mesh

is generated. For this fine mesh, the edges and regions of high temperature and pressure gradients are

finely meshed.

Y+ VALUES:-y + values play a significant role in turbulence modelling for the near wall treatment. y+ is

a non-dimensional distance. It is frequently used to describe how coarse or fine a mesh is for a particular

flow pattern. It determines the proper size of the cells near domain walls. The turbulence model wall laws

have limitations on the y+ value at the wall. For instance, the standard K-epsilon model requires a wall

y+ value between approximately 300 and 100. A faster flow near the wall will produce higher values of

y+, so the grid size near the wall must be decreased. y+ values for different wall treatments are given in

Relevance centre: fine meshing

Smoothing: high

Size: 4.033e-005m to 8.066e-005m

Pinch tolerance: 3.6297e-005m

Nodes: 586300

Elements: 53170

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Fig 7 Mesh

NAMED SELECTION:-The different surfaces of the solid are named as per required inlets and outlets

for inner and outer fluids. The outer wall is named as insulation surface.

SOLUTION:-

PROBLEM SETUP:-The mesh is checked and quality is obtained. The analysis type is changed to

Pressure Based type. The velocity formulation is changed to absolute and time to steady state. Gravity is

defined as y = -9.81 m/s2

MODELS:-Energy is set to ON position. Viscous model is selected as “k-ε model (2 equation). Radiation

model is changed to Discrete Ordinates.

MATERIALS:-The create/edit option is clicked to add water-liquid and copper to the list of fluid and

solid respectively from the fluent database.

CELL ZONE CONDITIONS:-The parts are assigned as water and copper as per fluid/solid parts.

BOUNDARY CONDITIONS:-Boundary conditions are used according to the need of the model. The

inlet and outlet conditions are defined as velocity inlet and pressure outlet. As this is a counter-flow with

two tubes so there are two inlets and two outlets. The walls are separately specified with respective

boundary conditions. No slip condition is considered for each wall. Except the tube walls each wall is set

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to zero heat flux condition. The details about all boundary conditions can be seen in the table 3 as given

below.

REFERENCE VALUES:-The inner inlet is selected from the drop down list of “compute from”. The

values are:

Area = 1 m2

Density = 998.2 kg/m3

Length = 39.37008 inch

Temperature = 348 K

Velocity = 0.9942 m/s

Viscosity = 0.001003 kg/m-s

Ratio of specific heats = 1.4

SOLUTION METHODS:-

Scheme = Simple

Gradient = Least Square Cell Based

Pressure = Standard

Momentum = Second Order Upwind

Turbulent Kinetic Energy = Second Order Upwind

Turbulent Dissipation Rate = Second Order Upwind

Under relaxation factors the parameters are

Density = 1 kg/m3

Body forces = 1 kg/m2s2

Momentum = 0.7 kg-m/s

Turbulent kinetic energy = 0.8 m2/s2

Then the solution initialization method is set to Standard Initialization whereas the reference frame is

set to Relative cell zone. The inner inlet is selected from the compute from drop down list and the

solution is initialized.

III.4.9Measure of Convergence:- It is tried to have a nice convergence throughout the simulation and

hence criteria is made strict so as to get an accurate result. For this reason residuals are given as per

the table 4 that follows.

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Table 4 Residuals

CONTOURS:-The temperature, pressure and velocity distribution along the heat exchanger can be seen

through the contours.

CONCLUSIONS

A CFD package (ANSYS FLUENT 15.0) was used for the numerical study of heat transfer

characteristics of a helical coiled double pipe heat exchanger of the counter-flow. The CFD results when

compared with the experimental results from different studies and were well within the error limits. The

simulation was carried out for water to water heat transfer characteristics and different inlet temperatures

were studied. Characteristics of the fluid flow were also studied for the constant temperature and constant

wall heat flux conditions.

REFERENCES

[1]. B. Chinna Ankanna, B. Sidda Reddy (2014),” Performance Analysis of Fabricated Helical Coil

Heat Exchanger” International Journal of Engineering Research, Volume No.3 Issue No:

Special 1, pp: 33-39.

[2]. Pramod S. Purandare, Mandar M. Lele, Rajkumar Gupta (2012)“Parametric Analysis of

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VOLUME 3, ISSUE 1, JAN.-2016

Helical Coil Heat Exchanger” International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology

(IJERT) Vol. 1 Issue 8.

[3]. Kapil Dev, Kuldeep Singh Pal, Suhail A. Siddiqui (2014) “An Empirical Study of Helical Coil

Heat Exchanger Used in Liquid Evaporization and Droplet Disengagement for a Laminar

Fluid Flow” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES & RESEARCH

TECHNOLOGY.

[4]. Shiva Kumara, K.Vasudev Karanth (2013) “Numerical Analysis of a Helical Coiled Heat

Exchanger using CFD” International Journal of Thermal Technologies Vol.3, No.4 (Dec

2013).

[5]. Pablo Coronel K.P. Sandeep (2008) “Heat Transfer Coefficient in Helical Heat Exchangers

under Turbulent Flow Conditions” International Journal of Food Engineering Volume 4, Issue

1.

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