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EXPERIMENT - 1

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF INSULATING POWDER

OBJECTIVE

To determine thermal conductivity of an insulating powder.

INTRODUCTION

It is desirable to reduce the heat loss to the surroundings in many heat exchange
equipments. Insulating materials have a very low value of thermal conductivity and are
used in different shapes, sizes and forms. Insulating powder such as asbestos because of
their ease of taking any complex shape between the confining surfaces and their having
large air space in between particles are in great demand these days. The thermal
conductivity of an insulating powder will depend upon the geometry of the surface, particle
thermal conductivity, size and number of contained air spaces and the modes of the heat
transfer in different situations of the application.

DESCRIPTION

The apparatus consists of two thin walled concentric copper spheres. The inner
sphere houses the heating coil. The insulating powder (Asbestos powder – lagging
material) is packed between the two shells. The power supply to the heating coil is by
using a dimmerstat and is measured by Voltmeter and Ammeter.Chromel Alumel
thermocouples are used to measure the temperatures. Thermocouples 1 to 4 are
embedded on inner sphere and 5 to 10 are embedded on the outer shell. Positions 1 to 10
are as shown in the figure. Temperature readings in turn enable to find out the thermal
conductivity of the insulating powder packed between the two shells.
We assume the insulating powder as an isotropic material and the value of thermal
conductivity to be constant. The apparatus assumes one-dimensional radial heat
conduction across the powder and thermal conductivity can be determined.

SPECIFICATIONS

 Material of inner & Outer sphere : COPPER


 Radius of the inner sphere (ri) : mm

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 Radius of the outer sphere (ro) : mm

 Voltmeter : 0 to 200 V
 Ammeter : 0 to 2 amp
 Type of thermocouple : Chromel Alumel
 No. of thermocouple : 10 Nos.
 Insulating Powder : Asbestos Magnesia
 Temperature indicator : 0 to 300 °c, digital
 Dimmer stat : 0 to 2 A, 0 to 230 V
 Heater coil Strip heating element : 200 watts Sandwiched
Between mica sheets

NOTE:
Chromel Alumel Thermocouples 1 to 4 embedded on inner sphere to measure Ti.
Chromel Alumel Thermocouples 5 to 10 on outer sphere to measure to. Insulating
Powder – Asbestos Magnesia Commercially available powder and packed between
two spheres.

THEORY

Consider the transfer of heat by conduction through the wall of a hollow sphere
formed by the insulating powdered layer packed between two thin copper spheres.

Let
ri = Radius of inner sphere in meter.
ro = Radius of the outer sphere in meter.
Ti = Average temperature of the inner sphere in °c
To = Average temperature of the outer sphere in °c

Where,
T 1 + T2 + T 3 + T4
Ti = ------------------------------
4

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T5 + T6 + T7+ T8+ T9+ T10
And To = ------------------------------------------
6

Note that T₁ to T₁₀ denote the temperatures of thermocouples 1 to 10 from the


experimental values of q, Ti and To the known thermal conductivity K can be determined
as

Q x (ro – ri)
K = -------------------------------
4 x  x ri x ro x (Ti – To)

PROCEDURE

 Start main switch of the control panel.


 Increase slowly the input to heater by the dimmerstat starting from zero volt
position.
 Adjust input equal to 40 watts maximum by voltmeter and ammeter.
 See that this input remains constant throughout the experiment.
 Wait till fairly steady state condition is reached. This can be checked by reading
temperatures of the thermocouples 1 to10 and note changes in their readings with
time.
 Note down the readings in the observation table as given below.

OBSERVATION

 V = Voltmeter reading in volts


 I = Ammeter reading in amp
 Q = Heater input in watts

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OBSERVATION TABLE

Sr. Inner sphere temperatures in 0C Outer sphere temperatures in 0C


No
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10

Where,
Tmi = Mean temperature of inner surface in 0C
Tmo = Mean temperature of outer surface in 0C

CALCULATIONS

 Q = Heat input in watts

Q=VxI

 Tmi = Mean temperature of inner surface in 0C

T1 + T2 + T3 + T4
Tmi = ------------------------------
4

 Tmo = Mean temperature of outer surface in 0C

T5 + T6 + T7+ T8+ T9+ T10


Tmo = ------------------------------------------
6

 K =thermal conductivity of an insulating powder in W / m K


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Q (ro – ri )
K = ---------------------------------------
4 x  x ri x ro x (Ti – To)

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FIG.1 TEST RIG

FIG.2 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF SPHERE

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RESULT

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GRAPH

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CONCLUSION

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EXPERIMENT-2

HEAT TRANSFER THROUGH COMPOSITE SLAB

OBJECTIVE

To determine total Thermal Resistance of the slab and compare Thermal


Conductivity of Composite slabs.

THEORY

· Heat transfer is transmission of energy from one region to another as a result of


temperature difference or gradient.
· Since differences in temperature exist all over the universe, the phenomena of heat flow
are as universal as gravitational acceleration.
· Mechanical engineers deal with the problem of heat transfer in the design of A.C
engines, refrigeration and air-conditioning plants, steam generation systems and many
others.
· The electrical engineers require the knowledge of heat transfer for designing the
cooling systems of motors, generators and transformers.
· The knowledge of heat transfer is essential to the civil engineers in the construction of
dams, tunnels and civil structures.
· The heat transfer is equally important to the chemical engineers in freezing,
condensation, evaporation and boiling point.

MODES OF HEAT TRANSFER

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· Modes of heat transfer are conduction, convection and radiation. In all heat transfer
modes, a temperature difference must exist to cause heat flow and heat always flows in
the direction of lower temperature.
· Heat conduction due to the property of matter which causes heat energy to flow
through the matter even if the body is impermeable to any kind of radiation and its parts
are not in motion relative to one another (in the macroscopic sense).
·

Heat convection is due to the property of moving matter (naturally or under force) to carry
heat energy from higher temperature region to lower temperature region as internal energy
(transporting load from one place to another).
· Heat radiation is due to the property of matter to emit and absorb different kinds of
electro-magnetic radiations. The radiation heat transfer between two bodies takes place
without any carrying medium as required in conduction and convection.
· It is not the purpose of this chapter to introduce the students with the behavior of the
molecules under each mode of energy transfer but to introduce the laws and ways to find
net transfer of heat energy by each mode or by combined modes.

STEADY AND UNSTEADY STATE HEAT TRANSFER


· Steady state heat transfer through a body and between the bodies implies that the
temperature of the body varies with the position but not with time. The temperature at each
point of the body remains constant in course of time. The statement can be represented
as,

dT/dt =0 , dT/dx = 0
Where T is temperature and t is time. The heat flow rate (kJ/m 2-hr) through the body or
from the body remains constant steady state condition.
· In unsteady state heat transfer process, the temperature of the body varies with time and
not with position. This can be stated (dT/dt) = 0. The heat flow rate through the body or
from the body varies with time and location.

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The present chapter will deal mostly with steady state heat transfer process.

FOURIER LAW OF CONDUCTION AND THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY

Fourier law of conduction is represented by the equation

Where
Q = heat flow through a body per unit time.
A = surface area of heat flow (perpendicular to the direction of flow)
dT = temperature difference of the faces of block of thickness dx through
which heat flows.
dx = thickness of body along the direction of heat flow.
The above law can be represented by the equality as.

Where k = constant of proportionality and known as thermal conductivity of a body.


 The negative sign of k in the equation is to take care of the decreasing temperature
along the direction of increasing thickness or the direction of heat flow.
 The temperature gradient is always negative along positive x direction and
therefore the value of Q must be positive.
Units of k are given by

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 The thermal conductivity of the material is defined as the amount of energy
conducted through a body of unit area and unit thickness in unit time when the
difference in temperature between the faces causing heat flow is 1°C.
 Thermal conduction of different bodies is different. The conductivity of the body
depends mainly upon its molecular structure, the specific gravity, moisture content,
temperature and many other factors also affect the thermal conductivity.
 Metals are good conductors of heat whereas insulators are poor conductors of
heat.

CONDUCTION OF HEAT THROUGH A SLAB

Heat flow through a small elemental thickness dx of a slab (Fig.1) under steady
state condition is given by Equation. This equation is known as Fourier law of conduction.

Integrating the above equation between the limits of x= 0 to L and T = T1 to T2 as


temperature changes from T1 to T2 through a thickness of slab L,

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Fig. 1 Heat flow through a slab

Where L/kA is known as thermal resistance of the slab.

HEAT TRANSFER - (COMPOSITE WALL)


a) A hot fluid is separated from a cold fluid by three different solid slabs
Hot fluid at temperature T1 is separated by three layers of solid L1, L2, L3 from a cold
fluid at temperature To as shown in Fig. 5.
The steady state heat flow through the system is given by

Where k1, k2 and k3 are the conductivities of the solid layers 1, 2 and 3 and hi and ho are
the inside and outside convective heat transfer coefficient.

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The above equations can be written as given below:

Fig. 2 Heat transfer through composite wall

Adding both sides of the above equations:

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If there are n layers of solids, then the above equation can be written as

DESCRIPTION

The apparatus consists of a central heater sandwiched between two sheets. Three
types of slabs are provided on both sides of heater, which forms a composite structure. A
small hand press frame is provided to ensure the perfect contact between the slabs. A
dimmerstat is provided for varying the input to the heater and measurement of input to the
heater and measurement of input is carried out by a voltmeter, ammeter.Thermocouples
are embedded between interaces of the slabs, to read the temperature at the surface.
The experiments can be conducted at various values of input and calculation can
be more accordingly.

SPECIFICATION

1. Slabs : Mild Steel : 0.3 mtr dia x 0.01 mtr thcickness.

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Backlite : 0.3 mtr dia x 0.011 mtr thickness.
Press Wood : 0.3 mtr dia x 0.0095 mtr thickness.

2. Heater: Nichrome heater wound on mice former and insulator with control unit
capacity 300 watt maximum.

3. Heater control unit: 0 – 230 volt

4. Voltmeter: 0 – 100 – 200 V.


5. Ammeter: 0 – 2 A, Single phase Dimmer stat

INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS

ELECTRIC SUPPLY
 Provide 230 +/- 10 VAC, Single Phase Electric Supply with proper earthing.
 5A, three pin socket with switch

INSTALLATION

 Unpack the box (es) received and ensure that all material is received as per order.
In case of short supply or breakage, contact Eternal Engineering Equipment Pvt.
Ltd. for further action.
 Install Composite Walls Apparatus on required space.
 Ensure the plates in proper fashion [symmetrical] on both sides of the heater plates.

 See that plates are symmetrically arranged on both sides of the heater plates.
 Operate the hand press properly to insure perfect contact between the plates.
 Close the box by cover sheet to achieve steady environmental conditions.
 Connect mains cable to 5 amps. Single-phase electrical switch box. Also
Connect heater cable to control panel box.
 Complete all-electrical connection and check it before start the experiment.

COMMISSIONING

 Switch ON mains from control panel box.


 Switch ON heater after ensuring dimmer stat at zero position.
 Adjust the heating rate (50 - 110 volt), through the dimmer stat to a suitable level (V
x I)
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 Wait (30 min. for steady state condition) till the steady state is reached and then
record the reading of all temperatures from digital temperature indicator, and
voltmeter, ammeter readings in observation table.
 Repeat the same procedure for different heat rate.

PRECAUTION

 Keep dimmer stat to zero before start.


 Increase the voltage slowly.
 Keep all the assembly undisturbed.
 Remove air gap between plates by moving handpress gently.
 While removing the plates do not disturb the thermocouples.
 Operate selector switch of temperature indicator gently.

OBSERVATION

COMPOSITE SLABS: 1] Slab thickness : 0.0305 m


A] Mild steel = 0.010 m.
B] Bakelite = 0.011 m.
C] Press wood = 0.0095 m.
2] Slab effective diameter = 0.150 m.

Thermal Conductivity of Slabs :

1. Mild Steel : 36 to 54 W/m.0C.


2. Backlite : 0.23 W/m.0C.
3. Press Wood : 0.13 W/m.0C.

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OBSERVATION TABLE

READING SET - 1 SET - 2 SET - 3


V = Voltmeter (Volt)

I = Ammeter (Amp.)

Q =Heat supplied (Watt )


SR.
THERMOCOUPLE READING IN OC
NO
1 T1
2 T2
3 T3
4 T4
5 T5
6 T6
7 T7
8 T8

CALCULATION

For calculating the thermal conductivity of composite walls, it is assumed that due
to large diameter of the plates, heat flowing through central portion is flowing at top and
bottom stack of the slab .i.e. axial flow. Thus for calculations, central half dia. area, where

uni directional flow is assumed, is considered. Accordingly thermo-couples are fixed at


close to center of the plates. Also , heat flow rate is to be taken half as same heat is
flowing through top and bottom slab. Here we are considering only one side of slab.

1) Q =The Rate of heat supplied in Watt.

Q=VxI Watt
Where, V = Voltage on Volt
I = Current in Ampere.

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2) A = Area of Plates in m2
A =  / 4 d2
Where,
d = half diameter of plates in meter.

4) Mean reading of temperatures in 0C

[T1 + T2] [T3 + T4]


TA = --------------------- TB = ---------------------
2 2

[T5 + T6]
[T7 + T8]
TC = --------------------- TD = ------------------------
2 2

5) Rtotal = Total thermal resistance of composite slab

b
Rtotal = ----------
KxA

6) Kcomp. = Thermal conductivity of composite slab in W / m.0 C

Qxb
K comp. = ---------------- W / m .0 C.
A (TA - TD )

Where, b = Total thickness of composite slab in


meter.
Q = Heat flow in W .
A = Area of slab . m2

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7) Effective K = 1/K1 + 1/K2 + 1/k3

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FIG.3 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF TEST RIG TO MEASURE THERMAL

CONDUCTIVITY OF COMPOSITE MATERIAL

RESULT

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GRAPH

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CONCLUSION

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EXPERIMENT - 3

HEAT TRANSFER FROM PIN FIN APPARATUS

OBJECTIVE

To study the temperature distribution along the length of a pin fin in natural
and forced convection.

INTRODUCTION

Extended surface for fines are used to increase the heat transfer rate from a
surface to a fluid wherever it is not possible to increase the value of the surface heat
transfer coefficient or the temperature difference between the surface and the fluid. The
use of this is very common and they are fabricated in a variety of shapes. Circumferential
fins around the cylinder of a motor cycle engine and fins attached to condenser tubes of a
refrigerator are a few familiar examples.

It is obvious that a fin surface sticks out from the primary heat transfer surface. The
temperature difference with surrounding fluid will steadily diminish as one move out along
the fin.

The design of the fins therefore requires knowledge of the temperature distribution
in the fin. The main object of this experimental set up is to study the temperature
distribution in a simple pin fin.

DESCRIPTION

Aluminium fin of circular cross section is fitted across a long rectangular duct. The
other end of the duct is connected to the suction side of a blower and the air flows past the
fin perpendicular to its axis. One end of the fin projects outside the duct and is heated by
heater. Temperatures at five points along the length of the fin are measured by chromel
alumel thermocouples connected along the length of the fin. The airflow rate is measure by
an orifice meter fitted on the delivery side of the blower.

SPECIFICATIONS

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 Duct size : mm x mm.
 Diameter of the fin : mm.
 Length of the fin : mm.
 Diameter of the orifice : mm
 Diameter of the delivery pipe : mm.
 Blower capacity : 1HP, single-phase
 No. Of thermocouples on fin : 5
 Temperature Indicator : 0 – 300 C.
 Dimmer stat for heat input control : 230 V, 2 Amps.
 Voltmeter : 0-100 / 200 Amps.
 Ammeter : 0 – 2 Amps.
 Fin materials : Brass, Aluminium, & M.S.

THEORY

Consider the fin connected at its base to a heated wall and transferring heat to the
surrounding

Let,
A = Cross Sectional area of the fin.
P = Circumference of the fin.
L = Length of the fin.
 = (T – TF) = Rise in temperature.

The heat is conducted along the rod and also lost to the surrounding fluid by
convection.

Let,
h = Heat Transfer Coefficient
K = Thermal Conductivity of the fin material.

Applying the first law of thermodynamics to a controlled volume along the length of the
fin at x,

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The resulting equation of heat balance appears as:

d hxc
------- - ----------  = 0 ------------------ (1)
dx K.A
And the general solution of equation (1) is –

 = C1 x emx + C2 x emx ------------------- (2)

Where,

m = √ h p K.A

With the boundary conditions of  = 1 at x = 0

Where,
1 = T1 –TF and assuming the fin tip to be insulated.

d/dx = 0 at x = L results in obtaining equation (2)

 T – TF Cosh m (L – x)
----- -------------- = ---------------------------
 T1 – TF Cosh mL

This is the equation for the temperature distribution along the length of the fin.

It is seen from the equation that for a fin given geometry with uniform cross section,
the temperature at any point can be calculated by knowing the values of T1, TF and x.
Temperature T1, and TF will be know for a given situation an the value of h depends on
whether the heat is lost to the surrounding by free convection or forced convection and
can be obtained by using the correlation as given below.


For free convection condition,

Nu = 1.1(Gr. Pr) 1 / 6 (10 1 < Gr. Pr. < 104)


Nu = 0.53 (Gr. Pr) 1 / 4 (104 < Gr. Pr. < 109)
Nu = 0.13 (Gr. Pr) 1 / 4 (109 < Gr. Pr. < 1012)

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For forced convection,

Nu = 0.675 (Re) 0.466 ----------- 40 < Re < 4000


Nu = 0.174 (Re) 0.618 ----------- 4000 < Re < 40000

Where,
hxd
Nusselt No. Nu = -----------
Kair

VD
Reynolds’s Number Re = --------
v

g x  x L3 x T

Grashoff Number Gr = -------------------


V2

Cp 

Prandtl Number Pr = -------------


KAir

All properties are to be evaluated at the mean film temperature. The mean film
temperature is the arithmetic average of the tin temperature an air temperature.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

FOR NATURAL CONVECTION



Start heating the fin by switching ON the heater element and adjust the power on
dimmer stat to say 60 watts (Increase slowly from 0 onwards.)

Note down the thermocouple readings 1 to 5.

When steady state is reached, record the final readings 1 to 5 and also record the
ambient temperature reading 6.

Repeat the same experiment with different power.
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FORCED CONVECTION

 Start heating the fin by switching ON the heater and adjust power equal to 60 watts.

 Start the blower and adjust the difference of level in the manometer with the help of
blower control – disc value.

 Note down the thermocouple readings (1) to (5) at a time interval of 5 minutes.

 When the steady state is reached, record the final readings (1) to (5) and also
record the ambient temperature reading (6).

 Repeat the same experiment with different manometer readings.

PRECAUTIONS:
 See that the dimmer stat is at zero position before switching ON the heater.
 See that throughout the experiment, the blower is OFF
 Operate the changeover switches of temperature indicator, gently.
 Be sure that the steady state is reached before taking the final readings.

NATURAL CONVECTION

OBSERVATION


Diameter of the fin : mm.

Length of the fin : mm.

Diameter of the orifice : mm

Diameter of the delivery pipe : mm.

OBSERVATION TABLE - I

SR. TEMPERATURE IN OC
VOLTAGE CURRENT
NO.
Volts Amps. T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 TDuct

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CALCULATION

 Ts = Average surface Temperature in OC.

T1 + T2 +T3 + T4 + T5
Ts = -------------------------------------
5

 Tmf = Average mean film Temperature in OC.

TDuct + Ts
Tmf = -----------------
2

  = Coefficient of thermal expansion

1
 = --------------------
Tmf + 273

 T = Temp. Difference between Avg. surface temp. & Duct temp in OC

T =Ts - TDuct

 Gr = Grashoff Number

g x  x L3 x T
Gr = -------------------------
2

Where,
g = Acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 m / s2

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L = Length of pin in meter
 = Kinematic viscosity at Tmf in m / s2

 Pr = Prandtle Number at mean fin temp. (Tm f)

Pr =……


For free convection condition,

Nu = 1.1(Gr. Pr)1/ 6 (10-1< Gr. Pr. < 104)

Nu = 0.53 (Gr. Pr)1/ 4 (104 < Gr. Pr. < 109)

Nu = 0.13 (Gr. Pr)1/ 4 (109 < Gr. Pr. < 1012)

 h = heat transfer coefficient for natural convection in W / m 2 OC

hxd
Nu = ------------
K

Where,
K = Thermal Conductivity of Air at Tmf


P = Perimeter of Pin in meter

P=xD


A = Cross Section Area of fin in m2
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A = -------- x D2
4

m = Mass flow rate

m= hP/KA

Where,
K = Thermal conductivity of Fin material


Q = the heat transfer rate by fin

Q= hPKA (Ts - Tmf) tanh (mL)


 = Effectiveness of fin

tanh (mL)
 = -------------------
mL

FORCED CONVECTION

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OBSERVATION


D = Diameter of the fin = mm.

L = Length of the fin = mm.

d = Diameter of the orifice = mm

Diameter of the delivery pipe = mm.

Manometer reading = mm

Sp.gravity of manometer liquid = 810 Kg / m3

OBSERVATION TABLE

SR. TEMPERATURE IN OC
VOLTAGE CURRENT
NO.
Volts Amps. T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 TDuct

CALCULATION

 Ts = Average surface Temperature in OC.

T1 + T2 +T3 + T4 + T5
Ts = -------------------------------------
5

 Tmf = Average mean film Temperature in OC.

TDuct + Ts
Tmf = -----------------
2

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 vO = Velocity from orifice in m / sec

2gh x (ρm – ρa)


vO = Cd x -------------------------
ρa

 Va = Velocity of Air in duct in m / sec

vO x (/4) x dO2
Va = ---------------------------
WxB

 Re = Reynolds Number

ρ a x Va x D
Re = --------------------
μa

Where,
ρa = Density of Air at duct temp. = 1.165 Kg / m3
D = diameter of fin in meter
μa = Dynamic viscosity of air at Tduct in Kg / m - s

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 Pr = Prandtle Number at mean fin temp. (Tm f)

Pr =……

 Nu = Nusselt Number

Nu = C (Re)n (Pr)0.33

Where, c and n are taken from following table

Re C n
0.4 – 4 0.989 0.33
4 – 40 0.911 0.385
40 – 4000 0.683 0.466
4000 – 40000 0.193 0.618

 h = heat transfer coefficient for Forced convection in W / m 2 OC

hxD
Nu = ------------
k

Where,
K = Thermal Conductivity of Air at Tmf
D = Diameter of fin in meter


P = Perimeter of Pin in meter

P=xD

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A = Cross Section Area of fin in m2


A = -------- x D2
4


m = Mass flow rate

m= hP/KA

Where,
K = Thermal conductivity of Fin material


Q = the heat transfer rate by fin

Q= h P K A x (Ts - Tmf) tanh (mL)


 = Effectiveness of fin

tanh (mL)
 = ---------------
mL

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Calculate Predicted temperature (T1, T2... T5) at each point at each point

Coshm (L – x) (T1 - Tduct)


---------------------------------------- + Tduct = T2 / 3 / 4 / 5
CoshmL

T2 = ….OC
T3 = ….OC
T4 = ….OC
T5= ….OC

APPENDIX

In SI Units

 K Brass = 110 w/m - C

 K Steel = 46.5 w/m - C

 Kal = 32. 6 w / m - C.

HYPERBOLIC FUNCTION`

X Cosh x Tanh z
0.0 1.000 0.000
0.1 1.005 0.100
0.2 1.020 0.197
0.3 1.045 0.291
0.4 1.081 0.380
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0.5 1.128 0.462
0.6 1.186 0.537
0.7 1.255 0.604
0.8 1.337 0.664
0.9 1.433 0.716
1.0 1.543 0.762
1.1 1.668 0.801
1.2 1.811 0.834
1.3 1.971 0.862
1.4 2.151 0.885
1.5 2.352 0.905
1.6 2.577 0.922
1.7 2.828 0.935
1.8 3.108 0.947
1.9 3.418 0.956
2.0 3.762 0.964
2.1 4.144 0.971
2.2 4.568 0.976
2.3 5.037 0.980
2.4 5.557 0.984
2.5 6.132 0.987
2.6 6.769 0.989
2.7 7.474 0.991
2.8 8.253 0.993
2.9 9.115 0.994
3.0 10.068 0.995

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RESULT

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GRAPH

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CONCLUSION

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EXPERIMENT -4

UNSTEADY STATE OF HEAT TRANSFER

OBJECTIVE

To estimate the film heat transfer coefficient between the medium in which
body is heated .

INTRODUCTION

In all steady state heat transfer, if all other parameters are constant, then
temperature is also constant and does not vary with time. In unsteady state process,
though other variables are constant, temperature is function of time. A very good example
of this is when a chisel is to be hardened; it is heated and then quenched in water or oil.
During both the heating and cooling process, temperature is function of time.

DESCRIPTION

The apparatus consists of insulated hot water bath . An electric heater is provided
to heat water up to desired temperature. A brass test piece with the thermocouple at the
center is immersed in hot water bath and its temperature is measured at fixed interval of
time ( say 10sec ) . The unit is provided with buzzer / flasher which gets on every 10
seconds the temperature . And with reference to the buzzer cylinder temperature can be
measured. The hot test piece is then cooled in atmospheric air. Heat transfer coefficient in
both the heating and cooling can be calculated.

SPECIFICATIONS

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 MCB : 2 pole, 10A,
Qty: 1No.

 Switch : 2 position, 10A,


Qty: 3No.

 Temperature Indicator : Model No.- DT2-108,


Input-CR-Al (K-type),
Range - 00C to 2000C,
Supply - 230VAC, 50Hz,
Channel- 03
Qty: 1No.

 Cyclic Timer : Model No.- 55C,


Supply- 230VAC/DC,
Output contact- 2 C/O (DPDT),
Time ranges-1/10Sec/min/hr
for both ON/OFF time,
Relay rating- 5A @ 230VAC/
24VDC resistive,
Qty: 1No.

 Buzzer Cum Flasher : Model- BZ,


Type- ECO,
Voltage-240VAC,
Colour-Red,
Qty: 1No.

 Thermostat : Model- SZ-7510-E / 7569-E,


Range- -400C to 500C,
Input- 230VAC, 50/60Hz,
Resolution- 10C
Qty: 1No.

 Thermocouple : Type-K simplex,


3mmX40mm, 1.5m,
Qty: 3No.

 Test piece size : x mm length long,

 Type of material :Brass

Page 49
 Properties of Brass : Density-8522Kg/m3,
Specific heat-0.092Kcal/Kg0C

PROCEDURE

 Put sufficient water in insulated tank (up to the mark)


 Attach the test piece to test piece holder.
 After achieving required temperature put “OFF“ the heater.
 Note down initial temperature of test piece, then insert it in water bath at the same
time put timer on and note down the temperature of test piece for every impulse of
flasher / buzzer .
 Take readings up to maximum temperature of water bath .
 Cool the sample in atmospheric air. During cooling also note down the temperature
at every 10 seconds.
 Repeat the procedure for different water bath temperatures (say 80 0C, 900C)
OBSERVATIONS

 T1 =Initial Test Piece Temperature in 0C


 T2 = Water Bath Temperature in 0C
 T3 = Ambient Temperature in 0C
 T4 =Test Piece Temperature at any selected point in 0C

OBSERVATIONS TABLE

Sr. HEATING PROCESS COOLING PROCESS


No. Time in sec Temp. in 0C Time in sec Temp. in 0C
1 0 0
2 10 10
3 20 20
4 30 30
5 40 40
6 50 50
7 60 60

Page 50
8 70 70

CALCULATIONS

 Calculate  and  0 in 0C

Select any temperature point from the observation table as T 4 at t sec time

We have

 = (T2 – T4) 0C

0 = (T2 – T1) 0C

 h = heat transfer coefficient in w / m2 K.sec

Now we have
2ht
ln ( / 0) = --------------- For cylinder having L > R.
-  Cp. R

-  x Cp x R x ln ( / 0) x 3600
h = -----------------------------------------------------
2xt

Where
 = Density of specimen = 8522 Kg/m3
Cp = Specific heat of specimen = 0.385 KJ/Kg 0k
R = Radius of specimen = 0.0255 mtr
T = Time in sec of T4

Page 51
The above calculations are made by neglecting internal temperature gradient
of specimen.

PRECAUTIONS

 Operate all the switches gently.


 Do not heat the water above 900C.
 Never start heater without water in tank.
 Observe that while heater is on the top cover should be closed.

Page 52
Page 53
RESULT SHEET

OBSERVATIONS :

 T3 = Ambient Temperature = 32.0 0C


 T2 = Water Bath Temperature = 84.8 0C
 T1 = Initial Test Piece Temperature = 36.3 0C
 T4 = Test Piece Temperature at any = 75.6 0C
 D = Diameter of Specimen = 0.051 m
 L = Length of Specimen = 0.101 m
 Type of Material = BRASS

OBSERVATION TABLE :

Sr. HEATING PROCESS COOLING PROCESS


No. Time in sec Temp. in 0C Time in sec Temp. in 0C
1 0 36.3 0 81.8
2 10 40.3 10 80.7
3 20 46.4 20 79.5
4 30 55.7 30 78.8
5 40 62.3 40 77.8
6 50 66.9 50 77.4
7 60 70.4 60 76.8
8 70 73.1 70 76.5
9 80 75.3 80 76.2
10 90 76.5 90 75.8
11 100 77.7 100 75.4
12 110 78.7 110 75.2
13 120 79.6 120 74.9
14 130 80.1 130 74.7

Page 54
15 140 81.2 140 74.5
16 150 81.5 150 74.2

SAMPLE CALCULATION :

FOR HEATING PROCESS

 h = heat transfer coefficient in w / m2 K

ln (/ o) = – (2 x h x t) / (x Cp x R)

ln (/ o) x ( x Cp x R)
h = – --------------------------------------
2xt

Where,
 = Density of Specimen = 8522 Kg/m3
Cp = Specific Heat of Specimen = 0.385 KJ/ Kg K

Here,

 = (T2 – T4) = 84.8 - 76.5 = 8.3 0C

0 = (T2 – T1) = 84.8 – 36.3 = 48.5 0C


ln (/ o) = ln (8.3/48.5) = – 1.7653

ln (/o) x (  x Cp x R)
h = – --------------------------------------
2xt

– 1.765 x 8522 x 0.385 x 0.0255

Page 55
h = – -------------------------------------------------
2 x 90

h = 820.522 W/m2 k sec

FOR COOLING PROCESS :

 h = heat transfer coefficient in w / m2 K

ln (/ o) = – (2 x h x t) / (x Cp x R)

ln (/ o) x ( x Cp x R)
h = – --------------------------------------
2xt

Where,
 = Density of Specimen = 8522 Kg/m3
Cp = Specific Heat of Specimen = 0.385 KJ/ Kg K

Here,

 = (T2 – T4) = 84.8 – 75.8 = 9.0 0C

0 = (T2 – T1) = 84.8 – 36.3 = 48.5 0C


ln (/o) = ln (9.0/48.5) = – 1.684

Now,

ln (/o) x ( x Cp x R)
h = – --------------------------------------
2xt

– 1.684 x 8522 x 0.385 x 0.0255


h = – -------------------------------------------------
2 x 90

Page 56
h = 782.887 W/m2 k sec

RESULT :

 Average heat transfer coefficient for heating = 820.522 W/m 2 k sec


 Average heat transfer coefficient for cooling = 782.887 W/m 2 k sec

Page 57
GRAPH

Page 58
CONCLUSION

Page 59
EXPERIMENT -5

HEAT TRANSFER IN FORCED CONVECTION

OBJECTIVE

To determine the heat transfer coefficient in forced convection of air in a tube.

INTRODUCTION

In many practical situations and equipments, we invariably deal with flow of fluids in
tubes e.g. boiler, super heaters and condensers of a power plant, automobile radiators,
water and air heaters or coolers etc. the knowledge and evolution of forced convection
heat transfer coefficient for fluid flow in tubes is essentially a prerequisite for an optional
design of all thermal system
Convection is the transfer of heat within a fluid by mixing of one portion of fluid with
the other. Convection is possible only in a fluid medium and is directly linked with the
transport of medium itself.
In forced convection, fluid motion is principally produced by some superimposed
velocity field like a fan, blower or a pump, the energy transport is said due to forced
convection.

DESCRIPTION

Page 60
The apparatus consists of a blower unit fitted with the test pipe. The test section is
surrounded by a Nichrome band heater. Four thermocouples are embedded on the test
section and two thermocouples are placed in the air stream at the entrance and exit of the
test section to measure the air temperature. Test pipe is connected to the delivery side of
the blower along with the orifice to measure flow of air through the pipe. Input to the heater
is given through a dimmerstat and measured by meters.
It is to be noted that only a part of the total heat supplied is utilized in heating the
air. A temperature indicator with cold junction compensation is provided to measure
temperatures of pipe wall at various points in the test section. Airflow is measured with the
help of orifice meter and the water manometer fitted on the board.

SPECIFICATION

 Pipe diameter (Do) : 33 mm.

 Pipe diameter (Di) : 28 mm.

 Length of test section (L) : 570 mm.

 Air Blower : 1 35 No.


Qty : 1 No.

 Toggle Switch : 15 Amp, DPST,


Qty : 3 No.

 Orifice Diameter (d) : 14 mm

 Dimmer stat : 0 to 2 amp / open type,


230 volt, AC,
Qty : 1 No.

 Temperature indicator : Type–CR-AL,


Range 0 - 200 C,
6 – Channel,
Qty : 1 No.

 Voltmeter : 0 –1000 VAC,


Qty : 1 No.

 Ammeter : 0 – 10 AAC,

Page 61
Qty : 1 No.

 Band Heater : 400mm with 100mm


Equi- distant 4holes of 6mm
ID-33mm, 400 watt,
Qty : 1 No.

 Manometer : U-tube, acrylic body,


+/- 100mm,
Qty : 1 No.

 Thermocouples : 3mm X 40mmL,


Wire length – 2mtrs,
Qty : 2 No.

 Thermocouples : With washer 4mm hole,


Wire length – 2mtrs,
Qty : 4 No.

 Blower Speed Control : 600watt, solid state,


Qty : 1 No.

 Small Glass Fuse : 2 amp, 250VAC,


Qty : 1 No.

 MCB : 2 pole, 10 Amp,


Qty : 1 No.

PROCEDURE

 Switch ON the mains system


 Switch ON blower.
 Adjust the flow by means of gate valve to some desired difference in the
manometer level.
 Switch ON heater
 Start the heating of the test section with the help of dimmerstat and adjust desired
heat input with the help of Voltmeter and Ammeter.

Page 62
 Take readings of all the six thermocouples when steady state is reached.
 Note down the heater input.

PRECAUTION

 Keep the dimmer stat at zero position before switching ON the power supply.
 Increase the voltmeter gradually.
 Do not stop the blower in between the testing period.
 Do not disturb thermocouples while testing. Operate selector switch of the
thermocouple gently. Don’t exceed 200 watts
 Operate selector switch of the temperature indicator gently.

OBSERVATION

 Outer diameter of the pipe (Do) = mm


 Inner diameter of the test pipe (D i) = mm
 Length of the test section (L) = mm
 Diameter of the orifice (d) = mm

OBSERVATION TABLE

Sr Voltage Current Manometer


Temperature in c
No [V] [I] reading of
CALCULATION
(Volts) (Amps) water
T1oC T2oC T3oC T4oC T5oC T60C h in meter

Ao = Area of Cross Section Orifice in m2


Ao = ------- x d2
4

Page 63

Q = Volume flow rate in m3 / sec

________________
Q = Cd x Ao x 2 x g x h x (w / a)

Where,
Cd = Coefficient of discharge of orifice = 0.68
Ao = area of cross section of orifice in m2
w = Density of water = 1000 Kg/m3
a = density of air at ambient temp. = 1.03 Kg/m3
h = manometer reading in meter


ma = mass flow rate of air in Kg / sec

ma = Q x a

Where,
a = Density of air at Ambt. temp. = 1.03 Kg/m3


∆T = Temperature rise in air in 0C or 0K

∆T = (T6 – T1)


Qa = Heat carried away by Air in kJ / sec or Watts

Qa = ma x Cp x ∆T

Where,
Cp = specific heat of air= 1.005 KJ / K Kg


Ta = Average Temperature of Air in 0C

Page 64
(T1 + T6)
Ta = ----------------
2


Ts = Average Surface Temperature in 0C

T2 + T3+ T4 +T5
Ts = -----------------------
4


As = Test Section Surface Area in m2

As =  x Di x L

Where,
Di = Inner diameter of the test pipe in meter
L = Length of the test section in meter


h = Heat Transfer Coefficient in W / m2k

Q
h = -------------------
A (Ts – Ta)


Ac = Cross Test Section Area in m2


Ac = ------- x Di2
4


V = Mean Velocity of Flow through tube in m / sec

Q
V = -------
Ac

Page 65

Re = Reynold’s Number

V Di
Re = ------------

Where,
 = Kinematic Viscosity at bulk mean
Temp. i.e. (T1 + T6) in m2/ s

Pr = Prandtle Number

Pr = 0.7 at Avg. Temperature



Nu = Nusselt Number

Nu = 0.023 x Re0.8 x Pr0.3


h = heat transfer coefficient calculated by using the correlations

Nu = 0.023 Re0.8 Pr0.3 ………… For Re >10000

Nu = 0.036 Re0.8 Pr0.3 ………… For Re >2300

hxD
Nu = ------------

Where,
K = thermal conductivity of air at avg. temp. in w / m k

Page 66
Page 67
RESULT

Page 68
GRAPH

Page 69
CONCLUSION

Page 70
EXPERIMENT - 6

EMMISSIVITY MEASUREMENT APPARATUS

INTRODUCTION

All substances at all temperatures emit radiations. Thermal radiation is an


electromagnetic wave and dose not require any material medium for propagation. All
bodies can emit radiation and have also the capacity to absorb all or a part of the radiation
coming from the surrounding towards it.
An idealized black surface is one, which absorbs all the incident radiation with
reflectivity and transmissivity equal to zero. The radiant energy per unit time per unit area
from the surface of the body is called as the emissive power and is denoted by ‘e’. The
emissivity of the surface is the ratio of the emissive power of the surface to the emissive
power of the black surface at the same temperature.
It is denoted by ‘’
E
 = ---------
Eb

Absorptivity of a black body is 1 and by the knowledge of Kirchoff’s law, emissivity


of the black body becomes unity.

DESCRIPTION

The experimental set up consists of two circular Aluminum plates identical in size
and is provided with heating coils sandwiched. The plates are mounted on brackets and
are kept in an enclosure so as to provide undisturbed natural convection surroundings.
The heat input to the heater is varied by separate dimmerstat and is measured by using an
ammeter and a voltmeter with the help of double pole double through switch.

Page 71
The temperatures of the plates are measured by thermocouples separate wires are
connected to diametrically opposite points to get the average surface temperatures of the
plates. Another thermocouple is kept in the enclosure to read the ambient temperature of
enclosure.
Plate 1 is blackened by a thick layer of the lamp black to form the idealized black
surface whereas plate 2 is the test plate whose emissivity is to be determined. The heater
inputs to the two plates are dissipated from the plates by conduction, convection and
radiation.
The experimental set up is designed in such a way that under steady state
conditions the heat dissipation by conduction and convection is same for both the plates
when the surface temperatures are same and the difference in the heater input readings is
because of the difference in the radiation characteristics due to their different emissivities.
The schematic arrangement of the set up is shown in the figure.

SPECIFICATION

 Test Plate (Aluminum) : mm diameter


 Black Plate (Aluminum) : mm diameter.
 Capacity of heater : 400 watt each.
 Dimmer stat : 0 – 2 A, 0 – 260 V
 Voltmeter : 0 – 100 – 200 V,
 Ammeter : 0 – 2 amp
 Enclosure size : mm x mm x mm app.
 Type of Thermocouples : Chromel Alumel
 Temperature indicator : 0 – 300 c
 Heater : One Nichrome strip wound on mica
Sheet and sandwiched between
Two mica sheets.

THEORY

Page 72
Emissivity being a property of the surface depends on the nature of the surface and
temperature.
It is obvious from the Stefan Boltzman’s law that the prediction of emissive power of
the surface requires knowledge about the values of its emissivity and therefore much
experimental research in radiation has been concentrated on measuring the values of
emissivity as function of surface temperature.
The present experimental set up is designed and fabricated to measure the
property of emissivity of the test plate surface at various temperatures.

PROCEDURE

 Gradually increase the input to the heater to black plate and adjust it to some value
viz. 30, 50, 75 watts. Adjust the heater input to test plate slightly less than the black
plate 27, 35, 55 watts etc.

 Check the temperatures of the two plates with small time intervals and adjust the
input of test plate only, by the dimmerstat so that the two plates will be maintained
at the same temperature.

 This will require some trial and error and one has to wait sufficiently (more than one
hour or so) to obtain the steady state condition.

 After attaining the steady state condition, record the temperatures, voltmeter and
ammeter readings for both the plates.

 The same procedure is repeated for various surface temperatures in increasing


order.

OBSERVATION


d = Diameter of plates =

A = Area of plates = ( / 4) x d2 =

Eb = Emmissivity of black plate =1

 = Stefan Boltzman constant. = 5.669 x10-8 w/m²/ K4

OBSERVATION TABLE

Page 73
Ambient
Black plate Test plate temperature
Sr.
No
Vb Ib Tb VS IS TS
Ta

CALCULATION


Qb = Heater input to black plate in Watt

Qb = Vb x Ib Watt


QS = Heater input to test plates in Watt

QS = VS x IS Watt


A = Area of plates in m 2


A = ------ x d2 = 0.0201 m2
4


E = Emmissitivity of test plate

Qb – QS = (Eb – E) A (TS4 – Ta4)

Page 74
PRECAUTION


Use stabilized AC single-phase supply (preferably).

Always keep the dimmerstat at zero position before start.

Use the proper voltage range on Voltmeter.

Gradually increase the heater inputs.

See that the black plate is having the layer of lamp black uniformly.

NOTE: - There is a possibility of getting absurd results if the supply voltage is fluctuating or
if the input voltage is not adjusted till the satisfactory steady state condition is reached

PROPERTY TABLE

Following table gives approximate values of emmissivity for some common


materials for reference.

MATERIAL TEMPERATURE EMISSIVITY


Polished copper 0.15,
Steel, Stainless increases with
20c
Steel temperature
METALS Nickel
Aluminum
90 - 540c 0.15 to 0.35
(Oxidized)

NON
Brick, Wood, 20 - 100c
META 0.80 to 1
Marble, Water
LS

Page 75
Page 76
RESULT

Page 77
GRAPH

Page 78
CONCLUSION

Page 79
EXPERIMENT – 7

STEFAN BOLTZMANN APPARATUS

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this experimental set up is to calculate the value of Boltzman


Constant () by using certain parameters like emissive power & temp of a black
body.

INTRODUCTION

CONCEPT OF BLACK BODY


It is defined as ideal body, which observes all incident radiant energy without
reflecting or transmitting any energy. This applies for radiation of all wavelengths & for all
angle of incidence.

DESCRIPTION OF SET UP

The apparatus is centered on a flanged copper hemisphere B fixed on non-


conducting plate A. The outer surface of B is enclosed in a metal water jacket used to heat
B to some suitable constant temperature. The hemispherical shape of B is chosen solely
on the grounds that it simplifies the task of draining the water between Test Piece &
hemisphere. Four chromel alumel thermocouples are attached to various points on surface
of Hemisphere to measure its mean temperature.

The test piece, which is mounted in an insulating Bakelite sleeve S. is fitted in a


hole, drilled in the center of base plate ‘A’. A chromel alumel thermocouple is used to
measure the temperature of Test Piece (T 5).

The thermocouple is mounted on the disc to study the rise of its temperature. When
the disc is inserted at the temperature T 5 (T5  T) i.e. the temperature of the enclosure, the

Page 80
response of the temperature change of the disc with time is used to calculate the Stefan
Boltzmann constant.

SPECIFICATION

 Hemispherical enclosure diameter : 200 mm


 Base plate, Bakelite diameter : 310 mm.
 Test disc diameter : 20 mm
 Mass of test disc : 0.004 Kg
 Specific heat of the copper test disc : 0.41868 KJ / Kg°C
 No of thermocouples on Hemisphere : 4 Nos.
 No of thermocouples on Test piece : 1 No.
 Digital Temperature indicator : 0 – 200 0C range
 Water heater capacity : (2KW) instant with
the thermostats.
 Hot water Bath : 5.75 liters Capacity.

NOTE: Using lampblack to make their absorptivities to be approximately unity blackens


the inner surface of hemisphere. The test piece is also blackened.

THEORY

Thermal Radiation is the important mode of heat transfer observed in several


engineering and other applications. All bodies at temp above ⁰ K emit energy in the
form of radiation. Different theories are developed to study the Radiation Heat transfer
like Maxwell theory explains the radiation phenomenon as propagation of energy in the
form of electromagnetic wave, while Max Plank’s hypothesis treats it as energy being

Page 81
carried through photons or quanta’s Whichever of these theories are used, it is
convenient to classify all electromagnetic radiant energy emission in terms of
wavelength.

The most commonly used law of thermal radiation is the Stefan Boltzman law
which states that heat flux or emissive power of a black body is proportional to the forth
power of absolute temperature of the surface and is given by

Eb = T4 W / m2
Where,
Eb = Emissive power (W / m2)
 = Stefan Boltzman constant
= 5.699x 10-8 W /m2 K4
T = Temperature of Black body (0 K)

The Stefan Boltzman law can be derived by integrating the Plank’s law over the
entire spectrum of wavelengths from 0 to ∞, though historically it is worth noting that the
Stefan Boltzmann law was independently developed before Plank’s law.

The radiation energy falling on Test Piece from the enclosure is given by:
E = AD T⁴ ----------- (1)

Where,
AD = Area of the disc D in m²
T = Average temperature of the enclosure
Recorded by the Thermocouple K

The emmissivity of the disc D is assumed to be unity (Black disc) the radiant
energy, emitted by disc D into enclosure will be

Et = AD T54  ----------- (2)

The net heat input to disc D per unit time is given by (1) - (2)

E - Et =  AD (T4- T54) --------- (3)

Page 82
If the test piece has mass m and specific heat S then in a short time after test piece is
inserted in A,

m.s. (dT/dt) =  AD (T4 -T54)


OR,
m.s. (dT/dt)T= 0
 = -----------------------------
AD (T4 -T54)
In this equation, m.s. (dT/dt) t = 0 denotes the rate of rise of temperature of the test
piece at the instant when its temperature is T5 and will vary with T5. it is clearly best
measured at time t = 0 before heat conducted from A to test piece begins to have any
significant effect.

This is obtained from plot of temperature rise of test piece with respect to time and
obtaining its slope at t = 0 when temperature is T5. This will be the required value of dT/dt
at t=0. The thermocouple mounted on disc is to be used for this purpose.

Note that the test piece with its insulating sleeve S is placed quickly in position and
start the timer and record the temperature at fixed time intervals. The whole process is
completed in about 30 seconds of time.
Longer test piece is left in position; the greater is the probability of errors due to heat
conduction from A to test piece .the experiment is repeated for obtaining better results.

PROCEDURE

 Make tap water connection by using a flexible pipe up to the hot water bath till it
with water
 The heater is started to heat the water
 Put the heater OFF after heater on indicator OFF.
 The immersion heater up to a temperature of about 90°c heats the water in the
tank.
 The test piece is removed before pouring the hot water into the jacket.
 The hot water is poured in the water jacket.
 The hemispherical enclosure and will come to some uniform temperature T in a
short time after filling the hot water in the jacket the thermal inertia of hot water is
quite adequate to present significant cooling in the time required to conduct the
experiment.

Page 83
 The enclosure will soon come to the thermal equilibrium conditions.
 The test piece is now inserted in A at a time when its temperature is saying T 5 (to be
sensed by a separate thermocouple).
 No. Of reading (Say 10 No.) Can be taken at the interval of 5 Sec.

OBSERVATION

 Type of material = Copper


 d = Diameter of Test Disc = 20 mm
 t = Disc Thickness = 1.6 mm
 W = Weight of Disc = 0.004 kg.
OBSERVATION TABLE

Sr.no. Thermocouple No Temperature °c


T1
T2
T3
T4

Observation table for different temp. of test disc at every 5 sec.


Time in sec 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
Temp in 0c

CALCULATION


Ta = Average temperature in 0C

T1 + T2 + T3 + T4
Page 84
Ta = -----------------------------
4


T5 = Temperature of disc in 0C

T5 = at the instant when it is inserted in 0C

T5 = …….. 0C


dT / dt = Slope from graph of dT against dt.

dT Y2 – Y1
-------- = -------------
dt X2 – X1

 = Stefan boltzman constant in W / m2 0K4

m  s  (dT )T 0
 dt
AD  (T avg  T 5 )  0.086
4 4

20
σ = …………….. w/m K
GRAPH:

Page 85
dT / dt graph for slope

29.6

29.4

29.2
T temp. in degree cel.

29

28.8

28.6

28.4

28.2

28
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
t tim e in sec

dT Y2 – Y1
-------- = -------------
dt X2 – X1

dT 28.5 – 28.2
------ = ------------------ = 0.06
dt 10 – 5

(dT / dt)T = 0 = 0.06

Page 86
RESULT

Page 87
GRAPH

Page 88
CONCLUSION

Page 89
EXPERIMENT - 8
SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER
Page 90
(WATER TO WATER)

OBJECTIVE

To determine heat flow rate and heat transfer coefficient of water in


Shell and tube heat exchanger.

INTRODUCTION

Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger is a Direct Transfer Type Tubular Heat
Exchanger. A heat exchanger in which two fluids exchanges heat by coming into
direct contact is called a direct transfer type heat exchanger. They are widely used
as they can be manufactured easily in many sizes, flow arrangement and types.
Depending upon heat transfer area requirement we can have multiple tube and/ or
shell passes. Flow conditions for shell & tube type heat exchangers are neither
parallel flow nor counter flow type.
The Shell & Tube heat exchanger mostly used in Chemical Industries as a
Condenser, Cooler and Heater. When the heat transfer area become more than 10
m2, one has to go for Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger, which occupies less space,
withstand very high pressure and temperature conditions than any other types of
Heat Exchangers.

DESCRIPTION

Shell and tube heat exchanger consists of bundle of round tubes placed
inside cylindrical shell with axis parallel to that of shell. One fluid flow through the
tubes while the other one entering into the shell and flow outside the tube.
Geyser is provided in the system to supply the hot water. A baffle provides
support to tubes and also deflects fluid flow approximately normal to tube.
Rotameter is the device used to measured the flow rates during the Expt. Baffles
increases the turbulence of shell side fluid and improve heat transfer. The various
types of baffles are existing and their type, spacing, shape will depend on a flow
rate Shell side pressure drop, required tube support, flow vibration etc.

Page 91
SPECIFICATION

 SHELL SIDE

 Internal Diameter (I.D) = 106 mm


 Outer Diameter (O.D) = 114 mm
 Thickness (t) = 4 mm
 Material = Mild Steel

 TUBES SIDE

 Outer Diameter (O.D.) = 9.5 mm


 Internal Diameter (I.D.) = 8 mm
 Material = Copper
 No. Of Tubes (n) = 16
 Length (L) = 500 mm.
 No of pass (N) = 2
 Pitch (P) = 12 mm
 Instant Geyser = 3 Kw
 MCB = 16 Amp for Heater

The flow rate can be adjusted by valve on hot and cold side, the temperature
at hot inlet and outlet and those at cold Inlet and Outlet are measured by
thermometers.

THEORY

The film heat transfer coefficient is a function of fluid velocity, which is again
function of cross-sectional area of the fluid path. Thus, decreasing the cross-
sectional area could increase the fluid velocity. This is achieved in multi pass heat
exchangers, at the cost of pressure drop and temperature gradient affecting due to
counter current flow.
In multi pass shell and tube heat exchangers, the flow conditions are more
complicated and LMTD equations are more complex. Hence to simplify procedure

Page 92
correction factor FT is used to adjust effective temperature difference for multi pass
flow exchangers.

The factor FT, is the temperature difference correction factor, when it is


multiplied by the counter flow LTMD, the product is the correct mean temperature
difference.

ΔTm (corrected) = FT. (ΔTm)

The factor FT, is a function of two dimensionless number R and S which are
defined as –

Thi – Tho Tco - Tci


R = ------------- & S = ---------------
Tco – Tci Thi – Tho

The factor S is the Heating Effectiveness or the ratio of the actual


temperature rise of the cold fluid to the maximum possible temperature rise
obtainable if the warm-end approach were zero [based on counter current flow].
The factor R is the ratio of the fall in temperature of the fluid to the rise in
temperature of the cold fluid. By varying the flow rates of Shell side and Tube side
fluid, it is possible to get the outside heat transfer coefficient and inside heat
transfer coefficient at various conditions.

Inside heat transfer coefficient

1 1 ri ri Fo ri 1
----- = ----- + Fi + ------- ln(ro / ri ) + ------- + ----- -----
Ui hi k ro ro ho

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Outside heat transfer coefficient

1 ro 1 ro ro 1

----- = ----- ----- + ---- Fi + -------ln (ro / ri ) + Fo + -----

Uo ri hi ri k ho

PROCEDURE

 Make all connections as shown in the fig. & check for any leakage in the
circuit.
 Make the oil well at the places where thermocouples are inserted for sensing
the temperature of water.
 Set the temperature of the heater tank to some fix temp says 55 to 60 0C.
 Once the temperature of water is reached start the flow of water through hot
and cold side and adjust it as per requirement.
 Wait to stabilized the temperature on the control panel.
 As the temperature get stabilized take down the readings for different four
channels by using switch on the panel.
 Readings for the flow rates can be taken from the rotameter attached at the
front of the instrument.
 Take down the readings by varying the flow rates.
 Observe flow rate of hot water to be less than flow rate of cold water
 Once the experiment is completed drain the water remain in shell & tube by
opening the cocks given at side & below the shell.

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PRECAUTION

 Do not put on geysers unless water flow is continuous.


 Once the flow is fixed, do not change it until note down the readings for that
Flow.
 There should make the oil well in pockets of thermometer
 Equipment should be earthed properly.
 Once the experiment is completed drain out the water remain in the shell &
tubes so that it will not get rusted.

OBSERVATION

HOT WATER SIDE :

 Outer Diameter (do) = 9.5 mm = 0.0095 m


 Internal Diameter (di) = 8 mm = 0.008 m
 Length of tubes (L) = 500 mm. = 0.500 m
 Pitch (P) = 12 mm = 0.012 m
 Material of tube = Copper
 No of pass (N) = 2
 No. Of Tubes (n) = 16

COLD WATER SIDE :

 Material = Mild Steel


 Internal Diameter (Di) = 106 mm = 0.106 m
 Outer Diameter (Do) = 114 mm = 0.114 m
 Thickness (t) = 4 mm = 0.004 m
 Baffle clearance (C) = 20 mm. = 0.020 m
 Baffle spacing (B) = 125 mm = 0.125 m

Page 95
OBSERVATION TABLE

TUBE SIDE (HOT WATER) SHELL SIDE (COLD WATER)


SR. Flow Rate Inlet Temp. Outlet Temp. Flow Rate Inlet Temp. Outlet Temp.
NO. mwh Thi Tho mwc Tci Tco
(Kg / sec) (0 C) (0 C) (Kg / sec) 0
( C) (0 C)

CALCULATION FOR HOT WATER SIDE


Qh = Heat flow rate in KW or KJ / sec

Qh = mh x Cph.x [Thi – Tho]


at = Flow area per tube in m2


at = ----- x di2
4


af = flow area of fluid in m2

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n x at
a t = -----------------
N


Gt = Mass velocity of the tube side fluid in m / sec

mh
Gt = ----------------------
3600 x a t

Where,
mh = mass flow rate of hot water in Kg / sec.


Tm = Logarithmic Mean Temp. Difference (LMTD) in 0C

Tin - Tout
Tm = -------------------
ln (Ti / To)

Where,
Tin = Tho - Tci in oC
Tout = Thi - Tco in oC


FT = Correction factor from graph values of R and S are required.

Thi – Tho Tco - Tci


R = ------------ & S = ---------------
Tco - Tci Thi – Tci


Ai = Inner Surface area of tubes in m2

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Ai = =  x di x L x n


hi = Actual heat transfer coefficient of hot water in W / m 2 K

Qh
hi = -----------------------
Ai x Tm x FT


Re = Reynolds number

di x G t
Re = -----------

Where,
di = Inner diameter of tube in meter


The experimental value of hi could be compared with the predicated
value by means of following equation.

hi x di
----------- = 0.023 x Re 0.8 x Pr 0.4
K

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CALCULATION FOR COLD WATER SIDE


Qc = Heat flow rate in KW or KJ / sec

Qc = mc x Cpc x (Tco – Tci)


as = Flow area of fluid in m2

Di x C x B
as = ----------------
P

Where.
Di = Inside dia. of shell in meter
C = Baffle clearance in meter.
B = Baffle spacing in meter
P = Pitch in meter


Gs = Mass velocity of fluid in Kg / m2 sec

mc
Gs = ------- kg/ m2sec.
as

Where mc = mass flow rate of cold water in Kg / sec.


Ao = Surface area of the outer side of tube in m2

Ao =  x Do x Lx n


ho = Actual heat transfer coefficient of cold water in W / m 2 K

Qc
ho = -----------------------
Page 99
Ao x Tm x FT


Re = Reynolds Number

Do x Gs
Re = -------------


The experimental value of ho could be compared with the predicated
value by means of following equation.

ho x do
------------- = 0.023 x Re 0.8 x Pr 0.4
K

RESULT SHEET

GIVEN DATA :

HOT WATER SIDE

 Outer Diameter (do) = 9.5 mm = 0.0095 m


 Internal Diameter (do) = 8 mm = 0.008 m
 Length of tubes (L) = 500 mm. = 0.500 m
 Pitch (P) = 12 mm = 0.012 m
 Material of tube = Copper
 No of pass (N) = 2
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100
 No. Of Tubes (n) = 16


COLD WATER SIDE

 Material = Mild Steel


 Internal Diameter (Di) = 106 mm = 0.106 m
 Outer Diameter (Do) = 114 mm = 0.114 m
 Thickness (t) = 4 mm = 0.004 m
 Baffle clearance (C) = 20 mm. = 0.020 m
 Baffle spacing (B) = 125 mm = 0.125 m

OBSERVATION :
 Mass flow rate of hot water (mh) = 39 LPH = 39/3600 = 0.0108 kg/sec.
 Mass flow rate of cold water (mc) = 80 LPH = 80/3600 = 0.022 kg/sec.
 Specific heat for hot water = 4.174 kJ / kg 0C
 Specific heat for cold water = 4.174 kJ / kg 0C

OBSERVATION TABLE :

TUBE SIDE (HOT WATER) SHELL SIDE (COLD WATER)


SR. Flow Inlet Outlet Inlet Outlet
Flow Rate
NO. Rate Temp. Temp. Temp. Temp.
mwc
mwh Thi Tho Tci Tco
(Kg / sec)
(Kg / sec) (0 C) (0 C) (0 C) (0 C)
1 0.0108 60 50 0.022 26.5 32

CALCULATIONS FOR HOT WATER SIDE


Qh = Heat flow rate by hot water in KW or KJ / sec

Qh = mh x Cph x [Thi – Tho]


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101

at = Flow area per tube in m2


at = ----- x d i2
4


af = flow area of fluid in m2

n x at
af = -----------------
N

Where,
n = No. Of tubes
N = No. Of Passes


Gt = Mass velocity of the hot water in Kg / sec m2

m h
----------------------
Gt =
af

Where,
mh = mass flow rate of hot water in Kg / sec.


ΔTm = Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) in 0C

Tin - Tout
ΔTm = ----------------------
ln (Tin/ Tout )

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102
Where,
Tin = Tho – Tci
Tout = Thi – Tco


FT = Correction factor from graph values of R and S are required.

Thi – Tho Tco - Tci


R = ------------ & S = ---------------
Tco - Tci Thi – Tci

Thi – Tho
R = ------------
Tco - Tci

Tco - Tci
S = -------------
Thi – Tci

FT = Correction Factor from Table, Graphically using the parameters R & S

FT = 0.98 (Graphically)


Ai = Inner Surface area of tubes in m2

Ai =  x di x L x n


hi = Actual heat transfer coefficient of hot water in W / m 2 K

Qh
hi = -----------------------
Ai x Tm x FT

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103
Re = Reynolds number

di x G t
Re = -----------

Where,
di = Inner diameter of tube in meter


Pr = Prandtle Number

 x Cp
Pr = ------------
K


The experimental value of hi could be compared with the predicated
value by means of following equation.

hi x di
---------- = 0.023 x Re 0.8 x Pr 0.4
K

CALCULATION FOR COLD WATER SIDE

GIVEN DATA :

 Di = Inner diameter of shell = 106 mm = 0.106 m


 C = Baffle clearance = 20 mm = 0.020 m
 B = Baffle spacing = 125 mm = 0.125 m
 P = Pitch = 24 mm = 0.024 m

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104
CALCULATION :


Qh = Heat flow rate by Cold water in KJ / sec or KW
Qc = mc x Cpc x [Tco – Tci]

as = Flow area of the tube in m2

Di x C x B
as = ----------------
P


Ao = Surface area of the outer side of tube in m2

Ao =  x do x L x n


ho = Actual heat transfer coefficient on cold water side in W / m 2 K

Qc
ho = -----------------------
Ao x Tm x FT


Gs = Mass Velocity of fluid of cold water in Kg / sec m 2
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105
ms
Gs = -------
as


Re = Reynold’s number

do x Gs
Re = ----------------


The Experimental value of (ho) could compare with the predicted value by
means of following equation,

ho x do
------------ = 0.023 (Re) 0.8 x (Pr) 0.4
K

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106
RESULT

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107
GRAPH
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108
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109
CONCLUSION

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110
EXPERIMENT – 9

FINNED TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER


(WATER TO AIR TYPE)

INTRODUCTION

Heat exchangers are the devices in which heat is transferred from one fluid to
another. The necessity for doing this arises in multitude of industrial applications. Common
examples of best exchangers are the radiator of a car, the condenser at the back of the
domestic refrigerator, and the steam boiler of a thermal power plant.
Heat exchangers are classified in three categories.

 Transfer Type
 Storage Type
 Direct contact Type

A transfer type heat exchanger is the one in which both fluids pass simultaneously
through the device and heat is transferred through separating walls. In practice most of the
heat exchangers used are transfer type ones. The transfer type heat exchangers are
further classified according to flow arrangements as –

 Parallel Flow, in which fluids flow in the same direction.


 Counter flow, in which they flow in opposite direction ,and

The simple example of transfer type of heat exchanger can be in the form of a tube in
tube type arrangement as shown in the figure. One fluid flowing through the inner tube and
the other through the annulus surroundings it. The heat transfer takes place across the
walls of the inner tube.

APPARATUS

The apparatus consists of a ‘tube in tube’ type concentric tube heat exchanger. The
hot fluid is water, which is obtained from a bank of geysers and flows through the inner
tube while the cold fluid is air flowing through the annulus.
The air flows always in one direction and its flow rate is controlled by means of a valve.
The hot water can be admitted at one of the end enabling the heat exchanger to run as a
parallel flow or a counter flow apparatus. This is done by valve operations as shown in the
figure. The main object of this experiment is to study the following

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111
 Temperature distribution in parallel and counter flow heat exchanger.
 Heat transfer rates in the two runs.
 Overall heat transfer coefficient in parallel and counter flow runs.
 To obtain the effectiveness of the given heat exchanger.

The experiments are conducted by keeping the identical flow rates while running
the unit as a parallel flow heat exchanger and counter flow exchanger.
The temperatures are measured with the help of the thermometer. The readings are
recorded when steady state is reached. The outer tube is provided with adequate
insulating to minimize the heat losses. Air flow rate is measured with orifice meter and U
tube manometer.

SPECIFICATONS

1. Inner Tube
o Material: Copper
o Inner Dia: 10.5 mm
o Outer Dia.: 19.0 mm
o Length:1000 mm
(Tube is provided with longitudinal Fins- 28 no, over the circumference of the
tube, of 19.75 mm height.)

2. Outer Tube
o Material: G.I.
o Inner Diameter: 53.3mm

3. Thermometer: – 10C – 100C

4. Water Heaters: 2 KW

5. Blower for air flow

6. Orifice meter with water manometer

7. Orifice Dia: 25mm.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

1. Start the flow of water


2. Start the blower to have air flow. Run the unit either as parallel flow or counter flow
unit.

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112
3. Start the heaters and note the temperature of hot water after 10 minutes. Adjust the
flow rate of water to get the desired temperature.
4. Adjust the air flow rate with the help of gate valve and manometer.
5. When the temperature remains steady, note down the temperatures and flow rates.
It is essential that during the experiment, both the air and water flow rates remain
unchanged.
6. Repeat the experiment by changing the direction of air, with same flow rates.

OBSERVATIONS

Sr Flow Hot Water Air


No Conditions Inlet Outlet Flow Inlet Outlet Flow
Temp Temp. Rate Temp Temp. Rate

1. Parallel Flow

2. Counter Flow

CALCULATIONS

1. AIR FLOW RATE

Orifice Diameter= 25mm = 0.025m


Area of Orifice = (/4) d² = (/4) x (0.025)²
=
Manometer Difference (h) =

Air Flow Rate = Qa = Cd x area of orifice × √2gH

Where,
Cd = Coefficient of discharge of Orifice = 0.64
g = Gravitational Acceleration = 9.81 m/sec²
H = Air head over the orifice.
ρw
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113
= h x --------
ρa
Where,
ρw = density of water= 1000 Kg/m³
ρa = density of air

∴ Mass flow rate Ma = Qa x ρa Kg/hr

2. Heat Transfer rate, q is calculated as

qh = Heat Transfer rate to hot water

= mh .Cph. (Thi – Tci)

qa = Heat Transfer rate to air

= ma .Cpa. (Tco – Tci)

qh + qc
q = --------------- Kcal/hr
2

3. L.M.T.D. (Logarithmic mean temperature difference)


The temperature distribution in the two runs is plotted as shown in figure
The L.M.T.D. can be calculated as:-

∆Ti – ∆To
L.M.T.D. = ∆Tm= ------------------------
Log e (∆Ti / ∆To)

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114
4. Overall Heat transfer coefficient can be calculated by using
q = U A ∆Tm

q
U = -------------
A ∆Tm

Calculated Uri based on Ai =  . di . L


Uro based on Ao = . Do . L + Area of Fins

Compare the values of ∆Tm and q in the parallel flow and counter flow runs
Note that if experiment is conducted very carefully then the superiority of counter flow
arrangement in terms of higher value of ∆Tm and excess value of q for same flow rates
condition than in parallel flow can be revealed. The value of overall heat transfer
coefficient U is more or less same for both the runs.

6. The effectiveness of the heat exchanger can be calculated as

Tco – Tci
Effectiveness = --------------, if mh .Cph > ma .Cpa
Thi – Tci

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115
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116
RESULT

Page
117
GRAPH

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118
CONCLUSION

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119
EXPERIMENT - 10
TWO PHASE HEAT TRANSFER UNIT

INTRODUCTION:

A Liquid to vapour change and vapour condensing back into the liquid form are the two
phase change processes present in many applications like those of refrigeration and
air conditioning, chemical processes, thermal power stations, oil refining etc. The two-
phase Heat Transfer apparatus illustrates these two phase change processes namely
condensation and boiling.

DESCRIPTION :

The unit consists of a strong glass cylinder containing saturated liquid and vapour
or R –11. A high wattage density heater in the form of a copper tube is inserted at the
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120
lower end of the cylinder submerged in the R –11 liquid. Heat input is supplied to this
heater by a dimmer and heat input is measured by voltmeter and ammeter. A water cooled
copper coil in the upper part of the cylinder is kept in vapour zone, condenses R –11
vapours produced due to heating and returns the same to the boiling liquid.

A digital temperature indicator is used to measure


 Heater wall temperature
 Vapour temperature
 Liquid temperature
 Cooling water inlet temperature
 Cooling water outlet temperature.
 Atmospheric temperature.

A pressure gauge is used to measure vapour pressure. A pressure cutout is used


to cut the heater supply if the pressure increases excessively.

SPECIFICATION

 MCB : 2 pole, 10A,

Qty: 1No

 Switches : 2 position, 10A,


Qty: 3No

 Temperature Indicator : Model No-DTZ-106,


Input-CR-Al (K-type),

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121
Range- 00C to 2000C,
Supply- 230VAC, 50Hz,
Channel- 6,
Qty: 1No,

 Voltmeter : Model No-34A18,


230V, +/-10%VAC,
Range- 0 to 1000 VAC,
Qty: 1No,

 Ammeter : Model No-34A59,


230V, +/-10%AAC,
Range- 0 to 10 AAC,
Qty: 1No,

 Pressure Switch : Model IPS –100-20D-8276,


Max. test pressure 16atm.g,
Electrical Rating- 10A resistive,
380VAC, 250VDC.
Qty: 1 No,

 Thermocouples :Type-K-simplex, 3mmX40mmL,


1.0m,
Qty: 6 No.

 Rotameter : 10-100 LPH,


Qty: 1 No.

 Charging Valve : 1/4 inch,


Needle type,

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122
Qty: 1 No.

 Cooling water inlet / outlet : 1/4 inch.

 Refrigerant Liquid : R-11

 Heater : 500 watt , high density.

 Heater power control : 2 Amp / 230 VAC dimmer.

OBJECTIVE

 To visualize process of pool boiling and condensation at various vapour pressures.


 To plot graph of heat flux v/s difference of temperature between metal and liquid at
various vapour pressures.
 To find out heat flux taken away by water from condensing vapour.

THEORY:

Boiling is defined as the process of vaporization in the liquid at the saturation


temperature of somewhat superheated condition with respect to the saturation
temperature, accompanied by formation of vapour bubbles. Boiling, therefore, is
always linked with the supply of heat to the boiling system, with boiling and solid
submerged surface, superheating of the liquid is maximum directly at the heated
surface.
The starting points are located on this surface – individual surface irregularities, air
bubbles, specks of dust etc., hence the reason that vapour bubbles mainly form directly on
the heat transfer surface.

Three main kinds of boiling are distinguished namely,


 Natural Convection,
 Nucleate and
 Film.
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123
The region of natural convection occurs at low temperature difference. Heat transfer
from the heated surface to the liquid in its vicinity causes the liquid to be superheated. This
superheated liquid rises to the free liquid surface by
Natural convection, where vapour is produced by evaporation. Boiling during which vapour
forms in the form of periodically forming and growing bubbles is called nucleate boiling,
with an increase in heat flow to a certain value, individual vapour bubbles coalesce,
forming a continuous vapour layer at the wall breaking periodically into the bulk of liquid.

The kind of boiling characterized by the presence of a film of vapour on the surface,
separating it from the liquid, is called as film boiling is considerably inferior to that upon
nucleate boiling, The typical boiling curve given illustrated the gradual change from natural
convection to nucleate to film boiling which is observed in practice.

While using electric heating with the rate of heat flow being independent of the

process, there occurs a jump like change from nucleate to film boiling and back. If the

amount of power supplied is not reduced, the system will come into state distinguished by

a considerable rise in wall temperature. The moment of transition from one kind of boiling

to the other is identified experimentally by the sharp increase in the temperature.

Condensation occurs whenever a vapour comes into contact with a surface at a

temperature lower than the saturation temperature corresponding to its vapour pressure. It

is observed that the nature of the condensation depends upon whether the liquid formed

wets or does not wets the solid surface. If the liquid wets the surface, the condensate

flows on the surface in the form of a film and the process is called film wise condensation.

If on the other hand, the liquid does not wet the solid surface, the condensate

occurs in the form of droplets and which grow in size or coalesces with neighboring

droplets and eventually roll off the surface under the influence of gravity. This process is

called drop wise condensation. However, it is generally observed that although drop wise
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124
condensation may be obtained on new surface, it is difficult to maintain and prolonged

condensation results in a change to a film mode.

PROCEDURE

 Put ‘ON’ the mains switch.


 Ensure that dimmer stat reads zero position.
 Put ‘ON’ the heater switch.
 Put ‘ON’ temperature indicator.
 Start water supply through the cooling coil and adjust water flow rate to
predetermined value.
 Note down first set of readings in the Observation Table.
 Now slightly increase the heater input and observe steady temperature
rise of heater wall.
 As soon as the temperature attains constant value, note down the set of
observations.
 Accordingly go on increasing the heat input and note down individual set of reading.
 At the same time, we can visualize the process of boiling in various phases and
condensation of water coils through the glass tube.
 By adjusting water flow rates at various values graphs of heat flux v/s Temperature
difference can be plotted for various vapour pressure values.
 Condenser coil water flow rate and temperature difference will give heat flux taken
away by the water from condensing Vapour.

OBSERVATION

 D = Diameter of heater in mm =
 L= Length of heater in mm =
 Cp = Specific heat of water 4.18 KJ/KG.0C
 Ta = Ambient temp. in 0C
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125
OBSERVATION TABLE

Heater Liquid Water Flow Vapour


Vapour
Heat input (Q) Wall Temp. Temp. Rate Pressure
Sr. Temp.
Temp. In 0C of In
No. In T2 In T3
Voltage Ampere In T1 0 Inlet Outlet Water Kg/ cm²
0
0
C C
(Volts) (Amp.) C T4 T5 LPH

CALCULATIONS

 Heat input in watts

Q=VxI

 Ah = Area of heater in m2

Ah =  D L + (/4) D2

 q = Heat flux in W / m2

q = Q / Ah

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126
 Liquid to metal temperature difference in 0C

ΔT = T1 – T2
Where,
T1 = Wall temp. Of heater 0C
T2 = Liquid Pool Temp. 0C

 Qw = Heat taken away by cooling water in watts

Qw = m Cp (T5 – T4)
Where,
m = water flow rate in LPH / 3600 Kg./sec
Cp = Specific heat of water 4.18 KJ/Kg 0C
T4 = Water inlet Temp. in 0C.
T5 = Water outlet Temp. in 0C

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127
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128
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129
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130
Rotameter Charging valve

cooling coil

Heater

Pressure Switch

Page
131
RESULT

Page
132
GRAPH

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133
CONCLUSION

Page
134
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135