[1]
Integrals Vol. 1 The Indefinite Integral
1) An excellent supplementary text for all Mathematics, Engineering and Technology students, ideal for independent study
2) 120 fully worked illustrative examples and 235 graded problems
3) Evaluation techniques and methods and various applications
4) Odd numbered problems are provided with answers
5) Hints or detailed outlines are given for the more involved problems
Demetrios P. Kanoussis, Ph.D
[2]
About the Author
Demetrios P. Kanoussis, Ph.D
Kalamos Attikis, Greece
Dr. Kanoussis is a professional Electrical Engineer and Mathematician. He received his Ph.D degree in Engineering and his Master degree in Mathematics from Tennessee Technological University, U.S.A, and his Bachelor degree in Electrical Engineering from the National Technical University of Athens (N.T.U.A), Greece.
As a professional Electrical Engineer, Dr. Kanoussis has been actively involved in the design and in the implementation of various projects, mainly in the area of the Integrated Control Systems.
Regarding his teaching experience, Dr. Kanoussis has long teaching experience in the field of Applied Mathematics and Electrical Engineering.
His original scientific research and contribution, in Mathematics and Electrical Engineering, is published in various, high impact international journals.
Additionally to his professional activities, teaching and research, Demetrios P. Kanoussis is the author of several textbooks in Electrical Engineering and Applied Mathematics.
A complete list of Dr. Kanoussis textbooks in Mathematics and Engineering can be found in the Author’s page at Amazon Author Central (https://www.amazon.com/DemetriosP.
Kanoussis/e/B071GZ215Z)
[3]
Integrals Vol. 1 The Indefinite Integral
Copyright 2018,
Author: Demetrios P. Kanoussis.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, without the prior written permission of the author, except in the case of brief quotations and certain other noncommercial uses permitted by copyright law.
Inquires should be addressed directly to the author,
Demetrios P. Kanoussis
This e book is licensed for your personal use only. This e book may not be resold or given away to other people. If you would like to share this book with another person, please purchase an additional copy for each recipient.
Thank you for respecting the work of this author.
First edition: January 2018.
PREFACE
[4]
When differentiating a function we find the derivative of the function. The theory of the derivatives and its applications in the investigation of the functions is covered in Differential Calculus. The fundamental problem of Integral Calculus is the inverse problem, i.e. given the derivative of a function to find the function. The solution of this inverse problem, (the integration of a given function), is of great importance in Mathematics, Physics and Engineering in general. However, this problem (integration) is more complicated as compared to the problem of differentiation. In very general terms we may say that integrals are classified as either Indefinite Integrals (functions) or as Definite Integrals (numbers). These two integrals are connected with the so called “The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus”. In this first volume we cover the Indefinite Integrals. The Definite Integrals will be studied in details, in a second volume, to appear soon.
This book was written to provide an essential assistance to students who are first being introduced to the fundamentals of Integrals and has been designed to be an excellent supplementary textbook for University and College students in all areas of Mathematics, Physics and Engineering.
The content of the book is divided into 19 chapters.
In Chapter 1 we introduce the concept of the Antiderivative Function (Indefinite Integral) of a given function, present some basic integrals and integration rules and give a physical meaning of the integration constant.
In Chapter 2 we concentrate on some simple integration techniques which will prove to be helpful when evaluating more complicated integrals.
In Chapter 3 we study the powerful “Integration by Parts” method and show how it applies in practice to evaluate some rather complicated integrals.
In Chapter 4 we study the universal “Substitution or Change of Variables” method which is widely used in the evaluation of integrals.
In Chapter 5 we present the main techniques and methods to evaluate integrals of rational functions with the aid of the “Partial Fractions
[5]
Decomposition”. All cases are treated in details, i.e. simple roots, repeated roots and complex roots.
In 
Chapter 
6 
we 
study 
the evaluation 
of 
integrals 
of 
the 
form 

, or 
. 

In 
Chapter 
7 
we 
study 
the evaluation of 
the 
integrals 
of 
the 
form 

. 
In Chapter 8 we study the integral
an appropriate substitution (depending on the sign of
with the aid of , the coefficient of
).
In Chapter 9 we study the integration of the Binomial Differentials and show that these types of integrals are expressed in terms of elementary functions in three cases only, as shown by the prominent Russian Mathematician P. Chebyshef.
In Chapter 10 we examine the integration of Trigonometric functions of the
form
.
In Chapter 11 we give a brief but concise introduction to the Hyperbolic Functions (Hyperbolic functions, Identities, Derivatives, Inverse Hyperbolic Functions, etc.).
In Chapter 12 we concentrate on the integration of Hyperbolic functions of the
form
.
In Chapter 13 we evaluate various types of integrals using appropriate Trigonometric or Hyperbolic substitutions. Usually these substitutions provide
a more efficient method of evaluation, as compared to the classical techniques.
In Chapter 14 we examine some useful “reduction or recurrence formulas” and show how these formulas are applied in practice.
In Chapter 15 we examine some rather complicated integrals using a combination of general techniques and methods, aiming to sharpen the student’s abilities and skills in the evaluation of integrals.
[6]
In Chapter 16 we discuss some general remarks and draw some important conclusions, regarding the possibility of expressing the integral of a given function, in closed form, in terms of other elementary functions.
In Chapter 17 we study the connection between the Indefinite Integrals and the Areas of curvilinear trapezoids and show how areas are evaluated in terms of Integrals.
In Chapter 18 we evaluate volumes of solids of revolution with the aid of Integrals.
In Chapter 19 we give a brief introduction of some elementary forms of Differential Equations and show how to solve such a differential equation with the aid of integrals.
The text includes more than 120 illustrative worked out examples and 235 graded problems to be solved. The examples and the problems are designed to help the students to develop a solid background in the evaluation of Integrals, to broaden their knowledge and sharpen their analytical skills and finally to prepare them to pursue successful studies in more advanced courses
in Mathematics.
A brief hint or a detailed outline in solving more involved problems is often
given.
Finally answers to oddnumbered problems are also provided so that the students can check their progress and understanding of the material studied.
[7]
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1: The Antiderivative Function 
9 

11 
The Derivative Concept 
9 

12 
The Antiderivative of a Function 
15 

13 
Some Basic Integrals 
18 

14 
Some Simple Integration Rules 
22 

15 
Determination of the Constant of Integration 
26 

CHAPTER 2: Some Simple Integration Techniques 
33 

CHAPTER 3: Integration by Parts 
36 

CHAPTER 4: The Substitution (Change of Variables) Method 
40 

CHAPTER 5: Integration of Rational Functions 
49 

CHAPTER 
6: 
Evaluation 
of 
or 
66 

CHAPTER 7: Evaluation of 
70 

CHAPTER 8: Evaluation of 
73 

CHAPTER 9: Integrals of Binomial Differentials 
77 

CHAPTER 
10: 
Integrating 
Trigonometric 
Functions 
82 

CHAPTER 11: The Hyperbolic Functions 
92 

CHAPTER 
12: Integrating 
Hyperbolic 
Functions 
101 

CHAPTER 13: Trigonometric and Hyperbolic Substitutions 
109 
[8]
CHAPTER 14 : Reduction Formulas 
116 

CHAPTER 15: Miscellaneous Examples and Problems 
122 

CHAPTER 16: Some General Remarks and Conclusions 
130 

CHAPTER 
17: Indefinite Integrals and Areas (An Introductory 
132 
Approach) 

CHAPTER 18: Indefinite Integrals and Volumes of Revolution 
145 

CHAPTER 19: Some Simple Types of Differential Equations 
152 
[9]
CHAPTER 1: The Antiderivative Function
11) The Derivative Concept.
Let
be a function well defined and continuous within some given
interval of the independent variable
function
is defined as
. As it is known, the derivative of the
The derivative concept is one of the most important concepts in Mathematics, with applications embracing virtually all branches of Science and Engineering.
The rules of differentiation (i.e. the derivative of the sum, the product, the quotient of functions, etc), are assumed to be known to the reader of this book.
The differential of a function
is defined as
The following properties of the differential (easily proved), will be frequently used in our subsequent analysis:
Let now
be a a function of
, and let us further assume that
dependes on a third variable
function of
, i.e.
, i.e.
. This means that
. The differential
is eventually a
[10]
Equation (16) expresses the invariance of the form of the differential of a function.
Differential calculus deals with the problem of finding the derivative of a given function and the investigation of functions in general (graph, maxmin, inflection points, etc) with the aid of the derivatives.
Example 111
Find the derivative of the function 
. 

Solution 

Example 112 

Find the derivative of the function 

Solution 

Example 113 

Find the derivative of the function 
. 
Solution 

If we set 
, then 
, where 
. 
The derivative 
( 
) is therefore, 

Example 114 

Find the derivative of 
. 

Solution 

If we set 
, then 
where 
. 
The derivative of
Example 115
with respect to
[11]
is,
If 
find 
. 

Solution 

If we set 
, the 
where 
. The derivative 
is 
Example 116
Find the derivative of the function
Solution
.
Example 117 (Logarithmic differentiation)
If 
find the derivative . 
Solution 
Example 118
Find the limit . 

Solution 
[12]
This limit is of the indeterminate form
. For the proper evaluation of this
limit, we have to apply the De L’Hospital rule:
Let
This indeterminate form can be evaluated with the aid of the De L’Hospital rule, i.e.
since
, and finally, from equation (*)
Example 119
Show that the function
Solution
.
satisfies the Differential equation
Example 1110 (Implicit differentiation)
Using implicit differentiation find the derivative
by the equation
Solution
.
of the function defined
The given equation defines
in terms of
, implicitly. This means that we
may consider 
as a function of 
, which identically satisfies the given 
equation, i.e. 
[13]
Taking the derivatives of both sides of the given identity with respect to get,
PROBLEMS
, we
111) Find the derivatives of the following functions:
(Answer:
)
112) Find the derivatives of the following functions:
113) Find the derivatives of the following functions:
(Answer:
)
114) Find the derivatives of the following functions:
115) Find the derivatives of the following functions:
(Answer:
)
116) Find the derivatives of the following functions:
117) Find the
(Answer:
[14]
derivative of the following functions:
118) Use logarithmic differentiation (see Example 117) to show that
119) Find the second derivative of the function
.
that
for all
(Answer:
)
, and show
1110) Making use of the De L’Hospital rule, (see Example 118) show that,
1111) Find the derivative of
(Answer: 
) 

1112) If 
show that 
. 
1113) Using implicit differentiation (see Example 1110), find the
derivatives of the functions formulas:
(Answer:
defined implicitly by the following
)
1114) Show that :
1115) Assuming that
[15]
, show that
.
Then differentiate both sides to evaluate the sum 
. 
Taking the derivative one more time, evaluate 
. 
(Answer:
)
12) The Antiderivative of a Function.
An antiderivative (or primitive) of a given function continuous within some interval, is another function
is the original function
, i.e.
, well defined and whose derivative
In other words, the functions
domain of definition of
.
and
are identically equal within the
As an example, let
. For which function does
, since
serve as its
. We note that the
derivative? Obviously,
function
possesses other antiderivatives, as well. For example,
and in general
, where
is an arbitrary constant, are also
antiderivatives of the function the derivative of the constant vanishes.
, since in the differentiation process
[16]
Let us consider another example. The antiderivative of
is an arbitrary constant, since
, where
is
We are thus led to the following simple, and easily proved Theorem.
Theorem 121
Any two antiderivatives of a given function differ by an arbitrary constant.
Proof: 

Let 
and 
be any two antiderivatives of 
. Then, 
where 
is an arbitrary constant, and this completes the proof. 
Note 1: For the physical meaning of the arbitrary constant the antiderivative, see Section 15.
, appearing in
Note 2: If we know one antiderivative
of
, then we know all the
antiderivatives of
, since any other antiderivative will be
.
The general form of all the antiderivatives of a given function
is called
the indefinite integral of the function
, and is denoted by the symbol
. The
is the integral sign,
is the integrand and
element of integration. In symbols:
is the
In terms of this new notation,
Equation (122) implies that,
[17]
We note that the signs of integration cancel each other out.
and differentiation
mutually
The main problem in integral calculus is to find a function when the derivative of the function is given, or in other words to find the integral of a given function. Why this is such an important problem, in Mathematics, Physics and Engineering in general, will be justified in Chapters 17 and 18.
We emphasize that the integration of a function is much more complicated than the problem of differentiation. The reader should work as many problems as possible, starting with the simplest integrals and gradually proceed to the more complicated ones, in order to acquire the necessary experience and skills in computing integrals.
Example 121
Find all antiderivatives of the function
.
Solution 

Since 
we conclude that . 
Example 122
Find all antiderivatives of the function
.
Solution 

Since 
we conclude that 
Example 123
Find all the antiderivatives of the function
.
[18]
Solution 

Since 
, we conclude that 
Example 124
Find all the antiderivatives of the function
.
Solution 

Since 
, we conclude that 
PROBLEMS
121) Find all the antiderivatives of the functions
(Answer:
)
.
122) Find all the antiderivatives of the functions 
. 
123) Find all the antiderivatives of the functions 
. 
(Answer:
)
13) Some Basic Indefinite Integrals.
The following basic integrals follow directly from the corresponding differentiation formulas. Each one of them is easily checked by differentiation.
[19]
[20]
Note (*): In Formula (*) the independent variable
can vary in any interval,
not containing the point
not defined at
, since in such an interval the integrant
. Thus the given formula applies for either
or
is
.
Note (**): For the definition of the hyperbolic functions and various related properties, see Chapter 11.
Several times the evaluation of an integral reduces to one of the basic integrals shown above. The reader is encouraged to memorize the basic, fundamental integrals.
Example 131
Find the integral of
Solution
.
Application of equation (1), with
Example 132
Find the integral of
yields,
.
Solution
The given function
use equation (1) with
Example 133
Find the integral of
Solution
can be written as
.
.
, and we may
[21]
The given function can be written as equation (1) with
.
Example 134
Find the integral of
Solution
, and we may now use
.
PROBLEMS
131) Find the integral of the functions
(Answer:
132) Find the integral of
Hint: Apply equation (6) with
.
133) Find the integral of the functions
)
.
(Answer:
)
[22]
14) Some Simple Integration Rules.
Theorem 141 (On integrating a sum of functions)
Let
be
functions well defined and
continuous within some interval. Then,
Proof:
Taking the derivative of the right side we have,
and this according to the definition implies that
and the proof is completed.
Theorem 142 (On taking a constant outside the integral sign)
If
is any constant factor, then
Proof:
The derivative that
, and this implies , and this completes the proof.
Example 141
[23]
Find the integral of the following functions:
Solution
Note: Each time we integrate a function, an arbitrary constant of integration is introduced. In that sense, for example, the first integral (equation (1)), should be,
However, since
are arbitrary constants of integration, their sum
.
is replaced by another arbitrary constant
[24]
For this reason when we integrate a sum of functions, we perform all the indicated integrations and then add one arbitrary constant of integration at the end.
Example 142
Find the integral of the function
Solution
Example 143
Find the integral of the function
Solution
(See basic integrals in Section 13).
Example 144
Find the integral of the function
.
Solution
[25]
(See basic integrals in Section 13).
Example 145
Find the integral of the function
Solution
(See basic integrals in Section 13).
PROBLEMS
141) Find the integral of the functions
(Answer: 
) 
142) Verify directly that 
. 
[26]
Hint: It suffices to show that the derivative of the right side is equal to the integrand.
143) Verify directly that
Hint: It suffices to show that the derivative of the right side is equal to the integrand.
144) Find the integral of the function
145) Evaluate the
(Answer:
146) Evaluate the
)
Hint: See basic integrals in Section 13.
147) If
and
are two functions of
.
, show the general formula
and then, based on this formula evaluate
(Answer:
)
148) Evaluate the integral
.
.
15) Determination of the Constant of Integration.
Let
be an antiderivartive (indefinite integral) of
. As
we have already mentioned,
constant
integration constant
is determined up to an arbitrary additive
. In order to completely determine
we need to determine the
, and this can be achieved if we know one value of
[27]
corresponding to a value of the independent variable
corresponding to Examples.
, i.e. if we know
. The situation is illustrated with the aid of a few
Example 151
Find the antiderivative of
Solution
Any antiderivative (indefinite integral) of
which vanishes at
.
will be of the form,
By assumption
, and this is actually the condition for the
determination of the constant
, i.e.
The antiderivative of 
which vanishes at 
is 
. 

Example 152 

Find the antiderivative of 
which at 
assumes the 
value
Solution
.
Any antiderivative of
By assumption determined, i.e.
The antiderivative of
will be of the form,
and from this condition the constant
which is equal to
when
is
is
[28]
Example 153 (A Physics Problem)
Let us consider a particle of mass
moving on a straight line
as shown
in Fig. 151. Let also
respectively. The distance
time
as the equation of motion of the particle. From Physics courses we know that
the speed of the particle
and
be the origin and the unit vector of the
axis
of the particle from the origin is a function of the
from
, i.e. the function
is known
. This time dependence of
is,
while the acceleration of the particle
is,
where the primes denote differentiation with respect to the time
.
Equation (*) implies that the distance traveled is a first antiderivative of the speed, while equation (**) implies that the distance is a second antiderivative of the acceleration.
Fig. 151: Motion of a particle on a straight line.
In summary:
[29]
1) When the equation of motion of a particle moving on a straight line
is given, then its instantaneous speed
is the first derivative
and its instantaneous acceleration or the same, the second derivative
is the first derivative of the speed
.
2) Regarding the inverse problem, where the speed
is given as a
function of time, then the distance travelled is an antiderivative of
if the acceleration
travelled is a second antiderivative of the acceleration.
is given as a function of time then the distance
, while
Example 154
The equation of motion of a particle moving on an axis
is given by the
equation 
. Find its speed 
and acceleration 
at the 

time instants 
and 
. 
Solution 

1) The speed 
is 

At 
, 
2) The acceleration
is
.
, while at
,
The acceleration in this case does not depend on time, and therefore,
Example 155
.
If the equation of motion is
show that the acceleration of the
particle is negative and proportional to the third power of the speed.
Solution
and this completes the proof.
Example 156
[30]
Given that the speed of a particle moving on a straight line is
determine the equation of motion, assuming that
.
Solution 

The 
is an antiderivative of the speed, i.e. 

and since 
, ad finally, 
Example 157
The acceleration of a particle moving on a straight line is 
, 

( 
). Assuming that at 
and 
, find 
the speed of the particle as a function of time and its equation of motion.
Solution 

The speed 
is an antiderivative of the acceleration, i.e. 

and since 
, and finally, 
[31]
Similarly, the 
is an antiderivative of 
, i.e. 

and since 
, and finally, 
151) Find the antiderivative of
(Answer:
152) Find the antiderivative of
.
153) Find the antiderivative of
when
.
(Answer:
PROBLEMS
)
which vanishes at
.
which vanishes at
which takes the value
)
154) Find the antiderivative of
.
, which vanishes at
155) The equation of motion of a particle moving on an axis
is given by
the equation (Answer: 
. Find its speed 
and acceleration 
at 

the time instants 
and 
. 
) 

156) Given that the speed of a particle moving on a straight line is determine the equation of motion, assuming that 
. 
157) The acceleration of a particle moving on a straight line is
,
(
). Assuming that at
and
[32]
, find the speed of the particle as a function of time and its equation of motion.
(Answer:
158) Find the antiderivative of
when
.
159) Find the antiderivative of
(Answer:
)
1510) Find the antiderivative of
)
which takes the value
which vanishes at
which vanishes at
CHAPTER 2:
[33]
Some Simple Integration Techniques
Integration, as a rule, is much more complicated operation that differentiation. While all elementary functions (i.e. polynomials, rational functions, trigonometric and hyperbolic functions, exponential functions, logarithmic functions, etc) are differentiated according to well defined rules and formulas, the integration of such functions is extremely more complicated. Usually it requires much experience and practice to find the indefinite integral i.e. to integrate a given function.
Hereunder we consider some simple cases, intended to help the reader to acquire such experience.
Proof: 

Since 
, equation (21) 
follows immediately.
Proof: 

Since 
, equation (22) 
follows immediately.
Equation (22) is valid for all values of have:
, except
. For
we
Proof: 

Since 
, equation (23) follows immediately. 
Example 21
[34]
Find the integral 
. 

Solution 

If 
, then 
and equation (21) yields 

Example 22 
Find the integral
Solution
.
(application of equation (22) with
Example 23
Find the integral
Solution
.
Example 24
Find the integral
Solution
.
and
).
[35]
(application of equation (23) with
Example 25
Find the integral
Solution
.
21) Find the integral
(Answer:
)
PROBLEMS
.
).
22) Find the integral 
. 

23) Evaluate the integral 

(Answer: 
) 

24) Evaluate the integral 
. 

Hint: Note that 
. 

25) Evaluate the integral 
. 

(Answer: 
) 

Hint: 

, etc. 
CHAPTER 3:
[36]
Integration by Parts
The integration by parts is based on formula (15). Assuming that
and
are two functions of the independent variable the product of the two functions is:
, then the differential of
Integration of both sides of equation (31) yields,
In deriving equation (32) we have used the fact that
, (see
equation (14)). Equation (32) might be helpful in cases where the integral
integral
is easily evaluated. In this case, equation (32) yields the value of the .
The following examples clarify the integration by parts method.
Example 31
Find
.
Solution
We may apply the formula for integration by parts, with
(
)
and
, to obtain,
,
Example 32
Find
.
Solution
Since formula yields,
, application of the integration by parts
[37]
Example 33 

Find 
. 
Solution 

Since 
, application of the integration by parts 
formula yields,
Sometimes the “to be evaluated integral” reappears on the other side with a different coefficient. This leads to an equation for the sought for integral. The following example clarifies the situation.
Example 34 

Find 
. 
Solution 
In our case, let
Application of the integration by parts formula yields,
[38]
We note that the sought for integral
reappears on the right side, with a
different sign, and this forms an equation for
, which easily yields,
For an alternative method of evaluation, see Example 41.
Some problems require repeated integration by parts. One classic example is the evaluation of the integral, in the next example.
Example 35 

Evaluate 
, where 
are constants. 

Solution 
and this is an equation for the sought for integral we get,
Note: Similarly we may show that
. Solving equation (*) for
[39]
For the evaluation of
see Problem 39.
For the evaluation of the integrals Complex Numbers, see Problem 1533.
and
simultaneously, with the aid of
PROBLEMS
Apply integration by parts to evaluate the following integrals:
31) 

(Answer: 
) 
32) 
Show that 

33) 

(Answer: 
) 

34) 
Hint: Note that
35) 

(Answer: 
) 

36) 

37) 

(Answer: 
) 

38) 
39) Show that
CHAPTER 4:
[40]
The Substitution (Change of Variables) Method
The substitution is a very general and powerful method to evaluate indefinite integrals. Suppose that we want to evaluate the integral . This integral can be reduced to another integral, if we set
The original integral reduces to the following,
The integration in equation (42) is with respect to
choice of
(42) possible. Once
use of equation (41) to go back to the original variable
. A proper (suitable)
, could perhaps make the evaluation of the integral
has been evaluated, (
now is a function of
.
in equation ), we make
The following examples clarify the situation.
Note: Even though the substitution method is in general a powerful method, there are no rules to indicate which substitution is good and works in each case. Experience and practice (and sometimes luck) will eventually help the reader to choose the substitution which is proper for the evaluation of a given integral.
Example 41 

Find 
. 
Solution 
Since the square root numbers,
and we may therefore set ,
should have a meaning within the set of real
and in this case,
The integral
[41]
, in terms of the new variable
is,
or in terms of the original variable
,
(
),
which is identical to the result found in Example 34.
Example 42 

Find 

Solution 

If we set new variable 
, then , the original integral becomes, 
, and in terms of the 
Example 43 

Find 

Solution 

If we set becomes, 
, then 
and 
The original integral 

and in terms of the original variable 
, 
[42]
Example 44 

Find 

Solution 

Let 
. Then 
, and therefore, 

Example 45 

Find 

Solution 

If we set 
then 
and 
. The original integral 
becomes,
and in terms of the original variable
,
Example 46 (Alternative Solution of Example 45)
Find the integral . In this case,
in Example 45, making use of the substitution , and
The substitution method can be used to evaluate integrals of the form
[43]
First of all we note that any trinomial equivalently as,
can be written
or if we define the discriminant
of the trinomial as
(For a proof see Problem 41).
Example 47
Evaluate the integral
Solution 

Let 
.Then 
,
If we now make the substitution
becomes,
We now consider three cases:
If
becomes,
we may set
The integral
and the integral
in equation (***)
[44]
and if we further set
, and therefore
or if we go back to the original variable
,
(Recall that by assumption
).
If 
, then 

If 
we may set 
, and the integral in equation (***) 
becomes,
and if we set
the integral takes the form
(see equation 911) in Section 13), and going back to the original variable
In summary:
,
Example 48
Evaluate the integral
Solution
[45]
.
In this case, according to the analysis performed in the previous Example,
, so
Example 49 

Find 
. 

Solution 

and if we set 
, and 

Example 410 

Find 
. 

Solution 
[46]
In deriving equation (*) we have used the easily proved trigonometric
identity,
(for a proof see Problem 42).
To find the first integral in equation (*), we set
and therefore,
Also the second integral in (*) has been evaluated in Example 49, and finally
41) Show that any trinomial of
PROBLEMS
can be expressed as
42) Show the fundamental trigonometric identity
Evaluate the following integrals:
43)
(Answer:
)
[47]
44) 

Hint: Set 
, 

45) 

(Answer: 
) 

Hint: 
. Set 
and note that 

and that 
etc. 

46) 

47) 

(Answer: 
) 

Hint: Set 
. The integral in terms of the new variable , which can be evaluated as shown in Example 35. 

becomes 
48) 

Hint: Set 
, etc. 

49) 

(Answer: 
) 

410) 

Hint: Set 
. 
411) If
,
and
are constants, show that
[48]
Hint: Setting
the integral in terms of the variable
becomes,
CHAPTER 5:
[49]
Integration of Rational Functions
A rational function is an algebraic expression of the form
where
and
are polynomials in
.
For example the following expressions are all rational expressions.
On the other hand, the following expressions are not rational expressions.
In equation (51), assume that the degree of the numerator
is
and
that the degree of the denominator
is
. If
, then the division of
by 
results in a polynomial 
in the quotient and in a 
polynomial 
of degree not higher than 
in the remainder, and 
therefore 
Suppose now that we want to evaluate the integral
In equation (53) the integration of the polynomial
is not difficult, and
therefore the problem reduces to the integration of rational function
i.e.
to evaluate the integral
less than the degree of the denominator. The suitable method to evaluate this
integral is the decomposition of
, where now the degree of the numerator is
into partial fractions. The partial fraction
decomposition of
courses.
[50]
is assumed to be known to the reader from Algebra
The following examples illustrate the application of this method in practice.
We shall consider all three cases that may appear:
1) The denominator
has real simple roots,
2) The denominator
has real multiple roots and
3) The denominator
has complex roots.
CASE 1: Simple Real Roots.
Example 51
Evaluate the integral
.
Solution
The integrand is a rational function of
, and the denominator has three
simple roots,
less than the degree of the denominator (3), the integrand can be decomposed
into partial fractions, i.e. we can determine three constants that
. Since the degree of the numerator (2) is
and
, such
and clearing this equation we obtain the equivalent relation
Equation (**) is an identity for
, and should be true for all values of
and
. The
so that (**) is an
problem thus reduces to determine the constants
identity. One possible method (not the most efficient one) is to carry out the
calculations in the right side of (**) and then equate the coefficients of like
in both sides of the equation. Doing so we obtain:
powers of
[51]
and this should be true for all values of
, provided that
Solving this system for
and
from equation (*) we have,
we get,
, and
where
is the arbitrary constant of integration.
Note: An alternative method to determine the constants
and
.
Since equation (**) is an identity for
, it should be true for all values of
,
i.e. it should be true for 
and 
and 
as well. 

For 
we obtain, 
, i.e. 
and 

. 

For 
we obtain, 
and therefore 
. 

Finally for 
we obtain 
and 
. 
Obviously the second method is more efficient as compared to the first method.
Example 52
Evaluate
[52]
Solution
We note that the degree of the numerator is less than the degree of the denominator and that the denominator has simple roots, The integrand is therefore decomposed into partial fractions,
.
where the constants
and
are to be determined so that equation (*) is
an identity, i.e. remains valid for all values of
. Applying the method
integrand therefore can be decomposed into partial fractions as follows:
where the constants
and
the following equivalent equation,
are to be determined. Equation (*) implies
Equation (**) is an identity for
[53]
, i.e. it must be valid for all values of
.
For 
we obtain 
, i.e. 
. 

For 
we obtain 
, i.e. 
. 

To find 
we may apply equation (**) for a value of 
different than 
and 
, let us for example apply for
, and in this case we obtain,
Note 1: Having found
and
we may take the derivatives of both sides of
equation (**) to obtain the new identity,
and setting
we get
the first method.
, same value as found with
Note 2: Another possible method to determine
and
would be to
equate the coefficients of like powers of
in equation (**). Let the reader find
and
with this method.
In summary, using the partial fractions decomposition, we find that
and therefore,
Example 54
Find the integral
Solution
[54]
.
The integrand is a rational function of
, i.e. is the quotient of two
polynomials, and since the degree of the numerator (2) is less than the degree
of the denominator (4) we may apply partial fractions decomposition to express the integrand as
which in turn implies the following equivalent identity:
The constants
and
may be determined by any one of the methods
quoted in the previous example, for example to equate the coefficients of like
powers of
of the constants see Problem 51. Doing so we find,
, or apply equation (**) for
etc. For the evaluation
and
, and therefore,
and the integral
is
CASE 3: Complex roots.
[55]
Let us now consider the case where the denominator has complex roots, in addition to real roots that may exist. The general approach is still the decomposition of the integrand into partial fractions, as shown in the following Example.
Example 55
Find the integral
.
Solution
The integrand in this case is a rational function, the degree of the numerator (0) is less than the degree of the denominator (5), and the denominator has a
double real root (
( ) which are the roots of the equation
fractions decomposition the integrand may be written as,
), a single real root (
) and two complex roots . Applying partial
(For the last term in the equation (*) see Note at the end of this example).
Equation (*) implies the following equivalent identity,
The constants (**) is valid for all values of
Problem 52. The constants are found to be
and
and
are determined from the requirement that
. For the evaluation of these constants see
, and therefore
and the integral
is
[56]
Note: The last term in equation (*) results from the combination of the two
simple fractions corresponding to the simple complex roots
other words the term
i.e.
of
. In
would be decomposed into two simple fractions,
and if we define
and
last term in equation (*) is fully justified.
Example 56
Find the integral
Solution
.
The denominator is written as,
, then the presence of the
and we see that it has two simple real roots
, and therefore,
complex roots
and two
Equation (*) implies the following equivalent identity,
from which the constants
and
can be determined easily,
[57]
and finally 

The integral 
is 
Example 57 
Find the integral
Solution
This integral is similar to the integral of the previous example, except for the sigh in the denominator. As we will see this slight change in the sign results in a much more complicated integral, as compared to the previous one.
First of all we note that the denominator, in this case has no real roots at all,
all the roots are complex. Indeed, from is one of the four fourth roots of the number i.e. the four roots are given by the formula,
or
, we see that
,
where by
in general we denote the complex conjugate of
then
).
, (i.e. if
According to the partial fractions expansion, the integrand
In order to find the constants
and
, we may for example clear the
equation (**) and then equate the coefficients of like powers of
sides. However, here we present another method, which yields the desired
coefficients faster, and with fewer computations. From
, in both
and taking the limits of both sides as
we get,
However the left side limit is of the form
with the aid of the De L’ Hospital Rule, i.e.
and can therefore be evaluated
Since
is a root of
and similarly we find
,
[59]
Summarizing our so far results and taking into consideration equation (**) we have,
We can further simplify equation (******) if we consider equations (*), since
The contribution to the integral
from these two terms will be,
Quite similarly, combining the second and the third term in equation (******) and taking into consideration equation (*), we find the contribution
to the integral
from the first and the fourth term (already found), we finally find,
from these two terms, which when added to the contribution
We see that the evaluation of
is quite involved. We suggest the reader to
complete in details all the missing calculations and verify thus the final result.
For an alternative evaluation of the integral
Example 58 

Find 
. 
Solution 
see Problem 53.
Since the degree of the numerator (3) is greater than the degree of the
denominator (2), we first have to perform the division of
by
,
The integral
is
[61]
Therefore the evaluation of
reduces to the evaluation of
However the integrand in this case is a rational function of
, where the
.
degree of the numerator (1) is less than the degree of the denominator (2),
and the integrand can therefore be decomposed into the sum of partial fractions, i.e.
from which one easily finds
From (**) and (***) we find,
Example 59 

Find 
. 
, and
Solution
[62]
Since the degree of the numerator (6) is greater than the degree of the
denominator (2) we must first divide the
Example 510
Find the integral
.
by
,
Solution 

Since 
, the integral 
is written equivalently as 
(integration by parts), or since
The evaluation of
is therefore reduced to the evaluation of
.
,
The integrand can be decomposed into partial fractions as follows,
The constants
and therefore,
and
are easily determined to be
,
[63]
PROBLEMS
51) In Example 54 determine the four constants equation (*). 
and 
appearing in 
52) In Example 55 determine the five constants in equation (**). 
and 
appearing 
53) Evaluate the integral in Example 57, using an alternative method, based on the following Hint.
Hint:
, then expand the integrand
since the quadratic factors have complex roots (Why?), determine the
constants
and
, etc.
54) Decompose into partial fractions the following rational fractions,
55) Find the integral
(Answer:
56) Find the integral
)
.
.
[64]
57)
Find the integral
(Answer:
.
)
Hint: You may apply partial fractions decomposition, or you may make the
substitution
. (The second method is easier).
58) Find the integral
.
59) Find the integral
(Answer:
510) Find the integral
511) Find the integral
(Answer:
Hint:
512) Find the integral
, etc.
)
.
.
.
.
Hint: You may either apply partial fractions decomposition, or make the
substitution
.
513) Show that
Hint: See Problem 53.The integrand is
[65]
514) Show that
515) Show that
Hint: The integrand is
CHAPTER 6:
Evaluation of
[66]
or
A) In this integral the expression
with respect to
and the radicals of
is a rational function
appearing in it.
Let us call
the least common multiple of the integers
all the quantities
. In this case
will be integers. The proper substitution in this case is
This substitution reduces the original integral to the following one:
which is an integral of a rational function of the variable
and is evaluated
according to the method developed in Chapter 5. In the final result we
substitute
by
to obtain our answer in terms of the original variable
.
B) A similar method applies when all the radicands are equal to one and the
same linear fraction
. In this case we make the substitution
and the integral becomes an integral of a rational function of
.
Note that in both cases, the idea is to make a substitution such that we get rid of the radicals.
The following Examples clarify the method.
[67]
Example 61
Evaluate the integral
.
Solution
In this integral,
and the proper substitution is
,
integral with respect to the new variable
becomes,
, and the
and this is the integral of a rational function of
, and can be evaluated
according to the methods developed in Chapter 5, i.e. apply partial fractions
expansion, etc. However there is an easier method to find the integral, that is
to set
. In terms of the
variable,
or equivalently, after a few simplifications,
Example 62
Evaluate the integral
Solution
.
The suitable substitution which eliminates the radicals, is
In terms of the new variable
[68]
, the integral becomes
or in terms of the original variable
(
Example 63
Evaluate the integral
Solution
.
),
In order to get rid of the radical, let us make the substitution
In terms of the new variable
61) Find the integral
(Answer:
62) Find the integral
Hint: Set
the integral becomes,
PROBLEMS
.
.
)
, etc.
63) Find the integral
.
(Answer:
64) Find the integral
[69]
.
)
Hint: Set 
, etc. 

65) Find the integral 

. 

(Answer: 
) 

Hint: Set 
, etc. 

66) Find the integral 
. 

Hint: Set 
, etc. 
CHAPTER 7:
Evaluation of
In this integral the expression
arguments,
and
.
[70]
In order to get rid of the radical we set
is a rational function of its
The original integral thus reduces to an integral of a rational function of and is evaluated according to the theory developed in Chapter 5.
The following Examples clarify the method.
Example 71
Evaluate the integral
Solution
We set integral becomes
.
, and in terms of the new variable
and since
,
(integration by parts), and finally,
, the
Example 72
Find the integral
Solution
.
[71]
In order to get rid of the radical, we set
In terms of the new variable
the integral becomes,
(see Example 71), and therefore,
and in terms of the original variable
,
Example 73
Find the integral
Solution
.
This is an integral of a rational function of of the radical, we set, 
and 
. In order to get rid 

In terms of the new variable 
the integral 
becomes, 
[72]
PROBLEMS
Evaluate the following integrals:
71) 

(Answer: 
) 

72) 

73) 

(Answer: 
) 

74) 

75) 

(Answer: 
) 

76) 

Hint: Set 
. 
CHAPTER 8:
Evaluation of
In this integral the expression
[73]
is a rational function of
its arguments 
and 
.We consider two cases: 

CASE 1: 

We set 
By means of the substitution (*), the original variable
is expressed
rationally in terms of the new variable
. Indeed from equation (*) we have,
and consequently
is expressed rationally in terms of
. The original
integral therefore is transformed to an integral of a rational function of is evaluated according to the theory developed in chapter 5.
, and
CASE 2:
In this case the trinomial
must have two real roots
and
, should lie between the two roots, (otherwise the quantity
and the variable
should have no real meaning within the set of real numbers).
We set
In this case,
In equation (***) the term
[74]
(since by assumption
) and also
since
the term
. Setting now
the integral becomes an integral of a rational function of
.
For an alternative method of evaluation, see Chapter 13, Example 135, (Hyperbolic and Trigonometric substitutions).
Example 81
Evaluate the integral
.
Solution 

Since 
, and 
, we set 
(according to 
the equation (**)), and therefore,
In terms of the new variable
the integral
becomes,
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