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Chapter I

THE PROBLEM

Introduction

Crime is an old and multi-faceted problem in the society. There are

several reasons why crimes are continuously committed and still counting as the

year passes by. Could this mean that the principle of logomacy which states that

“There would be no crimes, if there were no laws punishing it”, holds really true?

This principle was coined by the early criminologist in their investigations on

what are the causes of crimes and as to how they would address it through

studying these root causes. And many had identified several causes of crimes but

still it cannot be completely prevented rather just minimized or decreased it by

numbers.

According to Felipe (2011) of The Philippine Star, statistics show that

there has been a downward trend in crime rates over the last two years, an

official of the Philippine National Police (PNP) said. This was supported by

Director Arturo Cacdac Jr., chief of the PNP Directorate for Investigation and

Detective Management (DIDM), said there was a sharp decline in crime statistics

from 2009 to 2010. “Crime volume in 2009 was at 502,665 but last year, (there

were only) 319,441 cases, so there was a sharp decrease of 183,224 incidents or

roughly 36 percent,” Cacdac said in a forum. Cacdac noted that the PNP
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leadership is now focusing on crime prevention programs and on training

policemen to be more effective in solving crimes. He said that in 2009, the index

crimes or cases categorized as crimes against persons including murder,

homicide, physical injury and rape reached 301,703. However, in 2010, there

were only 202,328 cases, down by roughly 32 percent.

On the contrary according to the report presented by PCSupt. Cecilio B.

Calleja Jr (2011) PNP PRO5, the Regional Director of Police Regional Office 5

about the peace and order situation in Bicol Region covering the period from

January 1 to April 30, 2011 there were 4,545 crime incidents reported during the

period. This figure reflects an increase by 27 or .60% as compared to 4,518

crime incidents reported during the same period last year.

From this data, it could be mean that it is really possible to prevent crimes

which could lead to decline in crime statistics, but still the numbers were there

only that it was just lessened to smaller amount and in fact a decline in crime

statistics in a certain period would not guarantee that there will be still more

declination in the next period for there will always be the possibility of inclination

due to new developments of crime. So this could mean that indeed crime is

inevitable. Nevertheless, criminology researchers should never stop but rather

continue to do research on the current causes of crime and how to prevent for

there will always be new trends of crime that will come out. This new trends of

crimes must be suppressed if not anticipated by the new crime prevention

strategies (CPS).
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This CPS can be outlined into key priorities such as, anti-street crime

strategies, community-based anti crime strategy and the community awareness

strategy. The anti-street crime strategies focused on the direct solutions to

criminality, like constant patrolling and identification of crime prone areas. These

activities are both reactive and proactive mechanism in dealing with crimes.

While the second key priority, which is the community-based anti crime

strategy is only on proactive mechanism. This strategy is founded on the concept

of community oriented policing (COPS). It is guided by the principle that “the

police are the people and the people are the police”, by Sir Robert Peel who was

credited to be the father of modern policing2. This strategy focused on

establishing a good relationship of the police with the community to be partners

and join hands together in the fight against crime.

“The main thrust of the police-community partnership is


based on mutual help, with the public being persuaded and
encouraged to take personal responsibility both individually and
in partnership with others in safeguarding themselves, their
property and their neighborhood with the advice and assistance
of the police. It is based on the principle that prevention is a
community responsibility and crime prevention measures taken
by the community can limit and reduce opportunities for the
commission of crime. Further, the community has a role in
mitigating the impact of crime on unintended victims, such as
the dependents of victims, offenders and others who suffer
collateral damage from these crimes. The community also has a
role in reintegrating people into society3.”

The last key priority is the crime awareness strategy, which is also a

proactive mechanism to reduce crime. This strategy teaches the community of


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the ways how to prevent oneself from being a victim of crime. This is done

through educating the public on the methods of operation used by the criminals.

In formulating these crime prevention strategies, it is imperative to

determine first the level of crime in a certain community. And crimes statistics is

used to depict the level of crime in a certain community. In like manner, it also

helps determine the effectiveness of CPS once it has been launched. Though

such CPS can be proven to be effective in a certain community by way of

effectively reducing the level of crime, on the contrary, it may not reduce the

same in some other communities due to several factors. It could be because of

new problems encountered by the people in the community which pushes them

to commit crimes such as the abrupt escalation of inflation rate or

unemployment and many other several factors that could trigger such persons to

commit crimes.

These contributory factors become the baseline in formulating crime

prevention strategies to counter the problems in crime rates. Obviously, if these

contributory factors would be addressed, a declination in crime rate would follow.

However, one of the factors that are commonly overlooked is the inconsistency

in the implementation of such crime prevention strategies, because the low level

of implementation of the CPS could render it ineffective. This level of

implementation is best gauged through public perception survey. With these, it is

possible to correlate the increase or decrease in the level of crime with the level

of implementation of CPS.
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So the researcher aroused his interest to conduct study that will analyze

the crime statistics in Naga City and determine whether there is a significant

increase or decrease in the level of crime in relation to the level of

implementation of CPS in Naga City.

This study has determined the level of implementation of CPS in Naga City

and its correlation to the level of crime. This will help us determine if the CPS in

the said locality is really effective itself or defective amidst the high level of

implementation or because of its low level of implementation.

Statement of the Problem:

This study aimed to evaluate the level of implementation of the different

crime prevention strategies in Naga City and their impact to the crime incidence

from 2008-2010.

Specifically, this study answered the following questions;

1. What is the crime statistics in Naga City for CY 2008-2010 along;

a. Index crime; and

b. Non-index crime?

2. What is the level of implementation of crime prevention strategies for

CY 2008-2010 along:

a. Anti-street crime strategy;

b. Community-based anti crime strategy; and,

c. Crime awareness strategy?


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3. Are there significant differences in the level of implementation of crime

prevention strategies among aspects and among periods?

4. What is the impact of the implemented crime prevention strategies on

the crime reduction in Naga City?

5. What programs/measures can be designed to lessen the level of crime

in Naga City?

Assumptions

This study was guided by the following assumptions:

1. That Naga City crime statistics along index and non-index crimes

fluctuates annually.

2. That Naga City implements crime prevention strategy.

3. The implemented crime prevention strategies affect crime incidence

in Naga City.

4. Crime prevention strategies are proposed to further lessen crime

incidence in Naga City.

Hypothesis

This research was anchored on the hypotheses that:

1. There are significant differences in the level of implementation of

crime prevention strategies in Naga city between aspects.


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2. There are significant differences in the level of implementation of

crime prevention strategies in Naga city among periods.

Importance of the study

The results of this study are expected to benefit the following:

City Government. The findings of this study could prove substantial

information and practical suggestion to the City Government of Naga through the

Local Peace and Order Council on the effectiveness and efficiency of crime

prevention strategies that is being implemented within the city.

NCPO. Through this study, the Naga City Police Office can derive

information and suggestion for the improvement of their crime prevention

strategies and to strengthen its level of implementation.

Community. Every member of the community always wishes to have a

peaceful and safe community to live in, therefore this study will help attain such

peace and safety through programs or measures that will help in reducing the

level of crime.

CCJE. The results of this study can be used by the department in their

community extension services in different barangays during crime awareness

campaign to enlighten the knowledge of the barangay officials in their

participation in the implementation of crime prevention strategies as community

partners of the police.


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Barangay Enforcers. With this study, the local enforcers in each

barangay will become aware of their importance in as community partners of the

police force in the strict implementation of crime prevention strategies.

Future Researcher. Similar studies can be conducted in the future for

those who are interested in the same concept and ideas. Hence this can be used

as reference.

Scope and Delimitation

The researcher has focused mainly on Naga City crime statistics for CY

2008 to 2010 along index crime which includes crime against person such as

murder, homicide, physical injuries, rape and crime against property which

includes robbery and theft. Non-index crimes were also taken which was

clustered into drug related cases, gambling related, firearms related and quasi

offenses. The respondents of this study included the barangay officials and

residents of the 27 barangays in Naga City as well as the PNP, PSO and persons

from the business sector. The study did not cover the crimes which were not

recorded and reported and the crimes statistics of other Municipalities and/or

cities.

Definition of Terms

For clarity and application, the subsequent terms was defined conceptually

and operationally:
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Criminal justice. Is the system of practices and institutions of

governments directed at upholding social control, deterring and mitigating crime,

or sanctioning those who violate laws with criminal penalties and rehabilitation

efforts.

Crime statistics. Is concerned with collection, classification, analysis,

and interpretation of numerical facts on crime incidence, for drawing inferences.

Crime Prevention Strategy. A plan of action designed to meet a

particular goal which is the prevention of crimes.

Anti-Street crime strategy. It is a crime prevention strategy to prevent

the incidence of street-level crimes such as robbery, theft or physical injuries or

homicide usually committed in the streets.

Community-based anti crime strategy. It is a crime prevention

strategy which aims to establish a good relationship between the community and

the police to join hands in the fight against crime. It also means empowering the

people in the community.

Crime awareness strategy. It is a crime prevention strategy that aims

to inform and educate community about the crimes and criminals such as modus

of operandi or modes of operation of criminals.

Criminality. It is the state, quality, or fact of being criminal. A criminal

practice or act.

Index crimes. These are crimes which are sufficiently significant and

which occur with sufficient regularity to be meaningful. Included in this category


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are the following crimes: murder, physical injury, robbery, homicide, theft and

rape.

Non-Index Crime. These are all types of crimes not considered as index

crimes. In this study it was clustered into drug related, gambling related, firearm

related crimes and quasi offenses.

Impact. As used in this study it means the effect on, alter or influence of

crime prevention strategies to crime incidence.

Implementation. As used in this study, it means the enforcement of the

crime prevention strategies.

Public Safety Office. It is a local law enforcement agency in Naga City

that enforces the local city ordinances and as well as the regulation of traffic flow

in main streets or avenues in the city.

Barangay officials. As used in this study, it refers to the elected

Kagawads and Barangay Captains in the 27 Barangays of Naga City.

Residents. This are the persons who live in the 27 Barangays of Naga

City who do not belong to the business sector.

Business sector. This are the persons who engage in business activities

in Naga City as their primary source to earn a living.


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NOTES

(2002) Hollin, Clive R. Psychology and Crime: An Introduction to Criminological


Psychology. London: Taylor & Francis E-Librar.

(2011) Felipe, Cecille S. “PNP: Crime Rate Down in the Last Two Years”, The
Philippine Star, May 23, 2011.

(2011) PCSUPT. Calleja, Cecilio, PRO5 Regional Director, Camp Simeon Ola,
Legazpi City, Philippines.

(2009) Manwong, Rommel K. Law Enforcement Administration. Wiseman


Publishing.

(2011) Singh, Jarmal. http://www.unafei.or.jp/english/pdf/PDF_rms/no56/56-


12.pdf

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criminal_justice (accessed July 16, 2010).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Street_crime (accessed July 16, 2010).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criminality (accessed July 16, 2010).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crime_against_person (accessed July 16, 2010).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crime_against_property (accessed July 16, 2010).


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Chapter II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter represents review of related literature and related studies

both local and foreign and the state of the art synthesis to give the researchers a

better perspective

Crime Statistics

A survey undertaken in various parts of the Philippines over the last two

years of 2007 found that 10.5 percent of the Filipino families reported being

victims of property crimes such as pick pocketing, burglary, and other motor

vehicles theft within the previous six months (2008, Social Weather Station

Survey).

The survey found out that individuals living in Metro Manila were more

frequently victimized than those living in other parts of the country. In Metro

Manila alone, 16.3 percent of respondents reported being victims of pick

pocketing. In other regions, reported rates of victimization from pick pocketing

vary 5.3 percent to 8.7 percent. Foreign governments similarly report in travel

warnings that crime is a problem in the Philippines particularly in Metro Manila.

According to Felipe (2011) of The Philippine Star, statistics show that

there has been a downward trend in crime rates over the last two years, an

official of the Philippine National Police (PNP) said.


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Director Arturo Cacdac Jr., chief of the PNP Directorate for Investigation

and Detective Management (DIDM), said there was a sharp decline in crime

statistics from 2009 to 2010. “Crime volume in 2009 was at 502,665 but last

year, (there were only) 319,441 cases, so there was a sharp decrease of 183,224

incidents or roughly 36 percent,” Cacdac said in a forum. Cacdac noted that the

PNP leadership is now focusing on crime prevention programs and on training

policemen to be more effective in solving crimes. He said that in 2009, the index

crimes or cases categorized as crimes against persons including murder,

homicide, physical injury and rape reached 301,703. However, in 2010, there

were only 202,328 cases, down by roughly 32 percent.

Cacdac said that while they consider as good news the decrease in crime

volume, the PNP leadership vows to maintain its crime prevention programs and

ensure high crime solution efficiency nationwide. He said there was 29.47

percent crime solution efficiency in 2010, higher than the 25.5 percent recorded

in 2009.

According to the report presented by PCSupt. Cecilio B. Calleja Jr (2011)

PNP PRO5, the Regional Director of Police Regional Office 5 about the peace and

order situation in Bicol Region covering the period from January 1 to April 30,

2011 there were 4,545 crime incidents reported during the period. This figure

reflects an increase by 27 or .60% as compared to 4,518 crime incidents

reported during the same period last year.


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For the same period Index Crimes there were 2,488 incidents recorded

which reflect a decrease of 253 incidents or 9.23% from the 2,741 incidents for

the same period last year.

Most prevalent among the Index Crimes is Physical Injury with 1,049

cases representing 42% of the total. It is followed by Theft with 731 cases or

29%, Robbery with 326 cases or 13%, Murder 159 or 6%, Rape with 106 cases

or 4%, Homicide with sixty-six (66) or 3%, Carnapping with forty-one (41) cases

or 2% and Cattle Rustling with ten (10) cases or 1%.

For the period 01 January to 30 April 2011, 2,057 Non-Index crimes were

recorded. This is 280 cases or 15.76% higher than the 1,777 incidents posted on

the same period last year.

Of the 4,545 crime incidents reported for the period 1,073 were solved or

23.61% Crime Solution Efficiency (CSE) rating. This is 17.61% higher than the

6.00% CSE posted during the same period last year and represents a 293.5%

increase.

This period records an Average Monthly Crime Rate of twenty-two point

twenty-five (22.25) incidents per one hundred thousand (100,000) population or

a mere point thirteen percent (.13) higher than the twenty-two point twelve

percent (22.12) registered during the same period last year.

To effectively implement the new crime reporting system, all PNP Units

were required to submit the Unit Crime Periodic Report (UCPER) to the national

headquarters for consolidation into the NCRS, (2011) PNP News No. 09-1231.
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Bacalzo said the UCPER is designed to promote consistency in recording

crime incidents to serve as an effective tool in deriving accurate assessment of

the prevailing crime situation.

"THE UCPER prescribes a uniform procedure for the PNP in reporting and

collecting crime data including cases reported to other law enforcement agencies

that compose the Criminal Justice System", Bacalzo said.

"It is also formulated in preparation for the adoption of a computer-

based Crime Information System by 2010 as directed by Chief, Philippine

National Police, Director General Jesus A. Verzosa promoting efficiency in

arresting suspects through classification of cases, whether solved with arrested

suspects or those filed but with suspects who are still at large", he added.

Crime Prevention Strategies

Crime prevention is defined not by its intentions, but by its consequences.

These consequences can be defined in at least two ways. One is by the number

of criminal events; the other is by the number of criminal offenders. Some would

also define it by the amount of harm prevented or by the number of victims

harmed or harmed repeatedly (Hirschi, 1995). In asking the (1981) Attorney

General to report on the effectiveness of crime prevention efforts supported by

the Justice Department's Office of Justice Programs, the U.S. Congress has

embraced an even broader definition of crime prevention: reduction of risk

factors for crime (such as gang membership) and increases in protective factors
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(such as completing high school)--concepts that a National Academy of Sciences

report has labeled as "primary" prevention. What all these definitions have in

common is their focus on observed effects, and not the "hard" or "soft" content,

of a program.

(2000) in the “MANUAL FOR COMMUNITY BASED CRIME PREVENTION

PROGRAM”, Crime prevention means different things to different people. For the

police, crime prevention has to do with roadblocks, visible policing and search-

and-seizure operations. For a social worker, it might mean setting up projects to

re-integrate a young offender back into society after being arrested for a petty

crime. These are very different activities, but they all contribute towards

preventing crime. In effect, crime prevention is about stopping crime from

happening rather than waiting to respond once offences have been committed.

For example, much policing activity involves responding to crime: when the

police are called to a crime scene they respond by investigating the case,

arresting suspects, and seeking a conviction in court.

From the book entitled “Integrated Patrol System Police Visibility and

Crime Deterence” (2007), states that under the Barangay Police Laban sa

Krimen Concept, an active partner of the police in crime prevention is the

Barangay chairman and the Barangay Tanod. Barangay tanods help the police in

maintaining peace and order in their specific barangay. Joint barangay tanod

police ronda patrols should be regularly undertaken to further cement the closer

coordination and cooperation between tanods and police.


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The most strenuous efforts by the police alone will not produce the

desired results if the community stands by passively in the erroneous belief that

crime is purely a police responsibility. The community must accept that the task

of crime prevention is as much a community responsibility as it is a police

responsibility, and must join hands with the police to make crime prevention

effective. The failure of public involvement in crime prevention may be attributed

to ignorance. It is the police responsibility to overcome this ignorance through a

sustained programme of education that brings about crime prevention awareness

throughout the community, (2001) Singh.

The Kasurog Community-Oriented Policing System was studied by Llamera

(1999) in the three cities of Bicol. His findings revealed that Kasurog COPS

programs on crime prevention were partially implemented while problems were

seldom encountered. He also found out that except for inter-agency

coordination, there was no significant differences in the perception among the

police officers on the effectiveness of the programs. His conclusions reflected

that the programs have already gained momentum in the delivery of basic police

officers have a good showing of awareness and appreciation of crime prevention

activities which is a manifestation of a developed partnership with the

community.

Cahn and Tier (1980) considered that it must be recognized that

community policing is a philosophy, not a tactic. It is proactive, decentralized


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approach to policing, designed to reduce crime, disorder, and fear of crime while

also responding to explicit needs and demands of the community.

Mapalo (1995) noted that the conduct of police community relation shall

focus on “doing good and telling people about it.” Following this dictum, the

proposed comprehensive police community relation plan, which shall cover short,

medium and long term period shall be composed of generating institutional

support and conducting internal reforms.

Ross (2000) viewed community relations as kind of tripod on three equal

components: 1) Public relations which involved not only instituting programs and

charging procedures and practices, but re-examining fundamental activities; 2)

Community service, an example is a youth providing a variety of activities for

children – recreation, sports, skill games, camping, music, etc; and 3)

Community participation which stresses inter-professional or teamwork

approaches to solving community problems. It is widely used social work concept

of community organization, with particular attention to the pivotal-responsibility

of the police and other criminal justice agencies.

Carter & Radelet (1999) noted that “to some, police community relations

simply means public relations – that is, activities directed at creating and

maintaining favorable impressions of a product, a firm, or an institution, building

an image. The emphasis is on looking good, not necessarily on being good,

although public relations expert insist that the best public relations is a quality

product. For a police department, this means good community service.”


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Baraquel (1994) in his study “Toward the Development of Community

Based Crime Prevention and Control Program: A ‘Koban’ Model for the

Philippines” stated that the BAC UP can be considered as the must successful

implementation of the community-based crime prevention and control program

for the following reason: 1) it was able to sustain its objective of minimizing the

levels of crime incidence; 2) it presented a concrete example of committed

private sector involvement manifested in the joint undertaking of the Rotary Club

of Bacolod City – East and Negros Occidental PC/INP Command; 3) undertaken

at no cost to the government while completely overhauling the deployment

structure of the Bacolod City Police and providing it with the needed

administrative, communications and mobility requirements; 4) emphasized the

need for the recruitement, training and integration of barangay tanods in the

community police structure; and 6) it also provided for livelihood projects and

the provisions of the softloans for the private officers.

In the study of Tangcanco (2002) entitled “ Management capabilities of

the Philippine National Police in Legazpi City: An Assesment” stated that patrol is

often called the backbone of police work wherein the three basic components

are: 1) answering calls for assistance; 2) maintaining police presence; and 3)

probing suspicious circumstances. According to him the object of patrol function

is to dispense the police in ways that will eliminate or reduce the opportunities

for lawbreaking and increase the like hood that a criminal will be caught while

committing crime, or soon thereafter. The present study is similar with the
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previous one since the researcher of the present study assessed the level of

implementation of crime prevention and its impact to crime reduction.

Prado’s (1991) study was focused on the educational profile and problems

of probationers of Surigao del Sur during the school year 1989-1990. His findings

revealed that the funding assistance for an income generating project helps

augment their means, and the feelings of rejection and being unwanted ere

minimized. They were spiritually developed and had minimized the commission

of crimes and developed their God-fearing attitude.

Hitosis (2005) conducted the study “Performance of Police Stations in

Albay: An Assessment”. The study assessed the police assistance crime

prevention, security and safety, crime resolution, conduct and care for the

community, and peace and order. It was found out that the performance of

police stations in terms of the accomplishment of the six key result areas

namely: 1) police assistance; 2) crime prevention; 3) security and safety; 4)

crime resolution; 5) conduct and care for the community; and 6) peace and

order are “very satisfactory”. The problems of personnel and logistics support

endured by the police stations are “moderately serious”. To enhance the

performance of the station, the most common and frequently suggested police

actions are deployment of sufficient personnel, filing of criminal cases in court

and improvement of beat patrol system, mobility, quick response to complaint,

patrolling and strict enforcement of law and ordinances.


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According to Linda Royster (2000) in the past, the delivery of police

services was accomplished in a reactive and unscientific manner, with little

attention given to proactive policing. Today, the efficient delivery of police

services requires a systematic process to assess the needs of the public and

translate those needs into police services and programs than can be efficiently

and effectively delivered to the community. Hence, police are becoming sensitive

to the needs of the community and can better understand how their work affects

the social environment.

In Vargas (2003) study, he determined the perception of the members of

the Philippine National Police and Baranggay Tanods on the effectiveness of the

organization in Ragay, Camarines Sur particularly their efficiency in combating

crimes and criminality. He found out that both the PNP and Barangay Tanods of

Ragay Camarines Sur were uncertain or disagreeable about the causes of crime

and criminalities in their area of responsibilities because consequently they have

no concrete evidences about those crimes. Consequently there was a significant

relationship between the perceptions of the PNP and Barangay Tanods on the

effectiveness and level of efficiency of the Philippine National Police in Ragay,

Camarines Sur.

(2011) Panayiotis, in Cyprus, some of their crime prevention measure

were that Cyprus Police participate in Committees which among other things, are

concerned with the welfare and proper social behavior of young persons,

children and teenagers. At the same time, the Police have a 24-hour “hotline” for
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drug users, providing assistance and information and a “direct line” with the

Public. Additionally, the Police (Criminologists, Psychologists, Sociologists and

experienced officers from different fields) visit schools regularly, offering lectures

regarding drugs, hooliganism and other social problems.

Hot spots policing has become a very popular way for police departments

to prevent crime. A Police Foundation report found that 7 in 10 departments with

more than 100 sworn officers reported using crime mapping to identify crime hot

spots (Weisburd et al., 2006). Recent research studies suggest that focused

police interventions, such as directed patrols, proactive arrests, and problem-

oriented policing, can produce significant gains in crime prevention at high-crime

hot spots (Eck, 1997, 2002; Braga, 2002; Weisburd and Eck, 2004). Given the

growing popularity of this approach to crime prevention, a review of existing

evaluations of hot spots policing programs can help police executives and

policymakers understand what works in preventing crime in hot spot areas.

Impact of Crime Prevention Strategies to Crime Incidence

A meta-analysis of hot spots policing experiments revealed significant

overall prevention effects of hot spots policing programs in reducing citizen calls

for service (Braga, 2005). The strongest gains in crime control were reported in

the Jersey City POP at Violent Places Study and the Kansas City Gun Project. In

the Jersey City POP Study, the enforcement problem-oriented policing strategy

resulted in significant reductions in total calls for service and total crime
23

incidents, as well as varying reductions in all subcategories of crime types (Braga

et al., 1999). Additional analyses of observation data collected over the course of

the evaluation revealed that social disorder, such as loiterers and public drinkers,

and physical disorder, such as trash, graffiti, and vacant lots, was also reduced

significantly. Proactive patrols focused on firearm recoveries in the Kansas City

Gun Project resulted in a 65 percent increase in gun seizures and a 49 percent

decrease in gun crimes in the target beat area; gun seizures and gun crimes in

the comparison beat area did not change significantly (Sherman and Rogan

1995a). A separate study examined community reaction to the Kansas City

intervention and found that the community strongly supported the intensive

patrols and perceived an improvement in the quality of life in the treatment

neighborhood (Shaw, 1995).

The Minneapolis Hot Spots Patrol Program revealed that roughly doubling

the level of patrol in crime hot spots resulted in modest, but significant,

reductions in total calls for service, ranging from 6 percent to 13 percent

(Sherman and Weisburd, 1995). Moreover, systematic observations of the hot

spots documented that disorderly behavior in the targeted areas was also

reduced (Sherman and Weisburd, 1995). The Jersey City DMAP Program found

that well-planned crackdowns in street-level drug markets followed by patrol

maintenance resulted in significant reductions in disorder calls for service

(Weisburd and Green, 1995). Similarly, the St. Louis POP quasi-experiment found

that the enforcement problem-oriented policing strategy was associated with


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varying degrees of reductions in total calls for service at all three high-activity

drug locations; these reductions were greater than any reductions observed in

other blocks and intersections in the surrounding areas (Hope, 1994). The

Kansas City Crack House Raid experiment reported modest decreases in citizen

calls for service and crime offenses at the targeted blocks that decayed within 2

weeks of the raids (Sherman and Rogan, 1995b).

The Houston Targeted Beat Program suggests that the aggregated target

beats experienced significant reductions in auto theft, total Part I index crimes,

and total Part I “patrol suppressible” crimes (robbery, burglary, and auto theft)

(Caeti, 1999). The targeted beats where “zero tolerance” aggressive disorder

policing was used to control hot spots experienced mixed reductions in Part I

crimes; the three targeted beats where “high-visibility” directed patrol was used

to control hot spots experienced reductions in a wide variety of Part I crimes; the

one targeted beat where an enforcement problem-oriented policing strategy was

implemented to control hot spots did not experience noteworthy decreases. The

limits of the analytic framework used in this evaluation preclude conclusions that

certain types of policing strategies may be more effective in preventing crime in

hot spots (see Braga, 2001). Nevertheless, the results of this study can be

broadly taken to support the position that focused police enforcement efforts can

be effective in reducing crime at hot spots.

Another literature review looked mainly at community watch programs in

the UK (Husain, 1990). The study reviewed the results of nine existing
25

evaluations and conducted an original analysis of community watch in six

additional locations using police-recorded crime data. The review of existing

evaluations concluded that there was little evidence that Neighborhood Watch

prevented crime.

One of the earliest evaluations which showed that Neighborhood Watch

was effective in reducing crime was conducted in Seattle, Washington, by Cirel et

al. (1977). The evaluation was based on telephone and door-to-door surveys of

residents both in the year before and the year after the program had been

introduced, and conducted in five census tracts. The results showed that the rate

of burglary decreased by a substantially greater amount in the experimental

areas than in the control areas (-61 percent compared with -4 percent). The

authors concluded that participating in community crime prevention “significantly

reduces the risk of residential burglary victimization” (p. 79).

Latessa and Travis (1987) also found positive results when evaluating a

block watch program in the College Hill area of Cincinnati, Ohio. College Hill is

described by the authors as the fifth largest community in the city, with a

population of more than 17,000 residents. Using police-recorded crime data,

burglary rates in College Hill in the year before and after the program were

compared with burglary rates in the city of Cincinnati as a whole. The figures

showed that burglary in the experimental area decreased by 11 percent, while

burglary in Cincinnati as a whole decreased by 2 percent. One of the studies that

produced negative results was by Lewis, Grant, and Rosenbaum (1988) who
26

evaluated the effectiveness of five block watch programs in Chicago, Illinois.

Crime and public attitude surveys were conducted in the experimental and

matched control areas before the launch of the programs and again 1 year after

the launch. Only one of the five experimental areas experienced a reduction in

victimizations (and this was only marginally significant). Two of the experimental

areas, however, showed a statistically significant increase in victimizations per r

espondent. The authors concluded that the results “force us to seriously address

the possibility of both theory failure and program failure in this field”

(Rosenbaum, Lewis, and Grant, 1985, p. 170).

Synthesis of the State-of-the-Art

The foregoing literature was found to be related in the present study as it

similarly deals on the nature of crime, its ill effect and how to prevent and

reduce crime. And the duty of maintaining peace and order is not the sole

responsibility of the police but a joint effort between the community and the

police.

For greater semblance to this study, the finding of Tier, Mapalo, Llamera,

and Baraquel focused on community-based crime prevention in various

cities/municipalities in the Philippines. Meanwhile, the study of Tancanco, Hitosis,

Vargas and Lazo similarly looked into the performance of the PNP and its

effectiveness in their task, one of which is crime prevention. Prado’s study looked

into the factors that helped minimized crime.


27

This study was likewise related to the study of Braga, Sherman & Rogan,

Shaw, Weisburd & Green, Hope, Caeti, Hussain, Cirel and Latessa which all

looked into the effect of different crime prevention strategies to the reduction of

crime.

Gap Bridge by the Study

All related literatures and studies reviewed similarly looked into the

possible causes of crime and how to prevent crime with the use of several

approaches or strategies. However no one looked into the level of

implementation of such crime prevention strategies and the level of crimes,

particularly in Naga City.

Theoretical Framework

The present study is anchored on the contextual interaction theory, age-

graded theory, theory of empowerment and situational choice theory which uses

three distinct approaches: environmental criminology, the rational-choice

perspective, and the routine-activity approach.

Situational Choice Theory

This theory uses three distinct approaches: environmental criminology,

the rational-choice perspective, and the routine-activity approach. These

theoretical approaches to crime are sometimes called “opportunity theories”


28

SITUATIONAL

CHOICE

THEORY

REDUCED
THEORY CONTEXTUAL
CRIME
OF INTERACTION
INCIDENCE
EMPOWERMENT THEORY

AGE

GRADED

THEORY

Figure 1

THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK
29

because they analyze the various situations that provide opportunity for specific

crimes to occur (Adler, Mueller, & Laufer, 2004).

Environmental Criminology. Environmental criminology examines the

location of a specific crime and the context in which it occurs in order to

understand and explain crime patterns (Brantigham & Brantigham, 1998). This

perspective also emphasizes the importance of architectural features as they are

associated with the prevalence of criminal victimization (Bureau of Justice

Statistics, 1992). Central to environmental criminology is the “broken windows”

theory, proposed by James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling, which holds that the

physical deterioration of buildings in a neighborhood leads to a breakdown of

control, which leads to high crime rates. Wilson and Kelling (1982) believe that

“disorder is a problem because, like a broken window, it conveys the message

that nobody is ‘home’ who cares enough to maintain order” (Cullen & Agnew,

2006, p. 463). They use the “broken windows” metaphor to outline the process

by which neighborhoods spiral into decline (Wilson & Kelling, 1982).

This applies to the present study because in order to come up with a good

crime prevention strategy the law enforcement agencies should analyze which

places are prone to criminalities and to what specific hour does crime takes place

in such place.

Rational-Choice Perspective. The rational-choice perspective is based on

two main theoretical approaches (Clarke & Cornish, 1985). The first approach
30

assumes that people make decisions with the goal of maximizing pleasure and

minimizing pain. The second approach is based on the traditional economic

choice theory that people evaluate their options and choose what they believe

will best satisfy their needs. According to this perspective, a person will commit

a crime after concluding that the benefits outweigh the risks and the effort.

Rational-choice implies a limited sense of rationality: a criminal does not know all

the details of a situation but relies on cues in the environment or characteristics

of targets.

This was used in this study, because deterrence by way of maximizing the

pain rather than the pleasure acquired through commission of crime is still one of

the effective strategies to lessen crime.

Routine-Activity Approach. The routine-activity approach was developed

by Lawrence Cohen and Marcus Felson (1979). According to their theory, a

crime can only occur if there is: (1) someone who intends to commit a crime; (2)

something or someone to be victimized—the “target;” (3) no other person

present to prevent or observe the crime; and (4) no person present to control

the likely victim—the “guardian” (Cohen & Felson, 1979). They believe that, if

any of these elements are missing, the offender will likely not commit the crime.

This approach applies to this study because the researcher looks into the

importance of the participation of other members of the community in the

prevention of crime. That it is not only the sole responsibility of law enforcement

agencies to prevent crimes, because if we would all be vigilant to prevent


31

ourselves and our love ones and even others from being victimized, then crimes

are lessened.

Sampson and Laub’s Age-Graded Theory of Informal Social Control

The dominant developmental theoretical perspective is Robert Sampson

and John Laub’s age-graded theory of informal social control. Their thesis is that

informal social controls—such as involvement in family, work, and school—

mediate structural context and explain criminal involvement, even in the face of

the underlying level of criminal propensity. Like static theorists, Sampson and

Laub acknowledge that individuals differ in their underlying criminal propensity

and in how likely they are to place themselves in troublesome or criminogenic

situations. Unlike others, they acknowledge that individuals garner variable

amounts of social capital from informal social control networks; this social

capital, in turn, explains the continuity in antisocial behaviors across various life

stages. Persons with low social capital (and past criminal involvement) mortgage

their future life chances—a process referred to as the cumulative continuity of

disadvantage. On the other hand, pro-social adult social bonds or turning points

can “right” previously deviant pathways such as juvenile delinquency,

unemployment, and substance abuse and place an individual onto a trajectory

toward more successful outcomes. Unlike the static theories that are criticized for

being overly simplistic and deterministic, Sampson and Laub stress that change

or dynamism characterizes criminal careers because even the most active


32

offender desists over the life course. For instance, 60-year-old criminals are not

as active and violent as they were at age 17. Theories must, then, be able to

account for these changes (Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H., 1993).

Sampson and Laub’s thesis has received a great deal of attention and

spawned additional research programs across the United States. Their own

research applies modern statistical methods to the archival data of 500 officially

defined delinquents and a matched sample of 500 non-delinquents originally

collected by Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck. Overall, they have found that family

processes (e.g., the amount of maternal supervision, parental discipline style,

and attachment to parents) are among the most robust predictors of chronic

criminality. These family variables largely mediated background social class

factors and predicted delinquency even when considering the antisocial

dispositions of children and their parents (Laub, J. H., & Sampson, R. J., 1988).

Even though Sampson and Laub’s theory stressed the importance of proximal

adult sociality, they did not ignore the profound implications of childhood

antisocial behavior. Indeed, they found that childhood anti sociality was

predictive of an array of deviance in adulthood; however, these relationships

were rendered spurious once adult social bonds were considered. In their words,

“Adult social bonds not only have important effects on adult crime in and of

themselves, but help to explain the probabilistic links in the chain connecting

early childhood differences and later adult crime” (Laub, J. H., & Sampson, R. J.,

1993). Several scholars have developed and tested life-course models based on
33

Sampson and Laub’s theoretical ideas. Based on data from an ongoing panel

study of 451 Iowa families, Ronald Simons and his colleagues examined the

effects of association with deviant peers, socioeconomic status, parenting

techniques, and oppositional/defiant disorder on delinquency. They found that

late starters, who represent the preponderance of persons engaging in

delinquency after age 14, followed a developmental sequence. Specifically, they

found that antisocial adolescents who were in strong marriages were significantly

less involved in crime than their peers who were single or in problematic

marriages. They argue for “consideration of the manner in which peer

friendships, as well as other social relationships, may operate to amplify or

moderate the antisocial tendencies fostered by ineffectual parental behavior”

(Simons, R. L., Wu, C., Conger, R. D., & Lorenz, F. O., 1994). Similarly, others

have found that the salience of criminal propensity measured by childhood and

adolescent misconduct tended to disappear once the effects of family, school,

and peers were considered. This suggests that informal social control networks

are more important than latent traits of deviance in explaining delinquency

(Simons, R. L., Johnson, C., Conger, R. D., & Elder, G., 1998).

This theory was used in this study because a good crime prevention

strategy is anchored on addressing the root cause of the problem. Since

problems on crime usually begins with child delinquency due to lack of guidance

from the informal social controls such as family, school and peers, indeed there

is a need to create programs that will focus on strengthening and giving


34

importance on the role of this informal social control as one of the strategies that

will help in the reduction of problems in delinquency that leads to criminality.

Theories of Empowerment

Empowerment can begin to be understood by examining the concepts of

power and powerlessness (Moscovitch and Drover, 1981). Power is defined by

the Cornell Empowerment Group as the "capacity of some persons and

organizations to produce intended, foreseen and unforeseen effects on others"

(Cornell Empowerment Group, 1989, p.2). There are many sources of power.

Personality, property/wealth, and influential organizations have been identified

by Galbraith (1983) as critical sources of power in the last part of this century.

Others have pointed out that the class-dominated nature of our society means

that a small number of people have vast economic or political power, while the

majority have little or none (Moscovitch & Drover, 1981)

At the individual level, powerlessness can be seen as the expectation of

the person that his/her own actions will be ineffective in influencing the outcome

of life events (Keiffer, 1984). Lerner (1986) makes a distinction between real and

surplus powerlessness. Real powerlessness results from economic inequities and

oppressive control exercised by systems and other people. Surplus

powerlessness, on the other hand, is an internalized belief that change cannot

occur, a belief which results in apathy and an unwillingness of the person to

struggle for more control and influence. Powerlessness has, over the years, come
35

to be viewed as an objective phenomenon, where people with little or no political

and economic power lack the means to gain greater control and resources in

their lives (Albee, 1981). As an illustration of powerlessness, Asch (1986) has

noted that generally people with disabilities;

Keiffer's (1984) work on personal empowerment is one of the only major

empirical studies which examines personal empowerment as a process. He labels

empowerment as a developmental process which includes four stages: entry,

advancement, incorporation, and commitment. The entry stage appears to be

motivated by the participant's experience of some event or condition threatening

to the self or family, what Keiffer refers to as an act of 'provocation'. In the

advancement stage, there are three major aspects which are important to

continuing the empowerment process: a mentoring relationship; supportive peer

relationships with a collective organization; and the development of a more

critical understanding of social and political relations. The central focus of the

third stage appears to be the development of a growing political consciousness.

Commitment is the final stage - one in which the participants apply the new

participatory competence to ever expanding areas of their lives.

According to Wallerstein (1992), empowerment is a social-action process

that promotes participation of people, organizations, and communities towards

the goals of increased individual and community control, political efficacy,

improved quality of community life, and social justice. While Whitmore (1988)
36

feels the concept of empowerment needs to be more clearly defined, she states

that there are some common underlying assumptions:

a) individuals are assumed to understand their own needs better than anyone

else

and therefore should have the power both to define and act upon them.

b) all people possess strengths upon which they can build.

c) empowerment is a lifelong endeavor.

d) personal knowledge and experience are valid and useful in coping effectively.

Individual Empowerment and Collective Empowerment. Empowerment

theories are not only concerned with the process of empowerment, but also with

results that can produce greater access to resources and power for the

disadvantaged (Freire, 1973; Parpart et al., 2003; Robins et al., 1998, p. 91).

The analysis of the work reviewed thus far can be used to organize a theory of

the cognitive elements of empowerment.

Although much of the empowerment research and literature deals with

the individual in his immediate environment, there is clearly a branch that

focuses more on the wider community (Itshaky & York, 2000). Empowerment is

operative at various levels: personal or individual, interpersonal, organizational,

community, and collective. Boehm and Staples (2004) emphasized personal and

collective dimensions, while Dodd and Gutierrez (1990), Lee (1994), and

Gutierrez (1990) examined personal, interpersonal, and institutional or political

dimensions. It can be said that the interpersonal dimension is included in the


37

collective dimension because the term interpersonal has a connotation of

collectiveness. The institutional or political dimensions can be represented as

part of the collective dimension. Therefore, the components of empowerment

can be examined in the context of both personal and collective aspects.

Personal empowerment relates to the way people think about themselves,

as well as the knowledge, capacities, skills, and mastery they actually possess

(Staples, 1990, p. 32). Collective empowerment refers to processes by which

individuals join together to break their solitude and silence, help one another,

learn together, and develop skills for collective action (Boehm & Staples, 2004;

Fetterson, 2002). In a way, empowerment develops from individual and social

conscientization or a critical consciousness to collective action (Boehm & Staples,

2004). In addition, the processes of the components leading to empowerment

include both individual and social factors. Strengthening intellectual capabilities

and the power within (Parpart et al., 2003) can be seen as individual factors in

the process, whereas mobilizing collective action and maximizing power can be

referred to as social factors. Personal empowerment sometimes conflicts with the

development of collective empowerment, when empowerment is not effectively

operating. Although individuals can become more empowered personally through

the process of personal development, they cannot always become effective in

helping to build their group’s collective empowerment. Personal empowerment

should be consistent with collective empowerment to improve the value of social

and economic justice more effectively (Staples, 1999).


38

This theory was applied to this study since crime prevention is not a sole

responsibility of the police rather a consolidated effort of all the stakeholders

which includes all the citizen of the community. Crime prevention measures

implemented by the police will be ineffective without the involvement of the

citizen. In order to realize a maximum involvement of the citizen they must be

empowered or strengthened as to how they can fight back, prevent themselves

from victimization and help in the prevention of crimes like involvement in

neighborhood watch program, citizen patrol, citizen crime reporting and other

programs that requires citizen involvement. Indeed people empowerment is

needed to convince them that they can prevent themselves from crime through

their own efforts.

Contextual Interaction Theory

Finding a model for policy implementation does not mean that

implementers then can employ a simple process, using quick fixes to create rapid

change in an implementation network—long-term behavior change rarely

happens that way. Instead, a simplified model provides a framework for

systematically identifying and addressing factors that implementers have some

chance of influencing. The activity team identified such a model in the Contextual

Interaction Theory (CIT)

CIT uses a deductive, social process approach that employs explicit

consideration of several variables, including the policy tools (or “instruments”)


39

and the strategic interactions between implementers and target groups over

extended periods of time (O’Toole, 2004).

The basic assumption of the Contextual Interaction Theory is thus that the

course and outcome of the policy process depend not only on inputs (in this case

the characteristics of the policy instruments), but more crucially on the

characteristics of the actors involved, particularly their motivation, information

and power. All other factors that influence the process do so because, and in so

far as, they influence the characteristics of the actors involved. The theory does

not deny the value of a multiplicity of possible factors, but claims that

theoretically their influence can best be understood by assessing their impact on

the motivation, information, and power of the actors involved (Bressers, 2004).

This discussion of actors includes the role of the public in policy

implementation. Communities and individuals are the ultimate “target groups” of

policies and programs and therefore are the ultimate “street-level” implementers,

able to demand or reject specific programs. For example, in Vietnam, a policy to

reintegrate children living in orphanages (including children affected by HIV)

back into the community has failed to get off the ground because few

community members will accept these children due to unfounded fears of casual

transmission of HIV to their children (see the Vietnam section for further

information).

One of CIT’s key assumptions is that the factors influencing the

implementation process are interactive. The influence of any factor, whether


40

positive or negative, depends on the particular contextual circumstances. The

theory distinguishes a set of “core circumstances” or constructs related to the

actors involved, which jointly contribute to implementation. The constructs

include the following:

Motivation. The level of importance actors place on a particular policy or

program and the degree to which the policy or program contributes to their goals

and objectives affects implementation. For example, if actors have low

motivation regarding a specific issue, they may ignore the policy; issue a

“symbolic policy” not supported by a serious commitment of resources; or, in

some cases, actively work to undermine the policy or program.

Examining motivation helps stakeholders understand the perspectives of

implementers—their belief systems, value priorities, and perceptions of the

importance and magnitude of specific problems and policy solutions—often

revealing the root causes of implementation barriers (Sabatier, 1991; Kayaba et

al., 2005; Deibert et al., 2006).

Information. Successful policy or program implementation requires that

those involved have sufficient information. Information includes technical

knowledge of the matter at hand and levels and patterns of communication

between actors. For example, do those responsible for implementation actually

know with whom they should be working and who the policy is supposed to

benefit (target groups)? Do they know, for instance, which department is

assigned to lead the implementation and how the program will be monitored? Do
41

they know the culture and processes of other organizations in their network?

Have guidelines and protocols been developed, and are they readily available?

How is information and communication between actors coordinated? Do

beneficiaries have sufficient and appropriate information to benefit from the

program?

Power. It is important to understand who is empowered to implement a

policy and to what degree they can implement it. Power may derive from formal

sources (such as legal or regulatory systems) or informal sources (such as being

dependent on another party for the achievement of other objectives). In most

interactive processes, informal sources of power may be highly important and, in

many cases, can balance the more formal powers of the implementing

authorities.

Interaction. Interactions between actors must be considered to further

analyze barriers to implementation. Types of interaction include the following:

Cooperation. Active cooperation occurs when both parties share a

common goal (including the goal of blocking implementation of a policy).

Passive cooperation refers to one or more actors adopting a relatively

passive approach to implementation of the policy instrument. Forced

cooperation is a form of passive cooperation imposed by a dominant

actor.

Opposition. Opposition occurs when one actor tries to prevent

implementation of the policy or program by another actor.


42

Joint learning. Joint learning occurs when multiple stakeholders

overcome a lack of information standing in the way of implementation

(Bressers, 2004).

Actors at a particular organization or level within a network know their

own and their organization’s role in implementing a policy or program but cannot

see the larger pattern of interactions within the network, making it difficult for

individuals or single organizations to fully identify where barriers to

implementation are occurring (Senge, 1990). Examining the network within

which policies and programs are implemented is critical to identifying where

barriers arise in the network. Also important is the recognition that relationships

between actors within these networks entail different levels of interdependency

(O’Toole and Montjoy, 1984). Studies from information network diffusion,

systems analysis, and game theory suggest that improving implementation may

not require large-scale efforts throughout the entire network but rather well-

focused actions that create small changes among a few actors in a setting of

interdependence (Senge, 1990; O’Toole, 2004; Gibbons, 2007).

This theory was used since the present study looked into the level of

implementation of the crime prevention strategy and its impact to crime

incidence. It is presumed that a low level of implementation of crime prevention

strategies would contribute to the escalation of crime incidence and on the

contrary could lead to a decline in crime incidence if there would be a high

extensive level of implementation of such strategies. It is therefore imperative


43

that there must be a consistent high extensive level of implementation of crime

prevention strategies to lessen the crime incidence. In order to achieve the high

extensive level of implementation, those factors that could possibly influence

such implementation should be look into. In this theory the basic assumption is

that the course and outcome of the policy process depend not only on inputs,

but more crucially on the characteristics of the actors or implementers involve

particularly their motivation, information and power to implement policies or

strategies.

Conceptual Framework

The present study determined the level of implementation of crime

prevention strategies as perceived by the police, barangay officials, barangay

tanods, business sector and the residents of the 27 barangays in Naga City and

its impact to crime incidence.

The independent variables were the data that show the perception of the

respondents of the level of crime prevention strategies in Naga City along anti-

street crime strategy, community-based anti crime strategy and crime awareness

strategy. The significant differences among aspects and between periods of the

level of implementation of crime prevention strategies were also tested.

Meanwhile, the dependent variable of the study was the impact of the crime

prevention strategies which is the crime reduction along index and non-index

crime. Figure 2 shows the conceptual paradigm of the study.


44

Naga City Crime Prevention Strategies: Its Implementation and Impact


CY 2008-2010

Crime Prevention
Strategies
Crime
 Anti-street Reduction
crime strategy
 Index crime
 Community-
 Non-Index
based anti crime
crime strategy
 Crime
awareness
strategy

Significant Differences among


Aspect and among Periods

Figure 2

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
45

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(1993) Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. Crime in the making: Pathways and turning
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(1988) Laub, J. H., & Sampson, R. J. Unraveling families and delinquency: A


reanalysis of the Gluecks’ data. Criminology, 26, 355-380; Sampson, R. J., &
Laub, J. H. (1994). Urban poverty and the family context of delinquency: A new
look at structure and process in a classic study. Child Development, 65, 523-540.

(1993) Laub, J. H., & Sampson, R. J. Turning points in the life course: Why
change matters to the study of crime. Criminology, 31, 301-326 (p. 320); see
also Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1990). Crime and deviance over the life
course: The salience of adult social bonds. American Sociological Review, 55,
609-627. 72 CAREER CRIMINALS IN SOCIETY

(1994) Simons, R. L., Wu, C., Conger, R. D., & Lorenz, F. O., Two routes to
delinquency: Differences between early and late starters in the impact of
parenting and deviant peers. Criminology, 32, 247-276 (p. 269).
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(1998) Simons, R. L., Johnson, C., Conger, R. D., & Elder, G., A test of latent
trait versus life-course perspectives on the stability of adolescent antisocial
behavior.

(1981) Moscovitch, A. and Drover, G., Inequality: Essays on the political


economy of
social welfare. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

(1989, October)Cornell Empowerment Group., Empowerment and family support.


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(1983) Galbraith, J.K., The anatomy of power. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

(1984) Keiffer, C. Citizen empowerment: A developmental perspective.


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(1986) Lerner, M., Surplus powerlessness. Oakland, CA: Institute for Labor and
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(1981) Albee, G., Politics, power, prevention and social change. Prevention
through political action and social change. J. Joffe, G. Albee (eds). Hanover and
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(1986) Asch, A., Will populism empower the disabled? Social Policy. 16(3), 12-
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(1992) Wallerstein, N., Powerlessness, empowerment and health: Implications


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(1988) Whitmore, E., Empowerment and the process of inquiry. A paper


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(1973) Freire, P., Education for critical consciousness. New York: Continuum
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(2003) Parpart, J.L., Rai, S.M., & Staudt, K., Rethinking empowerment: Gender
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(2000) Itzhaky, H., & York, A.S., Sociopolitical control and empowerment: An
extended replication. Journal of Community Psychology, 28(4), 407–415.

(2004) Boehm, A., & Staples, L.H., Empowerment: The point of view of
consumer. Families in Society, 85(2), 270–280.

(1990) Dodd, P., & Gutierrez, L., Preparing students for the future: A power
perspective on community practice. Administration in Social Work, 14(2), 63–78.

(1994) Lee, L., The empowerment approach to social work practice. New York:
Columbia University Press.

(1990) Gutierrez, L.M., Working with women of color: An empowerment


perspective. Social Work, 35(2), 149–153.

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(2002) Fetterson, M.D., Empowerment evaluation: Building communities of


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51

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52

Chapter III

METHODS AND PROCEDURES

This chapter is a presentation of the method and procedures in this study

to realize its objectives. It includes the research design which was employed by

the researcher, the respondents and sampling method, instrument used, data

gathering procedure, and the statistical treatment of the data.

Method Used

The present study employed descriptive-comparative method. According

to Best and Kahn (1989), the descriptive research design is particularly

appropriate in the behavioral sciences. The reasons for this is the fact that

behavior of interest to the investigator can be systematically examined and

analyzed as they happen in its natural setting – the home, the classroom, the

recreational center, the workplace such as an office or factory. Thus, descriptive

method was used in describing the crime statistics and crime prevention

strategies of Naga City.

Descriptive comparative methods was also employed to determine the

absence or existence of statistically significant difference in crime statistics


53

between aspects and among periods and in the level of implementation of crime

prevention strategies among aspects and among periods.

Respondents of the Study

The respondents of the study were the Barangay Officials of the 27

Barangays in Naga City and the personnel of the Naga City Police Office and

Public Safety Office, residents and persons from business sector. Stratified

proportionate random sampling was used in choosing the respondents and Lynch

Formula was used to compute the adequate sample size. Table 1 presents the

respondents distribution.

Table 1

Respondents of the Study

Group (n) %

Barangay Officials 107 25.48

NCPO Personnel 110 26.19

PSO Personnel 29 6.90

Business Sector 39 9.29

Residents 135 32.14

Total 420 100.00


54

The sample was derived using the Lynch Formula for computing the

adequate sample size. Using the stratified proportionate random sampling, 110

or 26.19% was taken from NPCO personnel and this was followed by Barangay

Officials with 107 or 25.48%, followed by Business Sector with 39 or 9.29% and

lastly by PSO personnel with 29 or 6.90%.

Meanwhile, to get sample from the residents as one of the respondents of

this study, the researcher has used purposive and convenience sampling. With

these 5 heads of the family in each of the 27 barangays was taken for a total of

135 or 32.14% of the total respondents.

Procedures of Investigation

The researcher had constructed a survey questionnaire to determine the

level of implementation of crime prevention strategies in Naga City for calendar

year 2008 to 2010. The items contained in the survey were based from the crime

prevention strategy of Naga City Police Office and the related literature gathered

and presented in the previous study. It further utilized a rating scale in

determining the level of implementation of crime prevention strategies in Naga

City.

Moreover, the researcher sought permission from the Office of the

Barangay Captain of every barangay in Naga City, Office of the NCPO Director

and PSO Director and the City Mayor to distribute the survey questionnaire and

gather information needed for the study.


55

The responses of the respondents were tallied and treated through

appropriate statistical tools. The quantified data were placed in tabular forms to

facilitate discussion and interpretation.

Data Gathering Tools

This study included three (3) data gathering tools, namely: questionnaire,

unstructured interview, and documentary analysis.

Questionnaire. The questionnaire was composed of two parts. Part I

comprised the profile of the respondents and Part II contained the different

crime prevention strategies. This was the primary tool to gather data. It was

based from the crime prevention strategies of NCPO and from the related

literatures and studies gathered and presented in the previous chapters. This has

provided the researcher the level of implementation of crime prevention

strategies in Naga City.

Unstructured Interview. Information not revealed in the questionnaire as

well as responses that were vague was cross checked through the unstructured

interview. Questions asked were taken from the questionnaire, hence, no

interview guide was used.

Documentary Analysis. To determine the statistics of crime in Naga City

for calendar year 2008 to 2010, the researcher referred to the respective records

of the NCPO of the index and non-index crime reported.


56

Statistical Tools

The present study had employed the following statistical tools in treating

the data gathered:

Frequency and Percentage was used to determine the profile of the

respondents which include, name, age, gender, educational attainment, length of

service, occupation and civil status.

Weighted mean and ranking was used to determine the level of

implementation of crime prevention strategies.

Percentage change was utilized in this study to determine the variance

of crime incidence among aspects.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test was employed in this study to

determine the absence or existence of statistically significant difference in crime

statistics between aspects and among periods and in the level of implementation

of crime prevention strategies among aspects and among periods.

Scheffe’ Test was employed as post hoc procedure to further determine

which among the aspect and among periods are specifically significant from each

other.
57

Notes

(2006) Aquino, Gaudencio V. Fundamentals of Research. National Bookstore,


Inc., Manila,

(1992) Pagoso, Cristobal M., et.al. Fundamental Statistics for College Students.
Sinag-Tala Publisher, Inc., Manila.

(2012) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scheff%C3%A9%27s_method
58

Chapter IV

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

This chapter is a presentation and analysis of data gathered concerning

the crime statistics in Naga City along index and non-index crime for the CY

2008-2010 and the level of implementation of crime prevention strategies in the

three periods.

Crime Statistics in Naga City

Index Crime

In the United States Department of Justice Federal Bureau of

Investigation (FBI) Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program, index crimes are

the eight crimes the FBI combines to produce its annual crime index. These

offenses include willful homicide, forcible rape, robbery, burglary, aggravated

assault, larceny over $50, motor vehicle theft, and arson.

In the Philippines, index crimes are those crimes which includes crime

against person i.e. (murder, homicide, physical injuries and rape) and crimes

against property i.e. (robbery and theft). In other words, index crimes are crimes

which are sufficiently significant and which occur with sufficient regularity to be

meaningful. Shown in table 3A are the crimes reported in Naga City along index

crimes for CY 2008-2010. Each calendar year is divided into quarters.

For the first quarter of CY-2008 along crimes against person, there was no

reported murder case, while 4 cases of homicide were reported. Furthermore, 63


59

cases of physical injuries were reported while no rape case was reported.

Meanwhile, along crimes against property, 20 cases of robbery were reported

while 100 cases of theft were reported. So this means that there were a total of

187 index crimes reported on the first quarter and the most prevalent is the

crime of theft. On the second quarter along crimes against person, there was

only one murder case reported while there were 4 cases of homicide reported.

Furthermore, 27 cases of physical injuries while 3 cases of rape were also

reported. On the other hand, along crimes against property, 22 robbery case

while 100 theft cases were reported. This means that there were a total of 95

index crimes reported on the second quarter and the most prevalent is the crime

of theft. For the third quarter along crimes against person, 1 murder case and 4

homicide cases were reported. Furthermore, 55 cases of physical injuries and 3

rape cases were also reported. Meanwhile, along crimes against property, there

were 19 robbery cases and 73 theft cases that were reported. This means that

there were 155 cases of index crimes were reported on the third quarter and the

most prevalent was the crime of theft. And for the last quarter of the year along

crimes against person, 3 murder cases and 1 homicide case were reported.

Furthermore, 67 cases of physical injuries while 2 rape cases were reported. On

the other hand, along crimes against property 19 cases of robbery while 62 cases

of theft were reported. This means that there were 154 index crimes reported on

the last quarter and the most prevalent was the crime of physical injuries.
60

Table 2A

Crime Statistics in Naga City for CY 2008-2010


Along Index Crime

2008 2009 2010

Overall Index Crime


Against Against Against
Against Person Against Person Against Person
Property Property Property
Quarter
Total Total Total
of the
Homicide

Homicide

Homicide
Robbery

Robbery

Robbery
Index Index Index
Physical

Physical

Physical
Murder

Murder

Murder
Injuries

Injuries

Injuries
Theft

Theft

Theft
Year
Rape

Rape

Rape
Crime Crime Crime

1st
0 4 63 0 20 100 187 1 10 30 8 17 76 142 0 0 185 3 51 200 439 768
Quarter
2nd
1 4 27 3 22 38 95 2 5 26 3 20 68 124 4 3 178 4 70 237 496 715
Quarter
3rd
1 4 55 3 19 73 155 0 2 48 2 30 72 154 4 1 150 5 52 124 336 645
Quarter
4th
3 1 67 2 19 62 154 2 2 39 4 20 60 127 2 0 96 2 55 121 276 557
Quarter
Total
Index 5 13 212 8 80 273 591 5 19 143 17 87 276 547 10 4 461 14 228 682 1547 2685
crime
Rank 6 4 2 5 3 1 6 4 2 5 3 1 5 6 2 4 3 1
Reference: Appendix C

Legend: 1st Quarter – January to March


2nd Quarter – April to June
3rd Quarter – July to September
4th Quarter – October to December
61

From the data it can be deduced that there were 5 cases of murder and

13 cases of homicide were reported for the entire period of CY-2008. While 212

physical injuries and 8 rape cases were reported. Furthermore, 80 robbery and

273 theft cases were reported. This means that there were a total of 591 index

crimes reported on the entire period where the most prevalent is the crime of

theft.

For the first quarter of CY-2009 along crime against person, there was

only one murder case reported while 10 homicide cases were also reported.

Furthermore, 30 cases of physical injuries and 8 rape cases were reported.

Meanwhile, along crimes against property, there were 17 cases of robbery and

76 cases of theft were reported. This means that there were 142 index crimes

reported on the first quarter and the most prevalent was the crime of theft. On

the second quarter along crimes against person, there were 2 murder cases and

5 homicide cases were reported. Additionally there were 26 physical injuries

cases and 3 rape cases were reported. Meanwhile along crimes against property,

there were 20 robbery cases and 68 cases that were reported. This means that

there were 124 index crimes reported on the second quarter and the most

prevalent is the crime of theft. On the third quarter along crimes against person,

no murder case was reported while there were 2 homicide cases reported. There

were also 48 physical injuries and 2 rape cases reported. Meanwhile, along

crimes against property, there were 30 robbery cases and 72 theft cases

reported. This means that there were 154 index crimes reported on the third
62

quarter and the most prevalent is the crime of theft. On the fourth and last

quarter along crimes against person, 2 murder cases and 2 homicide cases were

reported. Furthermore, 39 cases of physical injuries and 4 cases of rape were

reported. Meanwhile along crimes against property, there were 20 robbery cases

and 60 theft cases were reported. This means that there were 127 index crimes

reported on the fourth quarter and the most prevalent is the crime of theft.

From the data it can be deduced that on CY-2009 there is a total of 5

murder cases and 19 homicide cases reported. Additionally 143 cases of physical

injuries and 17 cases of rape were reported. Furthermore, 87 robbery cases and

276 theft cases were also reported. This means that there 547 index crimes

reported on CY-2009 where the most prevalent is the crime of theft.

For the first quarter of CY-2010 along crimes against person, there were

no murder and homicide case was reported. While 185 cases of physical injuries

and 3 cases of rape were reported. Furthermore along crimes against property,

there were 51 robbery cases and 200 theft cases were reported. This means that

there were 495 index crime reported on the first quarter and the most prevalent

was the crime of theft. On the second quarter along crime against person, 4

murder cases and 3 homicide cases were reported. There were also 178 cases of

physical injuries and 4 cases of rape that were reported. Meanwhile along crimes

against property, there were 70 robbery cases and 237 theft cases reported. This

means that there were 440 index crime reported on the second quarter and the

most prevalent was the crime of theft. On the third quarter along crime against
63

person, 4 murder cases and 1 case of homicide were reported. There were also

150 cases of physical injuries and 5 cases of rape were reported. Meanwhile

along crimes against property, there were 52 robbery cases and 124 theft cases

reported. This means that there were 124 index crimes reported on the third

quarter and the most prevalent crime was physical injuries. On the last quarter

along crime against person, there 2 murder cases while no homicide case were

reported. Furthermore, there were 96 physical injuries cases and 2 rape cases

reported. On the other hand, along crimes against property, there were 55

robbery cases and 121 theft cases were reported. This means that there were

276 index crime reported on the last quarter and the most prevalent crime was

theft.

From the data it can be deduced that in the entire period of CY-2010,

there were 10 murder cases and 4 homicide cases were reported. Additionally

461 cases of physical injuries and 14 cases of rape were reported. Meanwhile

228 robbery cases and 682 theft cases were reported. This means that there

were 1,547 index crime reported for CY-2010 where the most prevalent crime

was theft.

From the data gathered, it can also be inferred that along CY-2008, the

crime of murder is prevalent on the fourth quarter of the year while the crime of

homicide is equally prevalent on the first, second and third quarter. In terms of

physical injuries, it was prevalent on the fourth quarter of the year while the

crime of rape is equally prevalent on the second and third quarter. Meanwhile it
64

also implicates that the crime of robbery is prevalent on the second quarter of

the year and the crime of theft is prevalent on the first quarter of the year. And

among the index crimes, the most prevalent for the entire year is the crime of

theft followed by the crime of physical injuries. Ranked third is the crime of

robbery followed by the crime of homicide. Furthermore, ranked fifth is the crime

of rape and the least was the crime of murder. And the index crimes are most

prevalent on the first quarter of the year and least on the first quarter of the CY-

2008.

Along CY-2009 it implicates that the crime of murder is equally prevalent

on the second and fourth quarter of the year while homicide is prevalent on the

first quarter of the year. Meanwhile crime of physical injuries was prevalent on

the third quarter of the month and rape was prevalent on the first quarter of the

year. Furthermore, crime of robbery was prevalent on the third quarter while

theft was prevalent on first quarter. And among the index crime the most

prevalent in the entire year is theft followed by physical injuries. Ranked third is

the crime of robbery which was followed by the crime of homicide. Furthermore

ranked fifth is the crime of rape followed by the crime of murder. And the index

crimes are most prevalent on the third quarter and least on the second quarter

of CY-2009.

Along CY-2010 it implicates that the crime of murder is equally prevalent

on the second and third quarter of the year. Meanwhile the crime of homicide is

prevalent on the second quarter and physical injuries were prevalent on the first
65

quarter while rape was prevalent on the third quarter of the year. For the crime

of robbery and theft, it was both prevalent on the second quarter. And for the

entire year, the most prevalent index crime was theft followed by physical

injuries. Ranked third was the crime of robbery followed by the crime of rape.

And ranked fifth was the crime of murder followed by the crime of homicide.

Furthermore, it can also be inferred that the index crimes are most prevalent on

the second quarter and least on the fourth quarter of the CY-2010.

The total numbers of index crime along CY-2008-2010 from the first

quarter to the last quarter were 824, 659, 645 and 557 respectively and it can be

deduced that the highest incidence of index crime was on the first quarter of all

the periods. Table also implicates that the prevalence of index crimes in every

quarter vary along the three periods. Nevertheless, it can be inferred that the

first most prevalent, second and third were the same along the three periods

which are the crime of theft, physical injuries and robbery respectively. And it

can be inferred that along index crimes, most commonly committed are property

crimes particularly crime of theft and this was also true in every quarter of each

year.

There are many theories as to why people try to commit property crimes.

Looking back into rational theory of crime, it explains that people will choose to

commit crime if he/she thinks that greater pleasure will be obtain rather than

pain as a consequence. Therefore people choose to commit property crimes

particularly the crime of theft if there is a lesser chance of being caught and
66

penalized then gain something especially monetary consideration. Another theory

is the theory of routine activity which explains that a person commits a crime

based on the opportunities available. This theory accepts the fact that certain

levels of crime are normal, and that people will commit various crimes if they are

able to get away with it. These types of crimes are usually misdemeanors, and

consist of things like petty theft that sometimes tend to go unreported.

Percentage Change of Index Crime. Table 3b reveals that along the

crime of murder, there was no percentage change between CY 2008 and 2009 so

it can be inferred that there was no increase nor decrease in the number of

murder cases between such periods while between CY 2009 and 2010, there was

a 100% percentage change in the incidence of murder, this means that the

number of murder case on CY 2010 is twice the number of murder case on

CY2009. Furthermore between CY 2008 and 2010 there was also a 100%

percentage change, therefore the number of murder incidence on CY 2010

increased twice the number of murder incidence on CY 2008. It implies that

murder incidence does not change on CY 2008 and 2009 but increased on CY

2010.

In terms of homicide incidence, table reveals that there was a percentage

change of 46.15% between CY 2008 and 2009, so this means that the incidence

of homicide increased by 46.15% on CY 2009 compared to CY 2008. Meanwhile,

between CY 2009 and 2010 there was a percentage change of -78.95%, this

means that the incidence of homicide decreased by 78.95% on CY 2010


67

compared to CY 2009. Furthermore, between CY 2008 and 2010 table reveals

that there was a -69.23% which means that the incidence of homicide on CY

2010 declined by 69.23% as compared to CY 2008. It implies that the incidence

of homicide fluctuates annually for it decrease on CY 2009 as compared to CY

2008 and increased on CY 2010.

Table 2B

Percentage Change of Index Crime from CY 2008-2010

Index Crimes 2008 VS. 2009 2009 VS. 2010 2008VS.2010


Murder 0% 100% 100%
Homicide 46.15% -78.95% -69.23%
Physical Injuries -32.55% 222.38% 117.45%
Rape 112.5% -17.65% 75%
Robbery 8.75% 162.07% 185%
Theft 1.10% 147.10% 149.82%
Total -7.44% 182.81% 161.76%
Legend: (-) Decreased
(+) Increased

Along the incidence of physical injuries between CY 2008 and 2009,

table reveals a percentage change of -32.55, so it can be inferred that the

incidence of physical injuries on CY 2009 decreased by 32.55% as compared to

CY 2008. Meanwhile between CY 2009 and 2010, it reveals that there was a

percentage change of 222.38% which means that the incidence of physical

injuries on CY 2010 has increased by 222.38% or more than thrice in number as

compared to CY 2009. Furthermore between CY 2008 and 2010, there was a

percentage change of 117.45%, therefore the incidence of physical injuries on


68

CY 2010 has increased by 117.45% or more than twice the number as compared

to CY 2008. It implies that the incidence of physical injuries consistently

escalates from CY 2008 to 2010.

Table also reveals that along the incidence of rape between CY 2008 and

2009 there was a 112.5 % percentage change, this means that the incidence of

rape has increased on CY 2009 by 112.5% or more than twice the number as

compared to CY 2008. Meanwhile between CY 2009 and 2010, there was a

percentage change of -17.65% which means that the incidence of rape on CY

2010 has declined by 17.65% as compared to CY 2009. Furthermore between CY

2008 and 2010, it reveals that there was a percentage change of 75% which

means that there was an increase of 75% in the incidence of rape on CY 2010 as

compared to CY 2008. It implies that the incidence of rape fluctuates annually as

it decreased on CY 2009 as compared to CY 2008 and increased on CY 2010.

In robbery incidence between CY 2008 and 2009, the table reveals 8.75%

of percentage change which means that there was an increase of 8.75% in the

incidence of robbery on CY2009 as compared to CY 2008. Meanwhile between

CY 2009 and 2010, there was a percentage change of 162.07 % which means

that there was an increase of 162.07% or almost thrice in number as compared

to CY 2009. Furthermore between CY 2008 and 2010 there was a percentage

change of 185% which means that robbery incidence increased by 185% on CY

2010 as compared to CY 2008. It implies that the incidence of robbery

consistently escalates from CY 2008 to 2010.


69

And in terms of theft incidence between CY 2008 and 2009, table reveals

a percentage change of 1.10% which means that there was increase of 1.10% of

theft incidence on CY 2009 as compared to CY2008. Meanwhile between CY

2009 and 2010 there was a percentage increase of 147.10% which means an

increase by 147% or more than twice in number of theft incidence on CY 2010

as compared to CY 2009. Furthermore between CY 200 and 2010, there was a

percentage change of 149.82% which means that there was an increase of

149.82% of theft incidence on CY 2010 as compared to CY 2008. It implies that

the incidence of theft consistently escalates from CY 2008 to 2010.

From the above interpretation and inferences it implies that the index

crimes from CY 2008 to 2008 fluctuates annually as it declines on CY 2009 as

compared to CY 2008 and increased on CY 2010 as compared to CY 2008 and

2009.

According to Joe Dorish in his article “Why Crime Rise and Fall,” he stated

that beginning in the mid 1960’s, and continuing until the end of the 1980’s, the

US economy experienced continued levels of higher inflation. From the early

1990’s, continuing until today, the US economy has seen far lower levels of

inflation. It was the higher level of inflation prevalent from the mid 1960’s until

the late 1980’s that fueled the increase in crime rates. The lower levels of

inflation prevalent from the early 1990’s to today, has allowed crime rates to

drop back to previous levels and below. His analysis supports this study since it

can also be observed that during CY 2008 the inflation rate was 9.3% and
70

decreased to 3.2% on CY 2009 then increased on CY 2010 to 3.8%. Therefore

the fluctuations of index crime in Naga City from CY 2008-2010 could be also

affected by the fluctuation of inflation rate and is directly proportional with each

other.

Non-Index Crime

In the Philippines, index crimes are those crimes which are committed

against persons and against property. For crime against person, these are the

crimes of murder, homicide, physical injuries and rape. Meanwhile crimes against

property are those crimes of robbery and theft. On the other hand all other

crimes which do not fall under index crimes are classified as non-index crimes.

Obviously there are more crimes classified under non-index crimes, nevertheless

to facilitate an easy tabulation of the index crimes, the researcher in this study

classified non-index crime into four significant crimes, i.e., drug related cases,

illegal gambling, firearms related and quasi offenses.

Drug related crimes are those who commit violation of R.A. 9165 or the

Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002 while illegal gambling are those

acts punished under article 195-199 of the Revised Penal Code which provides

for the forms of gambling and betting and R.A. 3063 (Horse Racing Bookies), PD

449 (Cockfighting), PD 483 (Game Fixing), PD 510 (Slot Machines), and PD 1306

(Jai-Alai Bookies). Firearms related crimes are those acts committed with the use

of loose firearms or mere possession of unlicensed firearms. And quasi offenses


71

are those committed by means of imprudence or negligence which is usually

committed through vehicular accidents. All other offense which will be classified

into the four classifications will be included in other offenses.

From the table, it reveals that along drug related cases on the first quarter

of CY 2008 there was only 1 case reported while 11 cases were reported on the

second quarter. On the third and fourth quarter there were 9 cases and 6 cases

reported respectively. It can be deduced that there were 27 drug related cases

on CY 2008 and it was most prevalent on second quarter of the year. Meanwhile

along crimes related to firearms, table reveals that there was no such crime

reported on the third quarter while on second and fourth quarter both 1 case

was reported. This means that there were 5 cases reported on CY 2008 involving

firearms and it was prevalent on the first quarter of the year. Along crimes

related to illegal gambling, there were 2 cases reported on the first quarter and

13 cases on the second quarter. Meanwhile on the third and fourth quarter there

were 5 cases and 4 cases reported respectively. This means that there were 24

reported cases related to illegal gambling on CY 2008 and it was prevalent on

the second quarter of the year. Furthermore, on quasi offenses, 66 cases were

reported on the first quarter while 133 cases were reported on the second

quarter of CY 2008.
72

Table 2C

Crime Statistics in Naga City for CY 2008-2010


Along Non-Index Crime

2008 2009 2010

Non Index
Gambling

Gambling

Gambling
Realated

Realated

Realated
Offenses

Offenses

Offenses
Firearm

Firearm

Firearm
Related

Related

Related

Overall
Others

Others

Others

Crime
Illegal

Illegal

Illegal
Quasi

Quasi

Quasi
Total

Total

Total
Quarter of the Year
Drug

Drug

Drug
1st Quarter 1 3 2 66 96 168 3 1 1 33 77 115 14 4 1 115 80 214 487
2nd Quarter 11 1 13 133 251 409 7 2 5 21 89 124 4 5 8 233 66 316 707
3rd Quarter 9 0 5 64 55 133 1 0 1 34 34 70 5 11 1 52 119 188 391
4th Quarter 6 1 4 114 116 241 4 1 2 46 47 100 10 4 2 88 191 295 788
Total 27 5 24 377 518 951 15 4 9 134 247 409 33 24 12 488 456 1013 2373
Rank
Reference: Appendix C

Legend: 1st Quarter – January to March


2nd Quarter – April to June
3rd Quarter – July to September
4th Quarter – October to December
73

On the third and fourth quarter, there were 64 cases and 114 cases reported

respectively. Therefore there were 377 cases of quasi offenses reported on CY

2008 and it was most prevalent on the second quarter of CY 2008. . And for

other crimes/offenses from the first quarter to the last quarter of CY 2008 there

was 96, 251, 55, 116 cases reported respectively with the sum of 518 cases for

the entire year. It can be deduced from the table that on CY 2008 non-index

crimes were prevalent on the second quarter with a total of 409 cases reported

which was followed by fourth quarter with total non-index crimes of 241 and 168

total non-index crime on the first quarter. Least number of non-index crimes

reported was on the third quarter with 133 cases reported.

It can be inferred from the table that on the first quarter of CY 2008 the

most prevalent non-index crime was quasi offenses followed by illegal gambling

and drug related cases, least reported was firearms related cases. On the second

quarter quasi offenses was the most prevalent followed by illegal gambling and

drug related cases while the least reported is the firearm related case. Meanwhile

on the third quarter, quasi offenses were the most prevalent and this was

followed by drug related cases and illegal gambling respectively. The least

reported was firearm related case. Furthermore on the fourth quarter, quasi

offenses were the most prevalent followed by drug related cases and illegal

gambling respectively while the least reported was firearm related case. This

implies that along CY 2008, the most prevalent non-index crime was quasi
74

offenses followed by drug related and illegal gambling related cases respectively

while the least reported was firearm related case.

For non-index crimes on CY 2009, along drug related cases, there were 3

cases reported on the first quarter and 7 cases on the second quarter.

Meanwhile for the third and fourth quarter, there were 1 case and 4 cases

reported respectively. It can be deduced that there were 15 drug related cases

were reported on CY 2009 and was most prevalent on the second quarter of the

year. Along firearms related cases, there was only 1 case reported on the first

and fourth quarter and 2 cases on the second quarter while no case was

reported on the third quarter. This means that there were 4 firearm related cases

were reported on CY 2009 and it was most prevalent on the second quarter. For

cases involving illegal gambling, there was only 1 case reported on the first and

third quarter while on the second and fourth quarter there were 5 cases and 2

cases reported respectively. Therefore there were 9 cases reported related to

illegal gambling on CY 2009 and it was prevalent on the second quarter. Along

quasi offenses 33 cases were reported on the first quarter and 21 cases were

reported on the second quarter while on the third and fourth quarter there were

34 cases and 46 cases reported respectively. This means that there 137 cases

involving quasi offenses were reported on CY 2009 and it was most prevalent on

the fourth quarter of the year. And for other crimes/offenses from the first

quarter to the last quarter of CY 2009 there was 77, 89, 34, 47 cases reported

respectively with the sum of 247 cases for the entire year. It can be deduced
75

from the table that on CY 2009 non-index crimes were prevalent on the second

quarter with a total of 124 cases reported which was followed by first quarter

with total non-index crimes of 115 and 100 total non-index crime on the fourth

quarter. Least number of non-index crimes reported was on the third quarter

with 70 cases reported.

It can be inferred from the table that on the first quarter of CY 2009 the

most prevalent non-index crime was quasi offenses followed by drug related

case; equally least reported were firearms related cases and illegal gambling. On

the second quarter quasi offenses was the most prevalent followed by drug

related case and illegal gambling case while the least reported was the firearm

related case. Meanwhile on the third quarter, quasi offenses were the most

prevalent and this was equally followed by drug related cases and illegal

gambling case. Furthermore on the fourth quarter, quasi offenses were the most

prevalent followed by drug related cases and illegal gambling case respectively

while the least reported was firearm related case. This implies that along CY

2009, the most prevalent non-index crime was quasi offenses followed by drug

related and illegal gambling related cases respectively while the least reported

was firearm related case.

For non-index crimes on CY 2010, along drug related cases, there were 14

cases reported on the first quarter and 4 cases on the second quarter.

Meanwhile for the third and fourth quarter, there were 5 cases and 10 cases

reported respectively. It can be deduced that there were 33 drug related cases
76

were reported on CY 2010 and it was most prevalent on the first quarter of the

year. Along firearms related cases, there were 4 cases reported on the first and

fourth quarter and 11 cases on the third quarter while 5 cases were reported on

the second quarter. This means that there were 24 firearm related cases were

reported on CY 2010 and it was most prevalent on the third quarter. For cases

involving illegal gambling, there was only 1 case reported on the first and third

quarter while on the second and fourth quarter there were 8 cases and 2 cases

reported respectively. Therefore there were 12 cases reported related to illegal

gambling on CY 2010 and it was prevalent on the second quarter. Along quasi

offenses 115 cases were reported on the first quarter and 233 cases were

reported on the second quarter while on the third and fourth quarter there were

52 cases and 88 cases reported respectively. This means that there 488 cases

involving quasi offenses were reported on CY 2010 and it was most prevalent on

the second quarter of the year. And for other crimes/offenses from the first

quarter to the last quarter of CY 2010 there was 80, 66, 119, and 191 cases

reported respectively with the sum of 456 cases for the entire year. It can be

deduced from the table that on CY 2010, non-index crimes were prevalent on the

second quarter with a total of 316 cases reported which was followed by fourth

quarter with total non-index crimes of 295 and 214 total non-index crime on the

first quarter. Least number of non-index crimes reported was on the third

quarter with 188 cases reported.


77

It can be inferred from the table that on the first quarter of CY 2010 the

most prevalent non-index crime was quasi offenses followed by drug related

cases and firearm related case respectively, least reported was illegal gambling

cases. On the second quarter quasi offenses was the most prevalent followed by

illegal gambling and firearm related cases respectively while the least reported is

the drug related case. Meanwhile on the third quarter, quasi offenses were the

most prevalent and this was followed by drug related cases and firearm related

cases respectively. The least reported was illegal gambling case. Furthermore on

the fourth quarter, quasi offenses were the most prevalent followed by drug

related cases and firearm related cases respectively while the least reported was

illegal gambling case. This implies that along CY 2010, the most prevalent non-

index crime was quasi offenses followed by drug related and firearm related

cases respectively while the least reported was illegal gambling case.

From the interpretations and inferences, it implies that from CY 2008 to

2010, quasi offenses, drug related, and illegal gambling cases were commonly

committed on the second quarter of each year. Such cases were commonly

committed during the month of April to June because these are the period of the

year where summer vacation is and many barangay fiestas were celebrated. And

since it is vacation season, students were free to have their parties along with

other students until late at night were vices such as drugs and alcohol were

rampant. Once they become intoxicated vehicular accidents will follow were

mostly are motorcycle accidents which make quasi offenses to escalate at this
78

quarter. Illegal gambling was also rampant at this quarter because people have

more idle time since its summer vacation and would rather indulge themselves to

gambling to have leisure. On the other hand the prevalence of firearm related

cases vary along each quarter of the three periods.

Percentage Change of Non-Index Crime. Table 3d reveals that along

drug related cases between CY 2008 and 2009 there was a percentage change of

-44.45% which means that drug related cases decreased by 44.45% on CY 2009

as compared to CY 2008 while along firearms related cases there was a

percentage change of -20% which means that there was a decreased of 20% in

firearms related cases on CY 2009 as compared to CY 2008. Along illegal

gambling between there was a percentage change of -62.50% which means that

illegal gambling decreased by 62.50% on CY 2009 as compared to CY2008. And

for quasi offenses, there was a percentage change of -64.25% which means a

decreased of 64.25% of quasi offenses on CY 2009 as compared to CY 2008.

Furthermore along other crimes/offenses there was a percentage change of -

52.32% which means a decreased by 52.32% on CY 2009 as compared to CY

2008. It can be deduced that the non-index crimes decreased by 56.99% on CY

2009 as compared to CY 2008.

Meanwhile, between CY 2009 and 2010, table reveals that along

drug related cases, there was a percentage change of 120% which means an

increased by 120% of drug related cases on CY 2010 as compared to CY 2009


79

Table 2D

Percentage Change of Non-Index Crime from CY 2008-2010

Index Crimes 2008 VS. 2009 2009 VS. 2010 2008 VS.2010
Drug Related -44.45% 120% 22.22%
Firearms related -20% 500% 380%
Illegal gambling -62.50% 33.33% -50%
Quasi Offenses -64.45% 264.18% 29.44%
Others -52.32% 84.61% -11.97%
Total -56.99% 147.68% 6.52%
Legend: (-) Decreased
(+) Increased

and along firearms related cases there was a percentage of 500% which means

an increase of 500% of firearms related cases on CY 2010 as compared to CY

2009. Along illegal gambling, it reveals a percentage change of 33.33% which

means a 33.33% increased in illegal gambling on CY 2010 as compared to CY

2009. Furthermore along quasi offenses there was a percentage change of

264.18% which means that there was an increased of quasi offenses by

264.18% on CY 2010 as compared to CY 2009 while along other crimes/offense

there was a percentage change of 84.61% which means an increase of 84.61%

on CY 2010 as compared to CY 2009. It can be deduced that the non-index

crimes increased by 147.68% on CY 2010 as compared to CY 2009.

Table also reveals that between CY 2008 and 2009 along drug related

cases, there was a percentage change of 22.22% which means that drug related

cases increased by 22.22% on CY 2010 as compared to CY 2008 while along

firearms related cases there was a percentage change of 380% which means

that there was a increased of 380% in firearms related cases on CY 2010 as


80

compared to CY 2008. Along illegal gambling between there was a percentage

change of -50% which means that illegal gambling decreased by -50% on CY

2010 as compared to CY2008. And for quasi offenses, there was a percentage

change of 29.44% which means an increase of 29.44% of quasi offenses on CY

2010 as compared to CY 2008. Furthermore along other crimes/offenses there

was a percentage change of –11.97% which means a decreased by 11.97% on

CY 2009 as compared to CY 2008. It can be deduced that the non-index crimes

increased by 6.52% on CY 2009 as compared to CY 2008.

From the interpretation and inferences, it implies that non-index crime

from CY 2008 to 2010 fluctuates annually as it decreased on CY 2009 as

compared to CY 2008 and increased on CY 2010 as compared to CY 2008 and

2009.

(2009, Wilson J.Q.) The role of the police in increasing and reducing crime

is often overlooked by those preoccupied with the jobs-crime link. The sharp

decline in crime in New York -- and now in Los Angeles -- has a lot to do with

how those police departments changed.

Over the last several decades, New York has experienced the country's

largest decline in crime since we began keeping records. The reasons are not

fully understood but include a 33% increase in the size of the New York Police

Department, an excellent computerized system for tracking crime, a

management style that made precinct commanders fully accountable for

managing crime in their districts and an aggressive policy of searching people on


81

the streets for guns. This finding is could be linked into this study since the rise

and fall of crime will be link into crime prevention strategies of the police in Naga

City.

Summary Table of Crime Statistics along Index and Non-Index crimes

Shown in table 3 are the crimes committed in Naga City along index and

non-index crimes. For the total index crime in the three periods, 1,588 or 58.10

% cases were reported on CY-2010 which ranks first among the three periods.

This was followed by CY-2008 which has 591 or 21.63% cases of index crime

reported. Least among the periods is CY-2009 which has 554 or 20.27% of index

crime reported.

Meanwhile, for the total non-index crime, CY-2010 ranked first with a total

non-index crime reported of 1,013 or 42.69%. This was followed by-CY 2008

which has 951 or 40.08% of non-index crime reported. The least was CY-2009

which has 409 or 17.23% non-index crime reported.

Furthermore, the total crime volume along the three periods, CY-2010

ranked first with a 2,601 or 50.94% crime reported and this was followed by CY-

2008 with a total crime volume of 1,542 or 30.20 percent was reported. Least

among periods was CY-2009 which has a total crime volume reported of 963 or

18.86%.

From the interpretation, it implies that the crime incidence in Naga City for

CY-2009 decreased by 11.34 percent as compared to CY-2008, while from CY-


82

Table 2E

Summary of Crime Statistics in Naga City for CY 2008-2010


along Index and Non-Index Crime

Total Non- Total


Period Index % Rank Index % Rank Crime % Rank
Crime Crime Volume

2008 591 21.63 2 951 40.08 2 1542 30.20 2

2009 554 20.27 3 409 17.23 3 963 18.86 3

2010 1588 58.10 1 1013 42.69 1 2601 50.94 1

Total 2,733 100 2,373 100 5106 100

Reference: Appendix C

3000

2500

2000

Index Crime
1500
Non-Index Crime
Total Crime Volume
1000

500

0
2008 2009 2010

Figure 3. Crime Incidence in Naga City, CY-2008-2010


83

2009 to CY-2010, crime incidence steeply increased by 32.08 percent. This

means that crime incidence in Naga City fluctuates from CY-2008 to 2010. But

what is remarkable is the huge increase of crime incidence in CY-2010 as

compared to the last two periods.

This was supported by the study conducted by Gillado and Tan-Cruz which

used panel data of index crime rates for the 13 regions of the Philippines over

the period 1983-2000 which also showed fluctuations of crime rate and analyzed

the potential factors associated with such fluctuation. And among the potential

factors, the robust determinants are economic factors and demographic factors.

Level of implementation of Crime Prevention Strategies

The level of implementation of crime prevention strategies in Naga City

was assessed by the implementers and recipients of the said strategies. For the

implementers, it was assessed by the NCPO personnel, PSO personnel, and the

Barangay officials. The recipients that assessed its level of implementation were

those who belong to the business sector and the residents of each of the 27

barangays in Naga City.

The crime prevention strategies were classified into three, i.e., anti-street

crime strategy, community-based anti crime strategy and crime awareness

strategy. The data that were gathered were treated using the weighted mean.

Anti-Street Crime Strategy. In terms of anti-street crime strategy, the

following indicators were used; identification of crime prone areas, fielding of


84

two patrol personnel every beat, fielding of uniformed personnel along recreation

areas, deployment of plainclothes personnel in different subdivision and

residential areas particularly during nighttime, and 24-hour round the clock

motorcycle patrol operations. The data gathered are presented in table 4A.

2008. On CY 2008 along the indicator identification of crime prone areas

the respondents have an assessment with a weighted mean of 2.48 while along

fielding of two patrol personnel every beat, the respondents’ assessment has a

weighted mean of 2.34. Meanwhile along fielding of uniformed personnel along

recreation areas, the respondent’s assessment has a weighted mean of 2.53 and

along deployment of plainclothes personnel in different subdivision and

residential areas particularly during nighttime, the respondents’ assessment has

a weighted mean of 1.98. Furthermore, along indicator 24-hour round the clock

motorcycle patrol operations, the respondents’ assessment has a weighted mean

of 2.30.

The table indicates that along CY-2008, the most implemented anti-street

crime strategy was the fielding of uniformed personnel along recreation areas

and this was followed by identification of crime prone areas. Ranked third was

the fielding of two patrol personnel every beat followed by 24-hour round the

clock motorcycle patrol operations and least implemented was deployment of

plainclothes personnel in different subdivision and residential areas particularly

during nighttime.
85

Table 3A

Level of Implementation of Anti-Street Crime Strategy

2008 2009 2010


Indicators AWM I R
Mw I R Mw I R Mw I R

Identification of crime prone


2.48 L 2 2.95 E 2 2.46 L 4 2.63 E 2
areas
Fielding of two patrol
2.34 L 3 2.92 E 3 2.54 E 1 2.60 E 3
personnel every beat
Fielding of uniformed
personnel along recreation 2.53 E 1 2.70 E 4 2.48 L 3 2.57 E 4
areas
Deployment of plainclothes
personnel in different
subdivision and residential 1.98 L 5 2.64 E 5 2.33 L 5 2.32 L 5
areas particularly during
nighttime
24-hour round the clock
motorcycle patrol 2.30 L 4 3.11 E 1 2.52 E 2 2.64 E 1
operations

AWM 2.33 2.86 2.47 2.55 E

Legend:
Value Scale Mean Range Interpretation
4 3.26-4.00 Highly Extensive (HE)
3 2.51-3.25 Extensive (E)
2 1.76-2.50 Less Extensive (L)
1 1.00-1.75 Least Extensive (LE)

The table also shows that along anti-street crime strategy, identification of

crime prone areas, fielding of two patrol personnel every beat, deployment of

plainclothes personnel in different subdivision and residential areas particularly

during nighttime, and 24-hour round the clock motorcycle patrol operations are
86

all had a less extensive implementation while fielding of uniformed personnel

along recreation areas has an extensive implementation.

2009. On CY 2009 along the indicator identification of crime prone areas

the respondents have an assessment with a weighted mean of 2.95 while along

fielding of two patrol personnel every beat, the respondents’ assessment has a

weighted mean of 2.92. Meanwhile along fielding of uniformed personnel along

recreation areas, the respondent’s assessment has a weighted mean of 2.70 and

along deployment of plainclothes personnel in different subdivision and

residential areas particularly during nighttime, the respondents’ assessment has

a weighted mean of 2.64. Furthermore, along indicator 24-hour round the clock

motorcycle patrol operations, the respondents’ assessment has a weighted mean

of 3.11.

The table indicates that on CY-2009, the most implemented anti-street

crime strategy was 24-hour round the clock motorcycle patrol operations and this

was followed by identification of crime prone areas. Ranked third was fielding of

two patrol personnel every beat followed by fielding of uniformed personnel

along recreation areas and least implemented was deployment of plainclothes

personnel in different subdivision and residential areas particularly during

nighttime.

The table also shows that along anti-street crime strategy, identification of

crime prone areas, fielding of two patrol personnel every beat, deployment of

plainclothes personnel in different subdivision and residential areas particularly


87

during nighttime, 24-hour round the clock motorcycle patrol operations and

fielding of uniformed personnel along recreation areas are all have an extensive

implementation.

2010. On CY 2010 along the indicator identification of crime prone areas

the respondents have an assessment with a weighted mean of 2.46 while along

fielding of two patrol personnel every beat the respondents’ assessment has a

weighted mean of 2.54. Meanwhile along fielding of uniformed personnel along

recreation areas, the respondent’s assessment has a weighted mean of 2.48 and

along deployment of plainclothes personnel in different subdivision and

residential areas particularly during nighttime the respondents’ assessment has a

weighted mean of 2.33. Furthermore, along indicator 24-hour round the clock

motorcycle patrol operations, the respondents’ assessment has a weighted mean

of 2.52.

The table also indicates that along CY-2010, the most implemented was

fielding of two patrol personnel every beat followed by 24-hour round the clock

motorcycle patrol operations. Ranked third was fielding of uniformed personnel

along recreation areas and followed by identification of crime prone areas while

the least implemented was deployment of plainclothes personnel in different

subdivision and residential areas particularly during nighttime.

The table also shows that, fielding of two patrol personnel every beat, and

24-hour round the clock motorcycle patrol operations both had an extensive level

of implementation while identification of crime prone areas, fielding of uniformed


88

personnel along recreation areas, deployment of plainclothes personnel in

different subdivision and residential areas particularly during nighttime all have a

less extensive level of implementation.

It can further be gauged that among the five indicators of anti-street

crime strategy implemented from CY 2008-2010, 24-hour round the clock

motorcycle patrol operations has the highest average weighted mean 2.64

followed by identification of crime prone areas with an average weighted mean

of 2.63 both with the interpretation of high. Ranked next were fielding of two

patrol personnel every beat and fielding of uniformed personnel along recreation

areas with an average weighted mean of 2.60 and 2.57 respectively both with an

interpretation of high. And least implemented was the deployment of plainclothes

personnel in different subdivision and residential areas particularly during

nighttime with an average weighted mean of 2.32 with the interpretation of low.

It is also noteworthy that along the three periods, CY-2009 has the

highest implementation of anti-street crime strategy with an average weighted

mean of 2.86 with an adjectival interpretation of high. This was followed by CY-

2010 with an average weighted mean of 2.55 interpreted as high and the least

implementation was on CY-2008 with an average weighted mean of 2.33 with an

adjectival interpretation of low.

The data implicates that the level of implementation of anti-street crime

strategy varies from CY 2008-2010. Nevertheless, the indicator deployment of

plainclothes personnel in different subdivision and residential areas particularly


89

during nighttime was consistently less extensive or low in implementation from

CY 2008-2010, this could be due to the fact that since they are in plainclothes

they cannot be recognized by the public. Meanwhile all other indicators show

divergence in implementation along the three periods. This means that the level

of implementation of anti-street crime strategy changes in every year. And it can

be noted that both on CY-2008 and 2010, the level of implementation is low or

less extensive while CY-2009 has a high or extensive level of implementation.

Though the average weighted mean of anti-street crime strategy was 2.55 which

means a high or extensive implementation, nevertheless it is still noteworthy that

two of the three periods manifest a low or less extensive implementation. This

could be linked to the country's police force is sorely lacking in manpower and

fire power. (2012 PNP.gov.ph) Director General Nicanor Bartolome said that it

still has a long way to go to achieve the ideal police-population ratio of 1:500, or

one policeman for every 500 people. The current ratio is 1:1,400. And given the

current recruitment rate of around 6,000 a year, it will take 30 years to reach the

ideal ratio.

Community-Based Anti Crime Strategy. The following indicators were used

to measure the level of implementation of community-based anti crime strategy;

conduct symposia, seminar and dialogues in baranggay, nightly visitations of

patrol officers assigned in the barangay to barangay officials and close

coordination with barangay tanods and residents, creation of programs and

activities for youth such as sports and other recreational activities that will divert
90

them from using drugs and membership in gangs, organizing neighborhood

watch program, and organizing commercial and industrial crime prevention

committee. The data gathered are presented in table 4B.

2008. On CY 2008 along the indicator conduct symposia, seminar and

dialogues in baranggay, the respondents have an assessment with a weighted

mean of 2.42 while nightly visitations of patrol officers assigned in the barangay

to barangay officials and close coordination with barangay tanods and residents

has a weighted mean of 2.68. Meanwhile along creation of programs and

activities for youth such as sports and other recreational activities that will divert

them from using drugs and membership in gangs the respondents assessment

has a weighted mean of 2.06 and organizing neighborhood watch program has a

weighted mean of 2.60. Furthermore along organizing commercial and industrial

crime prevention committee the respondent’s assessment has a weighted mean

of 2.13.

The table indicates that along CY-2008 the most implemented community-

based anti crime strategy was nightly visitation of patrol officers assigned in the

barangay to barangay officials and close coordination with brgy. tanods and

residents followed by organizing neighborhood watch program. Ranked third was

conduct symposia, seminar and dialogues in baranggay which was followed by

organizing commercial and industrial crime prevention committee. And least

implemented was creation of programs and activities for youth such as sports
91

Table 3B

Level of Implementation of Community-Based Anti Crime Strategy

2008 2009 2010


Indicators AWM I R
Mw I R Mw I R Mw I R
Conduct symposia,
seminar and dialogues 2.42 L 3 2.73 E 5 2.30 L 5 2.48 L 3
in baranggay
Nightly visitations of
patrol officers assigned
in the barangay to
barangay officials and 2.68 E 1 2.83 E 2.5 2.59 E 1 2.70 E 2
close coordination with
brgy. tanods and
residents
Creation of programs and
activities for youth
such as sports and
other recreational
2.06 L 5 2.83 E 2.5 2.38 L 4 2.42 L 5
activities that will
divert them from
using drugs and
membership in gangs
Organizing neighborhood
2.60 E 2 3.07 E 1 2.55 E 2 2.74 E 1
watch program
Organizing commercial
and industrial crime 2.13 L 4 2.79 E 4 2.47 L 3 2.46 L 4
prevention committee
AWM 2.38 L 2.85 E 2.46 L 2.56 E
Legend:

Value Scale Mean Range Interpretation


4 3.26-4.00 Highly Extensive (HE)
3 2.51-3.25 Extensive (E)
2 1.76-2.50 Less Extensive (L)
1 1.00-1.75 Least Extensive (LE)

and other recreational activities that will divert them from using drugs and

membership in gangs.
92

The table also shows that organizing neighborhood watch program and

nightly visitation of patrol officers assigned in the barangay to barangay officials

and close coordination with brgy. tanods and residents both had an extensive

level of implementation while conduct symposia, seminar and dialogues in

baranggay, creation of programs and activities for youth such as sports and

other recreational activities that will divert them from using drugs and

membership in gangs, and organizing commercial and industrial crime prevention

committee were all had a less extensive level of implementation.

2009. On CY 2009 along the indicator conduct symposia, seminar and

dialogues in baranggay, the respondents have an assessment with a weighted

mean of 2.73 while nightly visitations of patrol officers assigned in the barangay

to barangay officials and close coordination with barangay tanods and residents

has a weighted mean of 2.83. Meanwhile along creation of programs and

activities for youth such as sports and other recreational activities that will divert

them from using drugs and membership in gangs the respondents assessment

has a weighted mean of 2.83 and organizing neighborhood watch program has a

weighted mean of 3.07. Furthermore along organizing commercial and industrial

crime prevention committee the respondent’s assessment has a weighted mean

of 2.79.

The table indicates that on CY-2009 the most implemented was organizing

neighborhood watch program followed by nightly visitations of patrol officers

assigned in the barangay to barangay officials and close coordination with brgy.
93

tanods and residents and creation of programs and activities for youth such as

sports and other recreational activities that will divert them from using drugs and

membership in gangs. Ranked fourth was organizing commercial and industrial

crime prevention committee while the least implemented was conduct symposia,

seminar and dialogues in baranggay.

The table also shows that organizing neighborhood watch program,

nightly visitation of patrol officers assigned in the barangay to barangay officials

and close coordination with brgy. tanods and residents, conduct symposia,

seminar and dialogues in baranggay, creation of programs and activities for

youth such as sports and other recreational activities that will divert them from

using drugs and membership in gangs, and organizing commercial and industrial

crime prevention committee were all had an extensive level of implementation.

2010. On CY 2010 along the indicator conduct symposia, seminar and

dialogues in baranggay, the respondents have an assessment with a weighted

mean of 2.30 while nightly visitations of patrol officers assigned in the barangay

to barangay officials and close coordination with barangay tanods and residents

has a weighted mean of 2.59. Meanwhile along creation of programs and

activities for youth such as sports and other recreational activities that will divert

them from using drugs and membership in gangs the respondents assessment

has a weighted mean of 2.38 and organizing neighborhood watch program has a

weighted mean of 2.55. Furthermore along organizing commercial and industrial


94

crime prevention committee the respondent’s assessment has a weighted mean

of 2.47.

Table indicates that on CY-2010, the most implemented community-based

strategy was nightly visitations of patrol officers assigned in the barangay to

barangay officials and close coordination with brgy. tanods and residents and

followed by organizing neighborhood watch program. Ranked third was

organizing commercial and industrial crime prevention committee which was

followed by creation of programs and activities for youth such as sports and

other recreational activities that will divert them from using drugs and

membership in gangs. And the least implemented was conduct symposia,

seminar and dialogues in baranggay.

The table also shows that organizing neighborhood watch program and

nightly visitation of patrol officers assigned in the barangay to barangay officials

and close coordination with brgy. tanods and residents both had an extensive

level of implementation while conduct symposia, seminar and dialogues in

baranggay, creation of programs and activities for youth such as sports and

other recreational activities that will divert them from using drugs and

membership in gangs, and organizing commercial and industrial crime prevention

committee were all had a less extensive level of implementation.

It can further be gauged that among the five indicators of community-

based anti crime strategy implemented from CY 2008-2010 organizing

neighborhood watch program has the highest implementation with an average


95

weighted mean of 2.74 with an adjectival interpretation of high. This was

followed by nightly visitations of patrol officers assigned in the barangay to

barangay officials and close coordination with brgy. tanods and residents with an

average weighted mean of 2.70 with the adjectival interpretation of high. Ranked

third is conduct symposia, seminar and dialogues in baranggay with an average

weighted mean of 2.48 with the adjectival interpretation of low which was

followed by organizing commercial and industrial crime prevention committee

with an average weighted mean of 2.46 with the adjectival interpretation of low.

And least implemented was creation of programs and activities for youth such as

sports and other recreational activities that will divert them from using drugs and

membership in gangs with an average weighted mean of 2.42 with the adjectival

interpretation of low.

It can be noted that organizing neighborhood watch program was the

most implemented among the community-based strategy since the manpower

strength of the police force were not enough to cover the whole area of Naga

City to conduct constant patrolling on a 24-hour basis so they tap the assistance

of the barangay enforcers or tanods which also conducts patrolling from dusk till

dawn to aid the police in the prevention of criminality. On the other hand, the

least implemented was creation of programs and activities for youth such as

sports and other recreational activities that will divert them from using drugs and

membership in gangs, this could be due to the fact the organizing such kind of

activities would require monetary consideration to sustain such strategy and it is


96

also a fact that the PNP itself is experiencing not only manpower but budgetary

constraint as well.

It is also noteworthy that along the three periods, CY-2009 has the

highest implementation of community-based anti crime strategy with an average

weighted mean of 2.85 with an adjectival interpretation of high. This was

followed by CY-2010 with an average weighted mean of 2.46 interpreted as high

and the least implementation was on CY-2008 with an average weighted mean

of 2.38 with an adjectival interpretation of low.

The data implicates that the level of implementation of community-based

anti crime strategy varies from CY 2008-2010. This means that the level of

implementation of anti-street crime strategy changes in every year. And it can be

noted that both on CY-2008 and 2010, the level of implementation is low while

CY-2009 has a high level of implementation.

Crime Awareness Strategy. The following indicators were used to measure

the level of implementation of crime awareness strategy; dissemination of vital

information relative to modus operandi of criminals over the radio, place

information about current modus operandi and trend of crimes in newsletters,

crime and drug abuse prevention talk on youths, conduct parent education forum

to inform them to get involve with their children’s interest and activities, and

distribution of crime prevention tips through pamphlets or posters. The data

gathered are presented in table 4C.


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Table 3C

Level of Implementation of Crime Awareness Strategy

2008 2009 2010


Indicators AWM I R
Mw I R Mw I R Mw I R
Dissemination of vital
information relative to
modus operandi of 1.89 L 4 2.57 E 3 2.17 L 5 2.21 L 5
criminals over the
radio
Place information about
current modus
operandi and trend of
2.36 L 2 2.51 E 4.5 2.30 L 3 2.39 L 2
crimes in newsletters
Crime and drug abuse
prevention talk on 2.04 L 3 2.51 E 4.5 2.18 L 4 2.24 L 4
youths
Conduct parent education
forum to inform them
to get involve with 1.78 L 5 2.58 E 2 2.42 L 1 2.26 L 3
their children’s interest
and activities
Distribution of crime
prevention tips
through pamphlets or
2.38 L 1 2.62 E 1 2.41 L 2 2.47 L 1
posters
AWM 2.09 L 2.56 E 2.30 L 2.31 L
Legend:

Value Scale Mean Range Interpretation


4 3.26-4.00 Highly Extensive (HE)
3 2.51-3.25 Extensive (E)
2 1.76-2.50 Less Extensive (L)
1 1.00-1.75 Least Extensive (LE)

2008. On CY 2008 along the indicator dissemination of vital information

relative to modus operandi of criminals over the radio, the respondents have an

assessment with a weighted mean of 1.89 while place information about current

modus operandi and trend of crimes in newsletters has a weighted mean of 2.36.

Meanwhile along crime and drug abuse prevention talk on youths, and conduct
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parent education forum to inform them to get involve with their children’s

interest and activities had a weighted mean of 2.04 and 1.78 respectively.

Furthermore along distribution of crime prevention tips through pamphlets or

posters has a weighted mean of 2.38.

The table indicates that along CY-2008, the most implemented crime

awareness strategy is the distribution of crime prevention tips through pamphlets

or poster which was followed by place information about current modus operandi

and trend of crimes in newsletters. Ranked third was crime and drug abuse

prevention talk on youths which was followed by dissemination of vital

information relative to modus operandi of criminals over the radio . And the least

implemented was conduct parent education forum to inform them to get involve

with their children’s interest and activities.

The table also shows that dissemination of vital information relative to

modus operandi of criminals over the radio, place information about current

modus operandi and trend of crimes in newsletters, crime and drug abuse

prevention talk on youths, conduct parent education forum to inform them to get

involve with their children’s interest and activities, and distribution of crime

prevention tips through pamphlets or posters were all had a less extensive level

of implementation.

2009. On CY 2009 along the indicator dissemination of vital information

relative to modus operandi of criminals over the radio, the respondents have an

assessment with a weighted mean of 2.57 while place information about current
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modus operandi and trend of crimes in newsletters has a weighted mean of 2.51.

Meanwhile along crime and drug abuse prevention talk on youths, and conduct

parent education forum to inform them to get involve with their children’s

interest and activities had a weighted mean of 2.51 and 2.58 respectively.

Furthermore along distribution of crime prevention tips through pamphlets or

posters has a weighted mean of 2.62.

The table indicates that on CY-2009, the most implemented was

distribution of crime prevention tips through pamphlets or posters and this was

followed by conduct parent education forum to inform them to get involve with

their children’s interest and activities. Ranked third was the dissemination of vital

information relative to modus operandi of criminals over the radio. And the least

implemented were place information about current modus operandi and trend of

crimes in newsletters and crime and drug abuse prevention talk on youths.

The table also shows that dissemination of vital information relative to

modus operandi of criminals over the radio, place information about current

modus operandi and trend of crimes in newsletters, crime and drug abuse

prevention talk on youths, conduct parent education forum to inform them to get

involve with their children’s interest and activities, and distribution of crime

prevention tips through pamphlets or posters were all had an extensive level of

implementation.

2010. On CY 2010 along the indicator dissemination of vital information

relative to modus operandi of criminals over the radio, the respondents have an
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assessment with a weighted mean of 2.17 while place information about current

modus operandi and trend of crimes in newsletters has a weighted mean of 2.30.

Meanwhile along crime and drug abuse prevention talk on youths, and conduct

parent education forum to inform them to get involve with their children’s

interest and activities had a weighted mean of 2.18 and 2.42 respectively.

Furthermore along distribution of crime prevention tips through pamphlets or

posters has a weighted mean of 2.41.

The table indicates that on CY-2010, the most implemented crime

awareness strategy was conduct parent education forum to inform them to get

involve with their children’s interest and activities and followed by distribution of

crime prevention tips through pamphlets or posters. Ranked third was place

information about current modus operandi and trend of crimes in newsletters

which was followed by crime and drug abuse prevention talk on youths. And the

least implemented was dissemination of vital information relative to modus

operandi of criminals over the radio.

The table also shows that dissemination of vital information relative to

modus operandi of criminals over the radio, place information about current

modus operandi and trend of crimes in newsletters, crime and drug abuse

prevention talk on youths, conduct parent education forum to inform them to get

involve with their children’s interest and activities, and distribution of crime

prevention tips through pamphlets or posters were all had a less extensive level

of implementation.
101

It can further be measured that along the entire CY 2008-2010, the most

implemented was distribution of crime prevention tips through pamphlets or

posters with an average weighted mean of 2.47 with the interpretation of less

extensive and this was followed by place information about current modus

operandi and trend of crimes in newsletters with an average weighted mean of

2.39 with the interpretation of less extensive. Ranked third was conduct parent

education forum to inform them to get involve with their children’s interest and

activities with an average weighted mean of 2.26 with the interpretation of less

extensive and this was followed by crime and drug abuse prevention talk on

youths with an average weighted mean of 2.24 with the interpretation of less

extensive. While the least implemented was dissemination of vital information

relative to modus operandi of criminals over the radio with an average weighted

mean of 2.21 with the interpretation of less extensive.

It can also be noted that along the three periods, highest implementation

of crime awareness strategy was on CY-2009 with an average weighted mean of

2.56 that has adjectival interpretation of extensive. This was followed by CY-

2010 with an average weighted mean of 2.31 and the lowest implementation

was on CY-2008 with an average weighted mean of 2.09 both with the adjectival

interpretation of less extensive.

The data implicates that the level of implementation of crime awareness

strategy varies from CY 2008-2010. This means that the level of implementation

of crime awareness strategy changes in every year. And it can be noted that
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both on CY-2008 and 2010, the level of implementation is less extensive while

CY-2009 has a extensive level of implementation. Though there is fluctuation in

the implementation of crime awareness strategy from CY 2008-2010, it can be

generalized that on the overall the implementation was indeed low or less

extensive. Since crime awareness is more about educating the public, it requires

having a good and constant communication of the police to the public; however

there are many reasons why the police have difficult interactions with the

communities they are supposed to “serve and protect.” Many of these stem from

the fact that overall, police departments have contrasting “perspectives, poor

communications, and concerns about the nature of social control in a free

society” (Radalet and Carter, 1994, p. 7)

According to the study of Singh, the failure of public involvement in crime

prevention may be attributed to ignorance. And it is the police responsibility to

overcome this ignorance through a sustained program of education that brings

about crime prevention awareness throughout the community. So the

consistency of the implementation crime awareness strategy will depend on the

police and its leadership.

Summary of the Level of Implementation of Crime Prevention Strategies.

It will be gleaned from table 7 that along the aspect of anti-street crime strategy,

the respondents’ assessment for CY-2008 has a weighted mean of 2.33 with the

interpretation of low while in CY-2009 the respondents’ assessment has a

weighted mean of 2.86. On the other hand, CY-2010 reveals an assessment of


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2.47 with the interpretation of low. Meanwhile, along the aspect of community-

based anti crime strategy, respondents’ assessment has a weighted mean of

2.38 with the interpretation of low for CY-2008 while on CY-2009, respondents’

assessment has a weighted mean of 2.85 with the interpretation of high. And on

CY-2010, the respondents’ assessment reveals a weighted mean of 2.46 with the

interpretation of low.

Furthermore, along the aspect of crime awareness strategy, respondents’

assessment reveals a weighted mean of 2.09 with the interpretation of low on

CY-2008 while on CY-2009 the assessment reveals a weighted mean of 2.56 with

the interpretation of low. And on CY-2010, the respondents’ assessment reveals

a weighted mean of 2.30 with the interpretation of low.

Table 7 also reveals that on CY-2008, crime prevention strategies has an

average weighted mean of 2.27 with the interpretation of low while on CY-2009

the assessment reveals an average weighted mean 2.76. And on CY-2010,

respondents’ assessment reveals an average weighted mean of 2.41 with the

interpretation of low.

Furthermore, it will be deduced from table 7 that among the aspects of

crime prevention strategies, community-based anti crime strategy ranked first

with an overall mean of 2.56 with the interpretation of high and this was

followed by anti-street crime strategy with an overall mean of 2.55 with the

interpretation of high. Least among the aspects was crime awareness strategy

with an overall mean of 2.32 interpreted as low. And the overall mean of all the
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aspects of crime prevention strategies during the three periods from CY-2008 to

2010 reveals an average weighted mean of 2.48 with the interpretation of low.

Table 3D

Summary of the Level of Implementation of Crime Prevention


Strategies among Aspects and among Periods

Indicators 2008 2009 2010 AWM I R

Community-based anti crime 2.38 2.85 2.46 2.56 E 1


strategy
Anti-street crime strategy 2.33 2.86 2.47 2.55 E 2

Crime awareness strategy 2.09 2.56 2.30 2.31 L 3

AWM 2.27 2.76 2.41 2.47 L

Legend:

Value Scale Mean Range Interpretation


4 3.26-4.00 Highly Extensive (HE)
3 2.51-3.25 Extensive (E)
2 1.76-2.50 Less Extensive (L)
1 1.00-1.75 Least Extensive (LE)

The table also implies that the crime prevention strategies in Naga City

fluctuate annually during the three periods. And only on CY-2009 has the

consistent high level of implementation of crime prevention strategies while CY-

2008 and 2009 both has a consistent low level of implementation. It can also be

inferred that community-based anti crime strategy was the most implemented

while the least implemented was crime awareness strategy.


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Many leaders who attempt to initiate organizational change commit the

pitfall of thinking only about what to do rather than how to do it. Both strategy

and process become mere afterthoughts, or, too often, are simply ignored (2012

PNP Journal) The inconsistencies in the implementation of crime prevention

strategies could be pointed out to the top level management that drives or

motivates those personnel who are the front lines or the actual implementers of

these strategies. However due to the short tour of duty and the abrupt changes

in the top level management, logically it would also mean changes in the

performance of the entire organization. Additionally it becomes a culture in the

PNP that a change in the top level management would also mean a change in

policy implemented without prior assessment of the existing policy. This could be

one of the reason that is being overlooked in the PNP, the lack of sustainability

of policies implemented.

Significant Differences of the Level of Implementation Among Aspects


and Among Periods.

The significant differences of the level of implementation among aspects

(community-based anti crime strategy, anti-street crime strategy, crime

awareness strategy) and among periods (2008, 2009, and 2010) were measured

using Two-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). In identifying which aspects and

periods are significantly different, a post hoc Scheffe’ test was also used.

Analysis of Variance (Table 4A) registered a p-value of .004 among aspects of

Crime Prevention Strategies so null hypothesis is rejected. This implies that there
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are highly significant differences in the level of implementation of crime

prevention strategies among aspects. The ANOVA for the level of

implementation of crime prevention strategies among periods obtained a p-value

of .000, thus the null hypothesis is rejected. This shows that there are also highly

significant differences in the level of implementation of crime prevention

strategies among periods.

Table 4A

ANOVA Table for the Level of Implementation of Crime Prevention


Strategies among Aspects and among Periods

Source Sum of Mean


df F Significance
Squares Square
ASPECTS .117 2 .058 31.705 .004**

PERIODS .381 2 .190 103.235 .000**

Error .007 4 .002

Total 55.760 9

Reference: Appendix D

It can be inferred that there was indeed a remarkable difference in the

level of implementation of crime prevention strategies in between aspects such

as anti-street crime strategy, community-based anti crime strategy and crime

awareness. It can be further inferred that there was also a remarkable difference

in its implementation along the three periods which is from CY 2008-2010.


107

Among aspects. The Scheffe’ post hoc test among aspects (Table 4B)

revealed that the differences in the level of implementation of crime prevention

strategies between community-based anti crime strategy and crime awareness

strategy (p-value=.007) as well as between anti-street crime strategy and crime

awareness strategy (p-value=.006) are highly significant, but the difference

between Community-based anti crime strategy and Anti-street crime strategy (p-

value=.961) are not significant.

Table 4B

Scheffe’ Test Table for the Level of Implementation of


Crime Prevention Strategies among Aspects

Mean Difference (I-


(I) ASPECTS (J) ASPECTS Significance
J)
Community-based Anti-street crime -.0100 .961
anti crime strategy strategy
vs Crime awareness .2367** .007
strategy
Anti-street crime Community-based .0100 .961
strategy vs anti crime strategy
Crime awareness .2467** .006
strategy
Crime awareness Community-based -.2367** .007
strategy vs anti crime strategy
Anti-street crime -.2467** .006
strategy
Reference: Appendix D

The mean differences between community-based anti crime strategy and

crime awareness strategy (MD=-.2367); anti-street crime strategy and crime

awareness strategy (MD=.2467); as well as between Community-based anti


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crime strategy and Anti-street crime strategy (MD=-.0100) further indicate that

crime awareness strategies and anti-crime strategies were well implemented

than community-based crime awareness strategies.

Table 4C

Scheffe’ Test Table for the Level of Implementation of


Crime Prevention Strategies among Periods

(I) PERIODS (J) PERIODS Mean Difference (I-J) Significance

2008 vs 2009 -.4900** .000

2010 -.1433** .037

2009 vs 2008 .4900** .000

2010 .3467** .002

2010 vs 2008 .1433** .037

2009 -.3467** .002

Reference: Appendix D

Among periods. As presented in Table 4C, the Scheffe’ post hoc test

among periods showed that the differences in the level of implementation of

crime prevention strategies between 2008 and 2009 (p-value=.000); between

2008 and 2010 (p-value=.037); as well as 2009 and 2010 (p-value=.002) are

highly significant.
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Moreover, the mean differences between 2008 and 2009 (MD=-.4900);

between 2008 and 2010 (MD=-.1433); as well as 2009 and 2010(MD=.3467)

further indicate that crime prevention strategies were well implemented in 2009

and 2010 than in 2008.

Significant Impact of the Implemented Crime Prevention Strategies


on the Crime Reduction

Table 5

Percentage Change of Total Crime Volume from CY 2008-2010

2008 VS. 2009 2009 VS. 2010 2008 VS.2010


Index Crime -7.44% 182.81% 161.76%
Non-Index Crime -56.99% 147.68% 6.52%
Total Crime Volume -37.55% 170.09% 68.68%
Legend: (-) Decreased
(+) Increased

Crime Prevention Strategies vs. Index Crime. From the data revealed in

table 5 it was evident that there was a decrease of 7.44% in index crime on CY

2009 as compared to CY 2008 while on table 4C it revealed that the level of

implementation of crime prevention strategies between CY 2008 and 2009 has a

mean difference of -4900 and a p-value of .000 which means that there is highly

significant difference between periods, furthermore crime prevention strategies

on CY 2009 is significantly high as compared to CY 2008. So it can be inferred

that the increase in implementation of crime prevention strategy on CY 2009 has

caused the decrease of index crime on the same period.


110

Meanwhile, between CY 2009 and 2010, table 5 revealed that there was a

182.81% increase of index crime on CY 2010 as compared to CY 2009. On the

other hand, table 4C revealed a mean difference of .3467 and p-value of .002

between CY 2009 and 2010 which means that there is highly significant

difference between periods and crime prevention strategy on CY 2010 has

significantly decreased as compared to CY 2009. So it can be inferred that the

decrease in implementation of crime prevention strategy on CY 2010 caused the

increase of index crime on the same period.

Furthermore, between CY 2008 and 2010, table 5 revealed a 161.76%

increase in index crime on CY 2010 as compared to CY 2008. Meanwhile table 4C

revealed a mean difference -.1433 and a p-value of .037 between CY 2008 and

2010 which means that there is highly significant difference between the two

periods and crime prevention strategies on CY 2010 is significantly high as

compared to CY 2008. It can be inferred from these data that though there was

an increase of implementation of crime prevention strategies on CY 2010, the

index crime also increased on CY 2010.

Crime Prevention Strategies vs. Non-Index Crime. From the data revealed

in table 5 it was evident that there was a decrease of 56.99% in non-index crime

on CY 2009 as compared to CY 2008 while on table 4C it revealed that the level

of implementation of crime prevention strategies between CY 2008 and 2009 has

a mean difference of -4900 and a p-value of .000 which means that there is

highly significant difference between periods, furthermore crime prevention


111

strategies on CY 2009 is significantly high as compared to CY 2008. So it can be

inferred that the increase in implementation of crime prevention strategy on CY

2009 has caused the decrease of non-index crime on the same period.

Meanwhile, between CY 2009 and 2010, table 5 revealed that there was a

147.68% increase of non-index crime on CY 2010 as compared to CY 2009. On

the other hand, table 4C revealed a mean difference of .3467 and p-value of

.002 between CY 2009 and 2010 which means that there is highly significant

difference between periods and crime prevention strategy on CY 2010 has

significantly decrease as compared to CY 2009. So it can be inferred that the

decrease in implementation of crime prevention strategy on CY 2010 caused the

increase of non-index crime on the same period.

Furthermore, between CY 2008 and 2010, table 5 revealed a 6.52%

increase in non-index crime on CY 2010 as compared to CY 2008. Meanwhile

table 4C revealed a mean difference -.1433 and a p-value of .037 between CY

2008 and 2010 which means that there is highly significant difference between

the two periods and crime prevention strategies on CY 2010 is significantly high

as compared to CY 2008. It can be inferred from these data that though there

was an increase of implementation of crime prevention strategies on CY 2010,

the non-index crime also increased on CY 2010.

Crime Prevention Strategies vs. Total Crime Volume. From the data

revealed in table 5 it was evident that there was a decrease of 37.55% in total

crime volume on CY 2009 as compared to CY 2008 while on table 4C it revealed


112

that the level of implementation of crime prevention strategies between CY 2008

and 2009 has a mean difference of -4900 and a p-value of .000 which means

that there is highly significant difference between periods, furthermore crime

prevention strategies on CY 2009 is significantly high as compared to CY 2008.

So it can be inferred that the increase in implementation of crime prevention

strategy on CY 2009 has caused the decrease of total crime volume on the same

period.

Meanwhile, between CY 2009 and 2010, table 5 revealed that there was a

170.09% increase of total crime volume on CY 2010 as compared to CY 2009.

On the other hand, table 4C revealed a mean difference of .3467 and p-value of

.002 between CY 2009 and 2010 which means that there is highly significant

difference between periods and crime prevention strategy on CY 2010 has

significantly decrease as compared to CY 2009. So it can be inferred that the

decrease in implementation of crime prevention strategy on CY 2010 has caused

the increase of total crime volume on the same period.

Furthermore, between CY 2008 and 2010, table 5 revealed a 68.68%

increase in total crime volume on CY 2010 as compared to CY 2008. Meanwhile

table 4C revealed a mean difference -.1433 and a p-value of .037 between CY

2008 and 2010 which means that there is highly significant difference between

the two periods and crime prevention strategies on CY 2010 is significantly high

as compared to CY 2008. It can be inferred from these data that though there
113

was an increase of implementation of crime prevention strategies on CY 2010,

the total crime volume also increased on CY 2010.

From the interpretation and inferences, it implicates that on CY 2008 vs.

CY 2009 and CY 2009 vs. 2010 an increase in the level of implementation of

crime prevention strategies could help in the decrease of index and non-index

crime conversely on CY 2008 vs. 2010 an increase in the implementation of

crime prevention strategies does not help in the decrease of index and non-index

crime. This means that a highly extensive implementation of crime prevention

strategies could possibly help in the reduction of crime but this will not be the

only solution since crime is a multi-faceted problem, the solution would also

mean to be multi-faceted.

Measures to Lessen the Level of Crime in Naga City

Based on the interpreted data, the differences in the level of

implementation of crime prevention strategies in all three periods are highly

significant. This evidently shows inconsistency in the level of implementation.

Data has also shown that as the level of implementation of crime prevention

increase, the crime incidence could decrease. Therefore if the level of

implementation of the crime prevention strategies will be intensified, there is a

possibility of having impact on crime incidence thereby reducing the latter. That

is why the researcher have come up with a proposed measure that will help

lessen the level of crime incidence through the creation of a Local Crime
114

Prevention Committee that will specifically focus on the development of crime

prevention strategies and as well as its monitoring, supervision and evaluation.

The researcher also incorporated the People Empowerment Against Crime

(PEACE) Program that will aid the police and the city government in crime

prevention through crime awareness.


115

Proposed Action Plan to Reduced the Level of Crime in Naga City

Strategy Objectives Program Activities Resources Recommended Partner Timeframe Outcome


Lead Agency Agencies

Organizational 1. To established 1. Conduct


and Structural professional crime Creation of problem Local NCPO LGU 3 Years *Efficient and
Reform prevention managers Local Crime identification Government PSO Effective Crime
Prevention /crime analysis Fund NCF-CCJE Prevention Programs
2. To increase the Committee through
number of criminological *Strengthened
stakeholders involved research Awareness and
in the preparation Participation of the
and implementation 2. Design new Public in Crime
crime prevention concepts on Prevention.
programs. crime prevention
strategy which *Strict and Consistent
3. To create a clear are streamlined in Implementation of
division of task and the new trends of Crime Prevention
competences, crime. Programs.
cooperation of all
stakeholders 3. Monitor, *Reduced Crime
involved, exchanged supervise and
of information, and evaluate the
public support for a implementation
successful prevention of crime
program. prevention
programs.

4. Disseminate
information to
improve
awareness
against crime
through
education.
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“NCF CCJE PEACE PROGRAM”

I. Rationale:

Based from the result of this study entitled “Naga City Crime Prevention
Strategies: Its Implementation and Impact,” it was evidently shown that among
the crime prevention strategies the least implemented was the crime awareness
strategy. It was also observed that a least extensive implementation of crime
awareness strategy could be one of the contributory factors in the increase of
crime incidence conversely a highly extensive implementation would help in the
prevention of crime. Through crime awareness the community will be able to
know the different crimes that are presently taking place, where they often occur
and environments that encourage crime. Knowing all these, the community will
be better prepared in protecting themselves, their family and even their
neighborhood. In line with these, the researcher has incorporated the recent
program of the College of Criminal Justice Education of the Naga College
Program which is the “People Empowerment Against Crime through Education.
Through this program of educating the public about the trends of crime, it will
help intensify the crime awareness program in partnership with the Naga City
Police Office.

This program has been specifically designed to educate and inform the
public of the current modus operandi of criminals so that they will have the idea
on what are the preparatory acts of criminals in doing their crafts to victimize
their prospects. With these, people who are supposed target of criminals will
become aware if they are the target victims so they will become prepared on
how they will counter it and prevent themselves from being victimized. In this
program, drug abuse prevention is also included since one of the root causes of
criminality is drug abuse and the vulnerable targets were the youth.

II. Purpose:

The purpose of employing this program is to reduce the number of crimes


taking place, prevent offenders from committing crimes and promote the well-
being of children and youth.
117

III. Objectives:

This program would be the best aid to the Naga City Police Office to
intensify their campaign against crime and drug abuse through crime awareness
to achieve the help achieve the ultimate goal of reducing criminality.

At the end of every symposium, the participants are expected to:

1. Know the current trends of crime.


2. Become aware of the root causes of crime.
3. Be informed of the modus operandi of different crimes particularly
those in trend.
4. Learn how they will prevent and protect themselves and their love
ones from being victims of crime.
5. To become participative and cooperative in all the crime prevention
measures of the Naga City Police Office and the City Government.

IV. Time Frame and Venue:

This intervention program which will be carried out through symposium


will be conducted at every schools and barangays in Naga City that will last for 5
hours either in the morning or afternoon. this will be conducted annually on each
schools and barangays in Naga City.

V. Participants:

The targeted participant of the symposium will be the students of every


schools in Naga City and the Barangay Officials, Barangay tanods and residents
of every barangays in Naga City.

VI. Course Outline:

1. Anatomy of crime

a. What are the basic elements of crimes


b. The role of victim in crime
c. How to eliminate opportunity to commit crime
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2. Criminal Modus Operandi

a. Methods of street level crimes


b. Suspicious activities persons
c. Movement and gesture of potential terrorist

3. Drug Abuse Prevention

a. Commonly abused drugs


b. Symptoms of drug abuse
c. Ill effects of drug abuse

4. Empowering people to fight back against crime

a. Promote citizen patrol


b. Intensify neighborhood watch
c. Citizen assistance in the implementation of crime prevention
strategies

VII. Procedures:

Lecture
Discussion
Demonstration

VIII. Course Schedule:

Part I Registration

Part II Opening Program

Part III Lecture Proper

Part IV Open Forum


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IX. Budgetary Requirement:

Particular Unit Unit Cost No. of Unit Amount


Honorarium Speakers 500.00 4 2,000.00
Token Speakers 200.00 4 800.00
Streamer Pieces 300.00 1 300.00
Plaque Speakers 250.00 4 1,000.00
Speakers 50.00 4 200.00
Snacks
Participants 20.00 100 2,000.00
Total 6,300.00

X. Expected Output:

This intervention program will be recognized by the City Government of Naga


and the Naga City Police Office as a qualified program for crime prevention
program through educating the public of the trends and modus operandi of
crime. Therefore the participants are expected to:

1. Be informed of the current trends of crime and how to prevent it.


2. Become empowered to avoid one from being victimized of crime.
3. Be encouraged in actively participating in all crime prevention efforts
of the NCPO.
4. To refrain from using illegal drugs to prevent oneself from being a
victim and an offender.
5. Cooperate with the police particularly in crime reporting and to offer
voluntary information that will help in the solution of crimes.

XI. Evaluation:

Post evaluation will be conducted to monitor and supervise the participation


of the participants in realizing the objectives of this program.

XII. Recognition:

Those citizen who actively participate and help in the prevention of crime will
be recognized and rewarded to motivate them and to serve as encouragement to
others.
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CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATONS

This chapter presents the summary on how the research was conducted,

the findings obtained, the conclusions drawn and the recommendations offered.

Summary

This study aimed to evaluate the level of implementation of the different

crime prevention strategies in Naga City and their impact to the crime incidence

from CY 2008-2010. Specifically, this study answered the following questions: (1)

what is the crime statistics in Naga City for CY 2008-2010 along: a. index crime;

and, b. non-index crime? (2) What is the level of implementation of crime

prevention strategies for CY 2008-2010 along: a. anti-street crime strategy; b.

community-based anti crime strategy; and, c. crime awareness strategy? (3) Are

there significant differences in the level of implementation of crime prevention

strategies among aspects and among periods? (4) What is the impact of the

implemented crime prevention strategies on the crime reduction in Naga City?

(5) What programs/measures can be designed to lessen the level of crime in

Naga City?

The assumptions of the study were: This study is guided by the following

assumptions: (1) that Naga City crime statistics along index and non-index

crimes fluctuates annually; (2) that Naga City implements crime prevention
121

strategy; (3) the implemented crime prevention strategies affect crime incidence

in Naga City; and, (4) crime prevention strategies are proposed to further lessen

crime incidence in Naga City. The study was anchored on the hypotheses that:

(1) there are significant differences in the level of implementation of crime

prevention strategies in Naga city between aspects; and, (2). there are

significant differences in the level of implementation of crime prevention

strategies in Naga city among periods.

Descriptive-evaluative, comparative, and correlational methods were

employed. The respondents of this study include barangay officials, baranggay

tanods, the PNP, and PSO in Naga City and selected residents and business

sector. Questionnaire and documentary analysis were the research instruments

used in gathering data. These data were treated statistically using frequency

and percentage, weighted mean and ranking, Two-Way ANOVA as well as

scheffe’s test as post hoc procedure.

Problem 1.

What is the crime statistics in Naga City for CY 2008-2010 along: a. index

crime; and, b. non-index crime?

Finding. There were 2,733 index crimes recorded and 2,373 non-index

crimes recorded from CY 2008-2010 in Naga City.

Conclusion. There are more index crimes in Naga City and the most
prevalent is theft.
122

Recommendation. The NCPO and the City Government of Naga together

with all other stakeholders should design a new concept of crime prevention

programs streamlined to the present trends of crimes.

Problem 2.

What is the level of implementation of crime prevention strategies for CY

2008-2010 along: a. anti-street crime strategy; b. community-based anti crime

strategy; and, c. crime awareness strategy?

Findings. The implementation level of crime prevention strategies along

anti-street crime strategy, community-based anti crime strategy and crime

awareness strategy has obtained weighted means of 2.56, 2.55, and 2.31

respectively.

Conclusions. The implementation level of crime prevention strategies are

high along anti-street crime strategy, community-based anti crime strategy and

low along crime awareness strategy.

Recommendations. The NCPO, the Local Government of Naga and all

other stakeholders should intensify and focus more on the implementation of

crime awareness strategy by empowering the people through educating them on

the available forms of protection against all forms of crimes and to engage

citizens in pro-active steps to improve their own safety and security of their
123

environment since the police cannot protect them at all times. So the community

will learn to accept that the task of crime prevention is as much a community

responsibility as it is a police responsibility.

Problem 3.

Are there significant differences in the level of implementation of crime

prevention strategies among aspects and among periods?

Hypothesis 1 . There are significant differences in the level of

implementation of crime prevention strategies in Naga City between aspects.

Hypothesis 2. There are significant differences in the level of

implementation of crime prevention strategies in Naga City among periods.

Finding 1. The obtained p-values between aspects was .004.

Finding 2. The obtained p-values among periods was .000.

Conclusion 1. There are highly significant differences between aspects.

Conclusion 1. There are highly significant differences among periods.

Recommendation 1. From the conclusion, the researcher therefore

recommends that there should be intensified and consistent implementation of

crime prevention strategies along anti-street crime strategy, community-based


124

anti crime strategy most especially on crime awareness to make such crime

prevention effective.

Recommendation 2. It is recommended that there should be continuous

monitoring and evaluation of the crime prevention programs at least twice a year

to assess its efficiency and effectiveness.

Problem 4.

What is the impact of the implemented crime prevention strategies on the

crime reduction in Naga City?

Findings. There was a decrease of 37.55% in total crime volume on

CY 2009 as compared to CY 2008 while the level of implementation of crime

prevention strategies between CY 2008 and 2009 has a mean difference of -4900

and a p-value of .000. Meanwhile, between CY 2009 and 2010, there was a

170.09% increase of total crime volume on CY 2010 as compared to CY 2009

and revealed a mean difference of .3467 and p-value of .002 in the

implementation of crime prevention strategies between CY 2009 and 2010.

Furthermore, between CY 2008 and 2010, there was a 68.68% increase in total

crime volume on CY 2010 as compared to CY 2008 and revealed a mean

difference -.1433 and a p-value of .037 in the implementation of crime

prevention strategies between CY 2008 and 2010.


125

Conclusion. From CY 2008 to 2009 there was a decrease in total crime

volume while from CY 2009 to 2010 there was an increase in total crime volume,

furthermore from CY 2008 to 2010 there was an increase in total crime volume.

Meanwhile along crime prevention strategies, there was an increase of

implementation from CY 2008 to 2009 and decrease in implementation from CY

2009 to 2010, furthermore from CY 2008 to 2010 there was an increase in

implementation.

As the level of implementation of crime prevention strategies increases

there could be a decrease in crime incidence.

Recommendation. There should be an intensified and consistent

implementation of crime prevention strategies to possibly help in the reduction of

crime.

Problem 5

What programs/measures can be designed to lessen the level of crime in


Naga City?

Findings. It was found out that there was a fluctuation in the

implementation of crime prevention strategies among aspect and among periods

and the least implemented was the crime awareness strategy.

Conclusion. A consistently high extensive implementation of crime

prevention strategies particularly along crime awareness would help reduce

crime.
126

Recommendation. The researcher had already come up with a proposed

action plan and intervention program to help in the reduction of crime.


127

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APPENDICES
136

Appendix A

PERMIT TO CONDUCT THE STUDY

Naga College Foundation


College of Criminal Justice Education
M.T. Villanueva Ave., Naga City

Hon. John G. Bonggat


City Mayor
Naga City

Sir:

I am currently conducting my research entitled, “Naga City Crime Prevention


Strategies: Its Implementation and Impact,” in partial fulfillment of the requirements in
Master of Science in Criminology.

In view of this, I am humbly seeking your kind permission to conduct my survey by way
of questionnaire to the PNP, Barangay Officials, Business Sectors, and selected members of the
community.

Rest assured that the data obtained in this study will be used solely for this purpose and
will be treated with utmost confidentiality. I firmly hope for your kind consideration and
approval.

Thank you and more power!

Respectfully yours,
Recommending Approval:

FREDERICK R. EBONA DR. MARILYN F. BALARES


Researcher Dean

Approved:

HON. JOHN G. BONGAT


Municipal Mayor
137

Naga College Foundation


College of Criminal Justice Education
M.T. Villanueva Ave., Naga City

February 21, 2012

PSUPT. VICENTE MARPURI JR.


Chief of Police
Naga City Police Station 1

Sir:

The undersigned researcher and faculty member of the College of Criminal Justice
Education at the Naga College Foundation is on the process of conducting research entitled,
“Naga City Crime Prevention Strategies: Its Implementation and Impact,” in partial
fulfillment of the requirements in Master of Science in Criminology.

In view of this, he is humbly seeking for your kind permission to acquire data from your
office of the breakdown of non-index crime from CY 2008-2010.

Rest assured that the data obtained in this study will be used solely for this purpose and
will be treated with utmost confidentiality.

Thank you and more power!

Respectfully yours,

FREDERICK R. EBONA
Researcher

Noted by:

DR. MARILYN F. BALARES


Dean, CCJE
138

Naga College Foundation


College of Criminal Justice Education
M.T. Villanueva Ave., Naga City

February 21, 2012

PSUPT. FERDINAND RAYMUNDO (DSC)


Chief of Police
Naga City Police Station 2

Sir:

The undersigned researcher and faculty member of the College of Criminal Justice
Education at the Naga College Foundation is on the process of conducting research entitled,
“Naga City Crime Prevention Strategies: Its Implementation and Impact,” in partial
fulfillment of the requirements in Master of Science in Criminology.

In view of this, he is humbly seeking for your kind permission to acquire data from your
office of the breakdown of non-index crime from CY 2008-2010.

Rest assured that the data obtained in this study will be used solely for this purpose and
will be treated with utmost confidentiality.

Thank you and more power!

Respectfully yours,

FREDERICK R. EBONA
Researcher

Noted by:

DR. MARILYN F. BALARES


Dean, CCJE
139

Naga College Foundation


College of Criminal Justice Education
M.T. Villanueva Ave., Naga City

February 21, 2012

PSUPT. BRIAN B. CASTILLO (PESE)


Chief of Police
Naga City Police Station 3

Sir:

The undersigned researcher and faculty member of the College of Criminal Justice
Education at the Naga College Foundation is on the process of conducting research entitled,
“Naga City Crime Prevention Strategies: Its Implementation and Impact,” in partial
fulfillment of the requirements in Master of Science in Criminology.

In view of this, he is humbly seeking for your kind permission to acquire data from your
office of the breakdown of non-index crime from CY 2008-2010.

Rest assured that the data obtained in this study will be used solely for this purpose and
will be treated with utmost confidentiality.

Thank you and more power!

Respectfully yours,

FREDERICK R. EBONA
Researcher

Noted by:

DR. MARILYN F. BALARES


Dean, CCJE
140

Appendix B

QUESTIONNAIRE

July 20, 2011

Dear Respondents,

The undersigned researcher is conducting a criminological research on the “Naga City


Crime Statistics and Crime Prevention Strategies” in partial fulfillment of the requirements in
Master of Science in Criminology.

In view of the foregoing, kindly accomplish this questionnaire, for me to gather data
relative to my research. Rest assured that the data you will provide will be treated with utmost
confidentiality.

Thank you very much for your kind response.

FREDERICK R. EBONA
Researcher

PART I. Respondents Profile

Please Check or supplement information needed:


______ Implementer
______ Recipient

Name: _________________________________________

Barangay: ______________________________________

Age: _______ Length of Service: ____________


Occupation: __________________

Gender: _____ Male Civil Status:_____ Married


_____ Female _____ Single
_____ Widow/Widower
Educational Attainment:
_____ Baccalaureate Degree (BS)
______ Master’s Degree/Units (MS/MA)
______ Doctorate Degree/Units (Ph.D/Ed.D)
______ Others (Pls. Specify)
141

PART II. Crime Prevention Strategies


Instruction: Kindly indicate your assessment about the level of implementation of
crime prevention strategies by the Naga City Police Office (NCPO) using the code below.

Scale Interpretation
4 - Very High
3 - High
2 - Low
1 - Very Low
ANTI-STREET CRIME STRATEGY
Strategies 2008 2009 2010

1. Identification of crime prone areas


4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1
2. Fielding of two patrol personnel every beat
4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1
3. Fielding of uniformed personnel along recreation areas
4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1
4. Deployment of plainclothes personnel in different subdivision
and residential areas particularly during nighttime
4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1
5. 24-hour round the clock motorcycle patrol operations
4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1

COMMUNITY-BASED ANTI CRIME STRATEGY


Strategies 2008 2009 2010
1. Conduct symposia, seminar and dialogues in
baranggay 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1
2. Nightly visitations of patrol officers assigned in the
barangay to barangay officials and close coordination
with brgy. tanods and residents 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1
3. Creation of programs and activities for youth such
as sports and other recreational activities that will 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1
divert them from using drugs and membership in
gangs
4. Organizing neighborhood watch program 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1
5. Organizing commercial and industrial crime
prevention committee 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1

CRIME AWARENESS STRATEGY


Activities 2008 2009 2010
1. Dissemination of vital information relative to
modus operandi of criminals over the radio 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1
2. Place information about current modus
4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1
operandi and trend of crimes in newsletters
3. Crime and drug abuse prevention talk on
4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1
youths
4. Conduct parent education forum to inform
them to get involve with their children’s interest
4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1
and activities
5. Distribution of crime prevention tips through
pamphlets or posters 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1
142

Appendix C

NAGA CITY POLICE STATION

CRIME STATISTICS - 2008


Number of Population: 156,627

NON-INDEX TOTAL TOTAL CRIM AVE MONTH


INDEX CRIMES CRIMES CRIME CRIME E MONTH LY
AGAINST TOTA TOTAL INDE TOTA TOTAL NON VOLU SOLV SOL LY CRIME
AGAINST PERSONS
PROPERTIES L INDEX X L NON- INDE ME ED EFF CRIME RATE
MONTH

INDEX CRIME CRIM NON- INDEX X (CV) (CS) (CSE RATE


CRIM S E INDEX CRIME CRIM ) (%) (AMCR)
PH
MU HO RAP TOT RO TH TOT ES SOLV SOL CRIM S E
Y
R M E AL B F AL ED EFF ES SOLV SOL
INJ
(%) ED EFF
(%)
JAN 0 1 34 0 35 8 62 70 105 59 56% 153 139 91% 258 198 77% 164.7 164.7
FEB 0 1 14 0 15 5 24 29 44 31 70% 72 63 88% 116 94 81% 119.4 74.1
MAR 0 2 15 0 17 7 14 21 38 31 82% 65 62 95% 103 93 90% 101.5 65.8
APR 0 2 9 2 13 7 11 18 31 26 84% 58 53 91% 89 79 89% 90.3 56.8
MAY 1 1 6 0 8 6 13 19 27 23 85% 71 66 93% 98 89 91% 84.8 62.6
JUN 0 1 12 1 14 9 14 23 37 33 89% 72 70 97% 109 103 94% 82.3 69.6
JUL 0 1 15 2 18 6 18 24 42 36 86% 71 65 92% 113 101 89% 80.8 72.1
AUG 1 1 18 1 21 7 23 30 51 39 76% 59 55 93% 110 94 85% 79.5 70.2
SEP 0 2 22 0 24 6 32 38 62 48 77% 90 81 90% 152 129 85% 81.4 97.0
OCT 2 1 23 0 26 6 19 25 51 43 84% 73 70 96% 124 113 91% 81.2 79.2
NOV 1 0 17 1 19 4 23 27 46 39 85% 77 73 95% 123 112 91% 81.0 78.5
DEC 0 0 27 1 28 9 20 29 57 42 74% 90 88 98% 147 130 88% 82.0 93.9
TOT 21 27
5 13 8 238 80 353 591 450 76% 951 885 93% 1542 1335 87% 82.0 984.5
AL 2 3
143

NAGA CITY POLICE STATION

CRIME STATISTICS - 2009


Number of Population: 159,679

INDEX CRIMES NON-INDEX CRIMES TOTAL TOTAL CRIME AVE MONTHLY


CRIME CRIME SOL MONTHLY CRIME
AGAINST TOTAL TOTAL INDEX TOTAL TOTAL NON VOLUME SOLVED EFF CRIME RATE
AGAINST PERSONS
MONTH

PROPERTIES INDEX INDEX CRIME NON- NON- INDEX (CV) (CS) (CSE) RATE
CRIMES CRIMES SOL INDEX INDEX CRIME (%) (AMCR)
PHY Cattle SOLVED EFF CRIMES CRIMES SOL
MUR HOM RAPE TOTAL ROB THF Carp TOTAL
INJ Rustling (%) SOLVED EFF (%)

JAN 1 3 12 2 18 4 26 30 48 40 83% 43 43 100% 91 83 91% 57.0 57.0


FEB 0 3 11 2 16 10 34 44 60 41 68% 68 56 82% 128 97 76% 68.6 80.2
MAR 0 4 7 4 15 3 16 19 34 23 68% 35 32 91% 69 55 80% 60.1 43.2
APR 0 0 11 1 12 7 21 28 40 25 63% 34 34 100% 74 59 80% 56.7 46.3
MAY 1 1 6 2 10 4 16 20 30 18 60% 31 28 90% 61 46 75% 53.0 38.2
JUN 1 4 9 0 14 9 31 40 54 31 57% 36 36 100% 90 67 74% 53.5 56.4
JUL 0 2 25 1 28 10 23 33 61 43 70% 71 68 96% 132 111 84% 57.7 82.7
AUG 0 0 8 1 9 15 36 51 60 46 77% 38 38 100% 98 84 86% 58.2 61.4
SEP 0 0 15 0 15 5 13 5 0 23 38 29 76% 22 21 95% 60 50 83% 55.9 37.6
OCT 2 0 12 0 14 5 10 0 0 15 29 22 76% 10 10 100% 39 32 82% 52.7 24.4
NOV 0 0 11 2 13 9 25 2 0 36 49 38 78% 8 8 100% 57 46 81% 51.2 35.7
DEC 0 2 16 2 20 6 25 31 51 41 80% 13 13 100% 64 54 84% 50.3 40.1
TOTAL 5 19 143 17 184 87 276 7 0 370 554 397 72% 409 387 95% 963 784 81% 50.3 603.08
144

NAGA CITY POLICE OFFICE

CRIME STATISTICS - 2010


Number of Population: 162,313

TOTAL TOTAL CRIME AVE MONTHLY


INDEX CRIMES NON-INDEX CRIMES CRIME CRIME SOL MONTHLY CRIME
AGAINST TOTAL TOTAL INDEX TOTAL TOTAL NON VOLUME SOLVED EFF CRIME RATE
AGAINST PERSONS
MONTH

PROPERTIES INDEX INDEX CRIME NON- NON- INDEX (CV) (CS) (CSE) RATE
CRIMES CRIMES SOL INDEX INDEX CRIME (%) (AMCR)
FRUS PHY Cattle SOLVED EFF CRIMES CRIMES SOL
MUR HOM RAPE TOTAL ROB THF Carp TOTAL
HOM INJ Rustling (%) SOLVED EFF
(%)
JAN 0 0 0 28 0 28 7 45 0 0 52 80 7 9% 54 44 81% 134 51 38% 82.56 82.56

FEB 0 0 0 59 3 62 28 59 4 1 92 154 30 19% 80 71 89% 234 101 43% 113.4 144.2

MAR 0 0 0 98 0 98 16 96 6 0 118 216 52 24% 50 34 68% 266 86 32% 130.2 163.9

APR 3 0 0 55 0 58 29 68 2 0 99 157 27 17% 71 17 24% 228 44 19% 132.8 140.5

MAY 0 2 0 64 2 68 19 88 2 0 109 177 22 12% 111 2 2% 288 24 8% 141.7 177.4

JUN 1 1 0 59 2 63 22 81 8 3 114 177 38 21% 123 21 17% 300 59 20% 148.9 184.8

JUL 2 0 0 55 1 58 12 53 6 0 71 129 35 27% 79 17 22% 208 24 12% 145.9 128.1


AUG 1 1 0 42 2 46 21 47 0 0 68 114 81 71% 88 75 85% 202 156 77% 143.2 124.5
SEP 1 0 2 53 2 58 19 24 2 0 45 103 70 68% 93 79 85% 196 149 76% 140.7 120.8
OCT 2 0 0 36 0 38 12 50 1 0 63 101 55 54% 95 79 83% 196 134 68% 138.7 120.8
NOV 0 0 0 29 0 29 26 39 1 0 66 95 53 56% 96 83 86% 191 136 71% 136.8 117.7
DEC 0 0 1 31 2 34 17 32 2 0 51 85 47 55% 73 67 92% 158 114 72% 133.5 97.3
TOTAL 10 4 3 609 14 640 228 682 34 4 948 1588 517 33% 1013 589 58% 2601 1078 41% 133.5 1602.5
145

Appendix D

ANOVA Computations & Scheffe’s Test of the Significant Differences


in the level of implementation of crime prevention
strategies among aspects and among periods

Type III
Sum of Mean
Source Squares df Square F Sig.
Corrected .498a 4 .124 67.470 .001
Model
Intercept 55.254 1 55.254 29957.22 .000
9
ASPECTS .117 2 .058 31.705 .004
PERIODS .381 2 .190 103.235 .000
Error .007 4 .002
Total 55.760 9
Corrected .505 8
Total
a. R Squared = .985 (Adjusted R Squared = .971)

Mean 95% Confidence Interval


Std.
(I) ASPECTS (J) ASPECTS Difference (I- Sig. Lower Upper
Error
J) Bound Bound
Community-based Anti-street crime
-.0100 .03507 .961 -.1407 .1207
anti crime strategy strategy
Crime awareness
.2367* .03507 .007 .1060 .3673
strategy
Anti-street crime Community-based .0100 .03507 .961 -.1207 .1407
strategy anti crime strategy

Crime awareness .2467* .03507 .006 .1160 .3773


strategy
Crime awareness Community-based
strategy anti crime strategy -.2367* .03507 .007 -.3673 -.1060

Anti-street crime
-.2467* .03507 .006 -.3773 -.1160
strategy

Mean 95% Confidence Interval


(I) Difference (I- Std. Lower Upper
PERIODS (J) PERIODS J) Error Sig. Bound Bound
2008 2009 -.4900* .03507 .000 -.6207 -.3593
2010 -.1433* .03507 .037 -.2740 -.0127
2009 2008 .4900* .03507 .000 .3593 .6207
2010 .3467* .03507 .002 .2160 .4773
2010 2008 .1433* .03507 .037 .0127 .2740
2009 -.3467* .03507 .002 -.4773 -.2160
146

ANOVA Computations & Scheffe’s Test of the Significant Differences


in the level of implementation of crime prevention
strategies among aspects and among periods

Community-Based
Non-Index
Anti-Crime Index Crime
Crime
Strategies
Community-Based Anti- Pearson Correlation 1 -.385 -.968
Crime Strategies Sig. (2-tailed) .748 .161
N 3 3 3
Index Crime Pearson Correlation -.385 1 .604
Sig. (2-tailed) .748 .587
N 3 3 3
Non-Index Crime Pearson Correlation -.968 .604 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .161 .587
N 3 3 3

Anti-Street Crime Non-Index


Index Crime
Strategies Crime
Anti-Street Crime Pearson Correlation 1 -.293 -.939
Strategies Sig. (2-tailed) .811 .224
N 3 3 3
Index Crime Pearson Correlation -.293 1 .604
Sig. (2-tailed) .811 .587
N 3 3 3
Non-Index Crime Pearson Correlation -.939 .604 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .224 .587
N 3 3 3

Crime Awareness Non-Index


Index Crime
Strategies Crime
Crime Awareness Pearson Correlation 1 -.093 -.850
Strategies Sig. (2-tailed) .941 .354
N 3 3 3
Index Crime Pearson Correlation -.093 1 .604
Sig. (2-tailed) .941 .587
N 3 3 3
Non-Index Crime Pearson Correlation -.850 .604 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .354 .587
N 3 3 3
147