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Chapter 1 Marketing 24

Chapter 2 Company and Marketing Strategy: Partnering to Build Customer Relationships


Chapter 3 Analyzing the Marketing Environment 90

Chapter 4 Managing Marketing Information to Gain Customer Insights 122

Chapter 5 Consumer Markets and Consumer Buyer Behavior 156

Chapter 6 Business Markets and Business Buyer Behavior 188

Chapter 7 Customer-Driven Marketing Strategy: Creating Value for Target Customers 212

Chapter 1
Apa itu Marketing?

Marketing adalah suatu proses untuk menciptakan nilai untuk pelanggan, kemudian
membangun hubungan yang baik dengan pelanggan, setelah itu mendapatkan nilai balik
dari pelanggan yang bermanfaat bagi perusahaan. If the marketer understands consumer
needs; develops products that provide superior customer value; and prices, distributes, and
promotes them effectively, these products will sell easily.

Understand Marketplace – Design a customer-driven marketing strategy – Construct

Integrated Marketing Mix – Build profitable relationships and create customer delight –
Capture Value From Customers to create profits and customer equity

Mengerti kondisi dari pasar dan customer needs and wants

Marketplace : Tempat mempertemukan penjual dan pembeli,

Harus kenal customer itu pengennya apa dan kebutuhannya apa (step 1 yang harus
dilakukan seorang marketer)

Apa itu Needs?

Sesuatu yang harus dipenuhi dalam kehidupan

Apa itu Wants?

Wants adalah pemenuhan kebutuhan manusia berdasarkan bentuk culture dan kepribadian
seseorang secara spesifik

Apa itu Demands?

Orang yang memiliki keinginan dan memiliki kemampuan untuk membeli keinginannya

Market Offerings – Gabungan dari product jasa informasi dan pengalaman yang ditawarkan
kepada pasar untuk memuaskan kebutuhan dan keinginan.

Marketing Myopia : Kesalahan dari terlalu banyaknya paying more attention to specific
products rather than a benefit.

Customer value merupakan selisih antara customer received (yang diterima) dengan
customer sacrifice (pengorbanan). Customer value adalah total manfaat yang diterima oleh
customer baik tangible maupun intangible dikurangi dengan pengorbanan yang dikeluarkan
(expense). Semakin besar selisih maka akan lebih customer satisfaction.

Chapter 2
Company and marketing STRATEGY

Process developing and maintaining a strategic fit between the organizations goals and
capabiities and its changing marketing opportunities.

Chapter 3 Analyzing Market Environment

Microenviroment :

Macroenvironment :

Fundamental Changes in almost all industries :

 Rapid Technology Changes

 Hyper Competition
 Over Communicated Society
 Network of (economic) interdependancy among society offer geographical and
cultural borders
 The environment turbulence that doesnt follow the normal positioning

Inside Out Marketing – Outside Out Marketing

Perusahaan menggunakan strategi marketing dengan mendahulukan keinginan pasar

Chapter 4 Managing Marketing Information to Gain Customer



Market information adalah proses pencarian informasi berdasarkan kebutuhan, kemudian

mengembangkan informasi yang dibutuhkan, dan membantu pengambil keputusan untuk
menggunakan informasi ini untuk melaksanakan dan memvalidasi insight dari konsumen
dan pasar.
Customer Insight adalah pemahaman konsumen dan marketplace yang diturunkan dari
marketing information yang menjadi basis dalam membentuk customer value dan
membangun hubungan pelanggan.

Prosesnya adalah

Assess information Needs?

Mencari tau kebutuhan informasi (contoh ingin tau apakah brand yang telah diluncurkan
disukai atau tidak)

Developing needed information

Internal Database : database yang berasal dari internal perusahaan contoh (profil

Marketing intelligence : mengkoleksi dan menganalisis informasi dari customer, competitor

dan mengembangkannya dari linkungan marketing yang dapat diakses dari publik

Marketing research : systematic design dari pengumpulan, analisis, dan melaporkan data
yang relevan untuk situasi marketing yang spesifik yang menggambarkan kondisi

Analyzing and using information

Setelah terkumpul datanya, kemudian dianalisis informasi yang didapatnya untuk membuat
keputusan marketing yang disediakan untuk pengambil keputsan yang benar di waktu yang

Infromasi yang telah dikumpulkan dari MIS – Digunakan untuk CRM

CRM adalah sebuah alat untuk memanage informasi detil mengenai individual customer,
dan secara teliti memange customer touchpoint untuk memaksimalkan loyalitas customer

Jadi marketing informasi tidak akan memiliki nilai sampai digunakan untuk mendapat
customer insight dan membuat keputusan marketing yang lebih baik.

Chapter 5 Consumer market and consumer buyer behavior

Consumer market : sekumpulan individu atau rumah tangga yang membeli barang atau jasa
untuk digunakan / dikonsumsi sendiri.
Consumer buyer behavior : kebiasaan membeli dari sekumpulan individu atau rumah tangga
yang membeli barang atau jasa untuk digunakan sendiri (perilaku konsumen)


Marketing Stimulus (4p) & yang lain – Buyers black box (characteristics and buyer decision
process) – Buyer response (Buying attitude, Purchase behavior, brand and company
relationship behavior)

Karakter Yang mempengaruhi consumer buyer behaviour

 Cultural factors
 Social
 Personal
 Psychology

Chapter 6 Business market and business buyer behavior

Business Market is huge. In fact business markets involve far more dollars and items than do
consumer market.

Busines Buyer Behavior is the buying behavior of organizations that buy goods and services
for use in the production of other products and services that are sold, rented, or supplied to

Business buying process

The decision process by which business buyers determine which products and services their
organizations need to purchase and then find, evaluate, and choose among alterntive
suppliers and brands.

CHAPTER 7 Customer-Driven Marketing Strategy: Creating Value for

Target Customers


What is segmentation

The process of defining and subdividing a large homogenous market into clearly identifiable
segments having similar needs, wants, or demand characteristics. Its objective is to design a
marketing mix that precisely matches the expectations of customers in the targeted

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Definition: Segmentation means to divide the marketplace into parts, or segments, which
are definable, accessible, actionable, and profitable and have a growth potential. In other
words, a company would find it impossible to target the entire market, because of time,
cost and effort restrictions. It needs to have a 'definable' segment - a mass of people who
can be identified and targeted with reasonable effort, cost and time.

Description: Segmentation takes on great significance in today's cluttered marketplace, with

thousands of products, media proliferation, ad-fatigue and general economic problems
around the world markets. Rightly segmenting the market place can make the difference
between successes and shut down for a company.

Segmentation allows a seller to closely tailor his product to the needs, desires, uses and
paying ability of customers. It allows sellers to concentrate on their resources, money, time
and effort on a profitable market, which will grow in numbers, usage and value.

4 Segmentation Variable

Geographic : Nations, Regions, states, countries, city, village

Demographic : Age, life-cycle stage, gender, income, occupation, education, religion,


Psychology : social class, lifestyle, personality

Behaviour : occassions, benefits, user status, userage rate, loyalty status.

Example Virgin Holidays who segment holidays into 6 groups.


Target Marketing involves breaking a market into segments and then concentrating your
marketing efforts on one or a few key segments consisting of the customers whose needs
and desires most closely match your product or service offerings. It can be the key
to attracting new business, increasing your sales, and making your business a success.

The beauty of target marketing is that by aiming your marketing efforts at specific groups of
consumers it makes the promotion, pricing, and distribution of your products and/or
services easier and more cost-effective.

Target Marketing Case Study - McDonald's Restaurants

McDonald's Restaurants is the largest fast food chain in the world and one of the most
successful examples of demographic target marketing, aiming their products at children,
teenagers, and young urban-dwelling families by offering "Play Places", free wifi, "Happy
Meals" that include toys such as Walt Disney characters, and ad campaigns with slogans
such as "Feed Your Inner Child". Targeted advertising combined with aggressive pricing has
enabled McDonald's to capture 25% of the fast food market share in the U.S.

However, in recent years as millennials have surpassed baby boomers to become the largest
generation in the U.S., McDonald's sales have been in decline as fast food style menu items
such as the ubiquitous Big Mac and fries have lesser appeal to millennials. In response,
McDonald's has altered their marketing strategy to target the millennial generation by
advertising fresher, healthier menu options and upscale coffee products such as espressos.


The full positioning of brand is called Value Proposition

What is market position? In marketing and business strategy, market position refers to the
consumer’s perception of a brand or product in relation to competing brands or
products. Market positioning refers to the process of establishing the image or identity of a
brand or product so that consumers perceive it in a certain way.
For example, a car maker may position itself as a luxury status symbol. Whereas a battery
maker may position its batteries as the most reliable and long-lasting. And a fast-food
restaurant chain may position itself as a provider of cheap and quick standardized meals. A
coffee company may position itself as a source of premium upscale coffee beverages. Then
a retailer might position itself as a place to buy household necessities at low prices. And a
computer company may position itself as offering hip, innovative, and use-
friendly technology products.


Differentiation in marketing means creating specialized products that gain competitive

advantage with a particular segment of the market. Companies can choose from two
different strategies: differentiation, and differentiation focus. The former adds specialized
aspects with a broad appeal to its products or services, and the latter develops a product
that appeals to a niche market. In either case, differentiation makes a product or service
more desirable to the target market.

Practical Differences
A large company with high market share has the opportunity to provide improved products
or services that appeal to a broad audience. For example, a large construction company able
to purchase higher quality goods by purchasing larger amounts of them could provide
quality products at a reasonable price. This would probably appeal to a wide market.
Charging a premium for an exceptional product or service, as Mercedes-Benz does, is
another option. Aiming to have the best customer service in the industry, or the most
convenient or energy efficient products would also lead to broad practical appeal.
Differentiation Business Strategy
A company using a differentiation business strategy attempts to position itself in the minds
of the consumers as a company that provides unique products that consumers will pay more
for because they cannot find comparable products or product features anywhere else in the
marketplace. Consumers expect more from a differentiated product and therefore are
willing to pay a premium for a differentiated product. This is true as long as the unique
features of the product add some value to the product that makes it more valuable to the

consumer, whether a functional feature or an aspect of image or prestige that enhances the
perception of the product.