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OBJECTIVE

INTRODUCTION

It is desirable to reduce the heat loss to the surroundings in many heat exchange

equipments. Insulating materials have a very low value of thermal conductivity and are

used in different shapes, sizes and forms. Insulating powder such as asbestos because of

their ease of taking any complex shape between the confining surfaces and their having

large air space in between particles are in great demand these days. The thermal

conductivity of an insulating powder will depend upon the geometry of the surface, particle

thermal conductivity, size and number of contained air spaces and the modes of the heat

transfer in different situations of the application.

DESCRIPTION

The apparatus consists of two thin walled concentric copper spheres. The inner

sphere houses the heating coil. The insulating powder (Asbestos powder – lagging

material) is packed between the two shells. The power supply to the heating coil is by

using a dimmerstat and is measured by Voltmeter and Ammeter.Chromel Alumel

thermocouples are used to measure the temperatures. Thermocouples 1 to 4 are

embedded on inner sphere and 5 to 10 are embedded on the outer shell. Positions 1 to 10

are as shown in the figure. Temperature readings in turn enable to find out the thermal

conductivity of the insulating powder packed between the two shells.

We assume the insulating powder as an isotropic material and the value of thermal

conductivity to be constant. The apparatus assumes one-dimensional radial heat

conduction across the powder and thermal conductivity can be determined.

SPECIFICATIONS

Radius of the inner sphere (ri) : mm

Page 1

Radius of the outer sphere (ro) : mm

Voltmeter : 0 to 200 V

Ammeter : 0 to 2 amp

Type of thermocouple : Chromel Alumel

No. of thermocouple : 10 Nos.

Insulating Powder : Asbestos Magnesia

Temperature indicator : 0 to 300 °c, digital

Dimmer stat : 0 to 2 A, 0 to 230 V

Heater coil Strip heating element : 200 watts Sandwiched

Between mica sheets

NOTE:

Chromel Alumel Thermocouples 1 to 4 embedded on inner sphere to measure Ti.

Chromel Alumel Thermocouples 5 to 10 on outer sphere to measure to. Insulating

Powder – Asbestos Magnesia Commercially available powder and packed between

two spheres.

THEORY

Consider the transfer of heat by conduction through the wall of a hollow sphere

formed by the insulating powdered layer packed between two thin copper spheres.

Let

ri = Radius of inner sphere in meter.

ro = Radius of the outer sphere in meter.

Ti = Average temperature of the inner sphere in °c

To = Average temperature of the outer sphere in °c

Where,

T 1 + T2 + T 3 + T4

Ti = ------------------------------

4

Page 2

T5 + T6 + T7+ T8+ T9+ T10

And To = ------------------------------------------

6

experimental values of q, Ti and To the known thermal conductivity K can be determined

as

Q x (ro – ri)

K = -------------------------------

4 x x ri x ro x (Ti – To)

PROCEDURE

Increase slowly the input to heater by the dimmerstat starting from zero volt

position.

Adjust input equal to 40 watts maximum by voltmeter and ammeter.

See that this input remains constant throughout the experiment.

Wait till fairly steady state condition is reached. This can be checked by reading

temperatures of the thermocouples 1 to10 and note changes in their readings with

time.

Note down the readings in the observation table as given below.

OBSERVATION

I = Ammeter reading in amp

Q = Heater input in watts

Page 3

OBSERVATION TABLE

No

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10

Where,

Tmi = Mean temperature of inner surface in 0C

Tmo = Mean temperature of outer surface in 0C

CALCULATIONS

Q=VxI

T1 + T2 + T3 + T4

Tmi = ------------------------------

4

Tmo = ------------------------------------------

6

Page 4

Q (ro – ri )

K = ---------------------------------------

4 x x ri x ro x (Ti – To)

Page 5

Page 6

FIG.1 TEST RIG

Page 7

RESULT

Page 8

GRAPH

Page 9

CONCLUSION

Page 10

EXPERIMENT-2

OBJECTIVE

Conductivity of Composite slabs.

THEORY

temperature difference or gradient.

· Since differences in temperature exist all over the universe, the phenomena of heat flow

are as universal as gravitational acceleration.

· Mechanical engineers deal with the problem of heat transfer in the design of A.C

engines, refrigeration and air-conditioning plants, steam generation systems and many

others.

· The electrical engineers require the knowledge of heat transfer for designing the

cooling systems of motors, generators and transformers.

· The knowledge of heat transfer is essential to the civil engineers in the construction of

dams, tunnels and civil structures.

· The heat transfer is equally important to the chemical engineers in freezing,

condensation, evaporation and boiling point.

Page 11

· Modes of heat transfer are conduction, convection and radiation. In all heat transfer

modes, a temperature difference must exist to cause heat flow and heat always flows in

the direction of lower temperature.

· Heat conduction due to the property of matter which causes heat energy to flow

through the matter even if the body is impermeable to any kind of radiation and its parts

are not in motion relative to one another (in the macroscopic sense).

·

Heat convection is due to the property of moving matter (naturally or under force) to carry

heat energy from higher temperature region to lower temperature region as internal energy

(transporting load from one place to another).

· Heat radiation is due to the property of matter to emit and absorb different kinds of

electro-magnetic radiations. The radiation heat transfer between two bodies takes place

without any carrying medium as required in conduction and convection.

· It is not the purpose of this chapter to introduce the students with the behavior of the

molecules under each mode of energy transfer but to introduce the laws and ways to find

net transfer of heat energy by each mode or by combined modes.

· Steady state heat transfer through a body and between the bodies implies that the

temperature of the body varies with the position but not with time. The temperature at each

point of the body remains constant in course of time. The statement can be represented

as,

dT/dt =0 , dT/dx = 0

Where T is temperature and t is time. The heat flow rate (kJ/m 2-hr) through the body or

from the body remains constant steady state condition.

· In unsteady state heat transfer process, the temperature of the body varies with time and

not with position. This can be stated (dT/dt) = 0. The heat flow rate through the body or

from the body varies with time and location.

Page 12

The present chapter will deal mostly with steady state heat transfer process.

Where

Q = heat flow through a body per unit time.

A = surface area of heat flow (perpendicular to the direction of flow)

dT = temperature difference of the faces of block of thickness dx through

which heat flows.

dx = thickness of body along the direction of heat flow.

The above law can be represented by the equality as.

The negative sign of k in the equation is to take care of the decreasing temperature

along the direction of increasing thickness or the direction of heat flow.

The temperature gradient is always negative along positive x direction and

therefore the value of Q must be positive.

Units of k are given by

Page 13

The thermal conductivity of the material is defined as the amount of energy

conducted through a body of unit area and unit thickness in unit time when the

difference in temperature between the faces causing heat flow is 1°C.

Thermal conduction of different bodies is different. The conductivity of the body

depends mainly upon its molecular structure, the specific gravity, moisture content,

temperature and many other factors also affect the thermal conductivity.

Metals are good conductors of heat whereas insulators are poor conductors of

heat.

Heat flow through a small elemental thickness dx of a slab (Fig.1) under steady

state condition is given by Equation. This equation is known as Fourier law of conduction.

temperature changes from T1 to T2 through a thickness of slab L,

Page 14

Fig. 1 Heat flow through a slab

a) A hot fluid is separated from a cold fluid by three different solid slabs

Hot fluid at temperature T1 is separated by three layers of solid L1, L2, L3 from a cold

fluid at temperature To as shown in Fig. 5.

The steady state heat flow through the system is given by

Where k1, k2 and k3 are the conductivities of the solid layers 1, 2 and 3 and hi and ho are

the inside and outside convective heat transfer coefficient.

Page 15

The above equations can be written as given below:

Page 16

If there are n layers of solids, then the above equation can be written as

DESCRIPTION

The apparatus consists of a central heater sandwiched between two sheets. Three

types of slabs are provided on both sides of heater, which forms a composite structure. A

small hand press frame is provided to ensure the perfect contact between the slabs. A

dimmerstat is provided for varying the input to the heater and measurement of input to the

heater and measurement of input is carried out by a voltmeter, ammeter.Thermocouples

are embedded between interaces of the slabs, to read the temperature at the surface.

The experiments can be conducted at various values of input and calculation can

be more accordingly.

SPECIFICATION

Page 17

Backlite : 0.3 mtr dia x 0.011 mtr thickness.

Press Wood : 0.3 mtr dia x 0.0095 mtr thickness.

2. Heater: Nichrome heater wound on mice former and insulator with control unit

capacity 300 watt maximum.

5. Ammeter: 0 – 2 A, Single phase Dimmer stat

INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS

ELECTRIC SUPPLY

Provide 230 +/- 10 VAC, Single Phase Electric Supply with proper earthing.

5A, three pin socket with switch

INSTALLATION

Unpack the box (es) received and ensure that all material is received as per order.

In case of short supply or breakage, contact Eternal Engineering Equipment Pvt.

Ltd. for further action.

Install Composite Walls Apparatus on required space.

Ensure the plates in proper fashion [symmetrical] on both sides of the heater plates.

See that plates are symmetrically arranged on both sides of the heater plates.

Operate the hand press properly to insure perfect contact between the plates.

Close the box by cover sheet to achieve steady environmental conditions.

Connect mains cable to 5 amps. Single-phase electrical switch box. Also

Connect heater cable to control panel box.

Complete all-electrical connection and check it before start the experiment.

COMMISSIONING

Switch ON heater after ensuring dimmer stat at zero position.

Adjust the heating rate (50 - 110 volt), through the dimmer stat to a suitable level (V

x I)

Page 18

Wait (30 min. for steady state condition) till the steady state is reached and then

record the reading of all temperatures from digital temperature indicator, and

voltmeter, ammeter readings in observation table.

Repeat the same procedure for different heat rate.

PRECAUTION

Increase the voltage slowly.

Keep all the assembly undisturbed.

Remove air gap between plates by moving handpress gently.

While removing the plates do not disturb the thermocouples.

Operate selector switch of temperature indicator gently.

OBSERVATION

A] Mild steel = 0.010 m.

B] Bakelite = 0.011 m.

C] Press wood = 0.0095 m.

2] Slab effective diameter = 0.150 m.

2. Backlite : 0.23 W/m.0C.

3. Press Wood : 0.13 W/m.0C.

Page 19

OBSERVATION TABLE

V = Voltmeter (Volt)

I = Ammeter (Amp.)

SR.

THERMOCOUPLE READING IN OC

NO

1 T1

2 T2

3 T3

4 T4

5 T5

6 T6

7 T7

8 T8

CALCULATION

For calculating the thermal conductivity of composite walls, it is assumed that due

to large diameter of the plates, heat flowing through central portion is flowing at top and

bottom stack of the slab .i.e. axial flow. Thus for calculations, central half dia. area, where

close to center of the plates. Also , heat flow rate is to be taken half as same heat is

flowing through top and bottom slab. Here we are considering only one side of slab.

Q=VxI Watt

Where, V = Voltage on Volt

I = Current in Ampere.

Page 20

2) A = Area of Plates in m2

A = / 4 d2

Where,

d = half diameter of plates in meter.

TA = --------------------- TB = ---------------------

2 2

[T5 + T6]

[T7 + T8]

TC = --------------------- TD = ------------------------

2 2

b

Rtotal = ----------

KxA

Qxb

K comp. = ---------------- W / m .0 C.

A (TA - TD )

meter.

Q = Heat flow in W .

A = Area of slab . m2

Page 21

7) Effective K = 1/K1 + 1/K2 + 1/k3

Page 22

FIG.3 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF TEST RIG TO MEASURE THERMAL

RESULT

Page 23

Page 24

GRAPH

Page 25

CONCLUSION

Page 26

EXPERIMENT - 3

OBJECTIVE

To study the temperature distribution along the length of a pin fin in natural

and forced convection.

INTRODUCTION

Extended surface for fines are used to increase the heat transfer rate from a

surface to a fluid wherever it is not possible to increase the value of the surface heat

transfer coefficient or the temperature difference between the surface and the fluid. The

use of this is very common and they are fabricated in a variety of shapes. Circumferential

fins around the cylinder of a motor cycle engine and fins attached to condenser tubes of a

refrigerator are a few familiar examples.

It is obvious that a fin surface sticks out from the primary heat transfer surface. The

temperature difference with surrounding fluid will steadily diminish as one move out along

the fin.

The design of the fins therefore requires knowledge of the temperature distribution

in the fin. The main object of this experimental set up is to study the temperature

distribution in a simple pin fin.

DESCRIPTION

Aluminium fin of circular cross section is fitted across a long rectangular duct. The

other end of the duct is connected to the suction side of a blower and the air flows past the

fin perpendicular to its axis. One end of the fin projects outside the duct and is heated by

heater. Temperatures at five points along the length of the fin are measured by chromel

alumel thermocouples connected along the length of the fin. The airflow rate is measure by

an orifice meter fitted on the delivery side of the blower.

SPECIFICATIONS

Page 27

Duct size : mm x mm.

Diameter of the fin : mm.

Length of the fin : mm.

Diameter of the orifice : mm

Diameter of the delivery pipe : mm.

Blower capacity : 1HP, single-phase

No. Of thermocouples on fin : 5

Temperature Indicator : 0 – 300 C.

Dimmer stat for heat input control : 230 V, 2 Amps.

Voltmeter : 0-100 / 200 Amps.

Ammeter : 0 – 2 Amps.

Fin materials : Brass, Aluminium, & M.S.

THEORY

Consider the fin connected at its base to a heated wall and transferring heat to the

surrounding

Let,

A = Cross Sectional area of the fin.

P = Circumference of the fin.

L = Length of the fin.

= (T – TF) = Rise in temperature.

The heat is conducted along the rod and also lost to the surrounding fluid by

convection.

Let,

h = Heat Transfer Coefficient

K = Thermal Conductivity of the fin material.

Applying the first law of thermodynamics to a controlled volume along the length of the

fin at x,

Page 28

The resulting equation of heat balance appears as:

d hxc

------- - ---------- = 0 ------------------ (1)

dx K.A

And the general solution of equation (1) is –

Where,

m = √ h p K.A

Where,

1 = T1 –TF and assuming the fin tip to be insulated.

T – TF Cosh m (L – x)

----- -------------- = ---------------------------

T1 – TF Cosh mL

This is the equation for the temperature distribution along the length of the fin.

It is seen from the equation that for a fin given geometry with uniform cross section,

the temperature at any point can be calculated by knowing the values of T1, TF and x.

Temperature T1, and TF will be know for a given situation an the value of h depends on

whether the heat is lost to the surrounding by free convection or forced convection and

can be obtained by using the correlation as given below.

For free convection condition,

Nu = 0.53 (Gr. Pr) 1 / 4 (104 < Gr. Pr. < 109)

Nu = 0.13 (Gr. Pr) 1 / 4 (109 < Gr. Pr. < 1012)

Page 29

For forced convection,

Nu = 0.174 (Re) 0.618 ----------- 4000 < Re < 40000

Where,

hxd

Nusselt No. Nu = -----------

Kair

VD

Reynolds’s Number Re = --------

v

g x x L3 x T

V2

Cp

KAir

All properties are to be evaluated at the mean film temperature. The mean film

temperature is the arithmetic average of the tin temperature an air temperature.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

Start heating the fin by switching ON the heater element and adjust the power on

dimmer stat to say 60 watts (Increase slowly from 0 onwards.)

Note down the thermocouple readings 1 to 5.

When steady state is reached, record the final readings 1 to 5 and also record the

ambient temperature reading 6.

Repeat the same experiment with different power.

Page 30

FORCED CONVECTION

Start heating the fin by switching ON the heater and adjust power equal to 60 watts.

Start the blower and adjust the difference of level in the manometer with the help of

blower control – disc value.

Note down the thermocouple readings (1) to (5) at a time interval of 5 minutes.

When the steady state is reached, record the final readings (1) to (5) and also

record the ambient temperature reading (6).

PRECAUTIONS:

See that the dimmer stat is at zero position before switching ON the heater.

See that throughout the experiment, the blower is OFF

Operate the changeover switches of temperature indicator, gently.

Be sure that the steady state is reached before taking the final readings.

NATURAL CONVECTION

OBSERVATION

Diameter of the fin : mm.

Length of the fin : mm.

Diameter of the orifice : mm

Diameter of the delivery pipe : mm.

OBSERVATION TABLE - I

SR. TEMPERATURE IN OC

VOLTAGE CURRENT

NO.

Volts Amps. T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 TDuct

Page 31

CALCULATION

T1 + T2 +T3 + T4 + T5

Ts = -------------------------------------

5

TDuct + Ts

Tmf = -----------------

2

1

= --------------------

Tmf + 273

T =Ts - TDuct

Gr = Grashoff Number

g x x L3 x T

Gr = -------------------------

2

Where,

g = Acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m / s2

Page 32

L = Length of pin in meter

= Kinematic viscosity at Tmf in m / s2

Pr =……

For free convection condition,

hxd

Nu = ------------

K

Where,

K = Thermal Conductivity of Air at Tmf

P = Perimeter of Pin in meter

P=xD

A = Cross Section Area of fin in m2

Page 33

A = -------- x D2

4

m = Mass flow rate

m= hP/KA

Where,

K = Thermal conductivity of Fin material

Q = the heat transfer rate by fin

= Effectiveness of fin

tanh (mL)

= -------------------

mL

FORCED CONVECTION

Page 34

OBSERVATION

D = Diameter of the fin = mm.

L = Length of the fin = mm.

d = Diameter of the orifice = mm

Diameter of the delivery pipe = mm.

Manometer reading = mm

Sp.gravity of manometer liquid = 810 Kg / m3

OBSERVATION TABLE

SR. TEMPERATURE IN OC

VOLTAGE CURRENT

NO.

Volts Amps. T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 TDuct

CALCULATION

T1 + T2 +T3 + T4 + T5

Ts = -------------------------------------

5

TDuct + Ts

Tmf = -----------------

2

Page 35

vO = Velocity from orifice in m / sec

vO = Cd x -------------------------

ρa

vO x (/4) x dO2

Va = ---------------------------

WxB

Re = Reynolds Number

ρ a x Va x D

Re = --------------------

μa

Where,

ρa = Density of Air at duct temp. = 1.165 Kg / m3

D = diameter of fin in meter

μa = Dynamic viscosity of air at Tduct in Kg / m - s

Page 36

Pr = Prandtle Number at mean fin temp. (Tm f)

Pr =……

Nu = Nusselt Number

Nu = C (Re)n (Pr)0.33

Re C n

0.4 – 4 0.989 0.33

4 – 40 0.911 0.385

40 – 4000 0.683 0.466

4000 – 40000 0.193 0.618

hxD

Nu = ------------

k

Where,

K = Thermal Conductivity of Air at Tmf

D = Diameter of fin in meter

P = Perimeter of Pin in meter

P=xD

Page 37

A = Cross Section Area of fin in m2

A = -------- x D2

4

m = Mass flow rate

m= hP/KA

Where,

K = Thermal conductivity of Fin material

Q = the heat transfer rate by fin

= Effectiveness of fin

tanh (mL)

= ---------------

mL

Page 38

Calculate Predicted temperature (T1, T2... T5) at each point at each point

---------------------------------------- + Tduct = T2 / 3 / 4 / 5

CoshmL

T2 = ….OC

T3 = ….OC

T4 = ….OC

T5= ….OC

APPENDIX

In SI Units

HYPERBOLIC FUNCTION`

X Cosh x Tanh z

0.0 1.000 0.000

0.1 1.005 0.100

0.2 1.020 0.197

0.3 1.045 0.291

0.4 1.081 0.380

Page 39

0.5 1.128 0.462

0.6 1.186 0.537

0.7 1.255 0.604

0.8 1.337 0.664

0.9 1.433 0.716

1.0 1.543 0.762

1.1 1.668 0.801

1.2 1.811 0.834

1.3 1.971 0.862

1.4 2.151 0.885

1.5 2.352 0.905

1.6 2.577 0.922

1.7 2.828 0.935

1.8 3.108 0.947

1.9 3.418 0.956

2.0 3.762 0.964

2.1 4.144 0.971

2.2 4.568 0.976

2.3 5.037 0.980

2.4 5.557 0.984

2.5 6.132 0.987

2.6 6.769 0.989

2.7 7.474 0.991

2.8 8.253 0.993

2.9 9.115 0.994

3.0 10.068 0.995

Page 40

Page 41

Page 42

Page 43

Page 44

RESULT

Page 45

GRAPH

Page 46

CONCLUSION

Page 47

EXPERIMENT -4

OBJECTIVE

To estimate the film heat transfer coefficient between the medium in which

body is heated .

INTRODUCTION

In all steady state heat transfer, if all other parameters are constant, then

temperature is also constant and does not vary with time. In unsteady state process,

though other variables are constant, temperature is function of time. A very good example

of this is when a chisel is to be hardened; it is heated and then quenched in water or oil.

During both the heating and cooling process, temperature is function of time.

DESCRIPTION

The apparatus consists of insulated hot water bath . An electric heater is provided

to heat water up to desired temperature. A brass test piece with the thermocouple at the

center is immersed in hot water bath and its temperature is measured at fixed interval of

time ( say 10sec ) . The unit is provided with buzzer / flasher which gets on every 10

seconds the temperature . And with reference to the buzzer cylinder temperature can be

measured. The hot test piece is then cooled in atmospheric air. Heat transfer coefficient in

both the heating and cooling can be calculated.

SPECIFICATIONS

Page 48

MCB : 2 pole, 10A,

Qty: 1No.

Qty: 3No.

Input-CR-Al (K-type),

Range - 00C to 2000C,

Supply - 230VAC, 50Hz,

Channel- 03

Qty: 1No.

Supply- 230VAC/DC,

Output contact- 2 C/O (DPDT),

Time ranges-1/10Sec/min/hr

for both ON/OFF time,

Relay rating- 5A @ 230VAC/

24VDC resistive,

Qty: 1No.

Type- ECO,

Voltage-240VAC,

Colour-Red,

Qty: 1No.

Range- -400C to 500C,

Input- 230VAC, 50/60Hz,

Resolution- 10C

Qty: 1No.

3mmX40mm, 1.5m,

Qty: 3No.

Page 49

Properties of Brass : Density-8522Kg/m3,

Specific heat-0.092Kcal/Kg0C

PROCEDURE

Attach the test piece to test piece holder.

After achieving required temperature put “OFF“ the heater.

Note down initial temperature of test piece, then insert it in water bath at the same

time put timer on and note down the temperature of test piece for every impulse of

flasher / buzzer .

Take readings up to maximum temperature of water bath .

Cool the sample in atmospheric air. During cooling also note down the temperature

at every 10 seconds.

Repeat the procedure for different water bath temperatures (say 80 0C, 900C)

OBSERVATIONS

T2 = Water Bath Temperature in 0C

T3 = Ambient Temperature in 0C

T4 =Test Piece Temperature at any selected point in 0C

OBSERVATIONS TABLE

No. Time in sec Temp. in 0C Time in sec Temp. in 0C

1 0 0

2 10 10

3 20 20

4 30 30

5 40 40

6 50 50

7 60 60

Page 50

8 70 70

CALCULATIONS

Calculate and 0 in 0C

Select any temperature point from the observation table as T 4 at t sec time

We have

= (T2 – T4) 0C

0 = (T2 – T1) 0C

Now we have

2ht

ln ( / 0) = --------------- For cylinder having L > R.

- Cp. R

- x Cp x R x ln ( / 0) x 3600

h = -----------------------------------------------------

2xt

Where

= Density of specimen = 8522 Kg/m3

Cp = Specific heat of specimen = 0.385 KJ/Kg 0k

R = Radius of specimen = 0.0255 mtr

T = Time in sec of T4

Page 51

The above calculations are made by neglecting internal temperature gradient

of specimen.

PRECAUTIONS

Do not heat the water above 900C.

Never start heater without water in tank.

Observe that while heater is on the top cover should be closed.

Page 52

Page 53

RESULT SHEET

OBSERVATIONS :

T2 = Water Bath Temperature = 84.8 0C

T1 = Initial Test Piece Temperature = 36.3 0C

T4 = Test Piece Temperature at any = 75.6 0C

D = Diameter of Specimen = 0.051 m

L = Length of Specimen = 0.101 m

Type of Material = BRASS

OBSERVATION TABLE :

No. Time in sec Temp. in 0C Time in sec Temp. in 0C

1 0 36.3 0 81.8

2 10 40.3 10 80.7

3 20 46.4 20 79.5

4 30 55.7 30 78.8

5 40 62.3 40 77.8

6 50 66.9 50 77.4

7 60 70.4 60 76.8

8 70 73.1 70 76.5

9 80 75.3 80 76.2

10 90 76.5 90 75.8

11 100 77.7 100 75.4

12 110 78.7 110 75.2

13 120 79.6 120 74.9

14 130 80.1 130 74.7

Page 54

15 140 81.2 140 74.5

16 150 81.5 150 74.2

SAMPLE CALCULATION :

ln (/ o) = – (2 x h x t) / (x Cp x R)

ln (/ o) x ( x Cp x R)

h = – --------------------------------------

2xt

Where,

= Density of Specimen = 8522 Kg/m3

Cp = Specific Heat of Specimen = 0.385 KJ/ Kg K

Here,

ln (/ o) = ln (8.3/48.5) = – 1.7653

ln (/o) x ( x Cp x R)

h = – --------------------------------------

2xt

Page 55

h = – -------------------------------------------------

2 x 90

ln (/ o) = – (2 x h x t) / (x Cp x R)

ln (/ o) x ( x Cp x R)

h = – --------------------------------------

2xt

Where,

= Density of Specimen = 8522 Kg/m3

Cp = Specific Heat of Specimen = 0.385 KJ/ Kg K

Here,

ln (/o) = ln (9.0/48.5) = – 1.684

Now,

ln (/o) x ( x Cp x R)

h = – --------------------------------------

2xt

h = – -------------------------------------------------

2 x 90

Page 56

h = 782.887 W/m2 k sec

RESULT :

Average heat transfer coefficient for cooling = 782.887 W/m 2 k sec

Page 57

GRAPH

Page 58

CONCLUSION

Page 59

EXPERIMENT -5

OBJECTIVE

INTRODUCTION

In many practical situations and equipments, we invariably deal with flow of fluids in

tubes e.g. boiler, super heaters and condensers of a power plant, automobile radiators,

water and air heaters or coolers etc. the knowledge and evolution of forced convection

heat transfer coefficient for fluid flow in tubes is essentially a prerequisite for an optional

design of all thermal system

Convection is the transfer of heat within a fluid by mixing of one portion of fluid with

the other. Convection is possible only in a fluid medium and is directly linked with the

transport of medium itself.

In forced convection, fluid motion is principally produced by some superimposed

velocity field like a fan, blower or a pump, the energy transport is said due to forced

convection.

DESCRIPTION

Page 60

The apparatus consists of a blower unit fitted with the test pipe. The test section is

surrounded by a Nichrome band heater. Four thermocouples are embedded on the test

section and two thermocouples are placed in the air stream at the entrance and exit of the

test section to measure the air temperature. Test pipe is connected to the delivery side of

the blower along with the orifice to measure flow of air through the pipe. Input to the heater

is given through a dimmerstat and measured by meters.

It is to be noted that only a part of the total heat supplied is utilized in heating the

air. A temperature indicator with cold junction compensation is provided to measure

temperatures of pipe wall at various points in the test section. Airflow is measured with the

help of orifice meter and the water manometer fitted on the board.

SPECIFICATION

Qty : 1 No.

Qty : 3 No.

230 volt, AC,

Qty : 1 No.

Range 0 - 200 C,

6 – Channel,

Qty : 1 No.

Qty : 1 No.

Ammeter : 0 – 10 AAC,

Page 61

Qty : 1 No.

Equi- distant 4holes of 6mm

ID-33mm, 400 watt,

Qty : 1 No.

+/- 100mm,

Qty : 1 No.

Wire length – 2mtrs,

Qty : 2 No.

Wire length – 2mtrs,

Qty : 4 No.

Qty : 1 No.

Qty : 1 No.

Qty : 1 No.

PROCEDURE

Switch ON blower.

Adjust the flow by means of gate valve to some desired difference in the

manometer level.

Switch ON heater

Start the heating of the test section with the help of dimmerstat and adjust desired

heat input with the help of Voltmeter and Ammeter.

Page 62

Take readings of all the six thermocouples when steady state is reached.

Note down the heater input.

PRECAUTION

Keep the dimmer stat at zero position before switching ON the power supply.

Increase the voltmeter gradually.

Do not stop the blower in between the testing period.

Do not disturb thermocouples while testing. Operate selector switch of the

thermocouple gently. Don’t exceed 200 watts

Operate selector switch of the temperature indicator gently.

OBSERVATION

Inner diameter of the test pipe (D i) = mm

Length of the test section (L) = mm

Diameter of the orifice (d) = mm

OBSERVATION TABLE

Temperature in c

No [V] [I] reading of

CALCULATION

(Volts) (Amps) water

T1oC T2oC T3oC T4oC T5oC T60C h in meter

Ao = ------- x d2

4

Page 63

Q = Volume flow rate in m3 / sec

________________

Q = Cd x Ao x 2 x g x h x (w / a)

Where,

Cd = Coefficient of discharge of orifice = 0.68

Ao = area of cross section of orifice in m2

w = Density of water = 1000 Kg/m3

a = density of air at ambient temp. = 1.03 Kg/m3

h = manometer reading in meter

ma = mass flow rate of air in Kg / sec

ma = Q x a

Where,

a = Density of air at Ambt. temp. = 1.03 Kg/m3

∆T = Temperature rise in air in 0C or 0K

∆T = (T6 – T1)

Qa = Heat carried away by Air in kJ / sec or Watts

Qa = ma x Cp x ∆T

Where,

Cp = specific heat of air= 1.005 KJ / K Kg

Ta = Average Temperature of Air in 0C

Page 64

(T1 + T6)

Ta = ----------------

2

Ts = Average Surface Temperature in 0C

T2 + T3+ T4 +T5

Ts = -----------------------

4

As = Test Section Surface Area in m2

As = x Di x L

Where,

Di = Inner diameter of the test pipe in meter

L = Length of the test section in meter

h = Heat Transfer Coefficient in W / m2k

Q

h = -------------------

A (Ts – Ta)

Ac = Cross Test Section Area in m2

Ac = ------- x Di2

4

V = Mean Velocity of Flow through tube in m / sec

Q

V = -------

Ac

Page 65

Re = Reynold’s Number

V Di

Re = ------------

Where,

= Kinematic Viscosity at bulk mean

Temp. i.e. (T1 + T6) in m2/ s

Pr = Prandtle Number

Nu = Nusselt Number

h = heat transfer coefficient calculated by using the correlations

hxD

Nu = ------------

Where,

K = thermal conductivity of air at avg. temp. in w / m k

Page 66

Page 67

RESULT

Page 68

GRAPH

Page 69

CONCLUSION

Page 70

EXPERIMENT - 6

INTRODUCTION

electromagnetic wave and dose not require any material medium for propagation. All

bodies can emit radiation and have also the capacity to absorb all or a part of the radiation

coming from the surrounding towards it.

An idealized black surface is one, which absorbs all the incident radiation with

reflectivity and transmissivity equal to zero. The radiant energy per unit time per unit area

from the surface of the body is called as the emissive power and is denoted by ‘e’. The

emissivity of the surface is the ratio of the emissive power of the surface to the emissive

power of the black surface at the same temperature.

It is denoted by ‘’

E

= ---------

Eb

of the black body becomes unity.

DESCRIPTION

The experimental set up consists of two circular Aluminum plates identical in size

and is provided with heating coils sandwiched. The plates are mounted on brackets and

are kept in an enclosure so as to provide undisturbed natural convection surroundings.

The heat input to the heater is varied by separate dimmerstat and is measured by using an

ammeter and a voltmeter with the help of double pole double through switch.

Page 71

The temperatures of the plates are measured by thermocouples separate wires are

connected to diametrically opposite points to get the average surface temperatures of the

plates. Another thermocouple is kept in the enclosure to read the ambient temperature of

enclosure.

Plate 1 is blackened by a thick layer of the lamp black to form the idealized black

surface whereas plate 2 is the test plate whose emissivity is to be determined. The heater

inputs to the two plates are dissipated from the plates by conduction, convection and

radiation.

The experimental set up is designed in such a way that under steady state

conditions the heat dissipation by conduction and convection is same for both the plates

when the surface temperatures are same and the difference in the heater input readings is

because of the difference in the radiation characteristics due to their different emissivities.

The schematic arrangement of the set up is shown in the figure.

SPECIFICATION

Black Plate (Aluminum) : mm diameter.

Capacity of heater : 400 watt each.

Dimmer stat : 0 – 2 A, 0 – 260 V

Voltmeter : 0 – 100 – 200 V,

Ammeter : 0 – 2 amp

Enclosure size : mm x mm x mm app.

Type of Thermocouples : Chromel Alumel

Temperature indicator : 0 – 300 c

Heater : One Nichrome strip wound on mica

Sheet and sandwiched between

Two mica sheets.

THEORY

Page 72

Emissivity being a property of the surface depends on the nature of the surface and

temperature.

It is obvious from the Stefan Boltzman’s law that the prediction of emissive power of

the surface requires knowledge about the values of its emissivity and therefore much

experimental research in radiation has been concentrated on measuring the values of

emissivity as function of surface temperature.

The present experimental set up is designed and fabricated to measure the

property of emissivity of the test plate surface at various temperatures.

PROCEDURE

Gradually increase the input to the heater to black plate and adjust it to some value

viz. 30, 50, 75 watts. Adjust the heater input to test plate slightly less than the black

plate 27, 35, 55 watts etc.

Check the temperatures of the two plates with small time intervals and adjust the

input of test plate only, by the dimmerstat so that the two plates will be maintained

at the same temperature.

This will require some trial and error and one has to wait sufficiently (more than one

hour or so) to obtain the steady state condition.

After attaining the steady state condition, record the temperatures, voltmeter and

ammeter readings for both the plates.

order.

OBSERVATION

d = Diameter of plates =

A = Area of plates = ( / 4) x d2 =

Eb = Emmissivity of black plate =1

= Stefan Boltzman constant. = 5.669 x10-8 w/m²/ K4

OBSERVATION TABLE

Page 73

Ambient

Black plate Test plate temperature

Sr.

No

Vb Ib Tb VS IS TS

Ta

CALCULATION

Qb = Heater input to black plate in Watt

Qb = Vb x Ib Watt

QS = Heater input to test plates in Watt

QS = VS x IS Watt

A = Area of plates in m 2

A = ------ x d2 = 0.0201 m2

4

E = Emmissitivity of test plate

Page 74

PRECAUTION

Use stabilized AC single-phase supply (preferably).

Always keep the dimmerstat at zero position before start.

Use the proper voltage range on Voltmeter.

Gradually increase the heater inputs.

See that the black plate is having the layer of lamp black uniformly.

NOTE: - There is a possibility of getting absurd results if the supply voltage is fluctuating or

if the input voltage is not adjusted till the satisfactory steady state condition is reached

PROPERTY TABLE

materials for reference.

Polished copper 0.15,

Steel, Stainless increases with

20c

Steel temperature

METALS Nickel

Aluminum

90 - 540c 0.15 to 0.35

(Oxidized)

NON

Brick, Wood, 20 - 100c

META 0.80 to 1

Marble, Water

LS

Page 75

Page 76

RESULT

Page 77

GRAPH

Page 78

CONCLUSION

Page 79

EXPERIMENT – 7

OBJECTIVE

Constant () by using certain parameters like emissive power & temp of a black

body.

INTRODUCTION

It is defined as ideal body, which observes all incident radiant energy without

reflecting or transmitting any energy. This applies for radiation of all wavelengths & for all

angle of incidence.

DESCRIPTION OF SET UP

conducting plate A. The outer surface of B is enclosed in a metal water jacket used to heat

B to some suitable constant temperature. The hemispherical shape of B is chosen solely

on the grounds that it simplifies the task of draining the water between Test Piece &

hemisphere. Four chromel alumel thermocouples are attached to various points on surface

of Hemisphere to measure its mean temperature.

hole, drilled in the center of base plate ‘A’. A chromel alumel thermocouple is used to

measure the temperature of Test Piece (T 5).

The thermocouple is mounted on the disc to study the rise of its temperature. When

the disc is inserted at the temperature T 5 (T5 T) i.e. the temperature of the enclosure, the

Page 80

response of the temperature change of the disc with time is used to calculate the Stefan

Boltzmann constant.

SPECIFICATION

Base plate, Bakelite diameter : 310 mm.

Test disc diameter : 20 mm

Mass of test disc : 0.004 Kg

Specific heat of the copper test disc : 0.41868 KJ / Kg°C

No of thermocouples on Hemisphere : 4 Nos.

No of thermocouples on Test piece : 1 No.

Digital Temperature indicator : 0 – 200 0C range

Water heater capacity : (2KW) instant with

the thermostats.

Hot water Bath : 5.75 liters Capacity.

the inner surface of hemisphere. The test piece is also blackened.

THEORY

engineering and other applications. All bodies at temp above ⁰ K emit energy in the

form of radiation. Different theories are developed to study the Radiation Heat transfer

like Maxwell theory explains the radiation phenomenon as propagation of energy in the

form of electromagnetic wave, while Max Plank’s hypothesis treats it as energy being

Page 81

carried through photons or quanta’s Whichever of these theories are used, it is

convenient to classify all electromagnetic radiant energy emission in terms of

wavelength.

The most commonly used law of thermal radiation is the Stefan Boltzman law

which states that heat flux or emissive power of a black body is proportional to the forth

power of absolute temperature of the surface and is given by

Eb = T4 W / m2

Where,

Eb = Emissive power (W / m2)

= Stefan Boltzman constant

= 5.699x 10-8 W /m2 K4

T = Temperature of Black body (0 K)

The Stefan Boltzman law can be derived by integrating the Plank’s law over the

entire spectrum of wavelengths from 0 to ∞, though historically it is worth noting that the

Stefan Boltzmann law was independently developed before Plank’s law.

The radiation energy falling on Test Piece from the enclosure is given by:

E = AD T⁴ ----------- (1)

Where,

AD = Area of the disc D in m²

T = Average temperature of the enclosure

Recorded by the Thermocouple K

The emmissivity of the disc D is assumed to be unity (Black disc) the radiant

energy, emitted by disc D into enclosure will be

The net heat input to disc D per unit time is given by (1) - (2)

Page 82

If the test piece has mass m and specific heat S then in a short time after test piece is

inserted in A,

OR,

m.s. (dT/dt)T= 0

= -----------------------------

AD (T4 -T54)

In this equation, m.s. (dT/dt) t = 0 denotes the rate of rise of temperature of the test

piece at the instant when its temperature is T5 and will vary with T5. it is clearly best

measured at time t = 0 before heat conducted from A to test piece begins to have any

significant effect.

This is obtained from plot of temperature rise of test piece with respect to time and

obtaining its slope at t = 0 when temperature is T5. This will be the required value of dT/dt

at t=0. The thermocouple mounted on disc is to be used for this purpose.

Note that the test piece with its insulating sleeve S is placed quickly in position and

start the timer and record the temperature at fixed time intervals. The whole process is

completed in about 30 seconds of time.

Longer test piece is left in position; the greater is the probability of errors due to heat

conduction from A to test piece .the experiment is repeated for obtaining better results.

PROCEDURE

Make tap water connection by using a flexible pipe up to the hot water bath till it

with water

The heater is started to heat the water

Put the heater OFF after heater on indicator OFF.

The immersion heater up to a temperature of about 90°c heats the water in the

tank.

The test piece is removed before pouring the hot water into the jacket.

The hot water is poured in the water jacket.

The hemispherical enclosure and will come to some uniform temperature T in a

short time after filling the hot water in the jacket the thermal inertia of hot water is

quite adequate to present significant cooling in the time required to conduct the

experiment.

Page 83

The enclosure will soon come to the thermal equilibrium conditions.

The test piece is now inserted in A at a time when its temperature is saying T 5 (to be

sensed by a separate thermocouple).

No. Of reading (Say 10 No.) Can be taken at the interval of 5 Sec.

OBSERVATION

d = Diameter of Test Disc = 20 mm

t = Disc Thickness = 1.6 mm

W = Weight of Disc = 0.004 kg.

OBSERVATION TABLE

T1

T2

T3

T4

Time in sec 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

Temp in 0c

CALCULATION

Ta = Average temperature in 0C

T1 + T2 + T3 + T4

Page 84

Ta = -----------------------------

4

T5 = Temperature of disc in 0C

T5 = …….. 0C

dT / dt = Slope from graph of dT against dt.

dT Y2 – Y1

-------- = -------------

dt X2 – X1

= Stefan boltzman constant in W / m2 0K4

m s (dT )T 0

dt

AD (T avg T 5 ) 0.086

4 4

20

σ = …………….. w/m K

GRAPH:

Page 85

dT / dt graph for slope

29.6

29.4

29.2

T temp. in degree cel.

29

28.8

28.6

28.4

28.2

28

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

t tim e in sec

dT Y2 – Y1

-------- = -------------

dt X2 – X1

dT 28.5 – 28.2

------ = ------------------ = 0.06

dt 10 – 5

Page 86

RESULT

Page 87

GRAPH

Page 88

CONCLUSION

Page 89

EXPERIMENT - 8

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

Page 90

(WATER TO WATER)

OBJECTIVE

Shell and tube heat exchanger.

INTRODUCTION

Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger is a Direct Transfer Type Tubular Heat

Exchanger. A heat exchanger in which two fluids exchanges heat by coming into

direct contact is called a direct transfer type heat exchanger. They are widely used

as they can be manufactured easily in many sizes, flow arrangement and types.

Depending upon heat transfer area requirement we can have multiple tube and/ or

shell passes. Flow conditions for shell & tube type heat exchangers are neither

parallel flow nor counter flow type.

The Shell & Tube heat exchanger mostly used in Chemical Industries as a

Condenser, Cooler and Heater. When the heat transfer area become more than 10

m2, one has to go for Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger, which occupies less space,

withstand very high pressure and temperature conditions than any other types of

Heat Exchangers.

DESCRIPTION

Shell and tube heat exchanger consists of bundle of round tubes placed

inside cylindrical shell with axis parallel to that of shell. One fluid flow through the

tubes while the other one entering into the shell and flow outside the tube.

Geyser is provided in the system to supply the hot water. A baffle provides

support to tubes and also deflects fluid flow approximately normal to tube.

Rotameter is the device used to measured the flow rates during the Expt. Baffles

increases the turbulence of shell side fluid and improve heat transfer. The various

types of baffles are existing and their type, spacing, shape will depend on a flow

rate Shell side pressure drop, required tube support, flow vibration etc.

Page 91

SPECIFICATION

SHELL SIDE

Outer Diameter (O.D) = 114 mm

Thickness (t) = 4 mm

Material = Mild Steel

TUBES SIDE

Internal Diameter (I.D.) = 8 mm

Material = Copper

No. Of Tubes (n) = 16

Length (L) = 500 mm.

No of pass (N) = 2

Pitch (P) = 12 mm

Instant Geyser = 3 Kw

MCB = 16 Amp for Heater

The flow rate can be adjusted by valve on hot and cold side, the temperature

at hot inlet and outlet and those at cold Inlet and Outlet are measured by

thermometers.

THEORY

The film heat transfer coefficient is a function of fluid velocity, which is again

function of cross-sectional area of the fluid path. Thus, decreasing the cross-

sectional area could increase the fluid velocity. This is achieved in multi pass heat

exchangers, at the cost of pressure drop and temperature gradient affecting due to

counter current flow.

In multi pass shell and tube heat exchangers, the flow conditions are more

complicated and LMTD equations are more complex. Hence to simplify procedure

Page 92

correction factor FT is used to adjust effective temperature difference for multi pass

flow exchangers.

multiplied by the counter flow LTMD, the product is the correct mean temperature

difference.

The factor FT, is a function of two dimensionless number R and S which are

defined as –

R = ------------- & S = ---------------

Tco – Tci Thi – Tho

temperature rise of the cold fluid to the maximum possible temperature rise

obtainable if the warm-end approach were zero [based on counter current flow].

The factor R is the ratio of the fall in temperature of the fluid to the rise in

temperature of the cold fluid. By varying the flow rates of Shell side and Tube side

fluid, it is possible to get the outside heat transfer coefficient and inside heat

transfer coefficient at various conditions.

1 1 ri ri Fo ri 1

----- = ----- + Fi + ------- ln(ro / ri ) + ------- + ----- -----

Ui hi k ro ro ho

Page 93

Outside heat transfer coefficient

1 ro 1 ro ro 1

Uo ri hi ri k ho

PROCEDURE

Make all connections as shown in the fig. & check for any leakage in the

circuit.

Make the oil well at the places where thermocouples are inserted for sensing

the temperature of water.

Set the temperature of the heater tank to some fix temp says 55 to 60 0C.

Once the temperature of water is reached start the flow of water through hot

and cold side and adjust it as per requirement.

Wait to stabilized the temperature on the control panel.

As the temperature get stabilized take down the readings for different four

channels by using switch on the panel.

Readings for the flow rates can be taken from the rotameter attached at the

front of the instrument.

Take down the readings by varying the flow rates.

Observe flow rate of hot water to be less than flow rate of cold water

Once the experiment is completed drain the water remain in shell & tube by

opening the cocks given at side & below the shell.

Page 94

PRECAUTION

Once the flow is fixed, do not change it until note down the readings for that

Flow.

There should make the oil well in pockets of thermometer

Equipment should be earthed properly.

Once the experiment is completed drain out the water remain in the shell &

tubes so that it will not get rusted.

OBSERVATION

Internal Diameter (di) = 8 mm = 0.008 m

Length of tubes (L) = 500 mm. = 0.500 m

Pitch (P) = 12 mm = 0.012 m

Material of tube = Copper

No of pass (N) = 2

No. Of Tubes (n) = 16

Internal Diameter (Di) = 106 mm = 0.106 m

Outer Diameter (Do) = 114 mm = 0.114 m

Thickness (t) = 4 mm = 0.004 m

Baffle clearance (C) = 20 mm. = 0.020 m

Baffle spacing (B) = 125 mm = 0.125 m

Page 95

OBSERVATION TABLE

SR. Flow Rate Inlet Temp. Outlet Temp. Flow Rate Inlet Temp. Outlet Temp.

NO. mwh Thi Tho mwc Tci Tco

(Kg / sec) (0 C) (0 C) (Kg / sec) 0

( C) (0 C)

Qh = Heat flow rate in KW or KJ / sec

at = Flow area per tube in m2

at = ----- x di2

4

af = flow area of fluid in m2

Page 96

n x at

a t = -----------------

N

Gt = Mass velocity of the tube side fluid in m / sec

mh

Gt = ----------------------

3600 x a t

Where,

mh = mass flow rate of hot water in Kg / sec.

Tm = Logarithmic Mean Temp. Difference (LMTD) in 0C

Tin - Tout

Tm = -------------------

ln (Ti / To)

Where,

Tin = Tho - Tci in oC

Tout = Thi - Tco in oC

FT = Correction factor from graph values of R and S are required.

R = ------------ & S = ---------------

Tco - Tci Thi – Tci

Ai = Inner Surface area of tubes in m2

Page 97

Ai = = x di x L x n

hi = Actual heat transfer coefficient of hot water in W / m 2 K

Qh

hi = -----------------------

Ai x Tm x FT

Re = Reynolds number

di x G t

Re = -----------

Where,

di = Inner diameter of tube in meter

The experimental value of hi could be compared with the predicated

value by means of following equation.

hi x di

----------- = 0.023 x Re 0.8 x Pr 0.4

K

Page 98

CALCULATION FOR COLD WATER SIDE

Qc = Heat flow rate in KW or KJ / sec

as = Flow area of fluid in m2

Di x C x B

as = ----------------

P

Where.

Di = Inside dia. of shell in meter

C = Baffle clearance in meter.

B = Baffle spacing in meter

P = Pitch in meter

Gs = Mass velocity of fluid in Kg / m2 sec

mc

Gs = ------- kg/ m2sec.

as

Ao = Surface area of the outer side of tube in m2

Ao = x Do x Lx n

ho = Actual heat transfer coefficient of cold water in W / m 2 K

Qc

ho = -----------------------

Page 99

Ao x Tm x FT

Re = Reynolds Number

Do x Gs

Re = -------------

The experimental value of ho could be compared with the predicated

value by means of following equation.

ho x do

------------- = 0.023 x Re 0.8 x Pr 0.4

K

RESULT SHEET

GIVEN DATA :

HOT WATER SIDE

Internal Diameter (do) = 8 mm = 0.008 m

Length of tubes (L) = 500 mm. = 0.500 m

Pitch (P) = 12 mm = 0.012 m

Material of tube = Copper

No of pass (N) = 2

Page

100

No. Of Tubes (n) = 16

COLD WATER SIDE

Internal Diameter (Di) = 106 mm = 0.106 m

Outer Diameter (Do) = 114 mm = 0.114 m

Thickness (t) = 4 mm = 0.004 m

Baffle clearance (C) = 20 mm. = 0.020 m

Baffle spacing (B) = 125 mm = 0.125 m

OBSERVATION :

Mass flow rate of hot water (mh) = 39 LPH = 39/3600 = 0.0108 kg/sec.

Mass flow rate of cold water (mc) = 80 LPH = 80/3600 = 0.022 kg/sec.

Specific heat for hot water = 4.174 kJ / kg 0C

Specific heat for cold water = 4.174 kJ / kg 0C

OBSERVATION TABLE :

SR. Flow Inlet Outlet Inlet Outlet

Flow Rate

NO. Rate Temp. Temp. Temp. Temp.

mwc

mwh Thi Tho Tci Tco

(Kg / sec)

(Kg / sec) (0 C) (0 C) (0 C) (0 C)

1 0.0108 60 50 0.022 26.5 32

Qh = Heat flow rate by hot water in KW or KJ / sec

Page

101

at = Flow area per tube in m2

at = ----- x d i2

4

af = flow area of fluid in m2

n x at

af = -----------------

N

Where,

n = No. Of tubes

N = No. Of Passes

Gt = Mass velocity of the hot water in Kg / sec m2

m h

----------------------

Gt =

af

Where,

mh = mass flow rate of hot water in Kg / sec.

ΔTm = Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) in 0C

Tin - Tout

ΔTm = ----------------------

ln (Tin/ Tout )

Page

102

Where,

Tin = Tho – Tci

Tout = Thi – Tco

FT = Correction factor from graph values of R and S are required.

R = ------------ & S = ---------------

Tco - Tci Thi – Tci

Thi – Tho

R = ------------

Tco - Tci

Tco - Tci

S = -------------

Thi – Tci

FT = 0.98 (Graphically)

Ai = Inner Surface area of tubes in m2

Ai = x di x L x n

hi = Actual heat transfer coefficient of hot water in W / m 2 K

Qh

hi = -----------------------

Ai x Tm x FT

Page

103

Re = Reynolds number

di x G t

Re = -----------

Where,

di = Inner diameter of tube in meter

Pr = Prandtle Number

x Cp

Pr = ------------

K

The experimental value of hi could be compared with the predicated

value by means of following equation.

hi x di

---------- = 0.023 x Re 0.8 x Pr 0.4

K

GIVEN DATA :

C = Baffle clearance = 20 mm = 0.020 m

B = Baffle spacing = 125 mm = 0.125 m

P = Pitch = 24 mm = 0.024 m

Page

104

CALCULATION :

Qh = Heat flow rate by Cold water in KJ / sec or KW

Qc = mc x Cpc x [Tco – Tci]

Di x C x B

as = ----------------

P

Ao = Surface area of the outer side of tube in m2

Ao = x do x L x n

ho = Actual heat transfer coefficient on cold water side in W / m 2 K

Qc

ho = -----------------------

Ao x Tm x FT

Gs = Mass Velocity of fluid of cold water in Kg / sec m 2

Page

105

ms

Gs = -------

as

Re = Reynold’s number

do x Gs

Re = ----------------

The Experimental value of (ho) could compare with the predicted value by

means of following equation,

ho x do

------------ = 0.023 (Re) 0.8 x (Pr) 0.4

K

Page

106

RESULT

Page

107

GRAPH

Page

108

Page

109

CONCLUSION

Page

110

EXPERIMENT – 9

(WATER TO AIR TYPE)

INTRODUCTION

Heat exchangers are the devices in which heat is transferred from one fluid to

another. The necessity for doing this arises in multitude of industrial applications. Common

examples of best exchangers are the radiator of a car, the condenser at the back of the

domestic refrigerator, and the steam boiler of a thermal power plant.

Heat exchangers are classified in three categories.

Transfer Type

Storage Type

Direct contact Type

A transfer type heat exchanger is the one in which both fluids pass simultaneously

through the device and heat is transferred through separating walls. In practice most of the

heat exchangers used are transfer type ones. The transfer type heat exchangers are

further classified according to flow arrangements as –

Counter flow, in which they flow in opposite direction ,and

The simple example of transfer type of heat exchanger can be in the form of a tube in

tube type arrangement as shown in the figure. One fluid flowing through the inner tube and

the other through the annulus surroundings it. The heat transfer takes place across the

walls of the inner tube.

APPARATUS

The apparatus consists of a ‘tube in tube’ type concentric tube heat exchanger. The

hot fluid is water, which is obtained from a bank of geysers and flows through the inner

tube while the cold fluid is air flowing through the annulus.

The air flows always in one direction and its flow rate is controlled by means of a valve.

The hot water can be admitted at one of the end enabling the heat exchanger to run as a

parallel flow or a counter flow apparatus. This is done by valve operations as shown in the

figure. The main object of this experiment is to study the following

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111

Temperature distribution in parallel and counter flow heat exchanger.

Heat transfer rates in the two runs.

Overall heat transfer coefficient in parallel and counter flow runs.

To obtain the effectiveness of the given heat exchanger.

The experiments are conducted by keeping the identical flow rates while running

the unit as a parallel flow heat exchanger and counter flow exchanger.

The temperatures are measured with the help of the thermometer. The readings are

recorded when steady state is reached. The outer tube is provided with adequate

insulating to minimize the heat losses. Air flow rate is measured with orifice meter and U

tube manometer.

SPECIFICATONS

1. Inner Tube

o Material: Copper

o Inner Dia: 10.5 mm

o Outer Dia.: 19.0 mm

o Length:1000 mm

(Tube is provided with longitudinal Fins- 28 no, over the circumference of the

tube, of 19.75 mm height.)

2. Outer Tube

o Material: G.I.

o Inner Diameter: 53.3mm

4. Water Heaters: 2 KW

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

2. Start the blower to have air flow. Run the unit either as parallel flow or counter flow

unit.

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112

3. Start the heaters and note the temperature of hot water after 10 minutes. Adjust the

flow rate of water to get the desired temperature.

4. Adjust the air flow rate with the help of gate valve and manometer.

5. When the temperature remains steady, note down the temperatures and flow rates.

It is essential that during the experiment, both the air and water flow rates remain

unchanged.

6. Repeat the experiment by changing the direction of air, with same flow rates.

OBSERVATIONS

No Conditions Inlet Outlet Flow Inlet Outlet Flow

Temp Temp. Rate Temp Temp. Rate

1. Parallel Flow

2. Counter Flow

CALCULATIONS

Area of Orifice = (/4) d² = (/4) x (0.025)²

=

Manometer Difference (h) =

Where,

Cd = Coefficient of discharge of Orifice = 0.64

g = Gravitational Acceleration = 9.81 m/sec²

H = Air head over the orifice.

ρw

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113

= h x --------

ρa

Where,

ρw = density of water= 1000 Kg/m³

ρa = density of air

qh + qc

q = --------------- Kcal/hr

2

The temperature distribution in the two runs is plotted as shown in figure

The L.M.T.D. can be calculated as:-

∆Ti – ∆To

L.M.T.D. = ∆Tm= ------------------------

Log e (∆Ti / ∆To)

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114

4. Overall Heat transfer coefficient can be calculated by using

q = U A ∆Tm

q

U = -------------

A ∆Tm

Uro based on Ao = . Do . L + Area of Fins

Compare the values of ∆Tm and q in the parallel flow and counter flow runs

Note that if experiment is conducted very carefully then the superiority of counter flow

arrangement in terms of higher value of ∆Tm and excess value of q for same flow rates

condition than in parallel flow can be revealed. The value of overall heat transfer

coefficient U is more or less same for both the runs.

Tco – Tci

Effectiveness = --------------, if mh .Cph > ma .Cpa

Thi – Tci

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115

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116

RESULT

Page

117

GRAPH

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118

CONCLUSION

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119

EXPERIMENT - 10

TWO PHASE HEAT TRANSFER UNIT

INTRODUCTION:

A Liquid to vapour change and vapour condensing back into the liquid form are the two

phase change processes present in many applications like those of refrigeration and

air conditioning, chemical processes, thermal power stations, oil refining etc. The two-

phase Heat Transfer apparatus illustrates these two phase change processes namely

condensation and boiling.

DESCRIPTION :

The unit consists of a strong glass cylinder containing saturated liquid and vapour

or R –11. A high wattage density heater in the form of a copper tube is inserted at the

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120

lower end of the cylinder submerged in the R –11 liquid. Heat input is supplied to this

heater by a dimmer and heat input is measured by voltmeter and ammeter. A water cooled

copper coil in the upper part of the cylinder is kept in vapour zone, condenses R –11

vapours produced due to heating and returns the same to the boiling liquid.

Heater wall temperature

Vapour temperature

Liquid temperature

Cooling water inlet temperature

Cooling water outlet temperature.

Atmospheric temperature.

to cut the heater supply if the pressure increases excessively.

SPECIFICATION

Qty: 1No

Qty: 3No

Input-CR-Al (K-type),

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121

Range- 00C to 2000C,

Supply- 230VAC, 50Hz,

Channel- 6,

Qty: 1No,

230V, +/-10%VAC,

Range- 0 to 1000 VAC,

Qty: 1No,

230V, +/-10%AAC,

Range- 0 to 10 AAC,

Qty: 1No,

Max. test pressure 16atm.g,

Electrical Rating- 10A resistive,

380VAC, 250VDC.

Qty: 1 No,

1.0m,

Qty: 6 No.

Qty: 1 No.

Needle type,

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122

Qty: 1 No.

OBJECTIVE

To plot graph of heat flux v/s difference of temperature between metal and liquid at

various vapour pressures.

To find out heat flux taken away by water from condensing vapour.

THEORY:

temperature of somewhat superheated condition with respect to the saturation

temperature, accompanied by formation of vapour bubbles. Boiling, therefore, is

always linked with the supply of heat to the boiling system, with boiling and solid

submerged surface, superheating of the liquid is maximum directly at the heated

surface.

The starting points are located on this surface – individual surface irregularities, air

bubbles, specks of dust etc., hence the reason that vapour bubbles mainly form directly on

the heat transfer surface.

Natural Convection,

Nucleate and

Film.

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123

The region of natural convection occurs at low temperature difference. Heat transfer

from the heated surface to the liquid in its vicinity causes the liquid to be superheated. This

superheated liquid rises to the free liquid surface by

Natural convection, where vapour is produced by evaporation. Boiling during which vapour

forms in the form of periodically forming and growing bubbles is called nucleate boiling,

with an increase in heat flow to a certain value, individual vapour bubbles coalesce,

forming a continuous vapour layer at the wall breaking periodically into the bulk of liquid.

The kind of boiling characterized by the presence of a film of vapour on the surface,

separating it from the liquid, is called as film boiling is considerably inferior to that upon

nucleate boiling, The typical boiling curve given illustrated the gradual change from natural

convection to nucleate to film boiling which is observed in practice.

While using electric heating with the rate of heat flow being independent of the

process, there occurs a jump like change from nucleate to film boiling and back. If the

amount of power supplied is not reduced, the system will come into state distinguished by

a considerable rise in wall temperature. The moment of transition from one kind of boiling

temperature lower than the saturation temperature corresponding to its vapour pressure. It

is observed that the nature of the condensation depends upon whether the liquid formed

wets or does not wets the solid surface. If the liquid wets the surface, the condensate

flows on the surface in the form of a film and the process is called film wise condensation.

If on the other hand, the liquid does not wet the solid surface, the condensate

occurs in the form of droplets and which grow in size or coalesces with neighboring

droplets and eventually roll off the surface under the influence of gravity. This process is

called drop wise condensation. However, it is generally observed that although drop wise

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124

condensation may be obtained on new surface, it is difficult to maintain and prolonged

PROCEDURE

Ensure that dimmer stat reads zero position.

Put ‘ON’ the heater switch.

Put ‘ON’ temperature indicator.

Start water supply through the cooling coil and adjust water flow rate to

predetermined value.

Note down first set of readings in the Observation Table.

Now slightly increase the heater input and observe steady temperature

rise of heater wall.

As soon as the temperature attains constant value, note down the set of

observations.

Accordingly go on increasing the heat input and note down individual set of reading.

At the same time, we can visualize the process of boiling in various phases and

condensation of water coils through the glass tube.

By adjusting water flow rates at various values graphs of heat flux v/s Temperature

difference can be plotted for various vapour pressure values.

Condenser coil water flow rate and temperature difference will give heat flux taken

away by the water from condensing Vapour.

OBSERVATION

D = Diameter of heater in mm =

L= Length of heater in mm =

Cp = Specific heat of water 4.18 KJ/KG.0C

Ta = Ambient temp. in 0C

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125

OBSERVATION TABLE

Vapour

Heat input (Q) Wall Temp. Temp. Rate Pressure

Sr. Temp.

Temp. In 0C of In

No. In T2 In T3

Voltage Ampere In T1 0 Inlet Outlet Water Kg/ cm²

0

0

C C

(Volts) (Amp.) C T4 T5 LPH

CALCULATIONS

Q=VxI

Ah = Area of heater in m2

Ah = D L + (/4) D2

q = Heat flux in W / m2

q = Q / Ah

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126

Liquid to metal temperature difference in 0C

ΔT = T1 – T2

Where,

T1 = Wall temp. Of heater 0C

T2 = Liquid Pool Temp. 0C

Qw = m Cp (T5 – T4)

Where,

m = water flow rate in LPH / 3600 Kg./sec

Cp = Specific heat of water 4.18 KJ/Kg 0C

T4 = Water inlet Temp. in 0C.

T5 = Water outlet Temp. in 0C

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127

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128

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129

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130

Rotameter Charging valve

cooling coil

Heater

Pressure Switch

Page

131

RESULT

Page

132

GRAPH

Page

133

CONCLUSION

Page

134

Page

135

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