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STUDY OF COST-EFFECTIVE AND ECO-FRIENDLY

RURAL PICO HYDRO PLANT


A thesis-synopsis submitted toward partial fulfillment
Of the requirements for the degree of:

Doctor of Philosophy (Engineering)

Submitted by:
PRIYABRATA ADHIKARY
B.E. (Mechanical - Jadavpur University, Kolkata)
M.E. (W.R. & Hydraulic Engineering - Jadavpur University, Kolkata)
Index No.: D-7/ISLM/20/15

Under the guidance of:

PROF. (DR.) ASIS MAZUMDAR


Director and Professor, School of Water Resources Engineering,
Jadavpur University, Kolkata, W.B., India

&

DR. PANKAJ KUMAR ROY


Associate Professor, School Of Water Resources Engineering,
Jadavpur University, Kolkata, W.B., India

School of Water Resources Engineering


Faculty of Interdisciplinary Studies, Law & Management
Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032
India

2017
Dedicated
To
My Father, Mother, Spouse and Daughter
JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY
KOLKATA-700032, WEST BENGAL, INDIA

INDEX NO: D-7/ISLM/20/15

1. Title of the thesis:

STUDY OF COST-EFFECTIVE AND ECO-FRIENDLY RURAL PICO HYDRO PLANT

2. Name, Designation & Institution of the Supervisor/s:


1) PROF. (DR.) ASIS MAZUMDAR
Director and Professor, School of Water Resources Engineering,
Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032, W.B., India

2) DR. PANKAJ KUMAR ROY


Associate Professor, School of Water Resources Engineering,
Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032, W.B., India

3. List of Journal Publications (SCOPUS Indexed / UGC 2017 Enlisted Journals):


• Adhikary P., Roy P.K. and Mazumdar A., CFD Analysis of Micro Hydro Turbine
Unit: A Case Study; ARPN-J.E.A.S., 2016, 11(7): 4346-4352
• Adhikary P., Roy P.K. and Mazumdar A., Maintenance contractor selection for
small hydropower project: A fuzzy multi-criteria optimization technique
approach; I.RE.M.E., 2015, 9(2): 174-181
• Adhikary P., Roy P.K. and Mazumdar A., Optimal renewable energy project
selection: A multi-criteria optimization technique approach; RIP-G.J.P.A.M.,
2015, 11(5): 3319-3329
• Adhikary P., Roy P.K. and Mazumdar A., Selection of small hydropower project
site: A multi-criteria optimization technique approach; ARPN-J.E.A.S., 2015,
10(8): 3280-3285.
• Adhikary P., Roy P.K. and Mazumdar A., Turbine supplier selection for small
Hydro Plants: Application of multi-criteria optimization technique; RIP-I.J.A.E.R.,
2015, 10(5): 13109-13122

4. List of Patents: NIL

Page | ii
5. List of Presentations in Conferences (National / International / Global):
• Adhikary P., Roy P.K. and Mazumdar A., A cup of power in rural locations: Case
Study of micro hydropower generation from drinking water, Paper No.: GCRE
2016-317015, G.C.R.E.-2016, 2016, (Department of Mechanical Engineering, NIT,
Patna, India)
• Adhikary P., Roy P.K. and Mazumdar A., Turbine selection for small hydropower
plant: A multi-criteria optimization technique approach, Paper No.: GCRE 2016-
318215, G.C.R.E.-2016, 2016, (Department of Mechanical Engineering, NIT,
Patna, India)
• Adhikary P., Roy P.K. and Mazumdar A., Energy recovery in existing
infrastructures with small hydropower plants: A review, Paper No.: GCRE 2016-
318715, G.C.R.E.-2016, 2016, (Department of Mechanical Engineering, NIT,
Patna, India) [Best Poster Award]
• Adhikary P., Roy P.K. and Mazumdar A., C.F.D. ANALYSIS OF 12V 10W DC MICRO
HYDRO TURBINE: A CASE STUDY, Paper No.: NCETPFS-2016-F036, N.C.E.T.P.F.S.-
2016, 2016, (Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India)
• Adhikary P., Roy P.K. and Mazumdar A., Micro Hydropower Generation from
Rural Drinking W.T.P.: C.F.D. Analysis & It’s Validation, FMFP 2016 Paper No-001,
F.M.F.P.-2016, 2016, (Applied Mechanics Department, MNNIT, Allahabad, India)
• Adhikary P., Roy P.K. and Mazumdar A., Hydro Turbine Runner Material
Selection: Application of M.C.D.A. or M.C.D.M., FMFP 2016 Paper No-002,
F.M.F.P.-2016, 2016, (Applied Mechanics Department, MNNIT, Allahabad, India)

Page | iii
School of Water Resources Engineering
Faculty of Interdisciplinary Studies, Law & Management
Jadavpur University
Kolkata, W.B., India
______________________________________________________________________________

CERTIFICATE FROM SUPERVISORS


This is to certify that the thesis entitled “STUDY OF COST-EFFECTIVE

AND ECO-FRIENDLY RURAL PICO HYDRO PLANT” submitted by Mr

Priyabrata Adhikary who got his name registered on 15th January 2015

for the award of PhD (Engineering) degree of Jadavpur University, is

absolutely based upon his own work under the supervision/s of Prof.

(Dr.) Asis Mazumdar and Dr. Pankaj Kumar Roy, and that neither his

thesis nor any part of it has been submitted for any degree / diploma or

any other academic award anywhere before.

-------------------------------------
THESIS SUPERVISOR-1
Prof. (Dr.) Asis Mazumdar
Director and Professor - School of Water Resources Engineering
Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700 032, India

-------------------------------------
THESIS SUPERVISOR-2
Dr. Pankaj Kumar Roy
Associate Professor - School of Water Resources Engineering
Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700 032, India

Page | iv
School of Water Resources Engineering
Faculty of Interdisciplinary Studies, Law & Management
Jadavpur University
Kolkata, W.B., India
______________________________________________________________________________

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I express my sincere gratitude to my supervisors Prof.(Dr.) Asis Mazumdar, Director, School of


Water Resources Engineering (S.W.R.E.), Jadavpur University and Dr. Pankaj Kumar Roy,
Associate Professor, School of Water Resources Engineering (S.W.R.E.), Jadavpur University,
under whose supervision and guidance this work has been carried out. It would have been
impossible to carry out this thesis work with confidence without their wholehearted
involvement, advice, support and constant encouragement throughout. I also express my
sincere gratitude to Prof.(Dr.) Arunabha Majumdar, Professor-Emeritus, School of Water
Resources Engineering (S.W.R.E.), Jadavpur University, for the valuable suggestions.

Thanks, are also due to all the faculties, research scholars and staffs of School of Water
Resources Engineering (S.W.R.E.), Jadavpur University and the Regional Centre, N.A.E.B.,
Jadavpur University for their help and support.

I am highly grateful to D.S.T. (GOI) sponsored project entitled “Energy-efficient, community-


based water and wastewater-treatment systems for deployment in India” (Eco-India) for the
background research (experimental field study). Inaccurate design, improper selection of
project or any parameter will have high negative impact on the overall cost and efficiency.
Thus, it will result in producing less power at a higher cost-per-watt. Over the last few decades,
there has been a growing realization in developing countries that eco-friendly Small Micro or
Pico Hydro schemes have an important role to play in the economic development of remote
hilly and/or rural areas. This research is primarily motivated by the need to help Small Micro or
Pico Hydro – consultants, owners, NGOs, planners or developers.

Last but not the least; I am also grateful to my parents and family members for their earnest
support.

--------------------------------
PRIYABRATA ADHIKARY
B.M.E. (JU), M.E. (JU)

Page | v
SYNOPSIS

According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), there was an estimate (approx.) in 2008,
22% of the world’s populations, living without access to electricity, 85% of whom live in rural
areas. Of the 1.4 billion people in the world who have no access to electricity, India accounts for
over 300 million. Such an energy situation for the poor villagers is unacceptable. It is possible to
achieve universal energy access in the foreseeable future, and modern renewable energy
technologies can play a crucial role in achieving this goal. However, technology alone is not
enough and universal access requires sustainable operation and business models, political
efforts and targeted public support.

There are three basic technical approaches in bringing electricity to remote areas: First option is
simply to extend the national electricity grid. Second option is based on electricity mini-grids,
which can provide electricity generation at the local level, using village-wide distribution
networks. Third or cheapest approach is through Basic Electricity Home Systems (BEHS). In
these stand-alone systems (Pico Hydro / Solar / Wind etc.), power generation unit is installed
close to the load and there are no transmission and distribution costs. Moreover, to keep prices
affordable, components can be minimized and capacities maintained low, mainly serving small
DC appliances for domestic LED lighting and communication (e.g. radio, mobile phone etc.).
MNRE has ambitious programs for deployment of such off-grid renewable power and
decentralized renewable energy systems for rural applications. Here we have studied a 12V DC
Pico Hydro Plant (installed in a drinking water pipeline of a rural W.T.P.). Such multipurpose
Pico Hydro Plants are also gaining importance rapidly. In these schemes electricity generation is
not the primary priority but the secondary. This system implies the integration of the Small
Micro or Pico Hydro Plant in the existing water infrastructure while guaranteeing its primary
function (i.e. irrigation dams, waste-water treatment plants, water treatment plants etc.).

The thesis starts (Chapter-1) with a general introduction of conventional as well as non-
conventional (renewable) energy resources. Discussion on the global and local energy aspects
are also done. Few major global renewable energy projects are also discussed. In Chapter-2,
literature review on Small Micro or Pico Hydro Plants are presented including power generation
from other water infrastructures. Chapter-3 gives general information on Small Micro or Pico
Hydro Plants, their equipment’s, project management etc. The present research problem
formulation has been described in Chapter-4. Basic principles of the various Multi Criteria
Decision Analysis or Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDA or MCDM) methods for optimized
Pico Hydro Plant unit selection, as used in our study are presented in Chapter-5. A successful
demonstration of (12V DC Pico Hydro Plant) design, modelling, simulation (CFD / MATLAB) and
analysis is presented in Chapter-6. The work is further extended to the experimental field study
of 12V DC Pico Hydro Plant through Pico Hydro Turbine selection (MCDA or MCDM), it’s
installation, testing and validation is discussed in Chapter-7. Finally, in Chapter-8, summary of
major findings and scopes for the future work are discussed.

This research is motivated by the need to help Small Micro or Pico Hydro Plants – consultants,
owners, NGOs or developers for bringing electricity to rural and/or remote hilly areas.
Page | vi
LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.5.1 Pico Hydro Plant – A Case Study


Table-6.1.1 12V DC Pico Hydro Plant– Cognitive Modelling and Design
Table-6.4.1 Pico Hydro Turbine – CFD Analysis
Table-7.2.1 Definition – Criteria and Alternative (TOPSIS / VIKOR)
Table-7.2.2 Decision Making Matrix for 12V DC PHT Supplier Selection (TOPSIS)
Table-7.2.3 Normalized Decision Matrix (TOPSIS)
Table-7.2.4 Weighted Normalized Decision Matrix (TOPSIS)
Table-7.2.5 TOPSIS Method Rank for 12V DC PHT Supplier Selection
Table-7.2.6 Decision Making Matrix for 12V DC PHT Supplier Selection (VIKOR)
Table-7.2.7 VIKOR Method Rank for 12V DC PHT Supplier Selection
Table-7.2.8 Definition - Criteria and Alternative (ELECTRE-II / PROMETHEE-II)
Table-7.2.9 Decision Making Matrix for 12V DC PHT Supplier Selection (ELECTRE-II)
Table-7.2.10 Normalized Decision Matrix (ELECTRE-II)
Table-7.2.11 Weighted Normalized Decision Matrix (ELECTRE-II)
Table-7.2.12 Concordance Matrix (ELECTRE-II)
Table-7.2.13 Discordance Matrix (ELECTRE-II)
Table-7.2.14 ELECTRE-II Method Rank for 12V DC PHT Supplier Selection
Table-7.2.15 Decision Making Matrix for 12V DC PHT Supplier Selection (PROMETHEE-II)
Table-7.2.16 Normalized Decision Matrix (PROMETHEE-II)
Table-7.2.17 Preference Function Matrix (PROMETHEE-II)
Table-7.2.18 Aggregated Preference Function Matrix (PROMETHEE-II)
Table-7.2.19 Leaving and Entering Flow (PROMETHEE-II)
Table-7.2.20 PROMETHEE-II Method Rank for 12V DC PHT Supplier Selection
Table-7.2.21A Definition - Criteria and Alternative (Fuzzy-MCDM)
Table-7.2.21B Definition – Linguistic Terms for Criteria
Table-7.2.21C Definition - Linguistic Terms for Alternative
Table-7.2.22 Fuzzy Decision-Making Matrix for 12V DC PHT Supplier Selection
Table-7.2.23 Decision Making Matrix (Fuzzy TOPSIS)
Table-7.2.24 Normalized Decision Matrix (Fuzzy TOPSIS)
Table-7.2.25 Weighted Normalized Decision Matrix (Fuzzy TOPSIS)
Table-7.2.26 Fuzzy-TOPSIS Rank for 12V DC PHT Supplier Selection
Table-7.2.27 Fuzzy Decision-Making Matrix for 12V DC PHT Supplier Selection (Fuzzy VIKOR)
Table-7.2.28 Decision Making Matrix (Fuzzy VIKOR)
Table-7.2.29 Decision Matrix (Crisp) (Fuzzy VIKOR)
Table-7.2.30 Fuzzy-VIKOR Rank for 12V DC PHT Supplier Selection

Page | vii
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure-1.2.1 World’s top ten countries (electricity production capacity wise)


Figure-1.2.2 World’s Top Ten Hydro Power Generation Country
Figure-1.3.1 Power Sector Growth Plan in India (10th Plan Onwards)
Figure-1.3.2 Total Installed Power Generation Capacity in India (as on 31-October-2016)
Figure-1.3.3 Total Installed Hydro Power Capacity in India (as on 31-October-2016)
Figure-1.4.1 World’s Top Ten Renewable Energy Producing Country (TWh)
Figure-1.4.2 Longyangxia Dam Solar Park, China (850 MW)
Figure-1.4.3 Kamuthi Solar Power Project, India (648 MW)
Figure-1.4.4 Solar Star (I and II), USA (597 MW)
Figure-1.4.5 Topaz Solar Farm, USA (550 MW)
Figure-1.4.6 Desert Sunlight Solar Farm, USA (550 MW)
Figure-1.4.7 Gansu Wind Farm, China (6000 MW)
Figure-1.4.8 Muppandal Wind Farm, India (1500 MW)
Figure-1.4.9 Alta Wind Energy Centre, USA (1320 MW)
Figure-1.4.10 The Jaisalmer Wind Park, India (1064 MW)
Figure-1.4.11 The Shepherds Flat Wind Farm, USA (845 MW)
Figure-1.4.12 The Geysers, USA (1517 MW)
Figure-1.4.13 The Cerro Prieto Geothermal Power Station, Mexico (820 MW)
Figure-1.4.14 Larderello Power Station, Italy (769 MW)
Figure-1.4.15 Olkaria Geothermal Power Station, Kenya (569 MW)
Figure-1.4.16 Sarulla Geothermal Power Station, Indonesia (330 MW)
Figure-1.4.17 Sihwa Lake Tidal Power Station, South Korea (254 MW)
Figure-1.4.18 The Rance Tidal Power Station, France (240 MW)
Figure-1.4.19 The Annapolis Royal Generating Station, Canada (20 MW)
Figure-1.4.20 The Jiangxia Tidal Power Station, China (3.2 MW)
Figure-1.4.21 The Kislaya Guba Tidal Power Station, Russia (1.7 MW)
Figure-1.4.22 The Three Gorges Dam, China (22,500 MW)
Figure-1.4.23 The Itaipu Dam, Brazil - Paraguay (14000 MW)
Figure-1.4.24 The Xiluodu Dam, China (13860 MW)
Figure-1.4.25 The Guri Dam, Venezuela (10,235 MW)
Figure-1.4.26 The Tucuruí Dam, Brazil (8370 MW)
Figure-1.5.1 Total Renewable Energy Potential – India
Figure-1.5.2 Solar Power Potential – India
Figure-1.5.3 Wind Power Potential – India
Figure-1.5.4 Small Micro or Pico Hydro Power Potential – India
Figure-1.5.5 Bio-Energy Power Potential – India
Figure-3.2.1 Run of River Based – S.H.P.
Figure-3.2.2 Canal-Fall Based – S.H.P.
Figure-3.2.3 Dam-Toe Based – S.H.P.
Figure-3.2.4 Pumped Storage Based – S.H.P.
Figure-3.2.5 Instream Hydro Based – S.H.P.
Figure-3.3.1 Typical Small Hydro Plant Cost
Page | viii
Figure-3.3.2 Small Micro or Pico Hydro Plants Implementation Process
Figure-3.4.1 MHP at IMC-Kabitkhedi, Indore, India
Figure-3.4.2 MHP at Profray, Bagnes, Switzerland
Figure-3.4.3 Chitri SHP, Kolhapur, Maharastra, India
Figure-3.4.4 Rino SHP, Rino di Sonico-Brescia, Italy
Figure-3.4.5 Hetawane Dam (Proposed) based MHP, Raigad, Maharastra, India
Figure-3.4.6 La Zour MHP, Savièse, Switzerland
Figure-3.5.1 Pico Hydro Plant Site (Nayar Nala, Vill.Elephant Det., Arunachal Pradesh)
Figure-6.1.1 12V DC Pico Hydro Plant Application
Figure-6.3.1 Pico Hydro Turbine Orifice Design
Figure 6.3.2 CFD simulation of 12V DC Pico Hydro Turbine Orifice at 0.2 MPa at Inlet
Figure 6.3.3 CFD simulation of 12V DC Pico Hydro Turbine Orifice at 0.05 MPa at Inlet
Figure 6.3.4 CFD simulation of 12V DC Pico Hydro Turbine Orifice at 1.2 MPa at Inlet
Figure 6.4.1 Pico Hydro Turbine – Simulated Result of Torque in Z-Direction
Figure 6.4.2 Pico Hydro Turbine – CFD Simulation Results
Figure 6.5.1 Pico Hydro Turbine System Model as Inertia-Damper System
Figure 6.5.2 MATLAB Simulink Model – 12V DC Pico Hydro Plant
Figure 6.5.3 MATLAB Simulation Results – 12V DC Pico Hydro Turbine
Figure 7.1.1 12V DC Pico Hydro Plant- Experimental Field Study (Eco-India Project)
Figure 7.1.2 Eco-India Project Scheme
Figure 7.2.1 12V DC Pico Hydro Turbine – Various Supplier Prices
Figure 7.3.1 12V DC Pico Hydro Plant Experimental Field Study Equipment’s
Figure 7.3.2 12V DC Pico Hydro Turbine
Figure 7.4.1 Experimental Field Study of 12V DC Pico Hydro Turbine (Eco-India Project)
Figure 7.4.2 Pico Hydro Turbine Output – Flow vs DC Volts (Load: 3 Ohm)
Figure 7.4.3 Pico Hydro Turbine Output – Flow vs DC Volts (Load: 12 Ohm)
Figure 7.4.4 Pico Hydro Turbine Output – Flow vs DC Volts (Load: 20 Ohm)
Figure 7.4.5 Pico Hydro Turbine Output – Flow vs Current (Load: 3 Ohm)
Figure 7.4.6 Pico Hydro Turbine Output – Flow vs Current (Load: 12 Ohm)
Figure 7.4.7 Pico Hydro Turbine Output – Flow vs Current (Load: 20 Ohm)
Figure 7.4.8 Pico Hydro Turbine Output – Flow vs Power (Load: 3 Ohm)
Figure 7.4.9 Pico Hydro Turbine Output – Flow vs Power (Load: 12 Ohm)
Figure 7.4.10 Pico Hydro Turbine Output – Flow vs Power (Load: 20 Ohm)
Figure 7.5.1 12V DC Pico Hydro Turbine – Various Output Voltage (12V / 5V / 3V)
Figure 8.1.1 Scope of Small Micro or Pico Hydro Plants in Himalayan Region (India)

Page | ix
ANNEXURE
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C.F.D. analysis of micro hydro turbine unit: A case study Adhikary, P., Roy, P.K., 2016 ARPN Journal of 0 Publication range: 2013 - 2016
Mazumdar, A. Engineering and Applied
References: 67
Sciences
Source history:
Open Access World Applied Sciences Journal View documents
ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
View documents
Maintenance contractor selection for small hydropower Adhikary, P., Roy, P.K., 2015 International Review of 3 Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics
project: A fuzzy multi-criteria optimization technique Mazumdar, A. Mechanical Engineering View documents
approach View More
View at Publisher
Show Related Affiliations
Turbine supplier selection for small hydro project: Adhikary, P., Roy, P.K., 2015 International Journal of 4
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Optimal renewable energy project selection: A multi- Adhikary, P., Roy, P.K., 2015 Global Journal of Pure 2
criteria optimization technique approach Mazumdar, A. and Applied
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Selection of small hydropower project site: A multicriteria Adhikary, P., Roy, P.K., 2015 ARPN Journal of 2
optimization technique approach Mazumdar, A. Engineering and Applied
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Multi-dimensional feasibility analysis of small hydropower Adhikary, P., Roy, P.K., 2014 ARPN Journal of 9
project in india: A case study Mazumdar, A. Engineering and Applied
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Optimum selection of hydraulic turbine manufacturer for Adhikary, P., Kundu, S., 2013 World Applied Sciences 9
SHP:MCDA or MCDM tools Roy, P.K., Mazumdar, Journal
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Fuzzy logic based optimum penstock design: Elastic Adhikary, P., Roy, P.K., 2013 ARPN Journal of 6
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Open Access