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2.1 Introduction to Holy Qur’an:
The Holy Qurán is the most widely read book in the history of mankind, a source of immense inspiration,
guidance and wisdom for millions of Muslims all over the world. It is the pivotal point of imaan, faith, and
integral to the foundations of an Islamic society being the basis of its shariah, Islamic legal injunctions and
law. As such one of the aims Islam is to ensure a continuous link remains between the body of the Islamic
community, the ummah and its heart, the Holy Qurán. It is a book not just to be read, but to be studied,
understood and ultimately revered. This paper is an attempt to provide an introduction to the Holy Qurán
so that Muslims and non-Muslims alike can have an insight into its complexity but also understand its
necessity to the Islamic faith and its importance to the Holy Prophet’s (saw) status.
2.2 Meaning of the Word Qurán:
The Holy Qur’an is the literal word of Allah (SWT), divinely revealed to Prophet Muhammad (SAWS)
through the Angel Gabriel (AS). Before any attempt is made to describe the meanings of the word “Qur’an”
the etymological base of the Arabic language needs a brief explanation first. The Arabic language is one of
the richest languages in the world word containing many meanings and hidden depths, which have no
comparison in the English language. In order to appreciate the true meaning and understanding of a
particular word a threefold inquiry has to take place, looking into the:
1. etymological base of each word
2. its grammatical category
3. its contextual location
Root Words of the Qur’an:
The word Qur’an can be derived from four root words, each with their own individual meanings. The first
root word is “Qara’a” whose literal meaning is to collect or to compile. In this respect the Qur’an is a book
which was collected and codified under the divine protection of Allah (SWT). When Angel Gabriel (AS) used
to bring the divine revelation of Allah (SWT) to the Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) he had already been
instructed by God to reveal the exact placement of each ayah (in the relevant Surah) as well as the
arrangement of the Surah’s and their names. Since this was the case it was impossible for others to
interfere in the Qur’an in any manner or form. It will remain in its actual and original state until the Day of
Judgement the Qur’an itself testifies to its divine protection: “It is for us to collect and recite it” (75:17)
In the context of the Qur’an, the word Qara’a is also taken as being the book which contains all knowledge
of the universe. Every as aspect of life as we know has been codified and collected within it[1]. An answer
to any question man wishes to have answered can be found in the verses of the Holy Qur’an:
“And we have sent down to thee the Book explaining all things, a guide, a mercy and glad tidings to
Muslims”. (16:89) AND “A detailed exposition of every thing”. (12:11)
The second root word is “Qar’ana” meaning a union or conjunction. The root word does not specify
what the union consists of, merely that a process of combination is indicated.
Another academic implication of the word “Qar’ana” is that the Qur’an is combined with guidance, the
two being inseparable. The Holy Qur’an refers to this combination:
“This is the book: it is guidance sure, without doubt”. (2:2)
“For one who had certainly sent unto them a book, based on knowledge, which we explained in detail; a
guidance and mercy to all those who believe”. (7:52)
The third root word is “Qira’athun” meaning to read or recite. In reference to the Qur’an this is one of its
most important features. Although other books that claim to be divinely revealed are also read and
recited, the Holy Qur’an has a specific characteristic, superiority and individuality compared to them.
The fourth and final root word of the word Qur’an is “Qira’in” which is the plural of “Qarina” which
meaning evidence, argument or symbol. In the context of the Qur’an this is taken to mean how one verse
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interprets, elaborates and gives arguments and evidences for previous verses. In ayah 5 of surah Al-
Fatiha[4] for example, man is told to ask Allah for the right path:
“Guide us Thou on the right path”.
The following verse then answers this request and explains what the right path is: “The path of those
whom You have favored. Not those who have earned your anger or gone astray”. (1:6-7)
That is why Allah (SWT) himself gives it divine protection: “We have, without doubt, sent down the
message; And We will assuredly guard it (from corruption”. (15:9)
As Muslims, it is our duty to perform Dhikr of Allah (SWT). The term Dhikr literally means to call back to
memory, or to have something in conscious mind. Therefore to perform Dhikr of Allah (SWT) actually
implies that we ought to be God-conscious OR conscious of Allah (SWT) at all times. The term also means
“to remember” or “a reminder”. Some of the ways of performing Dhikr are as follows:
Prayer: Saying of prayer is a greatest form of Dhikr. Allah (SWT) says:
“…and establish prayer. Verily prayer keeps you away from the obscene and detestable and verily the
remembrance of Allah is the greatest”. (29:45)
The extent to which Quran has glorified Knowledge and has encouraged people to pursue it is something which
cannot be found in other heavenly books. There are numerous verses speaking of Knowledge, and praising and
elevating the status of those who acquire it. For example: “Allah will exalt those of you who believe and those
who have been granted knowledge, to high ranks..” (58:11) Further on, states: In the light of Ankabut:49,
Muhammad:16 and this verse those who have been given knowledge are exalted to the highest degree. All
other created beings are inferior to them.
The Quran itself contains dynamic source of knowledge. Allah (SWT) says:
“And with Him are the keys (treasures) of the unseen. None but He knows them; and He alone knows what is in
the land and in the sea. Not a leaf falls but He knows it, and there is not a grain in the darkess (recess)of the
earth, nor anything wet or dry but is in a clear Book” (6:59) AND
“We have not neglected anything in the Book” (6:38)
Thus it invites to a study of natural and mathematical sciences, philosophy, literature and all the branches
of knowledge accessible to humanity, the learning of which is in the interest of humanity and brings
happiness to humanity. The Quran invites to these branches of knowledge on condition that people are
guided by this knowledge to truth and know the real world which is headed by Godliness. Otherwise a
knowledge that serves as an amusement and hinders one from knowing God and truth is the equivalent of
ignorance in the vocabulary of the Quran. God, the Almighty says, “They know the outward of this
world’s life but of the hereafter they are absolutely heedless” (30:7)
“Have you then considered him who takes his low desire for his god and God has made him err having
knowledge and has set a seal upon his ear and his heart and put a covering upon his eye. Who can then
guide him after God?” (45:23)
“The month of Ramadan is that in which the Quran was sent down, a GUIDANCE for mankind, and clear
proofs of the guidance, and the criterion of right and wrong;” (2:185)
“Indeed there is a lesson in their narratives for men of understanding. It is not a forged tale but a
confirmation of what went before it, and a detailed exposition of all things, and a GUIDE and a mercy for
those who believe”. (12:111)
The Holy Quran is a cure for both: Physical as well spiritual ailments.
“We sent down the Quran which is a healing and a mercy for the believers” (17:82)
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“Say: It (Quran) is to those who believe a guidance and a healing and (as for) those who do not believe,
there is a heaviness in their ears and it is obscure to them” (41:44)
A man once complained about chest-pain to the Holy Prophet (SAWS). The Prophet (SAWS) said, “Seek
healing from the Holy Quran, for Allah (SWT) says ‘..and a cure for that which is in your breasts’ (10:57) ”
EXAMPLES: Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (as) has said, “Whoever cannot be cured by the Quranic chapter
of AL-FATIHA, he cannot be cured by anything else”.
However, most important of all, Quran is a cure for all our spiritual ailments. In Nahjul-Balaghah Imam Ali
bin Abi Talib (as) says, “You should also know that no one will need anything after (guidance from) the
Quran and no one will be sufficient without (guidance from) the Quran. Therefore seek cure from it for
your ailments and seek its assistance in your distresses. It contains a cure for the biggest diseases namely
unbelief, hypocrisy, revolt and misguidance”.

2.4 History of Compilation

The Qur'an is the final message Allah has sent to mankind. It was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad
(peace be upon him) through the Archangel Gabriel, who brought the Prophet complete verses or parts
of verses, or passages or complete surahs, as he was commanded by Allah. When the angel brought
down to the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) a passage of the Qur'an, he did not bring it
written on a piece of paper [or other material]. He recited it to him and the Prophet immediately
memorized it. In his keenness to learn it by heart straight-away, the Prophet used to vocalize the words
as he heard them from the angel. He was then asked by Allah not to do so. Allah promised him that He
Himself will see to it that the Qur'an is kept complete and intact and properly read. This order is
contained in verses 16-19 of Surah 75. As you are well aware, the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon
him) did not read or write. When he received a portion of the Qur'an, he called in one or more of his
scribes to write it down.
He employed for this task a number of his companions whose number totaled 29. Many of these were
of the highest caliber in their faith and integrity. They included all the first 4 caliphs, Hazrat Abu Bakr,
Hazrat Umar, Hazrat Usman, Hazrat Ali. However, the task of writing the revelations was most
particularly associated with two of them, Hazrat Muawiah and Hazrat Zaid ibn Thabit, despite the fact
that Muawiah was a latecomer to Islam. Paper, as we know, was not yet invented. Those scribes
wrote the Qur'an on various forms of writing material which was available to them. These included
sheets cut out of the branches of the beet tree or other writing sheets made of wood, animal hide,
stone or bones. This started even in the period when the Prophet and his companions were a small
persecuted community in Makkah. Many of the companions of the Prophet had some parts of the
Qur'an written down and treasured in their homes. The Qur'an is divided into 114 surahs, some of
which are short, while others are very long. The revelation did not proceed with only one surah at a
time, but the Prophet might have continued to receive parts of several surahs at the same time. When
a passage was sent down to him, it was followed by an order from Allah, through the Angel Gabriel,
indicating its position in the surah to which it belonged. These manuscripts did not form a single or
coherent set. The Prophet did not keep anything written down in his own home. But most of his
companions who were with him in Makkah and Madinah memorized much of the Qur'an, and some of
them were able to learn it all by heart.
The Prophet used to teach his companions either individually or in groups. It is noted that Hazrat
Abdullah ibn Masood, a learned companion of the Prophet, was pleased to assert that he memorized
more than 70 surahs as he learned them directly from the Prophet. In Ramadan every year, the
Prophet used to revise the Qur'an with the Angel Gabriel to ensure that he did not overlook any verse
or part of it. In the last year of the Prophet's blessed life, Gabriel recited the Qur'an to him twice. To
the Prophet, this was an indication that his life on earth was approaching its end. It was in the first

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year after the Prophet had passed away that the need to compile the Qur'anic documents in a single,
easy to use, set became apparent. Hazrat Umar ibn Al-Khattab made the proposal to the first caliph,
Abu Bakr, shortly after the battle of Yamamah in which several hundred Muslims were killed; seventy
amongst those killed were the ones who had learned all or most of the Qur'an by heart. Umar feared
that the number of those people would rapidly decrease as a result of battles the Muslim state might
have to fight. Abu Bakr approved the proposition and entrusted the task to Zaid ibn Thabit, who was
not merely a scribe entrusted by the Prophet to write down the Qur'anic revelations but he was also a
young man who had learned all [of Qur'an] by heart and witnessed the Prophet's final recitation of
the Qur'an. Certain rules were laid down including one which stipulated that no written text would be
acceptable unless two people of integrity would testify that it was indicated by the Prophet himself as
a part of the Qur'an. When Zaid completed the task, he handed it over to Abu Bakr who handed it
over to Umar whom he nominated his successor when he died a year later.
During the reign of Usman, the third caliph, the need to have reference copies of the Qur'an became
apparent. Usman instructed Zaid ibn Thabit and four others to write down five more copies and he
sent one copy to each of the main centers in the Muslim State to serve as reference to scholars and
students of the Qur'an. Usman also ordered that all documents which were at variance with these
copies be burned down. This was to make sure that those pieces of writing materials on which parts of
the Qur'an were written and to which the writer might have added a word of explanation, as was the
habit of some of them, were burned, so that they would not be confused later as having a fuller text.
We should realize that Usman's action was a highly commendable one and enjoyed the support of all
the surviving companions of the Prophet, many of whom had learned the Qur'an by heart. People
were thus able to have their own copies of the Qur'an and check these against the master copies that
Usman sent to the various cities. Needless to say, the memorization of the Qur'an was not only
encouraged but widespread among Muslims in those early generations, and indeed in subsequent
generations up to our present time. The fact that we do not have any differences in the Qur'an we
read and recite today and the copies that have been preserved from various generations up to the
time of Usman is a testimony to the fact that Allah has preserved the Qur'an intact as He indeed
promised to do. It is not true that some Iranians make any claim about the correct order of the Qur'an
which is at variance with what the Sunnis have. If you pick up any copy of the Qur'an published in Iran
today, you will find it identical to copies that are available in all Muslim countries.
According to some Iranians, however, the number of surahs in the Qur'an are 111, because they
consider the surahs 8 and 9 to be one surah; and surahs 93 and 94 also as one surah and also surahs
105 and 106 to be one surah. In other words, they have identical text, in the same order, but three
different parts of surahs are classified by them as three single surahs. Even this insignificant shifting is
not common to all copies of the Qur'an printed in Iran. Some of these have the same number or
surahs as we find in our copies of the Qur'an. As for the absurd claim that some leaves were eaten by
goats and some were hidden away or disregarded for political reasons, these remain without proof.
Moreover, if there was only one copy of each document, that might have been a disaster, but the
Qur'an was committed to memory by so many of the Prophet's companions that not a word of it could
have disappeared without it being pointed out by those companions of the Prophet. The compilation
of the Qur'an in its reference sets was undertaken in the first year after the Prophet had passed away.
At that time, those who learned the Qur'an by heart in Madinah were in hundreds, if not in
thousands. No distortion could have crept in without its being immediately discovered. [How can it be
when we have Allah's own statement that He Himself will see to it that the Qur'an is kept complete
and intact.].

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2.5 Stages of the Compilation of the Holy Qur'an
During the life of the Prophet (SAWS) (570-632 CE)
 The Prophet (SAWS) used to recite the Qur'an before angel Jibraayl (Gabriel) once every Ramadan, but
he recited it twice (in the same order we have today) in the last Ramadan before his death. Hazrat
Jibraayl also taught the Prophet (SAWS) the seven modes of recitation.
 Each verse received was recited by the Prophet, and its location relative to other verses and surahs
was identified by him.
 The verses were written by scribes, selected by the Prophet, on any suitable object - the leaves of
trees, pieces of wood, parchment or leather, flat stones, and shoulder blades. Scribes included Ali Ibn
Abi Talib, Mu'awiyah Ibn Abi Sufyan, Ubey Ibn Ka'ab, Zayed Ibn Thabit.
 Some of the companions wrote the Qur'an for their own use.
 Several hundred companions memorized the Qur'an by heart.

During the caliphate of Hazrat Abu Bakr (632-634 CE)

 Hazrat Umar Ibn Al-Khattab urged Hazrat Abu Bakr to preserve and compile the Qur'an. This was
prompted after the battle of Yamamah, where heavy casualties were suffered among the reciters who
memorized the Qur'an.
 Hazrat Abu Bakr entrusted Hazrat Zayed Ibn Thabit with the task of collecting the Qur'an. Hazrat Zayed
had been present during the last recitation of the Qur'an by the Prophet to Angel Jibraayl (Gabriel).
 Hazrat Zayed, with the help of the companions who memorized and wrote verses of the Qur'an,
accomplished the task and handed Hazrat Abu Bakr the first authenticated copy of the Qur'an. The
copy was kept in the residence of Hazrat Hafsa, daughter of Hazrat Umar and wife of the Prophet

During the caliphate of Hazrat Uthman (644-656 CE)

 Hazrat Uthman ordered Hazrat Zayed Ibn Thabit, Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Al Zubayr, Hazrat Saeed Ibn Al-
Aas, and Hazrast Abdur-Rahman Ibn Harith Ibn Hisham to make perfect copies of the authenticated
copy kept with Hafsa. This was due to the rapid expansion of the Islamic state and concern about
differences in recitation.
 Copies were sent to various places in the Muslim world. The original copy was returned to Hazrat
Hafsa, and a copy was kept in Madinah. Three stages of dotting and diacritization
 Dots were put as syntactical marks by Hazrat Abu Al-Aswad Al Doaly, during the time of Hazrat
Mu'awiya Ibn Abi Sufian (661-680 CE).
The letters were marked with different dotting by Nasr Ibn Asem and Hayy ibn Ya'amor, during the time of
Abd Al-Malek Ibn Marawan (685-705 CE). A complete system of diacritical marks (damma, fataha, kasra) was
invented by Al Khaleel Ibn Ahmad Al Faraheedy (786 AD).

How did Hazrat Zaid Ibn Thabit [RA] collect the Qur’an?
He depended on two sources:
1. Oral Source: Many people memorized the Qur’an by heart during the lifetime of prophet
Muhammad (pbuh). Muslims believe firmly that there is a great reward, in the hereafter, for memorizing
the Qur’an. Again Muslims believe that the Qur’an is Allah’s word and reciting it is an act of worship. This
urged Muslims to recite frequently. Bearing in mind that Zaid [RA] himself was one of the huffaz, he
collected the Qur’an from the hearts of groups and not individuals. Members of these groups had to recite
the same words by heart in order to be considered trustworthy.
2. Written Source: Zaid collected what was proved authentic, to be recorded. To make sure that
it was done in this way, Zaid did not accept any writings unless two just people bore witness that they
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were written before Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). It is narrated that Abu Bakr commanded Omar and Zaid
to sit at the gate of the mosque and record only what was verified by two witnesses.
Why would Omar be concerned if in fact the whole Quran was already written down during the
lifetime of the Prophet (PBUH)?
It is true that the Quran was written in full during the lifetime of the Prophet. It was however not all put
together in one official volume. On the other hand it is not enough to have the written word, but the
proper enunciation is just as important. That is why the Quran is preserved by memorization as well as
writing. Despite this fact what Omar was worried about having a large number of people who had the
Quran memorized die and that the manuscripts get lost. So the fear in his mind was that in the future the
Quran would remain in its text. On the other hand the Prophet (PBUH) throughout the 23 years of
revelation go his companions accustomed to the notion that the Quran must be preserved both in writing
as well as in memorization. What Omar was really concerned about was to assertion and to be overly
cautious that even though the Quran was available in writing that if anything were to happen in the future
that there would be an authoritative reference to refer to.
What was the reaction of Abu Bakr to this suggestion?
He initially disapproved, simply because he asked “Omar are you going to do something that the Prophet
did not do.” This is not a reflection of extreme conservatism but is a reflection of the great deal of honesty
and caution that everybody treated the Quran with. They knew that this was the word of Allah and that
had to treat it with utmost respect. They had to be accurate and meticulous, even the notion of bringing
the manuscripts together in one volume, which has no wrong in it, made Abu Bakr have reservations
because the Prophet did not do that. Omar however kept pursuing it and said that even if the Prophet did
not do it there is benefit from it to the Muslim community for generation. So Omar kept talking to Abu
Bakr [RA] till Abu Bakr [RA] became more receptive towards the idea. When this happened Omar called
Zaid [RA], who was also hesitant to agree and was hesitant to except the responsibility of acting as the
catalyst or main person to head the mission to collect the manuscript. In fact in one of his expressions he
said that if they asked him to move a mountain it would have been easier on me than to be in charge of
this important task.
Why did Abu Bakr [RA] choose Zaid [RA] in particular for this task? Why did Zaid [RA] consider it to be
such a difficult task? Was there a problem concerning the general availability of the Quran in writing?
The answer could be traced to what Abu Bakr said to Zaid when he asked him to take charge of this
mission. As narrated in Bukhari Abu Bakr [RA] said “you are a wise young man and there is no accusation
that blemishes you, and you used to write down the revelation for Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) so go
around and collect the various manuscripts and compile it together.” There are a number of things that
gave the qualifications to Zaid. One, his integrity, reputation and piety. Second, Zaid was one of the
official scribes of the revelation for Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Some considered him to be the main
writer. In one statement that we mentioned in the previous program the Prophet said that Zaid was the
best in writing whereas others may have been the best in recitation. In writing Zaid was the most accurate
and meticulous. Third, as we mentioned last time Gabriel the angel of revelation used to come to Prophet
Muhammad (PBUH) every year during the month of Ramadan - especially during the last ten days and
reviewed with him all that had been revealed so far. In the last year before the death of the Prophet that
was done twice and Zaid was present. This was said in the presence of Zaid, so he heard the Prophet
reciting as Angel Gabriel was reviewing the Quran with him. With this kind of qualifications Zaid was the
most logical and competent person to hold this task. I would like to clarify however that Zaid had a free
hand to write whatever he pleases or to write something new that was not in written form in the life time
of the Prophet. He was simply the head of a tax force in which many people contributed and helped.
Zaid considered this task to be very heavy and very difficult has nothing to do with preservation of the
Quran which was one of the problems which Arthur Geoffrey, has fallen for. The feeling that Zaid had
when given this task was a combination of excitement and apprehension about the kind of mission that

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was entrusted in him, because he would play a key role in the compilation and ordering of the various
manuscripts of the Quran, the way the Prophet instructed it should be. He was in charge of heading the
task of carefully verifying each and every passage of that revelation in all accuracy. He was doing this task
for the word of God and in order to help it remain for generations to come. It is not that there was not any
part available but rather the magnitude and force of the fact. But still it is exciting, difficult and meticulous
that one feels a little apprehensive.
How did Zaid go about organizing his mission?
As far as what Zaid did there was nothing in the mandate given to Zaid by Abu Bakr or by himself. He was
not authorized to write anything anew from his own memorization. There was no such mandate that
authorized the Quran be written afresh. In fact what he had to do was simply collect the written
manuscripts which he collected from the mouth of the Prophet. But even then he didn’t accept the
manuscript on face value but verified and got trusted witnesses whom have heard those parts directly
from the Prophet and testify that it was written in the presence of the Prophet. One aspect of the
methodology is that nothing was excepted unless there were two witnesses. Some interpret the two
witnesses as a witness by memorizing and a witness by writing. Others interpret it to mean two witnesses
who saw the Prophet reciting it and heard it and testified that this was written in the presence of the
Prophet. There were lots of people who were helpful to Zaid in this mission. According to Abu Dawood for
example Omar, who was the second Caliph and the one who suggested the compilation to Abu Bakr,
actually went around and was quoted to have said “Whoever of you who has learned anything of the
Quran let him bring it.” This was an open invitation to the public, nothing was done in secret or in small
group of scholar, everyone heard it from the prophet could bring what they had and check on each other.
It is obvious from the language that Omar used that this was an open invitation and it included not only
the official scribes of revelation but anyone who wrote anything official or not official. All of this shows
the meticulous care which was applied to the Quran’s compilation to make sure it was the original
manuscript that was written under the supervision of the Prophet.
Did Zaid face any problems in trying to collect these written manuscripts?
Bukhari, the most trusted source of the Prophetic Tradition and time immediately after it narrates that
Zaid said when he compiled the various parts of the Quran he was putting together the end of the Surah Al
Toubeh he only found it with an Ansari man by the name of Abu Khusaina Ibn Abi Thabit. The fact that
even Zaid was looking for that particular verse which shows that he memorized it and he knew and there
were lots of other people who memorized it. It is quite possible that many had written that specific part
but some may have been out of town on travels or expeditions but it so happened that for that particular
small passage it was only found in writing with that particular man. Even though Zaid knew the verse,
memorized it by heart he did not give himself the authority to write it down and kept looking until he
found the manuscript. As indicated before Zaid and many others were memorizers of the full Quran or a
large part of it and these were the kinds of people who were in charge of putting the different manuscripts
together. For the first time they had put together the first original manuscript after the Prophet.
What happened to that original manuscript?
First of the manuscript that was collected in the time of Abu Bakr, and the reign of Abu Bakr was very
short. We are talking about something that was written in the lifetime of the Prophet which was compiled
in less than two years. The original copy remained in the custody of Abu Bakr for the period of his rule.
When he died that copy passed on to his successor and it remained in the custody of Omar till he died and
when he died it moved to the custody of his daughter Hafsa. His daughter, Hafsa, was a very important
woman not only because she was the daughter of Omar but also she was the wife of Prophet Muhammad
(PBUH). Then during the Caliphate of Othman, the third Caliph, who took permission from Hafsa that he
keep it so that other copies could be copied from it and sent to the various parts of the Muslim world,
which was the third phase of the preservation and distribution of the Quran.

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How was this third phase started?
The circumstances were somewhat similar to those which caused them to compile the Quran together
in one volume. During the Caliphate of Othman Islam spread so fast and many reigns all over the
world came under the rule of Islam, as a result many of the close companions of Prophet Muhammad
(PBUH) spread throughout the new world. All of the companions heard the Quran recited from the
Prophet and when they moved around to different place some of them recited the Quran in a hroof.
A hroof doesn’t mean a different language or dialect but rather the mode that they used to recite.
Because basically the Prophet actually allowed people to recite the Quran with a slight variation,
which is not really in any substantial thing that would change the meaning. Some of those
companions recited in accordance to one mode and another in a slightly different mode even though
both were correct and sanctioned by the Prophet. What happened is that one of the famous
companions of the Prophet by the name of Huthifa Ibn Yamman went to an expedition in Armenia
and Abravigan and he noted that some people started hassling each other about the mode of
recitation as one person learned to recite in one way and another in a slightly different way and each
one thought their recitation was better. So some of them started getting into conflict about this and
this alarmed Huthifa and many others that if they differed on these slight things that they would
gradually end up differing like other people before us with respect to their scripture. So they really
felt that something should be done about the mode of recitation even though it was all excepted by
the Prophet. When he came back he went to Othman the ruler and he described to him what he
witnessed in his travel and he suggested to him that as Abu Bakr compiled the various manuscripts in
one volume that maybe what he should do is make people unite on the one mode of recitation which
was the Qurayshite mode in which the Quran was revealed even though the others were consented to
by the Prophet so people would have less difficulty. This would help in the case where someone
learned one mode without knowing about the others from having conflict about this even though it is
a very slight issue they were very careful not to allow these kinds of things to magnify. Actually
Othman was more readily receptive to the idea.
In response to the recommendation he invited Zaid, who was perhaps one of the most prominent
people still living at the time, who also invited three other prominent companions of the Prophet who
were memorizers of the Quran, Abdu Allah ibn Zubair, Sa’ad Ibn Al As and Abdu Allah ibn Alharith ibn
Hisham. It was almost like a committee. He asked them to go through the same process of reviewing
one passage at a time and he said to them that if there was any difference in the mode of recitation
even though they were all acceptable, that they should write it in the tongue of Quraysh which where
the Prophet was from and the mode in which revelation came to the Prophet and even though he
consented to the other slight variations. Othman took Hafsa’s permission to take the original
manuscript and to give it to the committee so that they could use it to verify what they were doing
and after they went threw it theirs was identical to the original manuscript. So they returned the
manuscript and it was used as the base for future copies.
In the following, modes through which the Quranic verses were revealed are discussed:
The first revelation came on Holy Prophet (SAWS) in Cave Hira when Hazrat Jibraiyl (AS) [who appeared
before Prophet (SAWS) in the shape of a man] brought first 5 verses of Surah Alaq by the order of
Almighty Allah.
Since then, the chain of revelation on Prophet (SAWS) continued in THREE forms:
 As the ringing of a bell and it was hardest on Prophet (SAWS), then Angel Jibraiyl leaves and he had
remember from what he had said.

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 Angel appeared before him in the shape of a man and in shape of an angel; talked him and he
memorized what he had said.
 Angel appeared before him in his original form; talked him and he remembered what he had said.
 Prophet (SAWS) saw dreams.


Hazrat Ayesha (RAH) narrated: “I saw revelation coming down upon him (SAWS) in the severest cold and
when that condition was over, perspiration ran down his forehead.” (Sahih al Bukhari)
Al Bukhari reports the incident that one of the companion of Holy Prophet (SAWS) that he was sitting in a
position that his leg was under the leg of Prophet (SAWS), then a revelation came that moment and he felt
he felt his leg would be crush under the weight.
Holy Qur’an was revealed in portions over the span of 23 years on Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) with the
instruction to recite and learn it in portion and comprehensively.
Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) used to summon one of his literate companions and dictate the text to him,
then he would ask him to read what he had written, Thus, he ensured that whatever written was
absolutely perfect and accurate. Then, he arranged the verses in 114 Chapters himself by the divine

2.7 Tafsir of Holy Qur’an

 The word Tafsir is derived from Arabic word “Fassara” which means ‘to explain”.
 Tafsir of Holy Qur’an means ‘explanation or interpretation of Holy Qur’an’.
 In Islamic terminology, it means the explanation and clarification of the Quranic verses.
 It focuses to explain the meanings, to extract the legal rulings and grasp the underlying reasons of
Knowledge & understanding concerning the Commands of Allah.
History of the Tafsir of Holy Qur’an
 Holy Qur’an was revealed on Holy Prophet (SAWS) in 23 years by Almighty Allah, so He explained
some of the complex verses Himself to Prophet (SAWS).
 Prophet (SAWS), being the vicegerent (on earth) of Allah either presented the implementation
criteria for the Divine Commands or suggested the entire methodology to implement on it, hence
explained the theme & teachings of the verses of Holy Qur’an.
 Prophet (SAWS) had trained his companions to teach, comment and explain the Quranic verses.
 Hazrat Abdullah bin Abbas (RA), cousin of the Prophet (SAWS), was amongst the first persons to do
2.8 Sources/Methods of the Tafsir of Holy Qur’an
 Qur’an is the word of Allah and is authoritative when it explains itself.
 This is known as “Tafsir-e-Qur’an bil Qur’an” and it has the highest rank.
 The verses of Holy Qur’an explain and interpret one another because these are mostly interrelated to
one another.
 Example is: the explanation of 5:1(about eating of certain animals) is made in 5:3in details.
 The entire life and traditions of Prophet (SAWS) contain enough Tafsir of the Qur’an, he
demonstrated most of the Quranic verses practically.
 This is known as “Tafsir bil Hadith”.
 It means the interpretation of Qur’an done by the Hadith & Sunnah.
 No better explanation is possible by a human being.

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 Example is: Injunction of Prayers is repeated in Qur’an so many times e.g.; 2:43, about the method to
offer the prayers, Prophet (SAWS) have said, “Pray as you see me praying.”
 Sahâbah of Prophet (SAWS) taught and interpreted the Qur’an also, sometimes via Ijma.
 Tabi’een and Taba Tabi’een have followed their pattern to interpret the Quranic injunctions to fit and
fix a problem of the modern age according to the light of Qur’an.
 They mostly used the tool of “Asbab-e-Nuzool” known as circumstances to relate the matter to a
Quranic injunction.
 For instance; Surah Kausar which was revealed to console the Prophet (SAWS) when he was being
taunted upon the death of his son.
 A Muslim Jurist and Scholar of Islam is also a method of understanding the Qur’an.
2.9 The Qualifications Of A Mufassir
2.9.1 The Conditions For The Mufassir
From the information in the preceding chapter concerning the historical development of the Tafsir, its
correct methodology, and examples of deviant Tafsir, the following conditions could be deduced as
necessary for the achievement of an authentic Tafsir of Qur’an. Conversely, the omission of any one of the
following conditions will more than likely result in a distorted interpretation of the Qur’an.

1.Correct Belief: The mufassir

[1] First and foremost must possess a true belief in Islam for his or her Tafsir to be pure and free from
heresy or gross errors. Sincerely believing in Islam does not automatically mean that one who does so has
true belief in Islam. A true or correct belief exists only when one’s conception of Islam coincides with that
of the Prophet [pbuh] and his Companions. Ignorance of what constitutes correct belief in Islam will almost
certainly lend the mufassir into incorrect explanations. Such an individual will be unable to distinguish
between a correct interpretation and an incorrect one. Consequently, he or she will have to rely on their
personal judgment, which would be impaired due to their ignorance. Correct belief is also non-sectarian.
Such a belief frees the mufassir from the damaging influence of philosophies, schools of thought,
movements, and sects.
[2] The mufassir does not approach the Qur’an with preconceived ideas and notions for which he or she
wishes to find support in the Qur’an. Such an approach invariably leads to misinterpretations and sectarian
2. Correct Methodology
All honest attempts at Tafsir must begin with the Tafsir of the Qur’an by Qur’an itself. What remains
unexplained must then be sought in the Sunnah. If the Tafsir still cannot be found, the explanations of
the Sahâbah [Companions of the Prophet] and their students must then be turned to. That which is
left after the preceding steps can be found in the language of the Qur’an. Such an approach to Tafsir
takes into account Allah’s role as the revealer and explainer of His revelation, the Prophet’s role as the
practical interpreter of Allah’s revelation, the Sahâbah and their students’ roles as the conveyers of
Allah’ revelation and the Prophet’s interpretation and application of it, and the role of classical Arabic
as the vehicle in which the revelation and its explanation were transmitted.
Any other approach negates one or more of these vital roles and implies either a claim of direct
revelation from God or an understanding superior to that of the Prophet [pbuh] and his Companions.
A brief glance at the Tafsir of those ignoring these steps will expose their claims to divine revelation
cloaked in terms like “ilham” [inspiration] and “kashf” [illumination].

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3. Correct knowledge
The mufassir must have working knowledge of classical Arabic, its grammatical constructions, and its
figures of speech, because this is the language of the Qur’an.
Any Tafsir which is based solely on a translation of some of the meanings of the Qur’ân will be liable
to distortion.
As Mujâhid, the student of Ibn ‘Abbâs said:
“It is not allowable for anyone who believes in Allah and the Last Day to explain Allah’s Book if he is
not knowledgeable in the Arabic language.”
The mufassir should also know the other Islamic sciences which are connected in one way or another
to the Qur’an, such as hadith and fiqh [Islamic law]. He should be familiar with the science of
11sbab11 in order to make sure that explanations attributed the Prophet [pbuh] or his Companions
that he uses in his tafsîr are authentic. He should also know the fundamental principles of fiqh [Usûl-
ul-Fiqh] in order to accurately extract or deduce Islâmic law from its passages. Without a correct
understanding of these two sciences, the mufassir could not possibly escape including in his tafsîr a
wealth of misinformation, since the body of weak and fabricated narrations is quite vast and the
schools of fiqh [Islâmic law] and their methods are many and varied.
A person who wishes to interpret the Qur’an (a mufassir) must fulfil certain conditions and qualities
before he is allowed to explain the Qur’an to people – not everybody can just pick up the Book of
Allah and start interpreting it.
As was quoted earlier from Imâm ash-Shâfi’î ; “It is impermissible for any person to give verdicts
concerning the religion of Allah, unless he is knowledgeable of the Book of Allah, and its nasikh from
its mansukh, and its muhkam from its mutashâbih, and its interpretation, and its process of
revelation, and its makkî from its madanî, and its 11sbab an-nuzûl. On top of this, he must be
knowledgeable of the Sunnah…”
As-Suyûtî, in his al-Itqân, lists fifteen characteristics that a person must have before he is qualified to
interpret the Qur’an. However, these are only a summary of the qualities that a mufassir is required
to have.
Some of these qualities, and others, are listed briefly below. The first four are inherent qualities that are essential
in a mufassir, and the others are external and acquired.
1. The proper intentions, since the Prophet [pbuh] said: “All actions are by intentions.” The mufassir must
intend to please Allâh by this action of interpreting the Qur’ân, and he must intend to guide people to the
Straight Path to the best of his abilities.
2. The correct Islâmic beliefs {‘aqîdah). If a person is not a Muslim or of a heretical or misguided sect, then
he cannot be trusted in interpreting the Qur’ân, for his motive will be to defame Islâm, or to defend his
particular sect or beliefs.
3. To be free from practising or believing in innovations, and to respect the Qur’ân. If a person is
innovating in the religion of Allah, then he will have no qualms about innovating in the interpretation of
the Book of Allah. Also, the mufassir must love and respect the Qur’ân, and have the proper beliefs
concerning it. Part of this belief is that he must believe that the Qur’ân is the actual kalâm of Allah (and not
an “expression” of the kalâm of Allah!]. Ibn Qayyim said: “…[a mufassir] must witness that it [the Qur’an]
is the kalam of Allah, which Allâh actually spoke, and which was revealed to the Prophet [pbuh] by
inspiration. And none can grasp its meanings unless his heart is free of misgivings and doubts with regards
to the Qur’ân, and if a person does not really believe that the Qur’ân is from Allâh, then there is a disease
in his heart [which prevents him from understanding the Qur’ân].”
4. Repentance and a pious heart. This condition means that a mufassir must fear Allâh to the best of his
abilities, and if he falls into a sin, he must immediately repent to Allâh for that sin, and not return to it.

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This is because, as Ibn Qayyim said: “No heart can understand the Qur’ân, or grasp its meanings, except if
it is pure, and it is impossible for a heart full of evils and innovations to understand the meanings of the
Qur’an properly.”
5. A thorough and proper understanding of the fundamentals of religion [‘aqîdah], so that a mufassir can
avoid falling into many of the heresies and innovations that misguided sects did with regards to the
understanding of the Qur’an.
6. Following the proper methodology of Tafsir. A basic introduction to this methodology was outlined in
the previous section.
7. Knowledge of the Arabic language and its vocabulary. Such knowledge must, of course, be on a scholarly
level; a person whose primary language is Arabic is not necessarily knowledgeable of Arabic to the level
that is required to interpret the Qur’an.
8. Knowledge of Arabic grammar (nahw) 9. Knowledge of Arabic morphology (sjirf).
10. Knowledge of the basis of Arabic words and word structures (ishtiqâq).
11. Knowledge of Arabic rhetoric, eloquence and manners of oratory.
12. The knowledge of the sahîh, da’îf shâdh and bâtil qira’âts.
13. The knowledge of the principles of fiqh (Usûl-ul-Fiqh), so that he can interpret the verses pertaining to
laws in a proper manner. 14. The knowledge of fiqh itself, so that he is aware of the various interpretations
of the verses pertaining to laws.
15. The knowledge of Asbab an-Nuzool, and related sciences.
16. The knowledge of Nasikh from its Mansookh, and related sciences.
17. The knowledge of the hadith of the Prophet [Sallallahu ‘Alaihi wa sallam], in particular those related to
the interpretation of the Qur’ân.
18. The knowledge of all the other branches of Ulûm al-Qur’ân, including makkî and madanî, muhkam and
mutashâbih, and the types of i’jâz of the Qur’ân.
19. A divine endowment that is not possible to obtain by one’s self. This is a type of gift from Allâh to
whomever He chooses. This type of intellect was what the Prophet [sall-Allâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam] prayed
for when he prayed for Ibn ‘Abbâs: “O Allâh, grant him an understanding of interpretation.”
2.10 Makki and Madani Surahs
The Qur'an was revealed over 23 years of the lifetime of the prophet Muhammad who was 40 years old
when the first verse was revealed in the city of Makkah.
The prophet started to preach these verses; initially secretly and later openly. The overarching theme of
the Qur’anic verses is the emphasis on the monotheism doctrine in worshiping only one God and opposing
the general polytheistic belief of the people of Makkah. Hence, majority opposed this new religion, but
gradually adherents increased.
The mission of Muhammad continued 13 years in Makkah. The general theme of the verses and chapters
revealed in Makkah thus emphasized in establishing logical proofs for monotheism detailing on the
attributes of God and His supreme power.
This is illustrated often by relating stories of past people and prophets and what happened to them when
they rejected the monotheistic message. In general Makkah surahs emphasized the establishment of the
monotheism doctrine, the Prophethood of Muhammad and the reality of the Day of Judgment. As the
people of Makkah were masters of the classical Arabic language, Prophet Muhammad considered this
Qur'an – being the words of God- a miracle and challenged the Arabs of Makkah to bring a similar chapter
like the Qur'an.
Thus, the chapters of Makkah –in addition to the monotheistic tone- had a secondary objective of being
literal, rhetorical and linguistic challenge for Arabs. This is evident in selection of strong words, phrases
and Arabic constructs in Makki verses.

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Later, the prophet migrated to Medina where the people welcomed him and allowed Islam to rule that
city. Verses revealed in Madinah started to lay down Islamic law and jurisprudence, in addition to the
continuing theme of Islamic monotheism. Medina period witnessed many battles of Islam and eventually
Islam expanded to other nearby cities and tribes. In general, Medina surahs emphasized on establishing
Islamic laws, ethics, morals, marital and family laws, monetary transactions, and relationship of Islam and
Muslims with other world religions.
Characteristics & General Rules
These are general rules that should be considered when talking about Makki or Madani chapters:
1. Judgment of Makki or Madani is possible only by authentic verdict of the companions of the
Prophet Muhammad who witnessed the period of revelation of these chapters.
2. By default, any Makki surah is entirely Makki, unless some verses of it is explicitly mentioned
Madani by some authentic report. This is also true for Madani chapters.
3. Madani verses can abrogate earlier Madani verses as well as any Makki verse. However, a Makki
verse cannot abrogate a ruling set by a Madani verse.
4. Understanding of Madani chapters should be built on the earlier Makki verses. In general,
understanding of any verse must be built on other earlier verses according to their chronology of
5. Revelation of a particular chapter can be interrupted by verses from other chapters.
Makki Chapters
Following are some characteristics of Makki verses, No 7 and 8 are stylistic characteristics, and the last 4
are content and subject characteristics:
1. Any chapter that has a verse that commands to prostrate to Allah is Makki, except chapters 13 and
2. Any chapter that contains the word Kalla ‫( كال‬never) is Makki, and are found only in the second half
of the Qur'an.
3. Any chapter that has the phrase O Mankind, but does not have the phrase O you who believe is
Makki, except chapter 22.
4. All chapters that start with initial letters are Makki, except chapters 2,3 and 13.
5. Any chapter that relates the story of Adam and Ibis (i.e.,Satan) is Makki, except chapt 2.
6. Any chapter that relates the stories of previous prophets and their people is Makki, except chapt 2.
7. Short verses, and strong rhetorical style and rhythmic sound.
8. Repeated use of emphasis, exhortation, analogies and oath.
9. Emphasis on the belief in Allah, the Day of Judgment and description of Hell and Heaven
10. Call for adherence to good moral and universal characters like truthfulness, kindness to relatives,
old and neighbor, etc.
11. Argument with the polytheists and refutation of their associating partners with Allah.
12. Warning the polytheists through stories of previous messengers when punishment came to their
people when they rejected their message.
Madani Chapters
Following are some of the stylistic and subject characteristics of Madani surahs:
1. Mention of 'Jihad' and detailing on its rulings.
2. Details of Islamic jurisprudence and legal system as well as laws governing family, money
transaction, international law and acts of worship
3. Mention of 'hypocracy' and dealing with hypocrites.
4. Any verse that starts with O you who believe
5. Long verses
6. Easy vocabulary
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7. Arguments with the 'people of the Book' i.e., Jews and Christians.
Some Distinguishing Features of “Makki” and Madani” Surahs
Both “Makki” and “Madani” surahs have certain characteristics or features that are unique to each of
them, and these help us to distinguish between them. Some of these features are:
1. All surahs (chapters), or verses containing the word ( ‫َال‬
‫“ ) ك َا‬kalla” are “Makki” in origin. Examples of the
word ( ‫َال‬
‫ ) ك ا‬are in surah al-Takathur (102: 3-5 ):
[Nay! You shall come to know!]
[ Again nay! You shall come to know!]
[Nay! If you knew with a sure knowledge]
The word ( ‫َال‬ ‫ ) ك َا‬appears 33 times in 15 surahs, and these are only in the last 15 “ajza’a” (parts) of the
2. All surahs containing the prostration of recitation (“sajdah al-tilawah”) are “Makki” surahs. There are 14
verses (and according to some opinions, 15) with prostrations of recitation in the Quran. These will be
detailed in the next post, inshaAllah.
3. All surahs with a reference to the hypocrites or “munafiqun” (‫ ) ُمنَافِقُونَا‬are “Madani” surahs.
4. “Makki” surahs (or verses) often have the phrase of addressing, which means [O' mankind], whereas
“Madani” ones have the phrase, {Ya Ayuhal Lazeena Aamanu } which means [O' you who believe].

2.11 Al-Nasikh wa al-Mansukh

The revelations from Allah as found in the Qur'an touch on a variety of subjects, among them beliefs,
history, tales of the prophets, day of judgement, Paradise and Hell, and many others. Particularly
important are the ahkam (legal rulings), because they prescribe the manner of legal relationships between
people, as Allah wishes them to be observed.
While the basic message of Islam remains always the same, the legal rulings have varied throughout the
ages, and many prophets before Muhammad brought particular codes of law (shari'a) for their respective
The Arabic words 'nasikh' and 'mansukh' are both derived from the same root word 'nasakha' which
carries meanings such as 'to abolish, to replace, to withdraw, to abrogate'.
The word nasikh (an active participle) means 'the abrogating', while mansukh (passive) means 'the
abrogated'. In technical language these terms refer to certain parts of the Qur'anic revelation, which have
been 'abrogated' by others. Naturally the abrogated passage is the one called 'mansukh' while the
abrogating one is called 'nasikh'.
The Qur'an on Naskh
The principle of Naskh (abrogation) is referred to in the Qur'an itself and is not a later historical
'None of Our revelations do We abrogate or cause it to be forgotten, but We substitute something better
or similar: knowest thou that God has power over all things?' (2: 106).
‫ّللاَ أَنَا ت َ ْعلَ ْام أَلَ ْام ِمثْ ِل َها أ َ ْاو ِم ْن َها بِ َخيْرا نَأ ْ ِا‬
ِ ‫ت نُ ْن‬
‫س َها‬ ‫خ َما قَدِيرا ش َْيءا ك ِاُل لَى ََع َا‬ ‫َْأَو آَيَةا ِم ْا‬
َ ‫ن نَ ْن‬
‫س ْا‬
How it came about?
When the message of Islam was presented to the Arabs as something new, and different from their way of
life, it was introduced in stages. The Qur'an brought important changes gradually, to allow the people to
adjust to the new prescriptions.
There are three verses in the Qur'an concerning the drinking of wine. Wine drinking was very widespread
in pre-Islamic times and, although a social evil, highly esteemed. The three verses which finally led to the
prohibition of intoxicating substances were revealed in stages (4: 43, 2: 219; 5: 93-4).

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First :"O ye who believe! Approach not prayers with a mind befogged, until ye can understand all that ye
say" َ ‫َارى َوأ َ ْنت ُ ْام ال‬
‫ص َال اةَ تَ ْق َربُوا َال‬ َ ‫سك‬ُ ‫يَا أَيُّ َها الَذِينَا آ َ َمانُوا تَقُولُونَا َما ت َ ْعلَ ُموا َحتَى‬
Then : "They ask thee concerning wine and gambling. Say: "In them is great sin , and some profit, for men;
but the sin is greater than the profit."
‫سأ َالُونَكَا‬
ْ َ‫َن ي‬ ‫يه َما قُ ْال َوا ْل َم ْيس ِا‬
‫ِر ا ْل َخ ْم ِار ع ِا‬ ‫ن أ َ ْكبَ ُار َوإِثْ ُم ُه َما ِلل َن ِ ا‬
ِ ِ‫اس َو َمنَافِ ُاع َك ِبيرا ِإثْما ف‬ ‫َن ْف ِع ِه َما ِم ْا‬
Finally : " O ye who believe! Intoxicants and gambling, (dedication of) stones, and (divination by) arrows,
are an abomination,- of Satan's handwork: eschew such (abomination), that ye may prosper"
‫اب َوا ْل َم ْيس ُِرا‬ َ ‫ن ِرجْ سا َو ْاْل َ ْز َل ُام َو ْاْل َ ْن‬
‫ص ُا‬ ‫ع َم ِال ِم ْا‬
َ ‫ان‬ َ ‫يَا أَيُّ َها الَذِينَا آَ َمنُوا ِإنَ َما ا ْل َخ ْم ُار ت ُ ْف ِل ُحونَا لَعَلَ ُك ْام فَاجْ تَنِبُوهُا ال‬
‫ش ْي َط ِا‬
Why it is important?
Knowledge of al-nasikh wa al-mansukh is important because it concerns the correct and exact application
of the laws of Allah. It is specifically concerned with legal revelations:
 It is one of the important pre-conditions for explanation (tafsir) of the Qur'an.
 It is one of the important pre-conditions for understanding and application of the Islamic law
(hukm, shari'a).
 It sheds light on the historical development of the Islamic legal code.
 It helps to understand the immediate meaning of the ayat concerned.
Tafsir (explanation of the Qur'an) or legal ruling is not acceptable from a person who does not have such
How do we know it?
As in the field of asbab al-nuzul, the information about al-nasikh wa al-mansukh cannot be accepted upon
mere personal opinion, guesswork or hearsay, but must be based on reliable reports, according to the
ulum al-hadith, and should go back to the Prophet and his Companions.
The report must also clearly state which part of the revelation is nasikh and which is mansukh.
Some scholars say that there are three ways of knowing about al-nasikh wa al-mansukh:
 Report from the Prophet or Companions.
 Ijma (consensus of the ummah upon what is nasikh and what mansukh).
 Knowledge about which part of the Qur'an preceded another part in the history of
Example: Narrated Mujahid (regarding the verse):
Those of you who die and leave wives behind, they (their wives) shall await (as regards their marriage) for
four months and ten days (2: 234).

َ ‫ن َوالَذ‬
‫ِينا‬ ‫ن أ َ ْز َوا ًجا َويَذَ ُر َا‬
‫ون ِم ْن ُك ْام يُت َ َوفَ ْو َا‬ ‫ص َا‬ ‫ش ُهراََأ أ َ ْربَعَ اةَ بِأ َ ْنفُس ِِه َا‬
ْ َ‫ن ايَت َ َرب‬ ْ
َ ‫ن فَ ِإذَا َو‬
‫عش ًْرا‬ ‫ن بَلَ ْغ َا‬ ‫ال أ َ َجلَ ُه َا‬
‫ح فَ َ ا‬‫علَ ْيك ُجنَا َا‬
َ َُ‫ن فِي َما ْام‬ ‫ن فِي فَعَ ْل َا‬ ‫أ َ ْنفُس ِِه َا‬
‫ّللاُ ِبا ْل َم ْع ُر ِا‬
‫وف‬ ‫َخ ِبيرا ت َ ْع َملُ َا‬
‫ون ِب َما َو َا‬
The widow, according to this verse, was to spend this period of waiting with her husband's family, so Allah
revealed: Those of you who die and leave wives (i.e. widows) should bequeath for their wives, a year's
maintenance and residence without turning them out, but if they leave (their residence) there is no blame
on you for what they do with themselves, provided it is honorable (i.e. Lawful marriage) (2: 240).
So Allah entitled the widow to be bequeathed extra maintenance for seven months and 20 nights and that
is the completion of one year. If she wished, she could stay (in her husband's home) according to the will,
and she could leave it if she wished, as Allah says: Without turning them out, but if they leave (the
residence) there is no blame on you. So the idea (i.e. four months and ten days) is obligatory for her.

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Ibn 'Abbas said: This verse i.e. the statement of Allah ... without turning one out ... cancelled the
obligation of staying for the waiting period in her late husband's house, and she can complete this period
wherever she likes.
'Ata' said: If she wished, she could complete her 'idda by staying in her late husband's residence according
to the will or leave it according to Allah's statement:
'There is no blame on you for what they do with themselves.'
'Ata' added: Later the regulations of inheritance came and abrogated the order of the dwelling of the
widow (in her dead husband's house) so she could complete the 'idda wherever she likes. And it was no
longer necessary to provide her with a residence.
Ibn Abbas said: This verse abrogated her (i.e. the widow's) dwelling in her dead husband's house and she
could complete the 'idda (i.e. four months and ten days) (wherever she liked, as Allah's statement says:
...'without turning them out ...'
This report explains clearly which part of the revelation is nasikh and which mansukh is. Mujahid was one
of the well-known tab'iun and Ibn 'Abbas was a Companion of the Prophet.
What is Abrogated?
According to some scholars the Qur'an abrogates only the Qur'an. They base their view on surah 2: 106
and 16: 101. According to them the Qur'an does not abrogate the sunnah nor does the sunnah the Qur'an.
This is, in particular, the view held by Shafi'i.
Others are of the opinion that the Qur'an may abrogate the Qur'an as well as the sunna. They base their
view on Surah 53: 34.
There is also the view that there are four classes of nasikh:
 Qur'an abrogates Qur'an.
 Qur'an abrogates sunnah.
 Sunnah abrogates Qur'an.
 Sunnah abrogates sunnah. In this discussion, we shall only consider the abrogation in the Qur'an,
and leave aside the abrogation in the sunnah.
Three Kinds of Naskh in the Qur'an
The scholars have divided abrogation into three kinds:
 Abrogation of the recited (verse) together with the legal ruling.
 Abrogation of the legal ruling without the recited (verse).
 Abrogation of the recited (verse) without the legal ruling.
For abrogation of the recited (verse) together with its legal ruling:
'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported that it had been revealed in the Holy Qur'an that ten clear
sucklings make the marriage unlawful, then it was abrogated (and substituted) by five sucklings and Allah's
apostle (may peace be upon him) died and it was before that time (found) in the Holy Qur'an (and recited
by the Muslims).
For abrogation of a legal ruling without the recited (verse):
'O Prophet! We have made lawful to thee thy wives to whom thou has paid their dowers; and those whom
thy right hand possesses out of the prisoners of war whom God has assigned to thee; and daughters of thy
paternal uncles and aunts and daughters of thy maternal uncles and aunts, who migrated (from Makkah)
with thee; and any believing woman who dedicates her soul to the Prophet if the Prophet wishes to wed
her; - this only for thee and not for the believers (at large);We know what we have appointed for them as
to their wives and the captives whom their right hands possess; - in order that there should be no difficulty
for thee and God is oft-forgiving, most merciful' (33: 50).
'It is not lawful for thee (to marry more) women after this, nor to change them for (other) wives, even
though their beauty attract thee, except any thy right hand should possess (as handmaidens); and God
doth watch over all things' (33: 52).
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This is one of the few very clear examples of Naskh, though only concerning the Prophet specifically, since
for Muslims in general the number of wives has been restricted to four.
(Surah 4:3).
For abrogation of the recited (verse) without the legal ruling:
'Abdullah bin 'Abbas reported that 'Umar bin Khattab sat on the pulpit of Allah's messenger (may peace be
upon him) and said: Verily Allah sent Muhammad (may peace be upon him) with truth and he sent down
the book upon him, and the verse of stoning was included in what was sent down to him. We recited it,
retained it in our memory and understood it. Allah's messenger (may peace be upon him) awarded the
punishment of stoning to death (to the married adulterer and adulteress) and after him, we also awarded
the punishment of stoning. I am afraid that with the lapse of time, the people (may forget it) and may say:
We do not find the punishment of stoning in the book of Allah, and thus go astray by abandoning this duty
prescribed by Allah. Stoning is a duty laid down in Allah's book for married men and women who commit
adultery when proof is established, or if there is pregnancy or a confession.
The punishment of stoning for adultery by married people has been retained in the sunna, while it is not
included in the Qur'an .
The Abrogated Verses
There are, according to Ibn Salama, a well-known author on the subject:
 43 surahs with neither nasikh or mansukh.
 6 surahs with nasikh but no mansukh.
 40 surahs with mansukh but no nasikh.
 25 surahs with both nasikh and mansukh.
According to Suyuti's Itqan there are 21 instances in the Qur'an, where a revelation has been abrogated by
He also indicates that there is a difference of opinion about some of these: e.g. 4: 8, 24: 58, etc. Some
scholars have attempted to reduce the number of abrogations in the Qur'an even further, by explaining
the relationships between the verses in some special ways, e.g. by pointing out that no legal abrogation is
involved, or that for certain reasons the Naskh is not genuine.
Shah Waliullah, the great Muslim scholar from India only retained the following 5 out of Suyuti's 21 cases
as genuine:
Mansukh 2: 180 nasikh 4: 11, 12
Mansukh 2:240 nasikh 2: 234.
Mansukh 8:65 nasikh 8: 62.
Mansukh 30:50 nasikh 33: 52.
Mansukh 58: 12 nasikh 58: 13.
A case listed by Suyuti, which has no direct legal implication is the following:
Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: When the verse: 'If there are 20 amongst you, patient and persevering, they will
overcome two hundred', was revealed, it became hard on the Muslims, when it became compulsory that
one Muslim ought not to flee before 10 (non-Muslims) so Allah lightened the order by revealing: 'but now
Allah has lightened your (task) for He knows that there is weakness in you. But (even so) if there are 100
amongst you who are patient and persevering, they will overcome 200 (non-Muslims)' (8: 66).
It is clear from the Qur'an itself, (e.g. in the case of inheritance, 2: 180; 4: 7-9, etc.) that abrogation
occurred occasionally. Hence it is wrong to completely ignore the subject.
Abrogation and Specification
There is of course a difference between abrogation and specification. By the latter is meant that one
revelation explains in more detail or according to specific circumstances how another revelation should be
understood. Example: Surah 2:183 says 'O you who believe, fasting is prescribed to you ...'

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Narrated 'Ata' that he heard Ibn 'Abbas reciting the Divine verse 'for those who can do it is a ransom,
the feeding of one that is indigent' (2:184).
Ibn 'Abbas said 'This verse is not abrogated but it is meant for old men and old women who have no
strength to fast, so they should feed one poor person for each day of fasting (instead of fasting).
[Bukhari, VI, No. 32.]
It is quite clear that the second verse (2:184) does not abrogate the rule of fasting from the first verse
(2:183) but explains that in a specific case, that of feeble old people, there is a way of making up for
the loss of fast.
In the same way the verses concerning intoxicating drinks can be understood as specifications rather
than abrogations (see 4:43; :219;5:93-4).
 The Qur'an, in 2:106, refers to the concept of Naskh. However, there is a difference of opinion
about the extent to which al-nasikh wa-al mansukh does in fact occur in the text of the Qur'an.
The information concerning al-nasikh wa-al mansukh must be treated with great caution as,
for all reports concerning the text of the Qur'an, two independent witnesses are required.
Many of the examples which the scholars have drawn upon to illustrate this question (and I
have quoted them for the same purpose) are based on one witness only. 'A'isha [RAH] alone
reported that 10 or 5 sucklings had been part of the Qur'anic recitation, and only 'Umar [RA]
reported that the 'verse of stoning' had been included in the Qur'anic text. These legal rulings
are not included in the Qur'an precisely because they were not considered reliable, being
based on one witness only. Similarly, other examples about Naskh, based on the words of Ibn
'Abbas [RA] or Mujahid alone, are to be judged by the same measure.
However, as mentioned there remain a small number of verses which, as far as can be from
the internal evidence of the Qur'an, have been superseded by other verses in the Qur'an.


2.12.a Allah in Himself:
Ayat al Kursi discuss about the theme “Allah in himself & Verse of Throne”
The main theme of this verse is Tauheed. Allah is unlike other beings. Allah doesn’t have any relation. Allah
has the greatest knowledge, both of the manifest and of the hidden. It is also said in Holy Qur’an (21:110),
“It is He who knows what is open in speech and what you hide (in your hearts)”.
The throne represents how great His power & knowledge is. It declares the Power to control everything on
earth & heavens & knowledge of everything that happens.
Al Anaam 101-103 was revealed in Makkah. It tells us about His Tawhid, absolute unity and authority over
all universe. It describes His oneness in Being, nature and attributes that of what He created entire
universe solely. “To Him belong all that is in the heaven and on earth, For verily Allah- He is free of all
wants, worthy of praises.” (Al-Hajj 22:64). It elaborates His oneness in Existence, when He alone created
entire universe amazingly, why does He needs support of children or grandchildren? It highlights His
attribute of being so fine and subtle as to be invisible to physical eye & imperceptible to the senses.
The topic “Allah in himself” is described in Surah Fussilat verse 37 & this revelation shows some of the
signs of Allah which signifies His Wisdom, Glory & Power.
The signs are shown to men to bring their attention towards their Creator so they worship Him alone and
praise Him. His kingdom will not diminish if the disbelievers do not believe in Him, nor will it be extended
if many people believe in Him. On the contrary, the disbelievers will lose, and the believers will gain, but
Allah is above all of that. Qur’an says, “… but if any deny faith, Allah stands not in need of any of His
creatures.” (3:97). Lastly the revelation discusses another unique power of Allah to raise men again after
death just as He gives life to barren land by pouring rain.

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The Theme contained in Surah Shuraa v.4 & 5 is about “Allah in himself”. It is a part of a Makki Surah which
describes Oneness of Allah in Lordship and His exclusive ownership of the earth and heavens.
It explains the greatness and sublimity of Allah that the highest heavens are almost ready to burst into
pieces by His Glory. It further elaborates His mercy that due to His acceptance of prayers of Angels &
forgiveness for men the earth isn’t burst by his glory. Allah says in Surah Al Aaraaf, “... But My mercy
extends to all things ….” (7:156)
It represents His attributes of being Most High from the highest of His creatures like heaven and most
great from the noblest of His beings ‘Angels’.
Unity of Allah and the merits of Lordship is declared in Surah Ikhlas. This Surah is treated as the One third
of The Holy Qur’an. It tells us about Tauheed/ Unity of Allah & the merits of the Lordship. It declares that
there is No plurality of God. It teaches His Oneness in Existence. Holy Qur’an says, “And your God is One
God…….”(2:163). It explains that He doesn’t have any partner or ancestors or descendants etc. He can’t be
conceived in our own pattern. includes His Absolute existence He is Never ending and Independent.
2.12. b Allah with His Created Worlds:
Surah Fatiha discusses about the Allah’s relation with the created world. This Surah is known as “Umm ul
Qur’an”. The Surah comprehensively sums up man’s relation to Allah in prayer. It describes that we need
to praise Allah because He is worthy of all praise. Qur’an says, “Allah is He (that is) free of all wants,
worthy of all praise” (31:26 Al Luqman). We praise Him for our inner education & consolation. If prayer in
from our inmost being, it unites us with Allah and we could have His Mercy here & on final day. Man also
needs to worship him & seek His guidance to acknowledge His Mercy, peace & harmony on us & purging
out evil & rebellion from us.
Passage of Surah al Baqarah v.21-22 discusses about the Allah’s relation with the created world, about the
creation of Allah and He as a cherisher of all mankind. This Passage puts demand of Allah to worship Him
alone as He is the Creator of everything on earth & heavens. It is said in Holy Qur’an, “It is He who has
created for you all things that are on earth; then He turned to the heaven & made them into seven
firmaments ….” (2:29). It explains the creation of man himself and creation of earth & heavens. It says
about the blessings for men of Pouring rain and growing fruits Lastly it commands not to compare Him
with His creatures or other false gods who have o power of their own.
Surah al Alaq v.1-5 tell the theme of Allah’s relation with the created world. This is the First revelation of
Allah on Prophet Muhammad (SAWS). It refers to the Divine Message came to Holy Prophet (SAWS) in
Cave Hira to preach and proclaim Tauheed of Allah and Prophecy of Muhammad (SAWS). This is said in
Surah al-Mudassar and Surah al-Sho’ara. Mohammad (SAWS) was given the Divine words to preach after
his spiritual enlightenment so the revelation came to him to declare his mission. It talks about the creation
of men. Man was created b an insignificant drop of germ cell. It highlights that Almighty Allah bestowed
man with the knowledge.
Surah Zilzaal tells the theme of Allah’s relation with the created world. It is an early Madani Surah that
tells us the horrors of the Last Day and the Outcomes of the Judgement. The Surah indicates the damages
and stress of the Day of Judgment. The earthquake of that day will be bigger and far more reaching than
any earthquakes. The dead will arise again. Man will be brought forwarded to his Lord in separate groups
for Judgment. Allah will be the only Judge there. Holy Qur’an says, “….. to Him do all questions go back
(for decision)” (3:109). Man will be given rewards justly on the basis of his actions.
The 2nd of Al-Muwwadhatain Surah Naas talks about the Allah’s relation with the created world.
The surah pointed out the necessity of Allah’s protection against internal factors. It indicates mans’
threefold relation with Allah. He is the Maker of men & sustainer who provides al means and protection
against evil. He is the King above all earthly kings. He has the authority to guide man’ conduct. He is the
Judge to whom mankind must return and give account of their deeds. Relevant Reference: “.. To Allah we
belong to Him is out return” (2:156). From all these aspects, man should seek His protection against evils

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2.12. c Allah with His Messengers:
In al Baqarah v. 30-37, Allah’s relation with His messenger Adam (A.S) is stated. It mentions about the high
status of man and his appointment as Allah’s vicegerent on earth with ref. of Hazrat Adam (A.S). It
reasons the superiority of man over others because of the knowledge granted to him. Knowledge is
superior over worship that’s why Angels who all the time praises Allah couldn’t be made His vicegerent on
earth. Knowledge is one of the attributes of Allah worshipping isn’t therefore knowledge has got
preference. Qur’an says: From Allah verily nothing is hidden on earth or in the heavens (3:5). It further
speaks about the desperate creature Iblis who after being condemned became man’s enemy. It further
mentions expelling of Adam and Eve from heaven due to their free will & Satanic temptations. Lastly the
verses tell us about the inspiration taught by Allah to Hazrat Adam for repenting & His forgiveness.
Allah’s relation with His messenger Hazrat Ibrahim (A.S) in Surah al Anaam v.75-79 signifies the quest of
Hazrat Ibrahim (A.S) for his true Lord. Hazrat Ibrahim’s ancestors were idol worshippers but his ancestral
idols meant nothing to him. He lived among the Chaldeans who had great knowledge of stars & heavenly
bodies so he began to see the idea of worshipping distant shiny objects. He got beyond that physical world
and saw the spiritual world behind. The verses show the spiritual enlightenment of Hazrat Ibrahim (A.S).
Relevant Reference: Behold! His Lord said to him “Bow (your will to Me). He said “I bow (my will) to the
Lord & Cherisher of the universe” (2:131). Allah showed him with certitude of the spiritual glories behind
this physical world.
Surah Maidah v. 110 discusses the Allah’s relation with His messenger Hazrat Isa (A.S). Scene of Day of
Judgment is put in graphic words when Allah recounts His favors to Hazrat Isa (A.S) & his mother, Hazrat
Maryam (A.S). Birth of Hazrat Isa(A.S) without a father is a miracle given to H. Maryam (A.S). The miracles
given to Hazrat Isa (A.S) are mentioned. -Miracle of putting spirit into bird, speaking eloquently in all ages,
curing incurable diseases, knowledge of books Torah & Injeel. Relevant Reference: “He gave Jesus, the son
of Mary, clear (signs) and strengthened him with the Holy Spirit …..” (2:87). The surah emphasizes that all
these miracles happens by the power of Allah not by the power of Jesus (A.S) himself.
Surah ad Duha also indicates Allah’s relation with His Messenger, Holy Prophet (PBUH). Revealed in order
to remove Holy Prophet’s (PBUH) anxiety. Allah consoles His Prophet by taking the Oath of Day & night
that He never leaves or displeased with His Messenger. Allah pleases His Messenger with glad tiding for
the better future life. Relevant Reference: “Verily He has granted you the found of Abundance” (108:1).
Allah recounts His blessings to Holy Prophet that He guided & supported him when he was lacking in
supervision, guidance and wealth. In return of such blessings duties and directions are given to His
Messenger of kind treatment and preaching good.
Surah al Kausar comprehensively tells us about Allah’s relation with His Messenger, Holy Prophet (PBUH).
This is the shortest surah of Holy Quran. The surah was revealed in order to console Holy Prophet (PBUH).
Allah consoles His Messenger b bestowing them greater rewards here & in life hereafter. The Holy Prophet
(PBUH) was granted blessings in abundance. The duty comes on us then to turn to Allah alone in
thanksgiving and in sacrifice. Relevant Reference: “Say truly my prayer & my service of sacrifice, my life
and my death are (all) for Allah, the Cherisher of the worlds”. (6:162) Al-Anaam. Allah condemns the
enemies of His Messenger there who hates him or taunts him.
Means ‘good in abundance’. This is all granted to Holy prophet in spiritual and physical
means. Spiritually it is the revelation, prophet hood.

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Model questions ON HIC-Q
 2 (a) Write an account of the ways in which the Qur’an was revealed to the Prophet
between the years 610 and 632. [10]
(b) What does the Prophet’s first experience of revelation tell us about the nature of
Prophethood in Islam? [4]
 2 (a) How are the Qur’an and Hadiths used together in Islamic legal thinking? [10]
(b) Why do some legal scholars reject the use of analogy (Qiyas)? [4]
 2 (a) Describe how the two main sources of Islamic legal thinking are related. [10]
(b) Give an example to show how the Qur’an could be used in the exercise of Qiyas
(analogy) to face a new situation. [4]
 2 (a) Give an account of how the Qur’an was compiled in the years following the
Prophet’s death. [10]
(b) Explain why the first community of Muslims thought it was necessary to compile
the Qur’an. [4]
 2 (a) From the Quranic passages you have studied, outline the relationship between
God and two of His messengers who were sent before the Prophet Muhammad. [10]
(b) Explain why God sends his revelations through messengers. [4]
 2 (a) Write an account of the ways in which the Qur’an was revealed to the Prophet
between the years 610 and 632. [10]
(b) What does the Prophet’s first experience of revelation tell us about the nature
of Prophethood in Islam? [4]

Q : How was the Qur'an compiled? It is said that at first it was written on leaves, pieces of skin, stones
and also memorized by many people, some of whom died before all verses of the Qur'an were compiled
and brought from different areas in Makkah and Madinah. Who started the work of its collection and
publication? Since it was not checked finally by the Prophet, who was the final authority then? Some
people claim that the Qur'an is not published in its real sequence. There are also claims that some leaves
were accident -ally eaten by goats and some were not included due to political reasons. Comment.

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Surahs List
Following table gives a list of chapters sorted by chapter number, and classified into Makki or
Madani according to website. The disagreement column indicates chapters
which are disagreed among scholars, but the stronger opinion is still mentioned in the 'Makki or
Madani' column.
Sura Makki or No. of
Sura Name Disagreement?
No. Madani Verses
1 Faatihah(TheOpening) Makki 7 x
2 Baqarah(TheCow) Madani 286
3 'Aali-'Imraan(TheFamilyof'Imraan) Madani 200
4 Nisaaa'(Women) Madani 176
5 Maaa-'idah(TheTableSpread) Madani 120
6 'An-'aam(Cattle) Makki 165
7 'A'-raaf(TheHeights) Makki 206
8 'Anfaal(SpoilsofWar) Madani 75
9 Tawbah(Repentance) Madani 129
10 Yuunus(Jonah) Makki 109
11 Huud(Hud) Makki 123
12 Yusuuf(Joseph) Makki 111
13 Ra'd(TheThunder) Madani 43 x
14 'Ibraahiim(Abraham) Makki 52
15 'Al-Hijr(TheRockyTract) Makki 99
16 Nahl(TheBee) Makki 128 x
17 Baniii-'Is-raaa-'iil(TheChildrenof'Israel) Makki 111
18 Kahf(TheCave) Makki 110
19 Maryam(Mary) Makki 98
20 Taa-Haa(Ta-Ha) Makki 135
21 'A'mbiyaaa'(TheProphets) Makki 112
22 Hajj(ThePilgrimage) Madani 78 x
23 Mu'-minuun(TheBelievers) Makki 118
24 Nuur(Light) Madani 64
25 Furqaan(TheCriterionofRightandWrong) Makki 77

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26 Shu-'araaa'(ThePoets) Makki 227
27 Naml(TheAnt) Makki 93
28 Qasas(TheStory) Makki 88
29 'Ankabuut(TheSpider) Makki 69 x
30 Ruum(Romans) Makki 60
31 Luqmaan(Luqman) Makki 34
32 Sajdah(TheProstration) Makki 30
33 'Ahzaab(TheClans) Madani 73
34 Saba'(Saba) Makki 54
35 Faatir(TheAngels) Makki 45
36 Yaa-Shiiin(YaSin) Makki 83
37 Saaaffaat(ThoseWhoSetTheRanks) Makki 182
38 Saaad(Saad) Makki 88
39 Zumar(TheTroops) Makki 75
40 Mu'min(TheBeliever) Makki 85
41 Fussilat(TheyareExpounded) Makki 54
42 Shuurah(Counsel) Makki 53
43 Zukhruf(OrnamentsofGold) Makki 89
44 Dukhaan(Smoke) Makki 59
45 Jaasiyah(Crouching) Makki 37
46 'Ahqaaf(TheWind-CurvedSandhills) Makki 35
47 Muhammad(Muhammad) Madani 38 x
48 Fat-h(Victory) Madani 29
49 Hujuraat(ThePrivateApartments) Madani 18
50 Qaaaf(Qaf) Makki 45
51 Zaarayaat(TheWinnowingWinds) Makki 60
52 Tuur(TheMount) Makki 49
53 Najm(TheStar) Makki 62
54 Qamar(TheMoon) Makki 55
55 Rahmaan(TheBenficent) Madani 78 x

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56 Waaqi-'ah(TheEvent) Makki 96
57 Hadiid(Iron) Madani 29
58 Majaadalah(SheThatDisputeth) Madani 22
59 Hashr(Exile) Madani 24
60 Mumtahanah(SheThatIsToBeExamined) Madani 13
61 Saff(TheRanks) Madani 14 x
62 Jumu-'ah(TheCongregation) Madani 11
63 Munaafiquun(TheHypocrites) Madani 11
64 Tagaabun(MutualDisillusion) Madani 18 x
65 Talaaq(Divorce) Madani 12
66 Tahriim(Banning) Madani 12
67 Mulkulk(TheSovereignty) Makki 30
68 Qalam(ThePen) Makki 52
69 Haaaqqah(TheReality) Makki 52
70 Ma-'aarij(TheAsendingStairways) Makki 44
71 Nuuh(Noah) Makki 28
72 Jinn(TheJinn) Makki 28
73 Muzzammil(TheEnshroudedOne) Makki 20
74 Muddassir(TheCloakedOne) Makki 56
75 Qiyaamah(TheRisingoftheDead) Makki 40
76 'InsaanorDahr(TimeorMan) Madani 31 x
77 Mursalaat(TheEmissaries) Makki 50
78 Naba'(TheTidings) Makki 40
79 Naazi-'aat(ThoseWhoDragForth) Makki 46
80 'Abasa(HeFrowned) Makki 42 x
81 Takwiir(TheOverthrowing) Makki 29
82 'Infitaar(TheCleaving) Makki 19
83 Tatfiif(Defrauding) Makki 36 x
84 'Inshiqaaq(TheSundering) Makki 25
85 Buruuj(TheMansionsoftheStars) Makki 22

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86 Taariq(TheMorningStar) Makki 17
87 'A'-laa(TheMostHigh) Makki 19
88 Gaashiyah(TheOverwhelming) Makki 26
89 Fajr(TheDawn) Makki 30 x
90 Balad(TheCity) Makki 20
91 Shams(TheSun) Makki 15
92 Layl(TheNight) Makki 21 x
93 Zuhaa(TheMorningHours) Makki 11
94 'Inshiraah(Solace) Makki 8
95 Tiin(TheFig) Makki 8
96 'Alaq(TheCloth) Makki 19
97 Qadr(Power) Makki 5 x
98 Bayyinah(TheClearProof) Madani 8 x
99 Zilzaal(TheEarthquake) Madani 8 x
100 'Aadi-yaat(TheCoursers) Makki 11
101 'Al-Qaari-'ah(TheCalamity) Makki 11
102 Takaasur(RivalryinWorldlyIncrease) Makki 8
103 'Asr(TheDecliningDay) Makki 3
104 Humazah(TheTraducer) Makki 9
105 Fil(TheElephant) Makki 5
106 Quraysh('Winter'or'Qureysh') Makki 4
107 Maa-'uun(SmallKindness) Makki 7
108 Kawsar(Abundance) Makki 3
109 Kaafiruun(TheDisbelievers) Makki 6
110 Nasr(Soccour) Madani 3 x
111 Lahab(PalmFibre) Makki 5
112 'Ikhlaas(TheUnity) Makki 4 x
113 Falaq(TheDaybreak) Makki 5 x
114 Naas(Mankind) Makki 6 x

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Model Q & A ON HIC-Q
 2 (a) Write an account of the ways in which the Qur’an was revealed to the Prophet
between the years 610 and 632. [10]
(b) What does the Prophet’s first experience of revelation tell us about the nature of
Prophethood in Islam? [4]
 2 (a) How are the Qur’an and Hadiths used together in Islamic legal thinking? [10]
(b) Why do some legal scholars reject the use of analogy (Qiyas)? [4]
 2 (a) Describe how the two main sources of Islamic legal thinking are related. [10]
(b) Give an example to show how the Qur’an could be used in the exercise of Qiyas
(analogy) to face a new situation. [4]
 2 (a) Give an account of how the Qur’an was compiled in the years following the
Prophet’s death. [10]
(b) Explain why the first community of Muslims thought it was necessary to compile
the Qur’an. [4]
 2 (a) From the Quranic passages you have studied, outline the relationship between
God and two of His messengers who were sent before the Prophet Muhammad. [10]
(b) Explain why God sends his revelations through messengers. [4]
 2 (a) Write an account of the ways in which the Qur’an was revealed to the Prophet
between the years 610 and 632. [10]
(b) What does the Prophet’s first experience of revelation tell us about the nature
of Prophethood in Islam? [4]

Q : How was the Qur'an compiled? It is said that at first it was written on leaves, pieces of skin, stones
and also memorized by many people, some of whom died before all verses of the Qur'an were compiled
and brought from different areas in Makkah and Madinah. Who started the work of its collection and
publication? Since it was not checked finally by the Prophet, who was the final authority then? Some
people claim that the Qur'an is not published in its real sequence. There are also claims that some leaves
were accident -ally eaten by goats and some were not included due to political reasons. Comment.
2 (a) How are the Qur’an and Hadiths used together in Islamic legal thinking? [10]
(b) Why do some legal scholars reject the use of analogy (Qiyas)? [4]

2 (a) Describe how the two main sources of Islamic legal thinking are related. [10]
(b) Give an example to show how the Qur’an could be used in the exercise of Qiyas
(analogy) to face a new situation. [4]

2 (a) Give an account of how the Qur’an was compiled in the years following the
Prophet’s death. [10]
(b) Explain why the first community of Muslims thought it was necessary to
compile the Qur’an. [4]

2 (a) From the Qur’anic passages you have studied, outline the relationship between
God and two of His messengers who were sent before the Prophet Muhammad. [10]
(b) Explain why God sends his revelations through messengers. [4]

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