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# Hwa Chong Institution

Integrated Programme
Secondary 2 Mathematics

## Objective : • Solve right-angled triangles using the 3 trigonometric ratios

(level 1-direct questions)
• Solve word problems involving right-angled triangles (level 2)
• Solve problems involving non-right-angled triangles (level 3)
• Solve 3D diagrams (cube, cuboid) using trigonometric ratios
(level 4)

## 1 Solve Right-angled triangles using Trigonometry Ratios

The three main functions in trigonometry are Sine, Cosine and Tangent. They
can represent the ratio (fraction) of one length over the other length.

RECAP:

Trigonometric Ratios

o(opposite )
tan θ =

cos θ =
h(hypotenuse )

o(opposite )
sin θ =
h(hypotenuse )
Note: It is important to IDENTIFY the sides
[TOA CAH SOH]
(lengths) based on the __________.

## Adapted from Math Resources (TCY & CEL) 1

Example 1
In the diagram, ABC is a right angled triangle with sides BC = 6 cm and AC = 8 cm.
Find angles x and y as labelled in the diagram.

A x B

6
8
y
C

Example 2
In the diagram, XWY is a straight line, ∠WYZ is a right angle, ∠YWZ =67.60,
YZ = 10 cm and XZ = 16 cm. A table of the trigonometrical ratios of 67.60 is also given.

0.9 0.4 2.4

(a) sin ∠YXZ
(b) WY

16
W 0
67.6

Y 10 Z

## Adapted from Math Resources (TCY & CEL) 2

2 Solve Word Problems involving Trigonometry Ratios
Example 1

## A vertical mast is held by a 48 m long wire. The wire is attached to a point 32 m

up the mast. Draw a diagram and find the angle the wire makes with the mast.

Example 2

Wheelchair ramps must be no steeper than 10°. If a ramp starts 3 m away from
a door that is 0.25 m above the ground, will it be safe?

Example 3

A plane flying at 500km/h heads North. A wind blows from the West at 50 km/h.
(a) Find the actual direction the plane ends up heading on.
(b) Also calculate its final speed.

## Adapted from Math Resources (TCY & CEL) 3

3 Solve problems involving non right-angled triangles

Example 1
8
In the diagram, BDC = 900 , AB = 7 cm, cos ABˆ D = and D is the mid-point of
15
AC. Find
(a) the length of BD B
(b) the length of AC

(c) the value of tan BCD
(d) the area of ∆ABC .
7 cm

A D C
Example 2

## In triangle ABC, AC = 16cm, BC = 25cm and ∠ACB = 32⁰. Find

(a) the shortest distance from point A to line BC &
(b) the shortest distance from point B to line AC.

## 4 Solve 3D diagrams using Trigonometry Ratios

Example
Calculate the length of sides x and w and the angles CHE and GCH.

## Adapted from Math Resources (TCY & CEL) 4

Practice Questions:

Level 1:

## 1) In a right angle triangle ABC, BC = 5.5 cm and A

AB = 3 cm. Find
a) the length of AC 3

## b) the value of sin Ĉ B C

5.5
c) the angle Â .

X
2) In a right angle triangle XYZ. The hypotenuse is
12 cm. Given sin 300 = 0.5, cos 300 = 0.866 and 12
0
tan 30 = 0.577, find, without using the calculator,
a) the length of YZ 600
Y Z
b) the length of XZ.

3) A ship is 120 m away east from the centre of an iceberg that measures 200 m
from end to end horizontally. What is the minimum angle that the boat must turn
to avoid hitting the iceberg?

Level 2:

## 1) In the diagram ABCD, BC = 3.9 cm, CE=4.2 cm,

4 A E D
AB = 5 cm and tan CDˆ E = .
3
a) the length of ED. 4.2
5
b) the length of AD.
B C
3.9

## Adapted from Math Resources (TCY & CEL) 5

2) The diagram shows a right-angled triangle ABD. AB = 12 cm, AD = 20 cm and
B
point C lies on BD such that AC = 13 cm. Find
a) BC
b) CD
C 12 cm
c) sin ∠BAC
13 cm
( sin ∠BAC ) + ( cos ∠BAC ) .
2 2
d)

A
D
20 cm

Level 3:

## 1) ABCD represents the rectangular sloping surface of a wedge. ABEF is a

horizontal rectangle, and CE and DF are vertical lines.

## AB = CD = EF = 6 m, BC = AD = 5 m, ∠CBE = ∠DAF = 35 0 . Calculate ∠CAE .

D C

5m F E

A 6m B

2) The diagram shows a right circular cone with base radius 5 cm and height
7.2 cm. Calculate
a) the slant height of the cone
b) ∠VAO

7.2

5
O• •B

A