Anda di halaman 1dari 96

WORKSHOP APLIKASI SOFTWARE

PERENCANAAN INFRASTRUKTUR BERBASIS BIDANG KEAHLIAN


PADA BIDANG GEOTEKNIK

PENGGUNAAN SOFTWARE PLAXIS


PADA PERENCANAAN GEOTEKNIK
(PONDASI, JALAN, JEMBATAN DAN
RETAINING WALL)

JURUSAN TEKNIK SIPIL UNIVERSITAS SYIAH KUALA


BANDA ACEH, 10 NOVEMBER 2017
Apakah PLAXIS itu ?
PLAXIS merupakan piranti lunak (software) berbasis metode elemen
hingga untuk analisis deformasi dan stabilitas dalam permasalahan
geoteknik.
PLAXIS dikembangkan oleh Delft University, Belanda pada tahun 1987.

Mengapa berbasis metode elemen hingga ?


Seperti telah kita ketahui, tanah merupakan elemen yang memiliki sifat
yang rumit seperti non linear, time dependent, anisotropic, dsb. Selain itu
perilaku tanah terhadap tegangan juga memberikan karakteristik yang
spesifik. Untuk itu, analisis permasalahan geoteknik memerlukan model
konstitutif mutakhir yang mampu mensimulasikan kondisi-kondisi
tersebut di atas, salah satunya adalah metode elemen hingga.
Kasus-kasus apa saja yang dapat diselesaikan dengan
PLAXIS ?
Semua permasalahan geoteknik dapat dimodelkan dan dianalisis dengan
menggunakan PLAXIS seperti slope stability, seepage, konsolidasi, dsb.
Selain itu PLAXIS juga dapat memodelkan dan menganalisis struktur
geoteknik dan interaksi tanah dengan struktur seperti pondasi dangkal,
pondasi dalam, DPT (dinding penahan tanah), angkur, dsb.

Yang harus diperhatikan dalam menggunakan


PLAXIS ?
Pengguna harus menguasai teori dan konsep mengenai mekanika tanah,
perilaku tanah dan pondasi. Hal ini sangat penting karena PLAXIS
akan tetap melakukan kalkulasi dan memberikan hasil (output) meskipun
input data kita tidak benar  GARBAGE IN GARBAGE OUT (GIGO)
METODE ELEMEN HINGGA
Metode analisis tegangan-deformasi yang dilakukan dengan cara
membagi suatu model solid material yang didiskretisasi menjadi elemen-
elemen berbentuk segitiga atau segiempat yang tersambung melalui titik-
titik nodal (nodes) serta memiliki kondisi batas (boundary condition)
yang diketahui.
Analisis diselesaikan dengan persamaan sebagai berikut :

[P] = [k] [u]

dimana :
[P] = matriks gaya
[k] = matriks kekakuan elemen
[u] = matriks perpindahan
Contoh Kasus Geoteknik
2. Design/As Built Drawing

1. Foto Kondisi Aktual


node mesh

boundary
condition

3. Analisis dengan Metode Elemen Hingga


1. Deep excavation di Monako

2. Pemodelan di PLAXIS 3D
Landsliding
at Cipularang KM 97+500
 Subsurface Conditions:

 Top Layer (3 m): Silty Clay (Weathered Clay Shale)


 N-SPT=2
 Underneath: Hard Clay Shale
 N-SPT>50
Slope V:H = 1:3
Soon after excavation
Cipularang: At Around Batu Datar
Until now, Owner has not accepted hand over due to continuous movement

Slope V:H = 1:3.5


Km 96+800
Sliding after approximately 1 year of construciton
Km 97+500
Landsliding
ROW

Slope V:H = 1:3


ROW
Slope Stability Analyses
Back calculations to obtain design parameters
ROW
Variation of shear strength parameters
BATAS PENGGALIAN TANAH DASAR
c = 10 – 90 kPa
 = 2o – 15o Data BM3, N-SPT=2
c = 10 kPa
 = 2o ROW

Thickness of weathered clay-shale, 1-4 m


Residual Strength
Number Identification
c = 5.0 – 10.0 kPa
A Fill Material (Atas)  = 9o – 20o
B Fill Material (Bawah)
C Fill Material (Kaki Lereng)
D Silty Clay
E High Weathered Clay-Shale
F Low Weathered Clay-Shale
Slope Stability Analysis

 Factor of Safety = 1.0 (When sliding occurred)


Back calculations to obtain design parameters
Cipularang, Sta 97+500
Configuration of Bored Piles
 Bored piles were chosen to cut failure plane
 Bored pile properties
 Diameter = 100 cm
 Configuration = 2 rows, zig-zag
 Spacing = 200 cm

EA EI w 
Number Identification Type
[kN/m2] [kN/m2] [kN/m2] [-]
1 Bored Pile D=1000 Elastic 3937500 257709 4.7 0.15

Cipularang, Sta 97+500


Bending moment untuk tiap bored pile
Mboredpile1 = 826.43 kNm/mx 2.0 m = 1,652.86 kNm = 165.3 ton.m.
Structural Analyses For Reinforced Bars

 Reinforced bars
Potongan-2
2 2

3 3

Potongan-3

TULANGAN BOREDPILE
Bored Piles for Lansliding
at Mamuju, West Sulawesi
Mamuju: Landsliding
Clay-Shales
Preliminary Design
1

2m 2-4

2m

2m
Bored Piles:
Dia = 120cm
6m
Length = 24 m
Spacing = 2m

Bored Piles:
Dia = 120cm
Length = 20 m

6m Spacing = 2m
Preliminary Slope Stability Analyses:

Deformed Mesh
Preliminary Slope Stability Analyses:

Displacement Contours
Preliminary Slope Stability Analyses:

Factor of Safety = 1.33

Contours of Shear Strain


Preliminary Analyses:

Max. Bend. Moment / Pile (Spacing 2m)  124 ton-m


PROGRAM PLAXIS
PLAXIS is comprised of four interconnected
but separate interfaces

•Input
•Calculations
•Output
•Curves
Tahapan dalam melakukan analisis menggunakan PLAXIS, yaitu :
A. INPUT
1. General Setting
2. Geometry Modelling
3. Loads and Boundary Condition
4. Material Properties
5. Mesh Generation
6. Initial Condition
7. Water Condition

A. CALCULATION
1. General Calculation Setting
2. Calculation Control Parameters
3. Load Multiplier
4. Staged Construction
5. phi-c Reduction (SF)

A. OUTPUT
GENERAL SETTING
Model:
PLAXIS dapat digunakan untuk analisis model PLANE STRAIN dan AXISYMMETRY
- PLANE STRAIN :
digunakan untuk pemodelan struktur yang memiliki penampang melintang yang
seragam sepanjang tegak lurus bidang gambar. Perpindahan atau regangan (strain)
dalam arah tegak lurus bidang gambar diasumsikan nol (e = 0). Contoh kasus timbunan
badan jalan yang menerus.
- AXISYMMETRY :
digunakan untuk pemodelan struktur yang memiliki penampang radial/lingkaran yang
seragam. Deformasi dan tegangan diasumsikan sama di setiap arah lingkaran.
4. Plane Strain or Axisymmetry
4. Plane Strain or Axisymmetry Cont.

x
• Element:
Analisis dalam PLAXIS dilakukan dengan menggunakan elemen berbentuk segitiga
dengan 6 nodes atau 15 nodes. Untuk pemodelan kasus-kasus yang rumit dan keakuratan
hasil kalkulasi, elemen dengan 15 nodes memberikan hasil yang lebih baik. Kekurangan
elemen dengan 15 nodes ini adalah kapasitas memorinya yang besar dan proses
kalkulasinya yang lebih lambat.
• Gravity and Acceleration :
Gravity and Acceleration digunakan untuk memodelkan percepatan gravitasi bumi (G).
Untuk analisis dinamik / gempa (pseudo-static), percepatan gempa dimasukkan dalam
arah x dan y dan besarnya dinyatakan dalam G.
Percepatan gravitasi dikontrol dengan option Load Multiplier Mweight dan percepatan
gempa dikontrol dengan Load Multilpier Maccel.
• Dimensions :
Input Dimensions digunakan untuk mendefinisikan satuan dan dimensi geometri.
GEOMETRY MODELLING dan BOUNDARY CONDITION
Analisis dengan Metode Elemen Hingga dimulai dengan pembuatan model geometri.
Pembuatan model geometri meliputi :
• Pemodelan topografi, kontur, penampang, dan geometri
• Pemodelan stratigrafi tanah
• Pemodelan struktur (pondasi tiang, dinding penahan tanah, dsb.)
• Pemodelan fase konstruksi
• Pemodelan beban
• Pemodelan boundary condition

geometry beam hinge interfaces fixed end boundary beban


line anchor condition
beam geotextile node to node tunnel
anchor
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Input material properties untuk tanah dan struktur dilakukan dengan menggunakan option
material data sets yang terdiri dari : soil & interfaces,beams, geotextiles, dan anchors.
Soil and Interfaces :
Pemodelan soil pada PLAXIS meliputi :
• Material model
• Material type
• Properties dan parameter
• Interfaces
Material Model
Material model digunakan untuk mensimulasikan model tanah berdasarkan karakteristik regangan-
regangan. Terdapat lima tipe material model : linear elastic, Mohr-Coulomb, hardening soil, soft soil,
soft soil creep.
1. Linear Elastic
Untuk memodelkan material yang bersifat linear elastic (hukum Hooke). Input parameter meliputi
Modulus Young (E) dan Poisson;s ratio (n). Tipe ini biasanya digunakan untuk memodelkan struktur
masif seperti gravity wall .
2. Mohr-Coulomb
Pemodelan tanah yang paling umum digunakan. Perilakunya mengikuti Mohr-Coulomb criteria.
Terdapat 5 input parameter, yaitu Modulus Young (E), Poisson;s ratio (n), cohesion (c), friction
angle (), dan dilatancy angle ().

3. Hardening Soil
Untuk memodelkan perilaku tanah yang memiliki friction hardening plasticity. Model ini dapat
digunakan untuk mensimulasikan perilaku gravel dan overconsolidated clay.

4. Soft Soil Model


Merupakan model Cam Clay yang digunakan untuk memodelkan perilaku tanah lunak seperti
normally consolidated clay dan gambut (peat).

5. Soft Soil Creep Model


Untuk memodelkan perilaku rangkak (creep) dan time dependent pada tanah lunak.
Material Type
Pada prinsipnya, semua parameter model di PLAXIS dimaksudkan untuk menggambarkan perilaku
efektif tanah. Selain itu, fenomena air pori (pore water) merupakan hal yang penting dalam mekanika
tanah. Material type digunakan untuk mensimulasikan interaksi air-tanah. Terdapat tiga tipe perilaku :
drained behaviour, undrained behaviour, dan non porous behaviour.

1. Drained Behaviour
Model ini mensimulasikan kondisi dimana tidak terjadi excess pore pressure. Contohnya pada kasus
tanah kering (dry soil) dan full drainage karena permeabilitas yang tinggi (pasir) atau kecepatan
pembebanan yang rendah. Option ini dapat juga digunakan untuk mensimulasikan kondisi long
term.

2. Undrained Behaviour
Model ini untuk mensimulasikan kondisi dimana terjadi excess pore pressure. Contohnya pada kasus
no drainage karena permeabilitas yang rendah (clay) atau kecepatan pembebanan yang tinggi.

3. Non Porous Behaviour


Model ini untuk mensimulasikan kondisi dimana initial pore pressure dan excess pore pressure tidak
diperhitungkan . Option ini biasanya digunakan untuk pemodelan struktur beton atau batu.
Beams :
Beams pada PLAXIS pada dasarnya merupakan pelat menerus. Beams dimodelkan untuk
dapat menerima gaya aksial dan momen. Beams biasanya digunakan untuk memodelkan
pondasi tiang, sheet pile, matrass bambu, dll.
Input parameter meliputi :
• Stiffness properties, yaitu axial stiffness EA dan flexural rigidity EI.
• Poisson’s ratio ()
• Weight
• Strength parameter, untuk analisis elastoplastis .

Geotextile :
Geotextile merupakan elemen fleksibel yang elastis. Input parameter untuk geotextile
adalah axial stiffness EA.

Anchor :

Terdapat dua pilihan anchor, yaitu node to node anchor dan fixed end anchor. Node to
node anchor digunakan untuk memodelkan anchor dua titik seperti pada cofferdam.
Sedangkan fixed end anchor digunakan untuk memodelkan anchor satu titik seperti pada
ground anchor. Input parameter meliputi axial stiffness EA, spacing anchor L, dan gaya
tarik anchor Fmax.
MESH GENERATION
Mesh dibentuk secara otomatis oleh PLAXIS. Jumlah mesh /kehalusan dapat ditentukan
melalui option global coarsenes. Semakin halus mesh, maka perhitungan akan semakin
akurat. Namun akan membutuhkan memory yang lebih besar dan waktu yang lebih lama.

Very Coarse Mesh Very Fine Mesh


INITIAL CONDITION
Initial Condition digunakan untuk memodelkan kondisi initial effective stress dan initial
geometry configuration. Initial effective stress ditentukan menggunakan Ko-procedure
(lateral coefficient at rest).
Untuk memodelkan fase konstruksi, option deactivating geometry components dapat
dipilih. Contoh kasus timbunan badan jala, di mana pada kondisi initial timbunan belum
ada, maka model geometry timbunan dapat dinon aktifkan dengan option ini.
WATER CONDITION
Water Condition digunakan untuk memodelkan kondisi initial active pore pressure.
Pemodelan dapat dilakukan dengan dua option, phreatic line dan ground water flow.
Phreatic line digunakan untuk memodelkan kondisi hidrostatis. Sedangkan ground water
flow digunakan untuk memodelkan aliran air.
APLIKASI 1
The Modeling the Settlement of a Circular
Footing on Sand
Geometry Contour
Loads & Boundary Conditions

• Prescribed Displacements
1. Special Conditions placed on geometry lines that control the
displacement of the lines
2. Drawn over geometry lines
3. Can be altered by double clicking on the geometry line associated with it

• Fixities
1. Prescribed displacements equal to zero
2. Can be of horizontal, vertical, or total (horizontal & vertical)
3. Fixities take priority over displacements and other loads

• Standard Fixities
1. Convenient and fast input option for many applications

• Tractions
1. Distributed loads applied to geometry lines
2. Input values given in the dimensions force per unit area
3. Can be altered by double clicking on the geometry line associated with it

• Point Forces
1. Are actually line loads in the out-of-plane direction
2. Can have vertical and horizontal components

• Fixed Rotations
1. Fixes the rotational degree of freedom of a beam
Select
Standard
fixities
button

Loads & Boundary Conditions cont.


Select
Prescribed
displacement
button

Loads & Boundary Conditions cont.


Material Properties

• Database with material data sets


1. Soil properties and material properties of structures are stored within the
database as four types of material sets
1. Soils & Interfaces
2. Beams
3. Geotextiles &
4. Anchors

• Modeling of Soil Behavior


1. There exist three types of soil models that PLAXIS supports:
1. Mohr-Coulomb model
2. Hardening-Soil model &
3. Soft-Soil-Creep model
2. Mohr-Coulomb is most often used as good soil data is not always
available to the engineer or scientist
3. Modeling with the Mohr-Coulomb default requires the following five
variables to be input:
1. Young’s modulus, (E)
2. Poisson’s ratio, (n)
3. cohesion, (c)
4. friction angle, (f) and
5. dilatancy angle, (y)
Material Properties cont.

• All clusters and structural elements in a given model


must be assigned a material before a mesh can be
generated
• The following soil parameters will be used for the
footing settlement example:
Click
Materials
button

Material Properties cont.


Select
“New”
material

Material Properties cont.


Type “sand”
and leave
the other Select
Enter given
default “New”
data
inputs material

Material Properties cont.


Enter
Select
given
data
“New”
and
material
click Ok

Material Properties cont.


Drag & Drop
the “Sand”
material
into the
cluster

Material Properties cont.


Mesh Generation

• Global Coarseness
 Distinction is made between five levels of global coarseness: Very
coarse, Coarse, Medium, Fine, and Very fine. Number of mesh elements
generated ranges from about 50 elements for the coarse setting to about
1000 elements for the very fine setting

• Global Refinement
 Automatically generates a refined mesh; one step per selection

• Local Coarseness
 In areas where it may not be necessary to have a very refined mesh, the
mesh may be made more coarse by adjusting the “Local element size”
factor for a particular geometry point. This can be accessed by double
clicking on any geometry point

• Local Refinement
 Instead of adjusting the “Local element size” factor, clusters, lines, or
points can be selected and the local refinement option can be used
Select
“Generate
mesh”

Once the mesh


window
appears select
“Update”

Mesh Generation cont.


Initial Conditions
• Once the geometry model has been created and the mesh has
been generated, the “Initial conditions” must be inputted. There
are two different modes within the initial conditions tab: Water
conditions mode and the Geometry configuration mode
• Water Conditions mode
1. Water Weight: In projects that involve pore pressures, the input of water weight in necessary to distinguish
between effective stresses and pore pressures. PLAXIS default water weight is set to 10kN/m3

2. Phreatic Lines: Pore pressures and external water pressures can be generated on the basis of phreatic
lines. With a phreatic line it is understood that water pressures above the line are zero and increase linearly with
depth below the line. The phreatic line can be a general or user defined type

3. Groundwater Flow: In addition to generating water pressures using a phreatic line, water pressures can
also be generated using groundwater flow calculations. This requires the input of groundwater head boundary
conditions

4. Water Pressure Generation: After a phreatic line or groundwater boundary conditions are specified,
the generate water pressures button is selected to complete the water conditions process

• Geometry Configuration mode


1. Deactivating Geometry Components: In projects where embankments and structures are to be
constructed the geometry model will have some elements that are initially not active. These elements must be
deactivated in this mode. By default PLAXIS activates all elements of the model outlined in the previous
geometry setup stage. Clicking on a particular element in this mode determines if it will be on or not

2. Initial Stress Generation (K0-Procedure): Initial stresses in a body are influenced by the weight
of the material and the history of its formation. The stress state is generally characterized by an initial vertical
stress, sn,0 which is related by the coefficient of lateral earth pressure K0. A default value is given based on
Jaky’s formula (1-sinf).
1.Select “Initial
conditions”
button and
accept default
water weight

2. Water levels
will not be
generated in this
example so
proceed to
generate initial
stresses

Initial Conditions cont.


Accept default
K0 parameters

Initial Conditions cont.


Length of lines
note relative
magnitude of
principal
stresses

Orientation of
lines note
principal
direction

Initial Conditions cont.


Finally it is time
to proceed to
the Calculation
phase of the
program

Initial Conditions cont.


DISKUSI?
General Calculations

Default
Calculation
Interface
General Calculations cont.
Phases can
be named
for
clarification

*see section 4.4.1&2 of the


PLAXIS reference manual for
info on calculation types and
phase insertion
Calculation Parameters

Accept
default
values for
control
parameters
and iterative
procedure

For “Loading
input” accept
default and
select “Define…”
*see section 4.4.3-8 of the
PLAXIS reference manual for
load stepping applications
Calculation Multipliers
Apply a
displacement factor
of 0.1 to the
prescribed
displacement

*see section 4.6 of the PLAXIS


reference manual for info on
Multipliers &
Select points for curves
Now one is ready
to calculate
phases, but first
select points for
curve generation
later

This window
appears (Output
interface) asking
one to select points
at node locations
Verifying Ultimate State Note the
the
Note
prescribed
prescribed ultimate
ultimate
state
state has been
has been
reached
reached fully and
fully and
proceed to the
proceed to the
output
output

A successful
calculation is noted by
a green check mark,
while a red “x” implies
an error was
encountered
Checking Reached Values

Moving back to the


Multipliers tab,
select “Reached
Values” to view
corresponding Fy

Fy corresponds to 1
radian of the
axisymmetric
footing. For total
force multiply by
2p
What's to come?

1. Output & Curve


Interface

Modeling a loaded
flexible plate vs. a
prescribed displacement
Select Output File

Select phase to
be viewed
Deformations
Choosing
“incremental
displacements”
allows one to see the
displacement per
calculation step,
helping visualize an
eventual failure
Select orientation mechanism
of displacement

Deformed mesh
is displayed by
default upon
opening program
Stresses View effective stresses or total
stresses (active pore pressure
+ effective stress)
21. Viewing Tabular Results

Table output can be


viewed for specific
areas of concern
Flexible Footing

Instead of
prescribed
displacement a load
Save as under will be imposed on
a different the soil yielding a
name displacement later
Modify the Geometry
Choose to
create a beam
element
Modify the Boundary Condition

Apply a traction
to the boundary
simulating the
applied force on
the footing
Assign Materials for the Footing

Beam Material Properties

Select Input material


“New…” beam properties as
material with soil layer
Assign Materials cont.

Drag n drop
footing material
onto the beam
element
Generate Mesh
Initial Conditions

Regenerate
initial stresses
29. Calculations

Name the
phase
Calculations cont. Check that points
are still selected
for curves

Apply a multiplier
of 350* to the
traction load A
Accept
default for
parameters

*note: (350) x (1kN/m2) x (p)(1)2 ≈ 1200kN


Output

Double click the


beam in the out put
program to view
bending moments or
displacements in the
beam
Curves Program

Select new
chart upon
entering the
program for the
first time
33. Generating a Load-Displacement Curve

Choose
“Multiplier”
Choose
“Displacement

Select point “A”


assigned in the
calculations
phase
Choose to plot
the loading
multiplier
along the y-
axis
Select Uy and check
“Invert sign” for negative
vertical displacement of
footing @ center
Curve Output Once generated,
curve presentation
can be altered using
chart and curve
settings