0 Suka0 Tidak suka

1 tayangan13 halamanrepj

Sep 27, 2018

© © All Rights Reserved

DOCX, PDF, TXT atau baca online dari Scribd

repj

© All Rights Reserved

1 tayangan

repj

© All Rights Reserved

- Study and Analysis on Heat Treatment Process and Microstructure of Low Carbon Steel
- Chemical Composition, Mechanical, Physical and Environmental Properties of SS 2343,Steel Grades,Special Alloy,
- VKI3 Prospekt en 01
- Catalog Marshall
- Statistics for Engineering and the Sciences 5th Edition Mendenhall Solutions Manual
- ASNZS3678-250
- K004en
- A507
- Gb Grade Asp2004 0
- Broschure Converter
- ASTM a 370-08a Mechanical Testing of Steel Products
- Hot Rolling Mill Hydraulic Gap Control (HGC) thickness control improvement
- Global Techniques
- Presentation1.ppt
- E1232
- Hot Cold Rolled Long Products
- FENN Division Tcm20-23390
- Uni Strut General Fittings
- Special Metals..a World Leader
- MaterialData_7754.pdf

Anda di halaman 1dari 13

free of residual stresses, and its properties are isotropic. Disadvantages

of hot rolling are that the product cannot be held to close tolerances, and

the surface has a characteristic oxide scale. Steelmaking provides the

most common application of rolling operations. Figure (5-2) illustrates

the sequence of steps in a steel rolling mill to show the variety of

products made. Similar steps occur in other basic metal industries. The

work starts out as a cast steel ingot that has just solidified. While it is

still hot, the ingot is placed in a furnace where it remains for many hours

until it has reached a uniform temperature throughout, so that the metal

will flow consistently during rolling. For steel, the desired temperature

for rolling is around 1200_C (2200_F). The heating operation is called

soaking, and the furnaces in which it is carried out are called soaking

pits. From soaking, the ingot is moved to the rolling mill, where it is

rolled into one of three intermediate shapes called blooms, billets, or

slabs, as shown in figure (5-2).

5.2 Flat rolling and its analysis: Flat rolling is illustrated in Figures (5-

1). It involves the rolling of slabs, strips, sheets, and plates workparts of

rectangular cross section in which the width is greater than the thickness.

In flat rolling, the work is squeezed between two rolls so that its

thickness is reduced by an amount called the draft: =2R (1-cosα)

5.1 Where d = draft, mm (in); = starting thickness, mm (in); and =

final thickness, mm (in).R = roll radius in mm and (α) = bite angle in

degree. Draft is sometimes expressed as a fraction of the starting stock

thickness, called the reduction

5.2

reduction is taken as the sum of the drafts divided by the original

thickness.

In addition to

(Cross sectional area > 40x40 mm2).

(Cross sectional area > 230 cm2).

(Cross sectional area > 100 cm2 and with a width ≥ 2 x thickness).

Thickness > 6 mm

Thickness <6 mm and width < 600 mm

Page3

thickness reduction, rolling usually increases work width. This is called

spreading, and it tends to be most pronounced with low width-to-

thickness ratios and low coefficients of friction, so the volume of metal

exiting the rolls equals the volume entering 5.3 Where wo

and wf are the before and after work widths, mm (in); and Lo and Lf are

the before and after work lengths, mm (in). Similarly, before and after

volume rates of material flow must be the same, so the before and after

velocities can be related: 5.4

Where vo and vf are the entering and exiting velocities of the work. The

surface speed of the rolls is Vr the velocity of the strip increases from its

entry value of VO as it moves through the roll gap; the velocity of the

strip is highest at the exit from the roll gap and is denoted as Vf. The

metal accelerates in the roll gap in the same manner as an

incompressible fluid flowing through a converging channel.

Fig. (5-3)

Because the surface speed of the rigid roll is constant, there is relative

sliding between the roll and the strip along the arc of contact in the roll

gap, L.

At one

Page4

point along the contact length (called the neutral point or no-slip point)

the velocity of the strip is the same as that of the roll. To the left of this

point, the roll moves faster than the strip; to the right of this point, the

strip moves faster than the roll. Consequently, the frictional forces-

which oppose motion between two sliding bodies-act on the strip as

shown above. On either side of this point, slipping and friction occur

between roll and work. The amount of slip between the rolls and the

work can be measured by means of the forward slip, a term used in

rolling that is defined: 5.5 Where s = forward

slip; vf = final (exiting) work velocity, m/s (ft/sec); and vr = roll speed,

m/s (ft/sec). The rolls pull the material into the roll gap through a net

frictional force on the material. Thus, the net frictional force must be to

the right in Fig. (5-3 b). This also means that the frictional force to the

left of the neutral point must be higher than the friction force to the right.

Although friction is necessary for rolling materials (just as it is in

driving a car on a road), energy is dissipated in overcoming friction.

Thus, increasing friction also increases rolling forces and power

requirements. Thus, a compromise is made in practice: Low and

controlled friction is induced in rolling through the use of effective

lubricants. The maximum possible draft is defined as in equation below;

it can be shown that this quantity is a function of the roll radius, R, and

the coefficient of friction, μ, between the strip and the roll by the

following relationship:

Thus, as expected, the higher the friction and the larger the roll radius,

the greater the maximum possible draft becomes. Note that this situation

is similar to the use of large tires (high R) and rough treads (high, μ.) on

farm tractors and off-road earthmoving equipment, thus permitting the

vehicles to travel over rough terrain without skidding. Coefficient of

friction in rolling depends on lubrication, work material, and working

temperature. In cold rolling, the value is around 0.1; in warm working, a

typical value is around 0.2; and in hot rolling, m is around 0.4. Hot

rolling is often characterized by a condition called sticking, in which the

hot work surface adheres to the rolls over the contact arc. This condition

often occurs in the rolling of steels and high-temperature alloys. When

sticking occurs, the coefficient of friction can be as high as 0.7. The

consequence of sticking is that the surface layers of the work are

restricted to move at the same speed as the roll speed vr; and below the

surface, deformation is more severe in order to allow passage of the

piece through the roll gap.

The minimum number of passes= h◦-hf/dmax 5.3 roll force, torque, and

power requirements: The rolls apply pressure on the flat strip in order to

reduce its thickness, resulting in a roll force, F, as shown in Fig. 5-4.

Note that this force appears in the figure as perpendicular to the plane of

the strip, rather than at an angle. This is because, in practice, the arc of

contact is very small compared with the roll radius, so we can assume

that the roll force is perpendicular to the strip without causing significant

error in calculations. The roll force in flat rolling can be estimated from

the formula

5.9 (For a frictionless situation; however, an

estimate of the actual roll force, including friction, may be made by

increasing this calculated force by about 20%). Where

= average flow stress from Eq. (5.8), MPa (lb/in2); and the product

(wL) is the roll-work contact area, mm2 (in2). Contact length can be

approximated by L=

The torque in rolling can be estimated by assuming that the roll force is

centered on the work as it passes between the rolls, and that it acts with a

moment arm of one-half the contact length L. Thus, torque for each roll

is

Torque

T=0.5FL

The power required per roll can be estimated by assuming that (F) acts

in the middle of the arc of contact; thus, in Fig. (5-4), a = L/2. Therefore,

the total power (for two rolls), in S.I. units, is

Where F is in newtons , L is in meters, and N is the revolutions per

minute of the roll. In traditional English units, the total power can be

expressed as

1.1 ASHOK TMT THERMEX TECHNOLOGY AND PROCESS

Ashok TMT process hot bars are subjected to quenching by means of an intense cooling

installation (cooling installation specially designed Thermex system). This step hardens the

surface layer to marten site while the core structure remains austenitic. When the bar is free

from water chamber heat flows from core to surface and surface gets tempered to structure

called martensite. In the cooling bed deu to atmospheric cooling, the hardened zone is

tempered homogenization in the cross section and the austenitic core is transfered to ductile-

ferrite-pearlite core.

1.2 SOME PROCESS TO BE CONSIDERED

QUENCHING

When the hot rolled bar leaving the final mill stand,is rapidly quenching by a thermix

water tube system this hardens the surface of the bar to a depth optimized for each

section through formation of martensitic rim while the core remains hot and austentic.

SELF TEMPERING

When the bar leaves the quenching box, the core remains hot compared to the surface

allowing heat to flow from core to surface causing tempering the outer martensitic layer

into structure called “Tempered martensitic”. The core still remains austenitic at this

stage.

ATMOSPHERIC COOLING

This takes place on the cooling bed, whers the austenitic core is transformed into ductile

ferrite pearlite structure. Thus the final structure consists of an optimum combination of

strong outer layer(tempared martensite) with a ductile core (pearlite). This give ashok

TMT its unique of higer strength and ductility.

1.7

1.7 ADVANTAGES

Biggest advantages of Ashok TMT bars over the others is the state of art physical and

chemical labs,where every materials has to pass through stringeng quality control under the

watchful eyes of our competent quality control department. Apart from this samples are drawn

every hour to check whether material produced is conforming to all the specified standards asx

set by international and national standars.

EXTRA STRENGTH

The process used ensures combination of tempered martensite on the surface and fine

grain ferrite-pearite in the core providing higher strength, toughness and ductility.

THERMAL STABILITUY

Ashok TMT bars have high termal stability unlike ordinary bars. It can be used even at

high temperature till 600 celsius without any drop in strength.

EXCELLENT STRAIGHTNESS

Ashok TMT bars are produced in straight length unlike most of other mills which

produces the rebars in soil forms. Straightening of rebars by decoiling process does not

provide the same straightness as provided by Ashok TMT. After passing through the

cooling system Ashok TMT is passed through a special rotary flying shear which ensures

perfect straightness.

HIGHER ELONGATION

Ashok TMT bars have elongation over 15% even for fe-500 grade

Ashok TMT bars shows virtually no rusting even after a long time as there is absence of

residual stress.

HIGHER WELDABILITY

Ashok TMT are produce from international standard raw materials hence it can be used

in making of pre-welded mashes. The same is done without reduction in strength of

weld joints.

EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE

All grades of Ashok TMT are more than 14.5% elongation which can be used in

earthquake prone areas.

Ashok TMT bars provides value for money due to saving of as high as 10% to 24% in

steel consumption compared to ordinary bars.

NEGATIVE TOLERANCE

Ashok TMT bars can be supplied in negative tolerance also as per customer’s

requirements.

EASY IDENTIFICATION

- Study and Analysis on Heat Treatment Process and Microstructure of Low Carbon SteelDiunggah olehIJARTES
- Chemical Composition, Mechanical, Physical and Environmental Properties of SS 2343,Steel Grades,Special Alloy,Diunggah olehJeya Vijaya Naveen Vijay
- VKI3 Prospekt en 01Diunggah olehMohamed Berriri
- Catalog MarshallDiunggah olehlpyratek
- Statistics for Engineering and the Sciences 5th Edition Mendenhall Solutions ManualDiunggah olehkocyven
- ASNZS3678-250Diunggah olehmanimaranelumalai
- K004enDiunggah olehWincent Dumapi
- A507Diunggah olehRao Shakeel Ahmed
- Gb Grade Asp2004 0Diunggah olehNikola
- Broschure ConverterDiunggah olehvikramtambe
- ASTM a 370-08a Mechanical Testing of Steel ProductsDiunggah olehHumberto Galvez
- Hot Rolling Mill Hydraulic Gap Control (HGC) thickness control improvementDiunggah olehAkram Kahli
- Global TechniquesDiunggah olehsoulsoda
- Presentation1.pptDiunggah olehRanjit Singh
- E1232Diunggah olehLL
- Hot Cold Rolled Long ProductsDiunggah olehFandi
- FENN Division Tcm20-23390Diunggah olehJuan Fernando Campuzano
- Uni Strut General FittingsDiunggah olehemadsafy
- Special Metals..a World LeaderDiunggah olehMaja Friedrich
- MaterialData_7754.pdfDiunggah olehJoko Triwardono
- ASTM B 121B121M-01(2006).pdfDiunggah olehRamsi Ankzi
- Meever India Brochure FinalDiunggah olehSrinu Naik
- Jcps Fsr SteelDiunggah olehzulatol
- Us 5326527Diunggah olehHugo Rodriguez
- 150422_Passenger Elevatro draft _.docDiunggah olehKaven
- SteelDiunggah olehSagar Sonawale
- Distortion engineering for metalsDiunggah olehmans2014
- Methods, Processes & Equipment Involved in ManufacturingDiunggah olehCherry Mae Vera Obias
- 3-Bulk Deformation ProcessesDiunggah olehndrkns
- 2680Diunggah olehAhmed Sobhi

- CB iopDiunggah olehRnk Yadav
- spiol.comDiunggah olehRnk Yadav
- modyDiunggah olehRnk Yadav
- super.comDiunggah olehRnk Yadav
- Www.forbes.comDiunggah olehRnk Yadav
- YDiunggah olehRnk Yadav
- Principle baha.pdfDiunggah olehRnk Yadav
- Webpage not available.pdfDiunggah olehRnk Yadav
- Principle BahaDiunggah olehRnk Yadav
- PDF Book Search Com PDF Structural Analysis 2 by Bhavikatti PDF Free Download HTMLDiunggah olehRnk Yadav
- Wikimedia ComDiunggah olehRnk Yadav
- www_wikipedia_org.pdfDiunggah olehJason Rios
- hjghjfDiunggah olehRnk Yadav
- jgfdsDiunggah olehRnk Yadav
- ghDiunggah olehRnk Yadav
- FielsDiunggah olehRnk Yadav
- Dh ArrrrrrDiunggah olehRnk Yadav
- Dh ArrrrrrDiunggah olehRnk Yadav
- Dh ArrrrrrDiunggah olehRnk Yadav
- Dh ArrrrrrDiunggah olehRnk Yadav
- Student List in Serial Wise UpdatedDiunggah olehRnk Yadav
- Dh ArrrrrrDiunggah olehRnk Yadav
- Dharmrsh FileDiunggah olehRnk Yadav
- Http Interviewquestionstutorials Com Tag 125 Top c Programming Theory Questions and Answers PDFDiunggah olehAkash Tuti
- Https Spyboy Blog 2014-12-22 Hacking-your-Isp-For-unlimited-InternetDiunggah olehRnk Yadav

- Cooling Rate WeldDiunggah olehsiva
- ImpactDiunggah olehigor6995
- Mackenna Scientific Investigation of AyahuascaDiunggah olehBete Ferreira
- Diffusion BrazingDiunggah olehGiora Shay
- 12 grade units and dimensions notesDiunggah olehPaul Allen Dungdung
- 2CE-KHOH-3Diunggah olehvaleriolo
- Literature Review on Design & Fabrication of Oil Measuring & Despensing MachineDiunggah olehIJIRST
- Polymer AbstractDiunggah olehSakthi Ponnusami
- COADISDiunggah olehValentin Malihin
- Safe Handling of Hot Rosin and Hydrocarbon ResinsDiunggah olehpgcedzov
- Deposition Velocities of Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Slurries in Pipelines Pnnl-17639Diunggah oleh1105195794
- Check Valves as SafeguardsDiunggah olehRicardo Bec
- 1-s2.0-S0892687598000326-mainDiunggah olehRenanto Pandu Wirawan
- Aluminum Foams Lectures TALATDiunggah olehMiguel Prada
- Encapsulation in Food Industry - A ReviewDiunggah olehdheewa
- Kl 1202 Kannaway Pure Gold Liquid 1000 Mg 4 OzDiunggah olehJo de kort
- Distillation Theoretical Stages CalculatorDiunggah olehgautam_96948069
- ICSE Class 10 PhysicsDiunggah olehSudhir Narang
- Vortex Flow Meter Yokogawa CatalogueDiunggah olehpsaayo
- ASTM D 3176 - 89 R02Diunggah olehphaindika
- Ika Dan Ipa Di ProdukDiunggah olehlingga bayu saputra
- 5 Vona 2015 Journal of Water Process EngineeringDiunggah olehMarcos Rdz
- CanQuest TrainingDiunggah olehsimonsahi
- AP Bio Test Review 2Diunggah olehAshley Ann Stockton
- A Numerical Model for Transport in Flat Heat Pipes Considering Wick Microstructure EffectsDiunggah olehArley Salazar Hincapie
- Edukacija brizganje.pdfDiunggah olehJelena Milosavljevic
- Engineering SyllabusDiunggah olehisele1977
- HWS_computational.pdfDiunggah olehBheim Llona
- The Respiration and AnaerobicDiunggah olehSamantha Brown
- APEGBC 2015 Conference Updates to National Building Codes GNDiunggah olehkashyap_structural

## Lebih dari sekadar dokumen.

Temukan segala yang ditawarkan Scribd, termasuk buku dan buku audio dari penerbit-penerbit terkemuka.

Batalkan kapan saja.