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EEA051 - Digital Logic


Chapter 5
Synchronous Sequential Logic

國立高雄大學 資訊工程學系

December 2005
Chapter 5 Synchronous Sequential
5-1 Sequential Circuits
5-2 Latches
5-3 Flip-Flops
5-4 Analysis of Clocked Sequential Circuits
5-5 HDL for Sequential Circuits
5-6 State Reduction and Assignment
5-7 Design Procedure

5-1 Sequential Circuits
„ Combinational circuits
z The outputs are entirely dependent on the current inputs
z Contains no storage elements, no feedback

„ Sequential circuits
z Consists of a combinational circuit to which storage elements
are connected to form a feedback path
z Outputs are a function of both the current inputs and the
present state of the storage elements
„ Storage/memory elements
z capable of storing binary information
z defining the state of the sequential circuit
z Next state is a function of external inputs and current state
‹ (inputs, current state) ⇒ (outputs, next state)

Types of Sequential Circuits
Two major types: depending on timing of their signals
„ Asynchronous sequential circuits (see Chapter 9)
z The transition happens at any instant of time
z Do not use clock pulses. Change of internal state occurs

when there is a change in input variables

‹ Instability problem: may become unstable at times
z Storage elements work as time-delay device
‹ May be regarded as a combinational circuit with feedback
„ Synchronous sequential circuits
z The transition happens at discrete instants of time
z The circuit responds only to pulses on particular inputs

z Storage elements are affected only with the arrival of each

Synchronous Clocked Sequential Circuits

„ Clocked sequential circuits (CSC)

z Synchronous sequential circuits that use clock pulses in
the inputs of storage elements
z Synchronization is achieved by a master-clock generator to

generate a periodic train of clock pulses

z most commonly used, no instability problems

„ Flip-flops: the storage elements used in CSC

z binary cells capable of storing one bit of information
z Maintains a binary state indefinitely until directed by an

input signal to switch states

‹ The states change only during a clock pulse transition
z major differences in the number of inputs they possess and
in the manner in which the inputs affect the binary state

„ The outputs can come either from the combinational circuit or
from the flip-flops or both
„ The flip-flops receive their inputs from the combinational
circuit and also from a clock signal with pulse that occurs at
fixed intervals of time
z The flip-flop outputs cannot change and the feedback loop is broken
when a clock pulse is not active 6
5-2 Latches
„ Latches: basic circuits to construct flip-flops
z capable of storing binary information, impractical for use in
synchronous sequential circuits
‹ more complicated types can be built upon it
„ SR Latch
z Two states: Set and Reset states
z an asynchronous sequential circuit with two cross-coupled

NOR gates
„ S’-R’ Latch
z SR latch with two cross-coupled NAND gates
‹ 0 signal to change its state
„ SR latch with control input
z Determines when the state of the latch can be changed
„ D Latch
z eliminate undesirable condition of indeterminate state in
SR latch 7
SR Latch
Two inputs labeled S for set and R for reset
(S,R)=(1,0): set (Q=1, the set state)
(S,R)=(0,1): reset (Q=0, the reset/clear state)
(S,R)=(0,0): normal condition
z no operation, in either the set or the reset state
z depending on which input was most recently at 1
(S,R)=(1,1): indeterminate state (Q=Q'=0)
z consider (S,R) = (1,1) ⇒ (0,0)
unpredictable next state when both inputs return to 0
(depend on which input returns to 0 first)
Q = [R+(S+Q)’]’ = R’(S+Q)
Q’ = [S+(R+Q’)’]’ = S’(R+Q’)



S’-R’ Latch – SR Latch with NAND Gates
0 signal to change its state
(S,R)=(0,1): set (Q=1, the set state)
(S,R)=(1,0): reset (Q=0, the reset/clear state)
(S,R)=(1,1): normal condition
(S,R)=(0,0): indeterminate state (Q=Q’=1)
unpredictable next state

SR Latch with Control Input
An additional input as an enable signal
C=0 ⇒ quiescent condition, no change
C=1 ⇒ S or R is allowed to affect the SR latch
(1 signal to change its state)

S_ 1/S'


R_ 1/R'

D Latch
„ S=D and R=D’
z Ensure S and R are never equal to 1 at the same time
z Eliminate the undesirable conditions of the indeterminate

state in the RS latch

„ One output Q and two inputs: D (data) and C (control)
Q=D when C=1
Q = no change when C=0

S_ 1/D'


R_ 1/D

Graphic Symbols for Latches

5-3 Flip-Flops
„ A trigger: the momentary change to switch the state
of a latch or flip-flop
z The transition it causes is said to trigger the flip-flop
„ Types of triggers
z Level triggered – latches
‹ D latch is triggered every time the pulse stays at logic 1 level.
‹ Be used as a temporary storage between a unit and its environment
z Edge triggered – flip-flops
‹ If level-triggered flip-flops are used, the feedback path may cause
instability problem as long as the clock pulse stays in the active level
‹ triggered only during a signal transition (0⇒1 or 1⇒0)

D flip-flop
Store binary info during transition
„Method 1: Master-slave D flip-flop
z two separate flip-flops
a master flip-flop (positive-level triggered)
a slave flip-flop (negative-level triggered)
z change only during negative edge of clock
‹ longer propagation delay

Edge-triggered D flip-flop (cont.)
Method 2: D-type positive-edge-triggered flip-flop
z The most efficient flip-flop constructed with 3 SR latches
CLK=0 ⇒ S=R=1, no change
CLK=positive transition ↑⇒ Q=D (state changes once)
D=0 when CLK becomes 1 ⇒ R=1 to 0 ⇒ D changes further, no effect
D=1 when CLK becomes 1 ⇒ R=stay 1 ⇒ D changes further, no effect
CLK=negative transition or 1 ⇒ quiescent condition (state holds)
[S(RD)’]’ Q=R ⇒ Q=D


(RD)’ D=0 D=1
[S(RD)’]’=S’+RD S=CLK’+S S=CLK’+SR’
R=CLK’+S’ R=CLK’+(SR’)’
[S(RD)’]’ CLK=0 CLK=1
S=R=1 S=S
S Q=Q R=S’
S=R=1 S=SR’
(RD)’ D=1
R=CLK’+S’+RD Q=Q R=(SR’)’=S’

S=0, R=1, Q=1

t 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30
CLK __--__--__--__--__--__--__--__--
D _______--------________--------_

Q --________--------________-----
Setup Time and Hold Time

Setup time
„ a minimum time for which the D input must be
maintained at a constant value (or be ready)
prior to the occurrence of the clock transition
„ data to the internal latch

Hold time
„ a minimum time for which the D input must not
changes after the application of the positive
transition of the clock
„ clock to the internal latch

These parameters are usually specified in

manufacturer’s data books.

Graphic Symbols

> dynamic

JK Flip-Flop
„ Edge-triggered D flip-flop
z Store binary information during edge trigger
z Require the smallest number of gates
z Other types of flip-flops can be constructed using it
„ JK Flip-Flop: D=JQ'+K'Q
J=0, K=0: D=Q ⇒ Q no change
J=0, K=1: D=0 ⇒ Q =0 reset to 0
J=1, K=0: D=1 ⇒ Q =1 set to 1
J=1, K=1: D=Q’ ⇒ Q =Q’ complement output

T Flip-Flop

T (toggle) flip-flop: D = T⊕Q = TQ'+T'Q

T=0: D=Q, no change
T=1: D=Q' ⇒ Q=Q'

Characteristic Tables and Equations
Characteristic Tables

Characteristic equations
D flip-flop Q(t+1) = D
JK flip-flop Q(t+1) = JQ’+K’Q
T flop-flop Q(t+1) = T⊕Q = TQ’ + T’Q 21
Direct Inputs
„ preset/direct set: the inputs that sets the flip-flop to 1
„ clear/direct reset: the inputs that clears the flip-flop to 0
z to a known starting state
„ asynchronous reset
reset=0 ⇒ force Q=0, resetting

5-4 Analysis of Clocked Sequential Circuits
„ State equation (transition equation)
A(t+1) = A(t)x(t) + B(t)x(t)
B(t+1) = A’(t)x(t)

CSC diagram ⇒ state equation

State Table or Transition Table
state table ⇐ state equation ⇐ CSC diagram
„ Four sections: present state, input, next state and output

„ List all possible binary combinations of present state and inputs

„ Determine next states and outputs from the logic diagram or

from the state equations


m flip-flops and n inputs

• 2m+n rows
• m column of next-state

Second Form of State Table

„ Only 3 sections: present state, next state, and output

z Given one input, there are two possible next states and
outputs for each present state
„ What form to be used depends on applications
State Diagram - pictorial view of state transitions


state diagram
A(t+1)=Ax+Bx ⇔ state table
B(t+1)=A’x ⇔ state equation
y=(A+B)x’ ⇔ logic diagram 26
Input/Output Equations
„ logic diagram of a sequential circuit consists of flip-flops + gates
z output equations: the circuit that generates external outputs
z input equations: the circuit that generates inputs to flip-flops
output equations
equations state
(or excitation equations) equations equations

Symbol convention: DQ = x + y x
an OR gate with inputs x and y
connected to the D input of a
flip-flop whose output is
labeled with the symbol Q

Flip-Flop Input Equations

FF Input
State Equations Equations
A(t+1)=Ax+Bx DA=Ax+Bx
B(t+1)=A’x ⇒ DB=A’x
Output Equation
y=(A+B)x’ y=(A+B)x’

D/JK/T FF input equation

⇔ state equation
⇔ CSC logic diagram
⇔ state diagram
⇔ state table

Analysis with D Flip-Flops
Given: Find:
input function: DA=A⊕x⊕y ⇔ logic diagram
state equation: A(t+1)=A⊕x⊕y ⇔ state table
one flip-flop and 2 inputs ⇔ state diagram

Given logic circuit, Analysis with
find the others
JK Flip-Flops
(1) Flip-flop input equations

(2) State equations


Analysis with T Flip-Flops
Characteristic equation: Q(t+1)=T⊕Q=T’Q+TQ’
Input equations and output equation:
TA=Bx; TB=x; y=AB
State equations

Given logic
circuit, find
the others
Mealy and Moore Models
Mealy model
„ The output is a function of both the present state and input
— The outputs may change if the inputs change during the clock cycle
— The outputs may have momentary false values due to delay
— To synchronize, the outputs must be sampled only during the clock edge
„ Mealy finite state machine (FSM, machine): the Mealy model of
a sequential circuit
„ example: Fig. 5-15 (D)

Moore model
„ The output is a function of the present state only
— The outputs are synchronized with the clock
„ Moore finite state machine (FSM, machine): the Moore model
of a sequential circuit
„ example: Figure 5-19 (JK), 5-20 (T)

5-6 State Reduction and Assignment
„ Sequential circuit analysis:
z starts from a circuit diagram and
z culminates in a state table or state diagram

„ Sequential circuit design:

z starts from a set of specifications and
z culminates in a logic diagram

„ State reduction problem: reduction of the number of

flip-flops in a sequential circuit, while keeping the
external input-output requirements unchanged
z m flip-flops produce 2m states
z State reduction ⇒ fewer flip-flops

‹ but may require more combinational gates

State Reduction
„ Example: Figure 5-22 (7 states)
z Given a state table or state diagram
z Find ways of reducing the number of states

without altering the input-output relationships

„ Test sequence
•Initial state: a
•Input sequence: 01010110100

State Equivalence
State equivalence: Two states are equivalent if, for
each member of the set of inputs, they
„ give exactly the same output and
„ send the circuit either to the same state or to an equivalent state

1.Look for two present states that
„ go to the same next state and
„ have the same output for both input combinations

2.Remove one of the equivalent state and replace by

the other state each time it occurs in the table

Another approach: systematic reduction with an implication table

(see Section 9-5)
State Reduction Example

State Assignment
„ State assignment: assign coded binary values to the state
z In order to design a sequential circuit with physical components
z A circuit with m states need n bits where 2n >= m
„ Transition table: a state table with a binary assignment
z To distinguish it from a stable table with symbolic names for states

5-7 Design Procedure
„ Design of a clocked sequential circuit
z starts from a set of specifications
z obtains a state table/diagram (or equivalences) first
z culminates in a logic diagram (or a list of Boolean functions)

„ Tasks
z Choosing the flip-flops
‹ Determined from the number of states needed
z Finding a combinational gate structure
‹ Derived from the state table by evaluating the flip-flop input
equations and output equations
„ Summarized procedure
most challenging

Example: Sequence Detector
Specification: Design a circuit that detects three or more
consecutive 1’s in a string of bits combining through an input line

1st Step – deriving state diagram or state table

Moore model circuit –output is 1 when circuit is in state S3 and 0 otherwise

Synthesis Using D Flip-Flops
„ Step 2-4: Assign binary codes and list state table (Table 5-11)
„ Step 5:Choose type of flip-flops
„ Step 6:Derive simplified input and output equations


Synthesis Using D Flip-Flops (cont.)
„ Step 7 – Draw the logic diagram (using simplified functions)

Excitation table: a
table that lists
required inputs

Analysis and Design

equations ?
present input
states equations state
equations ?

(1) Input/output equations (2) state equations (3) State table (4) State diagram

? output
present input
states equations next states

(1) State diagram/table (2) Input/output equations (3) Circuit diagram 42
Excitation Tables
„ The input equations for the circuit using flip-flops other
than the D type, i.e. JK and T types, must be derived
indirectly from the state table
„ Excitation table: list the required inputs for a given
change of state

Synthesis Using JK Flip-Flops
„ The input equations must be evaluated
from the present-state to next-state
transition derived from the excitation table


Logic Diagram for Sequential Circuit with JK Flip-Flops


JA=Bx’ KA=Bx JB=x KB=(A⊕ x)’

Synthesis Using T Flip-Flops
Example: 3-bit counter (1)


Logic Diagram of 3-Bit Binary Counter


TA2=A1A0 TA1=A0 TA0=1

Chapter 5 Synchronous Sequential Logic
5-1 Sequential Circuits
5-2 Latches
— SR latch, S’R’ latch, D latch
5-3 Flip-Flops
— edge-triggered D, JK, T flip-flops
5-4 Analysis of Clocked Sequential Circuits
5-5 HDL for Sequential Circuits
5-6 State Reduction and Assignment
5-7 Design Procedure
circuit diagram⇔input equation⇔state equation⇔state table⇔state diagram