Anda di halaman 1dari 22

BASIS OF ISLAM AND GENERAL STUDY OF A TYPICAL MOSQUE

ISLAM-THE RELIGION
ISLAM is the 3rd greatest monotheistic religion to have sprung from the Semitic
peoples.
It is regarded as the natural successor to Judaism & Christianity & like them, it looks
back to the prophets & patriarchs common to both of them.
Its foundation was in essence an attempt to purify the established pattern of
worship, rejecting PAGANISM and providing a fundamental base for
“MONOTHEISM FREE OF IDOLATORY.”
“ISLAM” means, “surrender to God”.
“MUSLIM” is the word for one who professes the faith.
According to MOHAMMED, there is one merciful & compassionate GOD called
ALLAH and Mohammed is his prophet.
Mohammed has never claimed DIVINITY for himself; rather he has tried to
established himself as the prophet to whom god has made the complete revelation.
There are 3 works codifying ISLAM
KORAN - revelation through the Prophet.
HADITH - collection of his sayings
LAW - extracted from the prophet’s instruction, from tradition &
from example.
The Islamic faith produced in successive generations of its followers, a way of life
and a set of attitudes, which had great influence on their architecture.

Effects of these beliefs on ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE.

There is no essential differentiation in techniques between buildings of a


RELIGIOUS NATURE and others.
Important architectural endeavor is normally expended on buildings having a
direct social or community purpose, including that of worship
Decorations tend towards the ABSTRACT, using GEOMETRIC, CALLIGRAPHIC and plant motifs,
with a preference for a uniform field of decoration, rather than a foal element.
CHARACTER OF ISLAM
The form of worship is much simpler.
There are no priests.
The mosque is a place for prayer & reading the KORAN, rather than for a formal service.
It is a personal & individualistic religion. The faithful Mohammedan needs no intermediary
between himself and his god.
MORAL PRINCIPLES
A TRUE MUSLIM should observe certain moral principles.
Reverence to parents.
Justice to all.
Charity to poor & destitute.
Honesty.
Frugality.
FIVE DUTIES

Certain duties are prescribed for a true Muslim

Pray 5 times a day - SALAT

Reading of KORAN - HADITH

Giving 1/40th of one’s wealth every year as charity – ZAKAT

Holding “ROZA” (fast during day) in the month of RAMZAN – SAWN

Going to MECCA once in life time - HAJ

These are commonly called as the “FIVE PILLARS” of ISLAM.

A TRUE MUSLIM must be prepared to defend his FAITH even at the cost of his LIFE
EVOLUTION OF BUILDING TYPES IN
TERMS OF
FORMS AND FUNCTIONS

Islamic architecture in India is represented


by many different types of building, which
however may be referred to the two
conventional divisions of
RELIGIOUS – mosque and the
tomb
SECULAR-buildings intended for
public and civic purposes such as
houses, pavilions, town gates,
wells, gardens, etc., besides the large
imperial schemes of palace forts
and even entire cities
EVOLUTION OF MOSQUE
MOSQUE or MASJID literally “the place of prostration” is not only the
important building of faith; it is also the key note of the style.
Derived from the humble dwelling of the founder of the creed at Medina in
Arabia. It is basically an open courtyard surrounded by a pillared verandah, in a
work an elaboration and enlargement of an Arab’s house.
The original intention was to provide no specific structure for devotional
purposes, as prayer could be performed in the open air with nothing between the
devotee and his God.
But natural craving of mankind for an enclosed building in which worship could
be conducted in an appropriate environment, away from the distractions of every
day life - so a house of prayer came into being
FOUR TYPES OF MOSQUE

The Arab Hypostyle Mosque The Persian Four Iwan Mosque


The Indian Three Dome Mosque The Turkish Central Dome Mosque
FEATURES OF MOSQUE
A rectangular open space or SAHN
He four sides being enclosed by pillared cloisters or LIWANS
A fountain or tank in the centre for ABLUTIONS (a ceremony described as “ the half
of faith and the key of prayer”)
The cloisters on the Mecca side(in India on the west) of the courtyard were
expanded and elaborated into PILLARED HALL or SANCTUARY,with a wall at the back
containing a recess or alcove called a MIHRAB indicating the QIBLA or direction for
prayer.
On the right side of the mihrab stands MIMBAR or PULPIT
 A portion of sanctuary is screened off into a compartment for women
An elevated platform from which the MUEZZIN summons the faithful to prayer –
usually takes the form of a high tower or MINARET.
These are the main elements comprising the mosque structure.
Porticos and similar entrance halls added to the exterior.
To produce the necessary structural effect of a house of prayer two important
elements were imposed on to the exterior of the sanctuary
A screen was thrown across its front to form a façade
Above the central portion or nave a dome was raised.
As a rule , the view of the central dome over the nave is obstructed by the
parapet crowning the façade which rises up in front
1. Qibla wall

2. Mihrab

3. Mimbar

4. Dikka

5. Kursi

6. Fountain

7. minaret
JAMMA MASJID, DELHI

In almost every city and large town, there is one mosque known as the
JAMMA MASJID (the collecting mosque).This designation is given to the
principal or congregational mosque in which the faithful assemble for the
Friday prayer
TOMBS
The tomb, introduced into the country an entirely new kind of structure, as
hitherto it had been the custom of the people of India to raise no sepulchre to mark
the resting place of the dead, their ashes carried away, on the broad bosom of the
sacred rivers.
These tombs consists of an imposing composition of vaulted halls and towering
domes, and enclosed within a spacious garden, all on a grand scale.
Enshrining in the center a mere handful of dust, laid in a plain mound of earth to
be seen in the mortuary chamber below.
In the course of time, the tomb building, especially in northern India, introduced
itself into the landscape, much of the finest Indo-Islamic architecture being
expressed in these structures.
FEATURES OF TOMB
The tomb (QABRISTAN), usually consists of a single compartment or TOMB
CHAMBER, known as ‘HUZRAH OR ESTANAH’ in the centre of which is the
CENOTAPH or ZARIH, the whole structure being roofed by a DOME.
In the ground underneath this building, resembling a crypt, is the mortuary
chamber called the MAQBARAH or TAKHANA, with the GRAVE or QABR in the
middle.
In the western wall of the tomb chamber there is generally a mihrab, but
some of the larger mausoleums also include a mosque as a separate building,
the whole being contained within one enclosure, called a RAUZA.
Important tombs are designated DARGAHS, a word of Persian extraction
signifying a court or palace
The Tomb Of Iltumish The Taj – Cenotaph Or Zarih
FEATURES OF MINARET
MINARET (manāra), a tower, usually attached to a mosque, from which the
muezzin summons Muslims to prayer.
In Arabic, manāra originally denotes a lighthouse or signaling tower at sea.
The minaret was not part of the architecture of the early Islamic period.
It appeared first in the 8th and 9th centuries in Arabia and in the Islamic West in
the form of square towers of great height.
Then Minarets became distinctive architectural features of Islamic mosques.
 Generally tall spires with onion shaped or conical crowns usually either free
standing or taller than any associated support structure
Styles vary regionally and by period.
They provide a visual focal point and are used for the call to prayer
Minarets also function as air conditioning mechanisms: as the sun heats the dome, air is
drawn in through open windows then up and out of the minaret, thereby providing natural
ventilation.
The earliest mosques were built without minarets - the Muslim community of medina gave
the call to prayer from the roof of the house of Mohammed.
Around 80 years after Muhammad's death the first known minarets appeared.
The basic form includes a base, shaft, and gallery.
Minarets may be conical (tapering), square, cylindrical, or polygonal
For the base, the ground is excavated until a hard foundation is reached.
Stairs circle the shaft in a counter-clockwise fashion, providing necessary structural support to
the highly elongated shaft
The gallery is a balcony which encircles the upper sections from
which the muezzin may give the call to prayer. It is covered by a roof-
like canopy and adorned with ornamentation, such as decorative brick
and tile work, cornices, arches and inscriptions, with the transition
from the shaft to the gallery typically sporting muqarnas.
Minarets have been described as the "gate from heaven and earth“.
The massive minaret of The Great Mosque Of Kairouan In Tunisia is
the oldest standing minaret.
The tallest minaret is located at the Hassan II Mosque In Morocco.
The Tallest Brick Minaret is Qutub Minar Located In Delhi, India.
MUQARNAS

The Great Mosque Of


Kairouan