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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compgeo

Maosong Huang a,⇑, Yanhua Liu a,b, Daichao Sheng c

a

Department of Geotechnical Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China

b

School of Highway, Chang’an University, Xi’an 710064, China

c

School of Engineering, University of Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In this paper, a simple bounding surface plasticity model is used to reproduce the yielding and stress–

Received 16 March 2010 strain behavior of the structured soft clay found at Shanghai of China. A series of undrained triaxial tests

Received in revised form 30 November 2010 and drained stress probe tests under isotropic and anisotropic consolidation modes were performed on

Accepted 20 December 2010

undisturbed samples of Shanghai soft clay to study the yielding characteristics. The degradation of the

Available online 22 January 2011

clay structure is modeled with an internal variable that allows the size of the bounding surface to decay

with accumulated plastic strain. An anisotropic tensor and rotational hardening law are introduced to

Keywords:

reﬂect the initial anisotropy and the evolution of anisotropy. Combined with the isotropic hardening rule,

Soft clay

Structure

the rotational hardening rule and the degradation law are incorporated into the bounding surface formu-

Anisotropy lation with an associated ﬂow rule. Validity of the model is veriﬁed by the undrained isotropic and aniso-

Yielding tropic triaxial test and drained stress probe test results for Shanghai soft clay. The effects of stress

Bounding surface model anisotropy and loss of structure are well captured by the model.

Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction clays, it is logical to start with a model that has had some success

in predicting the behavior of remoulded material and then add to it

The Modiﬁed Cam-clay (MCC) model, which is based on the some measure of structure and destructuration [24,1,5,20,28].

critical state theory, is one of the most widely used constitutive After all, a structured soil can eventually become something like

models for clay [23]. It was originally formulated for remolded a remolded soil given sufﬁcient loading and destructuration.

clays under isotropic consolidation condition. Although the MCC Meanwhile, numerous constitutive models that account for plastic

model is widely used to represent the behavior of clayey soils, its anisotropy of natural clays have been proposed, in which S-CLAY1

prediction ability is not considered adequate for natural clay. This model proposed by Wheeler et al. [31] is a relatively simple elasto-

is because of the complicated properties such as anisotropy, struc- plastic anisotropic model. Most existing models in the literature

ture and strain rate. Structure and anisotropy are the essential nat- (e.g. [26,3,14]) account for either structure or anisotropy, but only

ure of naturally deposited soft clay, which have considerable few models consider both properties of natural clays (e.g. [16,2]).

inﬂuence on the strength and stress–strain response of natural The two properties can be related, but not always equivalent. Sev-

clays. Sometimes loading causes degradation of the initial struc- eral researchers (e.g. [15,24,11]) developed constitutive models for

ture, and this is particularly true in soft clays (e.g. Leda clay [21]; natural soils within the framework of kinematic hardening, which

Bothkennar clay [27]). Neglecting the anisotropy of soil behavior consider simultaneously the anisotropic and structural effect on

may lead to highly inaccurate predictions of soil response under the mechanical behavior of soils. Those models can in general

loading [33]. From engineering point of view, the last two decades achieve good results but often at a cost of complexity. They often

or so have seen an increased trend of construction activities on soft require special techniques to ensure that the current stress points

soils and hence a quantitative model that can accurately predict are located on the inner yield surface at every integration step in

the behavior of the soil is highly desirable. the ﬁnite element implementation [35]. An alternative approach

There are various approaches for the constitutive modelling of to avoid this complexity is to remove the kinematic hardening

natural clays (e.g. [22,6]). To model the destructuration of natural yield surface, only preserving the bounding surface [7,8]. Thus,

the kinematic hardening yield surface is degenerated to a loading

stress point, and the plastic modulus at the current stress point

can be deﬁned by a simple interpolation rule using values at the

⇑ Corresponding author. Address: Department of Geotechnical Engineering,

Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092, China. Tel./fax: +86 21

bounding surface. By means of vanishing pure elastic region, the

65983980. classical kinematic hardening bounding surface model can be

E-mail address: mshuang@tongji.edu.cn (M. Huang). simpliﬁed into the single bounding surface model [9].

0266-352X/$ - see front matter Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.compgeo.2010.12.005

342 M. Huang et al. / Computers and Geotechnics 38 (2011) 341–353

characteristics of Shanghai soft clay and to demonstrate that a sim-

CSL

pliﬁed bounding surface model is sufﬁcient to simulate both the

anisotropic and structural properties of natural clays. Experimental Bounding surface

data from undrained triaxial tests and drained stress probe tests on K0 line

Shanghai soft clay are presented to support the proposed model.

NCL

2. Model description

Reference surface

α p

The constitutive model, which is presented in this section, is pc rpc

developed in p–q stress space, with p being the effective mean

stress and q the deviatoric stress. Attention is restricted to rate-

independent behavior and full saturation. Thus, the basic elasto-

plastic assumption is the additive decomposition of total strain

Fig. 1. Reference surface and bounding surface of anisotropic model for structured

rate e_ ij , into elastic and plastic parts, e_ eij and e_ pij clays.

e_ ij ¼ e_ eij þ e_ pij ð1Þ

The structure surface, which can be thought of as a bounding

The response associated with the elastic part is expressed in surface, controls the process of destructuration. For simplicity,

terms of the bulk and shear modulus, K and G, which are assumed we consider that the structure surface has the same elliptical shape

to depend on the current mean stress p as the reference surface. The mathematical equation of structure

p 3ð1 2mÞ surface is given by

K¼ ; G¼ K ð2Þ

j ð1 þ mÞ R2 q2

c Þ p þ

F ¼ ðp p c þ ðR 1Þ2 a ¼ 0

p ð6Þ

where m is a constant Possion’s ratio; j⁄ = j/(1 + e0); e0 is initial void R v

ratio and j is the slope of the swelling line in e-lnp plane.

where

The corresponding elastic incremental constitutive relation is qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

given by a¼ 3aij aij =2 ð7Þ

r_ ij ¼ Deijkl e_ ekl ð3Þ

1

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1 a a 2

where Deijkl

is elastic matrix, being in general a function of K and G. qa ¼ 3J a ; Ja ¼ sij sij ð8Þ

2

The plastic part e_ pij is developed within the framework of the

critical state theory and the bounding surface plasticity. The for- saij ¼ sij rkk aij =3 ð9Þ

mulation of the proposed model is given in detail in the following.

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2.1. Bounding surface v ¼ ðM aÞ½2aðR 1Þ2 þ M a þ 4aðR 1Þ2 M þ ðM aÞ2 =2

ð10Þ

Based on the experimental observations, an anisotropic refer-

ence surface, which is an inclined ellipse on the p–q plane, is used where aij is the anisotropic tensor deﬁning the anisotropy of clays;

to model the intrinsic behavior of the reconstituted soils. The a deﬁnes the inclination of yield surface in p–q stress space, which

anisotropic reference surface can describe the effect of initial is the second invariant of anisotropic tensor; rij is stress tensor; sij is

anisotropy caused by one-dimensional deposition and K0-consoli- deviatoric stress tensor; saij is the reduced deviatoric stress tensor;

dation process. A structure surface or bounding surface which qa is the reduced equivalent shear stress; Ja is the reduced second

has the same elliptical shape as the reference surface is adopted stress invariant; R is the shape parameter, which controls the ratio

to describe the effect of the initial structure and control the process of the two major axes of the yield surface; M is the slope of critical

of destructuration. For simplicity, the loss of structure is assumed state line in triaxial space, which is deﬁned by the reduced Lode an-

to affect merely the size of yielding surface. A scalar variable r gle ha as follows:

" pﬃﬃﬃ #

called structural parameter is deﬁned: 1

3

1 3 3 Sa

ha ¼ sin ð11Þ

c =pc

r¼p ð4Þ 3 2 Ja

1 a a a 3

tion stress. Namely, r deﬁnes the ratio between the sizes of the Sa ¼ sij sjk sik ð12Þ

3

structure surface and reference surface. The curves of the reference

surface and structure surface are shown in Fig. 1. The value of r is 1=4

always larger than or equal to 1, due to its physical meaning. For 2m4

M ¼ Mc ð13Þ

r = 1.0, the soil is completely destructured and the size of the struc- ð1 þ m4 Þ ð1 m4 Þ sin 3ha

ture surface is related only to pc, corresponding to the size of the

where Sa is the reduced third stress invariant; m is a material

reference surface. We consider that the yield surface for describing

parameter deﬁned as m = Me/Mc in which Mc and Me are the critical

the behavior of the destructured or remolded soil, which is called

state stress ratios for triaxial compression and triaxial extension in

the reference surface, is an anisotropic elliptical form. According

p–q stress space. According to Sheng et al. [25], the yield surface is

to Ling et al. [19], the mathematical equation of the reference sur-

convex provided m P 0.6, which coincides with the Mohr–Coulomb

face is deﬁned by

hexagon at all vertices in the deviatoric plane.

As deﬁned in Liang and Ma [18] and Ling et al. [19], the initial

R2 q2

f ¼ ðp pc Þ p þ pc þ ðR 1Þ2 a ¼ 0 ð5Þ anisotropic tensor a0ij are expressed through a constant A0 with

R v

the initial stress states

M. Huang et al. / Computers and Geotechnics 38 (2011) 341–353 343

Z qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

s0ij

a0ij ¼ A0 ; s0ij ¼ r0ij pc dij ð14Þ epd ¼ ð1 BÞ ðdepv Þ2 þ B ðdeps Þ2 ð21Þ

pc

For the initial stress ratio K 0 ¼ r03 =r01 , the components of the where depv is plastic volumetric strain increment; deps is plastic shear

tensor are given as follows: strain increment; B is a non-dimensional scaling parameter which

controls the relative contributions to damage of volumetric and dis-

a011 ¼ 2k0 ; a022 ¼ a033 ¼ k0 ; a012 ¼ a023 ¼ a013 ¼ 0 ð15Þ tortional plastic strain increments depv and deps . The form of Eq. (21)

suggests that for B = 1 the destructuration is entirely distortional,

where while for B = 0 the destructuration is entirely volumetric.

0 1 K0

k ¼ A0 ð16Þ 2.3. Mapping rule

1 þ 2K 0

0

For isotropic consolidated specimens K0 = 1.0, thus k = 0. For In the proposed model, the projection center is ﬁxed at the ori-

the K0-consolidated specimen, A0 = 0.65–1.0 (Liang and Ma [18]). gin of p–q stress space. And following the linear radial mapping

rule (Dafalias and Herrmann [9]), for any actual stress point rij,

2.2. Hardening rules there is a unique image stress point r ij on the bounding surface

corresponding to the current stress point. The following relation-

The isotropic, rotational/anisotropic hardening rules, and ships are used in relating current stress states to those at the

destructuration law are used to control the size, rotation and the bounding surface:

process of destructuration of the bounding surface.

d0

r ij ¼ brij ; b ¼ ð22Þ

2.2.1. Isotropic hardening d0 d

In line with the Cam-clay model, a volumetric hardening rule is where d and d0 denote respectively, the distance and the ultimate

adopted. The internal variable pc is used to reﬂect the effect of pre- distance between current stress point and image stress point.

consolidation, which is independent of the bonding of soils and Fig. 2 shows the mapping rule in the proposed model.

controls the size of the yield surface. pc is controlled only by the

plastic volumetric strain rate e_ pv , given by 2.4. Bounding plastic modulus

_p

p_ c ¼ pc ev =ðk j Þ

ð17Þ

Experimental evidence from Shanghai soft clay and Korhonen

where k ¼ k=ð1 þ e0 Þ with k being the slope of the normal compres- and Lojander [17], suggests that the associated ﬂow rule is a rea-

sion line in the e-lnp space. sonable approximation for natural clay when combined with an in-

clined yield curve. Thus the bounding surface function also serves

2.2.2. Rotational/anisotropic hardening as the plastic potential function. The plastic strain rate is deter-

The rotational rate of the bounding surface is controlled by the mined as

evolution of the anisotropic tensor aij. We adopt a similar form to

@F

the anisotropic/rotational law proposed by Wheeler et al. [31]. e_ pij ¼ h/i

_ ð23Þ

The proposed form of modiﬁed hardening law is @r

mn

where /_ is the plastic loading index, is deﬁned as follows

3sij sij

a_ ij ¼ lq aij he_ pv i þ b aij e_ ps ð18Þ 1 @F 1 @F

4p 3p /_ ¼ r_ ¼ r_ ij ð24Þ

ij ij H

Hp @ r p @ rij

where the parameter b controls the relative effectiveness of plastic

shear strains e_ ps and plastic volumetric strains e_ pv in determining the Substituting the hardening rules and plastic loading index into

overall current target value for aij ; and the soil constant l controls the consistency conditions, the bounding plastic modulus is ob-

the absolute rate at which aij approaches its current target value tained as

[31] . An extra parameter q is introduced in order to control the

change rate of aij as the stress ratio g = q/p approaches the critical p ¼ @F q_ n ¼ @F p_ c þ @F a_ ij þ @F r_

H ð25Þ

@qn @pc @ aij @r

state value M. This suggests the following expression for q

D g E where qn denote a set of internal variables of material. The deriva-

q ¼ 1 ð19Þ mn can be evaluated in terms of @F=@I, @F=@J a and @F=@

tives @F=@ r ha .

M The details are presented in Appendix A of this paper. For details of

The scalar variable r represents the progressive degradation of

soils, which controls the ratio between the sizes of structure sur-

face and reference surface. According to Rouainia and Muir Wood

[24], the scalar variable r is assumed to be a monotonically

decreasing function of the plastic strain. The following exponential

destructuration law is adopted

kd epd

r ¼ 1 þ ðr 0 1Þ exp ð20Þ

k j

describes the rate of destructuration with strain. This equation

takes the main effect of damage by both plastic volumetric and

plastic deviatoric strains into account through the plastic destruc-

turation strain epd , which has the following form Fig. 2. Mapping rule in bounding surface model.

344 M. Huang et al. / Computers and Geotechnics 38 (2011) 341–353

the derivatives of F with respect to hardening variables pc, aij and r, Wheeler et al. [31], it is difﬁcult to suggest a simple and direct

the readers is also referred to Appendix A. method for deriving the value of l for a given soil. They proposed

The plastic modulus is related to the bounding plastic modulus to conduct model simulations with several different values of l

through the following relationships [18,13] and then to compare these simulations with the observed behavior

to select the most appropriate value for the parameter l. The most

^ H

Hp ¼ Hð p ; d; rij ; q Þ

n suitable experimental tests would be ones involving signiﬁcant

" 2 #" w #

@F

2

@F d0 rotation of the yield curve. In practice, performing suitable labora-

¼ Hp þ 1Pa þ 1 ð26Þ

@p @q d0 d tory tests and then undertaking model simulations with different

values of l for each deposit may not be feasible. Zentar et al.

w ¼ w0 exp neps ð27Þ [34] suggested that the value of l for a particular soil will normally

R lie in the range 10/k to 15/k. With l in this range, the model

p

s _ ps ,

where e ¼ e which denotes the cumulative plastic deviatoric predicts that an anisotropic natural soil must be subjected to an

strain. The function w is introduced to reﬂect the effect of strain isotropic stress approximately three times larger than the yield

history on the plastic modulus. As eps increases continuously with stress if the anisotropy of plastic behavior is to be erased (this

loading, the plastic modulus Hp decreases. Pa is the atmosphere matches reported behavior for a number of clays). The model

pressure, 1 and w0 and n are the model parameters. For d = 0, the ac- parameter b deﬁnes the relative effectiveness of plastic shear

tual stress point rij will coincide with the image stress point r ij , so strains e_ ps and plastic volumetric strains e_ pv in rotating the yield

the actual plastic modulus Hp will be equal to the bounding surface surface, which can be determined by the normally consolidated

plastic modulus H p . It is emphasized that when the cumulative plas-

K0 stress ratio and the critical stress ratio. Wheeler et al. [31]

tic deviator strain eps acquires very large values, the function w will suggested the value of b/M between 0.5 and 1.0 for normally or

approach to zero, which may also result in Hp ¼ H p . Nevertheless,

lightly overconsolidated natural soft clays.

that does not mean the actual stress rij has to equal the image stress The parameters for stiffness interpolation w0, n and 1 are ob-

r ij , and there is nothing wrong with such an eventuality. tained by best ﬁtting the experimental results. The parameters

for stiffness interpolation w0, n and 1 are obtained by best ﬁtting

2.5. Model parameters the experimental results.

The proposed model requires 13 material parameters as well as 3. Simulations of experiments on Shanghai soft clay

the initial stress state parameters (e0, pc, r0, A0). The parameters are

related to critical state soil mechanics (k, j, Mc, Me, m), shape of 3.1. Summary of experiments

bounding surface (R), loss of structure (kd, B), evolution of anisot-

ropy (l, b), and interpolation of plastic modulus (w0, n, 1). A programme of tests on samples of Shanghai soft clay was

The procedure for determining soil parameter values and initial undertaken to investigate the validity of the proposed model. The

values of the state variables for the proposed model is relatively testing programme consisted of oedometer tests and triaxial tests.

straightforward. The initial state parameter r0 deﬁnes the degree The important aims were to determine the initial shape and size of

of initial structure, which can be determined by comparing struc- the structure surface, and to supply essential parameters for pro-

tural yielding stress and pre-consolidation stress in a one-dimen- posed model.

sional compression test on structural soft clays. Increasing r0 For the present study, undisturbed samples were taken at

increases the initial degree of structure so that a higher structural depths of 10 m, with in situ horizontal consolidation stress

stiffness is reached. In case of r0 = 1.0, the sample of natural soil has r0hc = 41 kPa and vertical consolidation stress r0v c = 68.6 kPa. The

little or nothing any initial structure, i.e., the structureless state is initial mean effective stress pc was determined to be 50.3 kPa.

received. The initial anisotropic state parameter A0 is a model cal- Some physical properties of Shanghai soft clay at the depth of

ibration constant, and typically in the range of 0.65–1.0 [18]. interest are presented in Table 1.

k and j are determined from isotropic consolidation tests. They

may also be obtained from the compression index Cc and swelling 3.1.1. Consolidation characteristics

index Cs of one-dimensional consolidation tests, where One-dimensional consolidation characteristics from 24 h

k ¼ C c =2:303 and j = Cs/2.303. Mc and Me are determined from oedometer tests are investigated in the present study. Fig. 3 shows

the slope of the critical state line or indirectly from the angle of the results of the oedometer tests on undisturbed samples. Based

internal friction /. m may be speciﬁed as a constant. on the results, the consolidation yield stress (r0y ) was determined

Shape parameter R is a material parameter. It geometrically to be 110.5 kPa. The initial structural parameter, r0 = 1.61, is deter-

controls the extent of the tensile section in the stress space diago- mined approximately from r0y /r0v C . The compression index and

nal (R P 2.0), which can be viewed as a parameter controlling the swelling index (Cc and Cs) of one-dimensional consolidation tests

shape of the yield function. Larger values of R imply a ﬂatter shape are 0.489 and 0.107 respectively. k and j are obtained from Cc

of the yield function. Undrained stress path of the normal consol- and Cs where k ¼ C c =2:303 and j = Cs/2.303.

idated soil may be used to obtain the value of shape parameter R

as mentioned by Ling et al. [19], where R = 2.0 is a typical value. Table 1

Index properties of Shanghai soft clay.

According to Rouainia and Muir Wood [24], the structural

parameter kd inﬂuences the rate of destructuration with strain. A Index property Value

high value of kd can lead to very rapid loss of structure, whereas Water content, w(%) 51.8

this destructuration is much slower with a smaller value of kd. Liquid limit, wL(%) 44.17

The structural parameter B controls the relative contributions to Plastic limit, wP(%) 22.4

Plastic index, IP 21.77

damage of volumetric and distortional plastic strain increments

Liquid index, IL 1.35

depv and deps , the range of the value of B is 0–1.0. The structural Speciﬁc gravity, Gs 2.74

parameters can be determined by comparing triaxial compression Sensitivity, St 4.86

and one-dimensional compression tests [24]. Initial void ratio, e0 1.402

The anisotropic hardening parameter l controls the rate, at Over consolidation ratio, OCR 1.0

Coefﬁcient of lateral pressure at rest, K0 0.6

which aij tends towards its current target value. According to

M. Huang et al. / Computers and Geotechnics 38 (2011) 341–353 345

1.6 250

CIU-1 CSL

σ'vc=68.6 kPa CIU-2

1.4 200 CIU-3

e0=1.402 σ'y=110.5 kPa CIU-4

CIU-5

1.2 K 0 line

150 CAU-1

CAU-2

CAU-3

e

1 100 M=1.277

c'=0

0.8 ϕ'=31.8o

50

0.6 0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

1 10 100 1000 10000

Fig. 4. Stress paths in undrained triaxial tests.

σ'v(kPa)

140

CIU-1

120 CIU-2

Table 2 CIU-3

Test conditions for undrained triaxial tests on Shanghai soft clay. 100 CIU-4

0 0

Test number Horizontal and vertical reconsolidation stress r r (kPa)

r/ a

80

CIU-1 50/50

CIU-2 100/100 60

CIU-3 150/150

CIU-4 200/200 40

CIU-5 300/300

CAU-1 41/68.6, p0 = 50

20

CAU-2 81.8/136.4, p0 = 100

CAU-3 245/408.3, p0 = 300

0

0 5 10 15 20 25

In this section, fundamental deformation and yielding charac-

Fig. 5. Stress–strain curve of CIU tests.

teristics of Shanghai soft clay, such as strain softening, yield or lim-

it surface, etc., are discussed based on the results of triaxial tests on

the Shanghai soft clay. The size of specimen was used: 39.1 mm in

diameter and 80 mm long. 100

CAU-1

CAU-2

3.1.2.1. Consolidated undrained tests. Undrained triaxial tests under 80

Deviator stress: kPa

formed on natural undisturbed samples. The initial horizontal

reconsolidation stress r0r and vertical reconsolidation stress r0r 60

are given in Table 2.

Figs. 4–6 show the stress paths and stress–strain relationships 40

of the CIU (isotropically consolidated undrained) and CAU (aniso-

tropically consolidated undrained) tests with a constant axial

20

strain rate.

In Fig. 4, with the progress of strain, it is observed that stress

paths reach their peak strength and ﬁnally approach a narrow zone 0

in the stress space. This phenomenon shows that the critical state 0 5 10 15 20 25

concept could be applied to natural clay at large strains. The slope Axial strain: %

of critical state line, M, was determined to be 1.277, which corre-

Fig. 6. Stress–strain curve of CAU tests.

sponds to effective angle of internal friction /0 = 31.8.

Figs. 5 and 6 present stress–strain data from CIU and CAU tests

of Shanghai soft clay. Strain softening is observed on the condition All samples were reconsolidated to the in situ stress state along

that mean effective stress is under yielding stress r0y , i.e., the stress path that retraced their normal consolidated stress histories. Point

decreases with an increase of strain after the stress has reached its A is p0 , q = 50.3, 27.6 kPa. From point A the specimens were either

peak. With the increase of mean effective stress, the relationship of sheared undrained (SEU and SCU tests) or subjected to continuous

stress–strain presents gradually hardening character. drained probing tests radiating from point A at a range of angles

(x = tan1Dq/Dp0 )-type SCD and SED tests.

3.1.2.2. Consolidated drained tests. Several stress-controlled drained Deﬁning yield is a useful approach to quantify deformation

triaxial tests plus a group of undrained tests were carried out in or- behavior of clays within the context of elasto-plasticity. So the

der to investigate progressively the yielding characteristics of yielding phenomenon has often been discussed for natural soft clay

Shanghai soft clay. The principal features of the yielding test pro- by many researchers [32,12,27,4]. According to Smith et al. [27], if

gramme are summarized in Table 3 and Fig. 7. an element of soil which located at a stable point in triaxial stress

346 M. Huang et al. / Computers and Geotechnics 38 (2011) 341–353

Table 3 ceptually coincides with the conventional yield surface, and the

Triaxial tests performed for yielding study on Shanghai soft clay. large-scale changes in soil structure are delayed until the stress

Test number Comment path reaches the Y3 surface, i.e., the proportion of plastic strain in-

SCU Undrained test in compression, x = 90° creases progressively as the initial structure surface is approached.

SEU Undrained test in extension, x = 90° Therefore, the bounding surface (structure surface) in Fig. 1, which

SCD0° Drained probing test, x = 0° is related to Eq. (6), coincides with the Y3 surface. In view of single

SCD15° Drained probing test, x = 15° structural yield surface model proposed in this study, it is noted

SCD29° Drained probing on K0-line from point A, x = 29°

SCD50° Drained probing test, x = 50°

that the determinations of Y1 and Y2 surface are beyond the scope

SCD60° Drained probing test, x = 60° of this paper.

SCD72° Drained probing test, x = 72° It is rather complicated to deﬁne the yield points in the stress

SCD90° Drained probing test, x = 90° space. There are a number of approaches one can take to deﬁne

SED-15° Drained probing test, x = 15°

the stress state at yielding. The yield points determined by various

SED-29° Drained probing test, x = 29°

SED-56° Drained probing test, x = 56° plots of the deviator stress q against the shear strain es and the

mean effective stress p0 against the volumetric strain ev, etc., how-

ever, are not generally identical [30]. In addition, although the

yield points should be determined traditionally by the onset of

200 the development of plastic strain, it is rather difﬁcult to divide

SCD90o SCD72o SCD60o SCD50o

the strain precisely into elastic and plastic components. Taking

the yielding characters of structure into account in the present pa-

SCU SCD29o per, therefore, the yield points are identiﬁed as the points where

100 the total strain develops extensively. In practice, as shown in

Fig. 9, a yield is deﬁned herein at the foot of a perpendicular, at

q(kPa)

SCD15o

which the intersection of rectilinear extrapolations of the pre-yield

A ω SCD0o

and post-yield portions of the stress–strain curve verticals to curve.

0 For each stress path, such points were identiﬁed both in the p0 –ev

0 100 200 300

SED-15o p'(kPa) curve and in the q–es curve. Then the average stress was taken as

a yield point. Data from the drained probing experiments (SCD

SEU SED-56o SED-29o and SED) and undrained triaxial tests (SCU and SEU) on the Shang-

-100 hai soft clay are presented in Appendix B where graphs of p0 plotted

against ev and q plotted against es represent a considerable amount

Fig. 7. Standard consolidation stress paths.

of data.

Fig. 10 shows the yield points obtained from SCD, SED, SCU and

space is loaded along a path such as that shown in Fig. 8, the stress SEU tests. The predicted limit state surface (structure surface) from

space within the initial bounding surface may be divided into three Eq. (6) is also shown in Fig. 10. In drawing the yield curve, the value

zones separated by yielding surface of different types termed as of M has been taken as 1.277, as estimated from undrained shear-

Y1–Y3. The innermost zone bounded by the Y1 surface (i.e., Zone ing in triaxial compression. The value of r0 = 1.61, giving the initial

1), where strains are fully recoverable and particles remain locked structure, was determined by one-dimensional consolidation test.

together, represents the ‘‘true’’ elastic region. In general, for softer And pc = 50.3 kPa for the initial stress state has been used. The

soils, the size of Zone 1 is extremely small in stress space. Because parameter A0 = 0.844 was determined from the experimental yield

of its limited size, it is difﬁcult to map the Y1 surface. In Zone 2, points, which corresponds to a = 0.46, giving the inclination of the

which is enveloped by Y2 surface, soil behavior is characterized yield curve. Inspection of Fig. 10 shows that the yield curve expres-

by the rapid reduction of the tangent stiffness and hysteresis, with sion of Eq. (6) is a reasonable ﬁt to the experimental data. When

stiffness being highly dependent on the recent stress and strain examined in detail, being similar to many other clays [32,29], the

history. The Zone 2 envelop can be mapped formally only by the shape of limit state surface which is approximately elliptical, is

performing of a large number of drained stress cycles. In Zone 3, not symmetrical with respect to the p0 -axis. However, in the case

where particles start to move relative to one another, soil behavior of Shanghai soft clay, the difference is that the limit state surface

is characterized by the hysteretic energy dissipation with irrecov- is not symmetrical as well with respect to the K0-line, just below

erable strains. Smith et al. [27] indicated that the Y3 surface con- the K0-line. This indicates that the clay is initially anisotropic and

that an anisotropic quasi-initial yield surface, not an isotropic

one like that used in the original Cam-clay model, is necessary

for the construction of an elasto-plastic constitutive model. At

q Bounding surface

Y3

Stress

Zone 3

Y2

Zone 1

Y1 Yield point

Zone 2

p Strain

Fig. 8. Deﬁnition of yield surface [27]. Fig. 9. Deﬁnition of the yield point.

M. Huang et al. / Computers and Geotechnics 38 (2011) 341–353 347

80

q(kPa) CSL (a) 100

Experiment (CIU-1)

K0 line CSL Experiment (CIU-2)

60 80 Model of this paper

MCC model

NCL

40

(p'0,q0) 60

20

40

α0 rpc P'(kPa)

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 20

-20

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

-40

Mean effective stress: kPa

-60

(b) 100

Fig. 10. Yielding surface and plastic ﬂow direction of Shanghai soft clay.

80

40 60

deviation from normality

30 (clockwise)

40

20

Experiment (CIU-1)

10

20 Experiment (CIU-2)

average value -0.13

0 Model of this paper

-150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 MCC model

-10 ω 0

0 5 10 15 20 25

-20

Axial strain: %

-30

-40

(c) 100

Fig. 11. Relationship of plastic ﬂow direction and stress path angle. 80

Pore pressure: kPa

60

the same time, the change in anisotropy can play an important role

in yielding of clays.

To verify the applicability of associated ﬂow rule, the directions 40

of the plastic strain increment vectors at the appropriate yield

Experiment (CIU-1)

points were plotted in Fig. 10. The immediate impression is that 20 Experiment (CIU-2)

these plastic strain increment vectors are roughly normal to the Model of this paper

yield locus. Closer examination shows that the deviation from nor- MCC model

mality does vary between ±20° with an average value of about 0

0 5 10 15 20 25

0.13° as seen in Fig. 11. This indicates the proposition of normal-

Axial strain: %

ity is acceptable for Shanghai soft clay.

Fig. 12. Simulation of undrained triaxial compression tests on isotropically

consolidated clay. (a) Stress path; (b) stress–strain curve; (c) pore pressure-strain

3.2. Model simulations

curve.

tropically (K0 = 0.6) compressed samples of Shanghai soft clay are

simulated with the proposed model and MCC model. The calibra- undrained triaxial tests and a series of drained stress probe tests

tion of material parameters was based on the results of isotropically have been simulated using previous material parameters. These

consolidated specimens, so that the behaviors of anisotropically values e0 = 1.402, pc = 50.3 kPa, r0 = 1.61, A0 = 0.844 for the initial

consolidated specimens were predicted. Table 4 shows the value stress state have been used for all simulations. In addition, to verify

of model parameters for Shanghai soft clay. Two groups of the effect of degradation of structure, the K0-consolidation test re-

Table 4

Model parameters for Shanghai soft clay.

k j Mc Me m R kd B l b w0 n 1

0.212 0.046 1.277 0.9 0.2 2.0 0.65 0.5 50.0 0.7 10.0 1.5 3.0

348 M. Huang et al. / Computers and Geotechnics 38 (2011) 341–353

(a) 100

CSL

(a) 200

SCD0 o

80 160

Deviator stress: kPa

p'(kPa)

120

60

K0 line

80

40

p'0

Experiment (CAU-1) 40

Experiment

20 Experiment (CAU-2)

Model of this paper

Model of this paper

0

MCC model 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 εv(%)

Mean effective stress: kPa

(b) 100

80

80

Deviator stress: kPa

60

q(kPa)

60

40

40 q0

20

Experiment

Experiment (CAU-1) Model of this paper

20 Experiment (CAU-2)

0

Model of this paper 0 1 2 3 4

MCC model

εs(%)

0

0 5 10 15 20 25

Fig. 14. Stress–strain curve of test SCD0° (a) p0 –ev; (b) q–es.

Axial strain: %

(c) 100 (a) The general trend is well captured by the proposed model in

Experiment (CAU-1) terms of stress path, deviatoric stress and excess pore pres-

Experiment (CAU-2) sure versus strain response. The predicted effective stress

80 Model of this paper

paths converge towards ultimate remoulded undrained

Pore pressure: kPa

MCC model

strengths on the critical state line. In tests on the isotropic

60 consolidation samples, the peaks of the stress–strain curves

are obtained after approximately 2% of axial strain. And the

peak shear stress occurs after approximately 1–2% axial

40

strain in the process of undrained compression tests on

anisotropic consolidation specimens. In addition, the charac-

20 ters of high stiffness and strain softening for structured clay

are well reﬂected by the proposed model.

(b) In general, the results predicted by the MCC model were less

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 satisfactory in tests on both the isotropic samples and the

Axial strain: % anisotropic samples, because the behaviors of anisotropy

and structure are not estimated effectively. Under the rela-

Fig. 13. Simulation of undrained triaxial compression tests on anisotropically tively higher consolidation stress (p0 = 100 kPa) which is on

consolidated clay. (a) Stress path; (b) stress–strain curve; (c) pore pressure-strain the verge of yield stress, however, the MCC model performs

curve.

slightly better than under the lower consolidation stress

(p0 = 50 kPa) because of the damage of structure. At the same

time, the prediction for isotropic tests is somewhat better

sult for Shanghai soft clay is simulated respectively by the struc- than anisotropic tests.

tural model of this paper and non-structural model which the struc- (c) Though underpredicting the yield stress in both consolida-

tural mechanism is switched off. tion modes, the MCC model gives a relatively better predic-

Fig. 12a–c presents the undrained compression behavior of tion for pore pressure, especially under the low mean

Shanghai soft clay with two different isotropic consolidation pres- effective stress.

sures of 50 and 100 kPa. Fig. 13a–c shows the comparison between

the results of two models and the experimental data for two un- Figs. 14–25 in Appendix B show the simulated results on rosette

drained compression tests on anisotropically reconsolidated speci- of drained stress paths by the proposed model. It can be seen that

mens. The solid and dashed lines show the predicted results by the the general quality of the simulations is good. Comparing the pre-

proposed model and MCC model, respectively. The open and closed dicted results between compression paths (SCD and SCU series)

points are the experimental results for the isotropic tests and aniso- and extension paths (SED and SEU series), the former is better.

tropic tests, respectively. Several conclusions were obtained as Fig. 26 shows the comparison results between K0-consolidation

follows: test and structural model proposed by this paper. As shown in

M. Huang et al. / Computers and Geotechnics 38 (2011) 341–353 349

(a) 200

SCD15o (a) 200

SCD50o

160 160

120 120

p'(kPa)

p'(kPa)

80 80

p'0 p'0

40 40

Experiment Experiment

Model of this paper Model of this paper

0 0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

εv(%) εv(%)

(b) 100

SCD15o (b) 200

SCD50o

80 160

60 120

q(kPa)

q(kPa)

40 80

q0

20 40

Experiment q0 Experiment

Model of this paper Model of this paper

0 0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

εs(%) εs(%)

Fig. 15. Stress–strain curve of test SCD15° (a) p0 –ev; (b) q–es. Fig. 17. Stress–strain curve of test SCD50° (a) p0 –ev; (b) q–es.

(a) 200

SCD29o

(a) 80

SCD60o

70

160

60

120 50 p'

p'(kPa)

p'(kPa)

40

80

30

p'0 20

40 Experiment Experiment

Model of this paper 10

Model of this paper

0 0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

εv(%) εv(%)

(b) 120

SCD29o

(b) 120

SCD60o

100 100

80 80

q(kPa)

q(kPa)

60 60

40 40

q0 q0

20 Experiment 20 Experiment

Model of this paper Model of this paper

0 0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

εs(%) εs(%)

Fig. 16. Stress–strain curve of test SCD29° (a) p0 –ev; (b) q–es. Fig. 18. Stress–strain curve of test SCD60° (a) p0 –ev; (b) q–es.

350 M. Huang et al. / Computers and Geotechnics 38 (2011) 341–353

(a) 80

SCD72o

(a) 200

SED-15o

70

160

60

50

p'(kPa)

120

p'(kPa)

p'0

40

30 80

20 p'0

40

Experiment Experiment

10

Model of this paper Model of this paper

0 0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

εv(%) εv(%)

(b) 100

SCD72o

(b) 40

q(kPa)

SED-15o q0

80 20

εs(%)

60

q(kPa)

0

-8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1

40 -20

q0

20 -40

Experiment Experiment

Model of this paper Model of this paper

0 -60

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

εs(%) Fig. 21. Stress–strain curve of test SED-15° (a) p0 –ev; (b) q–es.

Fig. 19. Stress–strain curve of test SCD72° (a) p0 –ev; (b) q–es.

(a) 200

SED-29o

160

(a) 80

SCD90o 120

p'(kPa)

70

60

80

50

p'(kPa)

'

p0 p'0

40 40

Experiment

30 Model of this paper

0

20 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Experiment εv(%)

10

Model of this paper

(b)

0 40

0 1 2 3 4

SED-29o

εv(%) q0

20

(b) 80

SCD90o

εs(%)

0

-8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1

60 -20

q(kPa)

q(kPa)

-40

40 Experiment

Model of this paper

q0

-60

20

Fig. 22. Stress–strain curve of test SED-29° (a) p0 –ev; (b) q–es.

Experiment

Model of this paper

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Fig. 26, the compression curve of K0-consolidation test can be well

εs(%) interpreted by two parts in the e-lgp plot, i.e., pre-yield state and

post-yield state. In the pre-yield state which refers to that the ap-

Fig. 20. Stress–strain curve of test SCD90° (a) p0 –ev; (b) q–es. plied stress level is less than the consolidation yield stress, the

M. Huang et al. / Computers and Geotechnics 38 (2011) 341–353 351

(a) 200

SED-56o

1.6

e0=1.402

160 1.4

120 1.2

p'(kPa)

e

80

p'0 0.8

40

Experiment

Model of this paper Experiment

0.6 Structural model

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Non-structural model

εv(%) 0.4

1 10 100 1000

σ'v(kPa)

(b) SED-56 o

40

q0

εs(%) Fig. 26. Simulation of K0-consolidation test on Shanghai clay.

0

-22 -20 -18 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2

-40 enters into post-yield state, in which a small increment of force

can lead to greater change of void ratio in that the original struc-

-80

ture of soil is mostly destroyed. Though a little difference, the

Experiment structural effect was captured on the whole by the proposed mod-

Model of this paper -120

q(kPa)

-160 curve presents straight line corresponding to the remoulded

sample.

-200

Fig. 23. Stress–strain curve of test SED-56° (a) p0 –ev; (b) q–es. 4. Conclusions

80 ing surface plasticity, has been formulated to describe structure

SCU

and plastic anisotropy of natural soft clay. The model considered

isotropic, rotational hardening and degradation of structure using

60 a total of 13 material parameters as well as the initial stress states.

The anisotropic reference surface used here is proposed by Ling

q(kPa)

40

lipse suggested originally by Dafalias [10]. Based on the anisotropic

q0 reference surface, a structural inner variable is introduced to de-

20

scribe the structure of soft clay. With the process of destructur-

Experiment ation, the structural parameter which is a monotonically

Model of this paper decreased function, controls the contraction of structure/bounding

0 surface to the reference surface. When the structure of clays is full

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 destroyed, the structure/bounding surface is the same with the ref-

εs(%) erence surface. The proposed form of bounding surface equation

has been validated by a substantial programme of stress probe

Fig. 24. q–es Curve of test SCU. tests on Shanghai soft clay. As compared to the kinematic harden-

ing model recently developed by Rouainia and Muir Wood [24], the

present model has the advantage of being much simpler as a result

40

SEU of removing the kinematic hardening yield surface. The compari-

q0

20

sons with undrained triaxial and drained triaxial stress path test

εs(%) results of Shanghai soft clay under isotropic and anisotropic con-

0 solidation modes, revealed the predictive capability of the pro-

-24 -22 -20 -18 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 posed model.

-20

Acknowledgements

-40

This research is jointly supported by the National Natural Sci-

q(kPa)

-60

Experiment ence Foundation of China through Grant No. 50778132 and the Na-

Model of this paper tional Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars of China

-80

through Grant No. 50825803.

Fig. 25. q–es Curve of test SEU.

Appendix A

mechanical behavior of soil is hardly unchanged because of the

resistance of initial structure. When the applied load is beyond The purpose of this appendix is to provide detailed expressions

the consolidation yield stress, the compressive behavior of soil for the normal to the bounding surface @F=@ r

mn and derivatives of

352 M. Huang et al. / Computers and Geotechnics 38 (2011) 341–353

bounding surface function F with respect to the hardening (2) Derivative of bounding surface function with respect to the

variables. hardening variables

Derivative of F with respect to pc:

(1) Normal to the bounding surface

@F 2

¼ r½p þ rðR 2Þpc ð45Þ

The normal to the bounding surface is given by @pc R

@F @F @I @F @J a @F @ ha Derivative of F with respect to r:

Lmn ¼ ¼ þ þ ð28Þ

@r

mn @ I @ r

mn @ J a @ r

mn @ ha @ r

mn

@F 2 2

¼ ppc 2rp2c 1 ð46Þ

where @r R R

I¼r

ij dij ð29Þ Derivative of F with respect to aij:

1

1 a a 2 @F @F @ v @ a @ v @M @ ha @F @ qa

Ja ¼ sij sij ð30Þ ¼ þ þ ð47Þ

2 @ aij @ v @ a @ aij @M @ ha @ aij a @ aij

@q

" pﬃﬃﬃ # where

3

1 1 3 3 Sa

ha ¼ sin ð31Þ

3 2 Ja @F ðR 1Þ2 q

2a

¼ ð48Þ

@v v2

1

1 a a a 3 qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Sa ¼ sij sjk sik ð32Þ @v 1

3 ¼ 2aðR 1Þ2 þ M a þ 4aðR 1Þ2 M þ ðM aÞ2

@a 2

The reduced second stress invariant Ja and third stress invariant 2 3

Sa are deﬁned in terms of the reduced deviatoric stress tensor saij as M a6 2 2ðR 1Þ2 M ðM aÞ 7

follows: þ 42ðR 1Þ 1 þ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ5 ð49Þ

2

4aðR 1Þ2 M þ ðM aÞ2

saij ¼ sij rkk aij =3 ð33Þ

@a 3aij

sij ¼ rij rkk dij =3 ð34Þ ¼ ð50Þ

@ aij 2a

The normal to the bounding surface Lmn can be determined:

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

@v 1

@F 1 @F 2 1 ¼ ½2aðR 1Þ2 þ M a þ 4aðR 1Þ2 M þ ðM aÞ2

¼ ¼ p rp ð35Þ @M 2

@I 3 @ p

3 R c 2 3

pﬃﬃﬃ M a6 2aðR 1Þ2 þ ðM aÞ 7

@F pﬃﬃﬃ @F 2 3ðR 1Þ2 q

a þ 41 þ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ5 ð51Þ

2

¼ 3 ¼ ð36Þ 4aðR 1Þ2 M þ ðM aÞ2

@J a a

@q v

@F @F @ v @M @M 3M 5 ð1 m4 Þ

¼ ð37Þ ¼ cos 3ha ð52Þ

@ ha @ v @M @ ha @ ha 8m4 M4c

@F ðR 1Þ2 q

2a @ ha @ ha @J a @ ha @Sa

¼ ð38Þ ¼ þ ð53Þ

@v v 2 @ aij @J a @ amn @Sa @ amn

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ

@v 1 @ ha 3 3 S3a

¼ 2aðR 1Þ2 þ M a þ 4aðR 1Þ2 M þ ðM aÞ2 ¼ ð54Þ

@M 2 @J a 2 cos 3h J 4a

2 3

M a6 2aðR 1Þ2 þ ðM aÞ 7 pﬃﬃﬃ

þ 41 þ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ5 ð39Þ @ ha 3 3 S2a

2 ¼ ð55Þ

4aðR 1Þ2 M þ ðM aÞ2 @Sa 2 cos 3h J 3a

@M 3M 5 ð1 m4 Þ @J a 1

¼ cos 3ha ð40Þ ¼ pSa ð56Þ

@ ha 8m4 M 4c @ amn 2J a mn

@Sa 1

@I ¼ 2 pSamk Sank ð57Þ

¼ dmn ð41Þ @ amn 3Sa

@r

mn

@F @ qa @F @J a

@J a 1 1

¼ Samn dmn aij Saij ð42Þ ¼

a @ aij @ J a @ aij

@q

ð58Þ

@r

mn 2J a 3

pﬃﬃﬃ

@ ha 1 @ Sa 1 @J a @F pﬃﬃﬃ @F 2 3ðR 1Þ2 q

a

¼ tan 3h ð43Þ ¼ 3 ¼ ð59Þ

@r mn Sa @ r

mn J a @ r

mn @ Ja @

q a v

@ Sa 1 1

2 @J a 1 a

¼ 2 Samk Sank 2J a dmn þ aij Sajk Saki dmn ð44Þ ¼ pS ð60Þ

@r mn 3S

a

3 @ aij 2J a ij

M. Huang et al. / Computers and Geotechnics 38 (2011) 341–353 353

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