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(A.S. Aswathy, Greeshma.V.R, Arunachala College of Engineering for Women)


Soil stabilization is the permanent Soil stabilization can be done in

physical and chemical alteration of soils to many ways. But the stabilization
enhance their physical properties. using waste plastic fibers is an economic
Stabilization can increase the shear strength method since the stabilizer used here
of a soil and control the shrink-swell is waste plastic materials, which are easily
properties of a soil, thus improving the load- available. A plastic material is any of a wide
bearing capacity of a sub-grade to support range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic
pavements and foundations. Stabilization solids that are moldable. Plastics are
can be used to treat a wide range of sub- typically organic plastics of high molecular
grade materials from expansive clays to mass, but they often contain other
granular materials. Stabilization can be substances. They are usually synthetic, most
achieved with a variety of chemical commonly derived from petrochemicals, but
additives including lime, fly ash, and many are partially natural.
Portland cement, as well as by-products
such as lime-kiln dust and cement-kiln dust.
These are the existing techniques to improve
soil stabilization. This paper presents the In the investigation the waste
details of studies conducted on the possible plastic materials has been chosen as the
use of waste plastic for soil stabilization. We reinforcement material and it was randomly
think that the addition of plastic strips into included in to the clayey soils with different
the soil will be a innovative technique to plasticity indexes at five different
improve the shear strength, tensile percentages of fiber content (0%, 1%,2%,
strength and California bearing ratio (CBR) 3%, 4%) by weight of raw soil. The use of
value of the soil in an economic way. plastic fibers in unreinforced soil
tremendously increases the CBR value,
Shear Strength, Resistance to desiccation
cracking, reduces Consolidation and was performed on them. The samples
Swelling. examined for this purpose were prepared by
adding 5, 15 and 25% cement and 0.1, 0.15,
0.2 and 0.5% polypropylene fibers. The
sample which showed the maximum value
of CBR after 90 days of curing was chosen
i) CBR Value as the optimum percentage of polypropylene
ii) Increased shear strength fibers for further evaluation of strength of
iii) Reduction in consolidation the stabilized peat soil.
Effect of stabilization on CBR value
iv) Reduction in swelling
v) Reduction in cracks The results of CBR tests for
vi) Avoids disposal problems of stabilized peat soil samples with cement and
plastic polypropylene fibers after air curing for 90
days .The CBR value of undisturbed peat
i) CBR VALUE soil is 0.785%. With the addition of 50%
cement, it increased to 34% for unsoaked
The California bearing ratio
condition and 30% for the soaked condition.
(CBR) is a penetration test for evaluation of
With the addition of 0.15% polypropylene
the mechanical strength of soil. To find out
fibers with 50% cement, this increased to
the change of CBR value of the fiber
38% and 35% for unsoaked and soaked
reinforced soil with respect to unreinforced
conditions. The results indicate that as
soil, CBR test is conducted.
cement amount in the mixture is increased,
In this study, in order to find the the CBR values also increase and addition of
optimum percentage of fiber content for the polypropylene fibers causes a further
stabilized peat soil that would provide the increase of the CBR values.
maximum strength, peat soil samples at their
natural water content were mixed with
different percentages of cement and This experimental work has
polypropylene fibers and were cured in air been performed to investigate the influence
for a period of 90 days and then CBR test of Plasticity Index and percentage of waste
plastic materials on the shear strength of due to the addition of the waste plastic fibers
waste plastic materials on the shear strength and it is a non linear function. Up to a
of unsaturated clayey soils. For this purpose, critical fiber content shear strength increased
clayey soils with different plasticity Indexes considerably and later small reduction is
were used and mixed with different observed. However shear values are greater
percentage of waste materials to investigate than unreinforced soil.
the shear strength parameters of
unreinforced and reinforced samples in
terms of direct shear test.
In order to determine the shear strength
parameters (C and φ) of unreinforced and In order to assess the effect of
reinforced samples, a series of shear box random fiber inclusion on consolidation
tests at vertical normal stresses of 100-300 settlement, swelling and hydraulic
KPa and strain rate of 0.2% mm/min were conductivity, oedometer tests were
carried out in accordance with ASTMD conducted according to ASTM D2435-96. In
3080.shear stresses were recorded as a the current investigation all samples were
function of horizontal displacement up to prepared using the same dry density and
total displacement of 17 mm to observe the molding moisture content equal to 70% of
post failure behavior as well. Verification the liquid limit.
tests were also performed in order to
Consolidation settlements results
examine the repeatability of the
experiments. Effects of random fiber inclusion on
Effects of stabilization on shear strength consolidation settlement of soil samples
were evaluated as function of fiber length,
Soil can be non-liner variation
content and consolidation pressure. Prior to
because the reinforcement materials
the fiber inclusion, consolidation settlement
exhibited a distribution with In general
of unreinforced soil sample was determined.
angle of internal friction increased with fiber
A Constant pressure, increasing the fiber
content. The variation of with percentages of
contents from 1 to 8% resulted in reducing
fiber contents leads to a conclusion that the
consolidation settlement of the samples.
behavior of the fiber included. The shear
This is a common trend with all fiber lengths
strength of fiber reinforced soil is improved
examined. Maximum and minimum fibers having 5mm length which is a
consolidation settlements of 7.5 and 2.6 mm substantial reduction in swelling. For
were respectively measured for the constant fiber contents, an increase in the
unreinforced sample and the sample fiber length from 5 to 10mm resulted in a
reinforced by 8% fibers having 5mm length . slight increase in swelling. As a whole,
This shows a reduction in consolidation however, the increase in the fiber length did
settlement of approximately 25%. not have a significant effect on swelling
reduction. This was particularly true when
the fiber contents remained constant. It can
Oedometer was used for swelling
therefore be concluded that with the increase
saturated on molding; they showed no
in fiber contents and lengths, the soil/fiber
affinity for further water absorption after
surface interactions were increased. This
flooding the oedometer water bath.
resulted in a matrix that binds soil particles
Therefore, they did not exhibit much free
and effectively resists tensile stresses
swelling in order to be able to assess the
produced due t swelling. Resistance to
effects of fiber inclusions on this
swelling is mainly attributed to cohesion at
characteristic. Therefore, volume changes
the soil/fiber interfaces.
during the unloading stage of the
consolidation tests were measured and used
as an indication of the possible effects of
fiber inclusion on swellings. The swellings
Oedometer rings were used to
presented were measured after unloading the
investigate the effects of random fiber
maximum consolidation pressure of 200kPa.
inclusion on desiccation cracking of the soil.
After molding, confining rings containing
Effects of swelling test the specimen were placed in open air in the
laboratory at a temperature of about 30°C.
It can be seen that by increasing the
Samples were regularly weighed and when
fiber content, the amount of swellings
no changes in three consecutive
decreased. The unreinforced sample
measurements were observed, they were
produced the highest swelling of about
considered completely dried. Then, samples
3.4mm. This was reduced to approximately
were used for observational examination of
1.5mm for the sample reinforced with 8%
the extent of cracking. solution to waste treatment with the advent
of soil reinforcement.
Effects of desiccation cracks
Observational examination of
Plastic is one of the major toxic
samples after desiccation showed that by
pollutants of our time. Being a non-
increasing the fiber contents and lengths, the
biodegradable substance, composed of toxic
extent and depth of cracks were significantly
chemicals, plastic pollutes earth, air and
reduced. It can be seen that extensive, deep
water. Beside all these ill effects we here
and wide cracks were formed in the
suggested one method which drastically
unreinforced sample. The reinforced sample,
change the view by which the people are
however, has mainly experienced separation
concerned it today. Here without affecting
from the metal ring with no visible sign of
the normal texture of the soil we are
cracks forming within the sample. This
stabilizing it with the fiber format of the
clearly shows the effectiveness of random
fiber inclusion in resisting and reducing
desiccation cracking which is of paramount REFERENCES
importance in surface cracking of clay
1. Carol J. Miller and Sami Rifai, (2004),
covers used in landfills. Therefore, it can be
“Fiber Reinforcement for Waste
concluded that random fiber inclusion seems
Containment Soil Liners”, (ASCE)
to be a practical and effective method of
increasing tensile strength of the clayey soils
2. S. A. Naeini and S. M. Sadjadi ,(2008) ,”
to resist volumetric changes.
Effect of Waste Plastic Materials on Shear
Strength of Unsaturated Clays”, EJGE
Journal, Vol 13, Bund k,(1-12).

The most important point is the

environmental concern regarding the effects
of waste plastic in soil and the problems and
threats that is related with their excessive
usage and disposal. This gives an effective