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Anda di halaman 1dari 30

Solutions to Exercises

James C. Robinson

Contents

1 Examples I page 1

2 Examples II 5

3 Examples III 9

4 Examples IV 15

iii

1

Examples I

1. Suppose that

n

X m

X

v= αj ej and v= βk fk .

j=1 k=1

j = 1, . . . , n0 , and fj ∈

/ {e1 , . . . , en } for j > n0 , i.e.

n 0 m

X X

v= βk ek + βk fk ,

k=1 k=n0 +1

with the understanding that the first sum is zero if n0 = 0, and the second

zero if n0 = m.

It follows that

n n 0 m

X X X

αj e j − βk ek − βk fk = 0,

j=1 k=1 k=n0 +1

or

n0 n m

X X X

(αj − βj )ej − αj ej + βk fk = 0.

j=1 k=n0 +1 k=n0 +1

from which n0 = n, and that αj = βj for j = 1, . . . , n. So the expansion

is unique.

2. If x, y ∈ `lim (C) then x + y ∈ `lim (C) and αx ∈ `lim (C), since

n→∞ n→∞ n→∞ n→∞ n→∞

1

2 1 Examples I

3. Write

kxkp`p =

X X

|xj |p = |xj |p−α |xj |α .

j j

1/a 1/b

kxkp`p ≤

X X

|xj |(p−α)a |xj |αb

j j

= kxkp−α

`(p−α)a

kxkα`αb .

that

(p − α)a = q and αb = r,

so that the factors on the right are powers of kxk`q and kxk`r . Thus

b = r/α; since a, b are conjugate it follows that a = r/(r − α), and then

the condition that (p − α)a = q gives

4.(i) If there exist a, b with 0 < a ≤ b such that

then

1 1

kxk2 ≤ kxk1 ≤ kxk2 ,

b a

while

(ii) if

akxk1 ≤ kxk2 ≤ bkxk1

and

αkxk2 ≤ kxk3 ≤ βkxk2

then

aαkxk1 ≤ kxk3 ≤ bβkxk1 .

(!), we only need to show that k · k2 and k · k∞ are equivalent to k · k1 .

Examples I 3

We have

2

n

X n

X n

X

|xj |2 ≤ |xj | ≤ n |xj |2 ,

j=1 j=1 j=1

√

which gives kxk2 ≤ kxk1 ≤ n kxk2 , and

n

X

max |xj | ≤ |xj | ≤ n max |xj |,

j=1,...,n j=1,...,n

j=1

6. First we show that if f is continuous and K is closed then

f −1 (K) = {x ∈ X : f (x) ∈ K}

is closed. (In fact this is in the proof of Corollary 3.12 in the notes.)

Take xn ∈ f −1 (K), and suppose that xn → x; since f is continuous,

f (xn ) → f (x). But f (xn ) ∈ K, and K is closed, so f (x) ∈ K. It follows

that x ∈ f −1 (K), and so f −1 (K) is closed.

Now suppose that whenever K is closed, f −1 (K) is closed. Take xn ∈ X

with xn → x, and suppose that f (xn ) 6→ f (x). Then for some subsequence

xnj , we must have

|f (xnj ) − f (x)| > .

since xnj → x and f −1 (Z) is closed, it follows that x ∈ f −1 (Z), so that

clearly a contradiction.

7. Let Y be closed subset of the compact set K. If yn ∈ Y then yn ∈ K,

so there is a subsequence ynj such that ynj → y ∈ K. Since Y is closed,

y ∈ Y , and so Y is compact.

8. If {un } is a Cauchy sequence in U then, since U ⊂ V and the norm on U

is simply the restriction of the map u 7→ kukV to U , it follows that {un }

is also a Cauchy sequence in V . Since V is complete, un → u for some

u ∈ V . But since U is closed, we know that if un → u then u ∈ U . So U

is complete.

4 1 Examples I

on c0 (K). To be interesting the question requires the `∞ norm; any ele-

ment of `p with p < ∞ must be an element of c0 (K).

To show that c0 (K) (with the `∞ norm) is complete, we will first show

that `∞ (K) is complete (this case was omitted from the proof of Propo-

sition 4.5 in the notes, put the proof is simpler), and then that c0 (K) is

closed, which will show that c0 (K) is complete by the previous question.

So first suppose that xk = (xk1 , xk2 , · · · ) is a Cauchy sequence in `∞ (K).

Then for every > 0 there exists an N such that

kxn − xm kp`∞ = sup |xnj − xm

j |< for all n, m ≥ N . (1.1)

j

In particular {xkj }∞

k=1 is a Cauchy sequence in K for every fixed j. Since

K is complete (recall K = R or C) it follows that for each k ∈ N

xkj → ak

for some ak ∈ R.

Set a = (a1 , a2 , · · · ). We want to show that a ∈ `∞ and also that

kxk − ak`∞ → 0 as k → ∞. First, since {xk } is Cauchy we have from (1.1)

that kxn − xm k`∞ < for all n, m ≥ N , and so

sup |xnj − xm

j | ≤ .

j

Letting m → ∞ we obtain

sup |xnj − aj | ≤ ,

j

implies that a ∈ `∞ and kxk − ak`∞ ≤ .

Now take xn ∈ c0 (K) such that xn → x in `∞ . Suppose that x ∈ / c0 (K).

Then there exists a δ > 0 and a sequence nj → ∞ such that |xnj | > δ

for every j. Now choose N large enough that kxn − xk`∞ < δ/2 for all

n ≥ N.

In particular it follows that |xnnj | > δ/2 for all n ≥ N (and every j);

but then xn ∈/ c0 (K), a contradiction.

2

Examples II

∞

X

|xj |2 < ∞.

j=1

So

∞

X

kx − (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , 0, 0, . . .)k2`2 = |xj |2 → 0

j=n+1

2. If x ∈ X ∩ Y then there exist X and Y such that

{y ∈ B : ky − xk < } ⊂ X ∩ Y,

and so X ∩ Y is open.

Now, given z ∈ B and > 0, since X is dense there exists an x ∈ X

such that kx − zk < /2. Since X is open, there is a δ < /2 such that

it follows that we also have y ∈ X. So we have found y ∈ X ∩ Y such that

ky − zk ≤ ky − xk + kx − zk < δ/2 + /2 < , and so X ∩ Y is dense.

A refinement of this argument allows one to prove the powerful Baire

Category Theorem: a countable intersection of open and dense sets is

dense.

5

6 2 Examples II

and xn → x (with x ∈ V ) we know that {xn } is Cauchy in V . So, since

kF (xn ) − F (xm )kY ≤ Lkxn − xm k

it follows that {F (xn )} is a Cauchy sequence in Y . Since Y is complete,

we know that limn→∞ F (xn ) exists and is an element of Y .

If xn → v, and yn → v, then

kF (xn ) − F (yn )k ≤ Lkxn − yn k.

Taking limits as n → ∞ on both sides implies that

lim F (xn ) = lim F (yn ).

n→∞ n→∞

find sequences in X that converge to v1 , v2 , and then from the definition

kF (v1 ) − F (v2 )k ≤ Lkv1 − v2 k.

4. Let V = R, X = Q, and expand each √ q ∈ Q to √

the interval Iq = (q −

d(q), q + d(q)), where d(q) = |q − 2|/2. Then 2 ∈/ Iq for any q, so

S

q∈Q I q does not cover R.

(j)

5. Fix n ∈ N, and cover Aj with a collection of intervals Ik such that

P (j) −(n+j) . Then ∪ A is covered by

k |Ik | < 2 j j

[ (j)

Ik ,

j,k

(j) P∞

and j,k |Ik | < j=n+1 2−j = 2−n .

P

zero. Since the union of the Aj still has measure zero, every Pj occurs

simultaneously almost everywhere.

6. Use φn ↑ f to mean that φn is an increasing sequence that converges

almost everywhere to f . (i) is essentially Lemma 5.5. (ii) If f, g ∈ Linc (R)

then there are sequences {φn }, {ψn } ∈ Lstep (R) such that φn ↑ f and

ψn ↑ g. Then {φn + ψn } is an increasing sequence of step functions with

φn + ψn ↑ f + g. So f + g ∈ Linc (R), and since the integral is additive on

Lstep (R),

Z Z Z Z Z Z

f + g = lim φn + ψn = lim ( φn + ψn ) = f + g.

n→∞ n→∞

R L (R) and λφn ↑ f .

The result follows from the fact that λφn = λ φn .

Examples II 7

(iv) Follows from the same properties for step functions, along similar

lines to the above.

7. For x ∈ [n, n + 1) we have

x n x n−1

(−1)j (−1)n

Z Z Z X

= f (r) dr + f (r) dr = + (x − n) ,

0 1 n j n

j=1

and so

x ∞

(−1)j

Z X

lim f (x) dx = < ∞.

x→∞ 0 j!

j=1

Z x Z n n−1

X 1

≥ |f (r)|, dr = ,

0 1 j

j=1

even when they are not ‘Lebesgue integrable’.]

R

8. Consider fn = n|f |. Then fn is a monotonic sequence, and fn =

n |f | = 0 for every n. So there exists a g ∈ L1 such that fn → g

R

+∞ where fn 6= 0. Since g is defined almost everywhere, it follows that

f = 0 almost everywhere.

9. If f ∈ Linc (R) then there exists a sequence {φn } ∈ Lstep (R) such that

φn ↑ f (almost everywhere), and we define

Z Z

f = lim φn .

n→∞

Since f ≥ φn ,

Z Z Z

|f − φn | = f− φn ,

R

which tends to zero as n → ∞ by the definition of f.

Now take a step function

n

X

φ(x) = cj χIj (x)

j=1

8 2 Examples II

0 x<a−δ

(x − a + δ)/δ a − δ ≤ x ≤ a

XI (x; δ) = 1 a<x<b

(b + δ − x)/δ b ≤ x ≤ b + δ

0 x > b + δ.

n

X

φ (x) = cj XIj (x; δ),

j=1

then Z

|φ (x) − φ(x)| dx < .

f2 to within /4 (wrt the L1 norm) by step functions h1 and h2 , and then

approximate h1 and h2 by continuous functions c1 and c2 to within /4

(again wrt the L1 norm). So c1 − c2 ∈ C 0 (R) approximates g to within ,

i.e. C 0 (R) is dense in L1 (R).

10. With gn = ( nk=1 |fk |)2 we have

P

Z Z X n

n
2 n

!2 ∞

!2

X
X X

gn = ( |fk |)2 =
|fk |
≤ kfk kL2 ≤ kfk kL2

k=1 k=1 L2 k=1 k=1

using the definition of the L2 norm and the triangle inequality. It follows

that gn → g almost everywhere for some g ∈ L1 . It follows that ∞

P

k=1 fk

is absolutely convergent almost everywhere to some f ∈ L . 2

n

2 ∞ 2 ∞

!2

X X X

f − fk = fk ≤ |uk | ≤ |f |2 .

k=1 k=n+1 k=n+1

n

X Z n

X

2

lim |f − fk | = lim |f − uk |2 = 0.

n→∞ n→∞

k=1 k=1

3

Examples III

= kxk2 + (x, y) + (y, x) + kyk2 − kxk2 + (x, y) + (y, x) − kyk2

+ i(kxk2 + i(y, x) − i(x, y) + kyk2 − kxk2 + i(y, x) − i(x, y) − kyk2 )

= 4 real(x, y) + 4 imag(x, y) = 4(x, y)

2. Write

Z t 2 Z t 2

−1/2 1/2

|f (r)| dt = r |f (r)| dr

r

s s

Z t Z t

−1 2

≤ r dr r|f (r)| dr

s s

1/2

≤ K(log t − log s)

3. Suppose that E is orthonormal and that

n

X

αj e j = 0

j=1

for some αj ∈ K and ej ∈ E. Then taking the inner product of both sides

with ek (with k = 1, . . . , n) gives

Xn

( αj ej , ek ) = 0 ⇒ αk = 0,

j=1

9

10 3 Examples III

lim kx − yn k = 0,

n→∞

i.e. yn → x. Since Y is a closed linear subspace, it follows that x ∈ Y

– but this contradicts the fact that x ∈ / Y.

(ii) By definition there exists a sequence yn ∈ Y such that d = limn→∞ kx−

yn k. So for n sufficiently large, clearly kx − yn k < 2d. Let z be one

such yn .

(iii) We have

x−z 1 1 1

kx̂ − yk =

− y =

x − (z + kx − zky) > d= ,

kx − zk kx − zk 2d 2

since z + kx − zky ∈ Y and d = inf{kx − yk : y ∈ Y }.

5. Take x1 ∈ B with kx1 k = 1. Let Y1 be the linear subspace {αx1 : α ∈ K}.

Using the result of question 7 there exists an x2 ∈ B with kx2 k = 1 such

that kx2 − x1 k > 12 . Now let Y2 = Span(x1 , x2 ), and use question 7 to find

x3 ∈ B with kx3 k = 1 with kx3 − yk > 21 for every y ∈ Span(x1 , x2 ) – in

particular

1 1

kx3 − x1 k > and kx3 − x2 k > .

2 2

Continuing in this way we obtain a sequence {xn } ∈ B such that kxn k = 1

and

1

kxn − xm k >

2

for all n 6= m. It follows that the unit ball is not compact, since no

subsequence of the {xn } can be a Cauchy sequence.

6. The unit ball is closed and bounded. If B is finite-dimensional then this

implies that the unit ball is compact. We have just shown, conversely,

that if B is infinite-dimensional then the unit ball is not compact.

7. Take x, y ∈ A and suppose that λx + (1 − λ)y ∈ A for all λ ∈ [0, 1] such

that 2k λ ∈ N. Then given µ with 2k+1 µ ∈ N, 2k µ ∈ / N we have

µ = l2−(k+1)

with l odd, so that

(l − 1) −(k+1) (l + 1) −(k+1)

µ= 2 + 2 .

2 2

With λ1 = (l − 1)2−(k+1) and λ2 = (l + 1)2−(k+1) we have 2k λ1 , 2k λ2 ∈ N,

and so

1

µx + (1 − µ)y = [(λ1 x + (1 − λ1 )y) + (λ2 x + (1 − λ2 )y)] ,

2

Examples III 11

It follows by induction that λx + (1 − λ)y ∈ A for any λ ∈ [0, 1] such

that 2k λ ∈ N for some k ∈ N. Since any λ ∈ [0, 1] can be approximated

by a sequence λj such that 2j λj ∈ N, it follows since A is closed that

λx + (1 − λy) ∈ A for all λ ∈ [0, 1], i.e. A is convex.

8. We have x ∈ (X ⊥ )⊥ if for every y ∈ X ⊥ , (x, y) = 0. So clearly X ⊆

(X ⊥ )⊥ . If we do not have equality here then there exists a z ∈ / X with

(z, y) = 0 for every y ∈ X ⊥ . But we know that z = x + ξ with x ∈ X and

ξ ∈ X ⊥ ; but then (x + ξ, ξ) = 0, which implies that kxik2 = 0, i.e. x ∈ X.

So (X ⊥ )⊥ = X as claimed.

9. We have

r !r r !r

5 5 3 3

e04 = x3 − x3 , (3x2 − 1) (3x2 − 1) − x3 , x x

8 8 2 2

1 1

− x3 , √ √

2 2

Z 1

3x 1 4 1 1 3

Z Z

5

= x3 − (3x2 − 1) (3t5 − t3 ) dt − t dt − t dt

8 −1 2 −1 2 −1

3x

= x3 − .

5

Then

1

1

3t 2

7

6t5 3t3

Z

t 8

ke04 k2 = 3

t − dt = − + =

−1 5 7 25 25 −1 7 × 25

and so

r

7

e4 = (5x3 − 3x).

8

(sin x, e1 ) and (sin x, e3 ) will be zero since sin x is odd and e1 and e3 are

even, so

3x 1 7(5x3 − 3x) 1 3

Z Z

f3 (x) = t sin t dt + (5t − 3t) sin t dt.

2 −1 8 −1

Now,

Z 1 Z 1

t sin t dt = [−t cos t]1−1 + cos t dt = [sin t]1−1 = 2 sin 1

−1 −1

12 3 Examples III

and

Z 1 1

Z 1

t sin t dt = −t3 cos t −1 +

3

3t2 cos t dt

−1 −1

1

Z 1

= 3t2 sin t −1 − 6

t sin t dt

−1

= −6 sin 1,

giving

Z 1

(5t3 − 3t) sin t dt = −36 sin 1;

−1

it follows that

7(27x − 45x3 ) 195x − 315x3

f3 (x) = sin 1 3x + = sin 1 .

2 2

11. First way: given orthonormal polynomials ẽj (x) on [−1, 1] put

√

ej (x) = 2 ẽj (2x − 1),

since then

Z 1 Z 1 Z 1

ej (x)ek (x) dx = 2 ẽj (2x − 1)ẽk (2x − 1) dx = ẽj (y)ẽk (y) dy.

0 0 −1

√

e1 (x) = 1, e2 (x) = 3 (2x − 1),

√

5 √

e3 (x) = [3(4x2 − 4x + 1) − 1] = 5 (6x2 − 6x + 1),

2

and

√

7

5(8x3 − 12x2 + 6x − 1) − 3(2x − 1)

e4 (x) =

√2

= 7 [20x3 − 30x2 + 12x − 1].

Z 1

0 1

e2 (x) = x − t dt = x − ,

0 2

and then

" #1

1 (x − 12 )3

Z

1

ke02 k2 = (x − 12 )2 dx = =

0 3 12

0

Examples III 13

√

which gives e2 (x) = 3 (2x − 1). Now set

Z 1 Z 1

0 2 2

e3 (x) = x − 3(2x − 1) t (2t − 1) dt − t2 dt

0 0

1 4

2 t3 t

1

= x − 3(2x − 1) − −

2 3 0 3

2x − 1 1 1

= x2 − − = x2 − x + ,

2 3 6

and then

1 1

4t2

Z Z

1 t 1

ke03 k2 = (t − t + )2 dt =

2

t4 − 2t3 + − + dt

0 6 0 3 3 36

1

t5 t4 4t3 t2

t

= − + − +

5 2 9 6 36 0

1

= ,

180

√

and so e3 (x) = 5(6x2 − 6x + 1).

Finally, we have

Z 1

0 3 2 3 2

e4 (x) = x − 5(6x − 6x + 1) t (6t − 6t + 1) dt

0

Z 1 Z 1

3

−3(2x − 1) t (2t − 1) dt − t3 dt

0 0

6x2 − 6x + 1 9 1

= x3 − − (2x − 1) −

4 20 4

20x3 − 30x2 + 12x − 1

=

20

with

Z 1

1

ke04 k2= (20t3 − 30t2 + 12t − 1)2 dt

400 0

Z 1

1

= 400t6 + 900t4 + 144t2 + 1 − 1200t5 + 480t4 − 40t3 − 720t3

400 0

2

+60t − 24t dt

1 400 900 144 1200 480 40 720 60 24

= + + +1− + − − + −

400 7 5 3 6 5 4 4 3 2

1

= ,

400 × 7

√

and so e4 (x) = 7 (20x3 − 30x2 + 12x − 1) as above.

14 3 Examples III

1/2 1/2

12. Given x, y ∈ `2w , set x̂j = wj xj and ŷj = wj yj . Then

(x, y)`2w = (x̂, ŷ)`2 ,

so the fact that (·, ·)`2w is an inner product on `2w follows from the fact

that (·, ·)`2 is an inner product on `2 . Similarly the completeness of `2w

follows from the completeness of `2 – if {xn } is a Cauchy sequence in `2w

then {x̂n } is a Cauchy sequence in `2 , so there exists a y ∈ `2 such that

1/2

x̂n → y. Setting zj = yj /wj gives a z ∈ `2w such that xn → z in `2w .

4

Examples IV

1. If kxkX ≤ 1 then

x
x

kAxkY = kxkX
A

≤ A

,

kxkX
kxkX

and so since k(x/kxkX )kX = 1 we have

sup kAxkY ≤ sup kAzkY ≤ sup kAzkY .

kxkX ≤1 kzkX =1 kzkX ≤1

kAxkY x

= A

,

kxkX kxkX Y

and so, again since k(x/kxkX )kX = 1,

kAxkY

sup = sup kAxkY .

x6=0 kxkX kxk=1

2. Given x ∈ `2 , we have

X |xj |2 X

kT xk2`2 = ≤ |xj |2 ,

j2

j j

element of `2 whose first n entries are 1 and whose others are zero. Then

T xn = (1, 1/2, 1/3, . . . , 1/n, 0, · · · )

which is in `2 . {T xn } forms a sequence in `2 that converges to

(1, 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, . . .),

which is an element of `2 since n (1/n2 ) is finite. However, the ‘preimage’

P

15

16 4 Examples IV

of this would be the sequence consisting all of 1s, which is not an element

of `2 . So the range of T is not closed.

3. Clearly fφ is linear. Given u ∈ C 0 ([a, b]) we have

Z b

|fφ (u)| = φ(t)u(t) dt

a

Z b

≤ max |u(t)| |φ(t)| dt

t∈[a,b] a

Z b

= kuk∞ |φ(t)| dt, (4.1)

a

Rb

and so kfφ k ≤ a |φ(t)| dt. Now since φ is continuous we can find a

sequence of continuous functions un that approximate the sign of φ (+1

if φ > 0, −1 if φ < 0) increasingly closely in the L2 norm: if φ(s) 6= 0

then there is an interval around s on which φ has the same sign. Since

this interval has non-zero length, and the union of these intervals lies

within [a, b], there are at most a countable number, {Ij }∞ j=1 . Let un be

the continuous function defined on Ij = (lj , rj ) as

(t − lj )/δj,n lj ≤ t ≤ lj + δj,n

un (t) = sign(φ(t)) × 1 lj + δj,n < t < rj − δj,n

(rj − t)/δj,n rj − δj,n ≤ t ≤ rj

where δj,n = min(2−(n+j) , (rj − lj )/2), and zero when φ(t) = 0. Then

Z b ∞

X

|un (t) − sign(φ(t))|2 dt ≤ 2−(n+j) = 2−(n−1) ,

a j=1

Z b

|fφ (un )| =

φ(t)un (t) dt

a

Z b Z b

= ≥ |φ(t)| dt − φ(t)(un (t) − sign(φ(t))) dt

a a

Z b Z b

≥ |φ(t)| dt − φ(t)(un (t) − sign(φ(t))) dt

a a

Z b

≥ |φ(t)| dt − kφkL2 kun − sign(φ)kL2 .

a

Since φ ∈ C 0 ([a, b]) we know that kφkL2 < ∞, and we have just shown

Examples IV 17

cannot improve the bound in (4.1) and therefore

Z b

kfφ k = |φ(t)| dt.

a

Z 1 Z t

(T x, y) = K(t, s)x(s) ds y(t) dt

0 0

Z 1Z t

= K(t, s)x(s)y(t) ds dt

0 0

Z 1Z 1

= K(t, s)x(s)y(t) dt ds

0 t

Z 1 Z 1

= K(t, s)y(t) dt x(s) ds

0 t

= (x, T ∗ y)

Z 1

T ∗ (y)(s) = K(t, s)y(t) dt.

t

i.e.

(x, T z) = 0 for all z ∈ H.

implies that T ∗ x = 0, i.e. that x ∈ Ker(T ∗ ). This argument can be

reversed, which gives the required equality.

Now – with apologies for the mistake in the question: we will show that

λ̄ is an eigenvalue of T ∗ – suppose that range(T − λI) 6= H. Then there

exists some non-zero u ∈ (range(T − λI))⊥ . By the equality we have just

proved, this gives a non-zero u in Ker((T − λI)∗ ), i.e. a non-zero u such

that

(T − λI)∗ u = 0.

is an eigenvalue of T ∗ .

18 4 Examples IV

a bounded sequence in H, with kxn k ≤ M , say, it follows that

follows that {T (T ∗ xn )} = {(T T ∗ )xn } has a convergent subsequence,

which shows that T T ∗ is compact.

(ii) Following the hint, we have

kT ∗ xk2 = (T ∗ x, T ∗ x) = (T T ∗ x, x) ≤ kT T ∗ xkkxk.

that for all n, m ≥ N ,

kT T ∗ xn − T T ∗ xm k = kT T ∗ (xn − xm )k ≤ .

kT ∗ xn − T ∗ xm k2 ≤ M for all n, m ≥ N.

(iii) So suppose that {xn } is a bounded sequence in H. Part (i) shows

that T T ∗ is compact, so {T T ∗ xn } has a subsequence {T T ∗ xnj } that is

Cauchy. But part (ii) shows that this implies that {T ∗ xnj } is Cauchy

too. So T ∗ is compact.

7.(i) If for every z ∈ H we have

for every z ∈ H; in particular we can take z = x − y, which shows that

kx − yk2 = 0, i.e. that x = y.

(ii) Take y ∈ H, and suppose that (en , y) does not tend to zero as n →

∞. Then for some > 0, thee exists a sequence nj → ∞ such that

|(enj , y)| > . But then

X X

kyk2 = |(y, ej )|2 ≥ |(y, enj )|2 = ∞,

n j

Examples IV 19

u 7→ (T u, z).

and it is bounded,

|(T u, z)| ≤ kT ukkzk ≤ kT kop kzk kuk.

(T u, z) = f (u) = (u, y)

have

(un , y) → (u, y) ⇒ (T un , z) → (T u, z).

(iv) **This part requires you to know that any weakly convergence sequence

is bounded, which is not at all obvious (but true).

Suppose that T xn 6→ T x. Then there exists a δ > 0 and a subsequence

T xnj such that

quence such that T xnj → w for some w ∈ H. But since convergence

implies weak convergence, we must have T xnj * w. But we already

know that T xnj * T x, so it follows from the uniqueness of weak limits

that w = T x, and so T xnj → T x, contradicting (4.2).

8. (i) For an x with K(x, ·) ∈ L2 (a, b), use the fact that {φj } is a basis for

L2 to write

X∞

K(x, y) = ki (x)φi (y).

i=1

Since

Z b

ki (x) = K(x, y)φi (y) dy,

a

20 4 Examples IV

we have

Z b Z b Z b 2

2

|ki (x)| dx =

K(x, y)φi (y) dy dx

a a a

Z b Z b Z b

2 2

≤ |K(x, y)| dy |φi (y)| dy dx

a a a

Z b Z bZ b

= |φi (y)|2 dy × |K(x, y)|2 dy dx,

a a a

(ii) Since ki ∈ L2 (a, b), we can write ki (x) = j κij φj , where κij =

P

Rb

a ki (x)φj (x) dx, i.e.

X

K(x, y) = κij φi (y)φj (x),

i,j

9. Clearly

X n

T nx = λnj (x, ej )ej .

j=1

T 2 + · · · , i.e.

n

X n

X

−1

(I − T ) = I+ λj (x, ej )ej + λ2j (x, ej )ej + · · ·

j=1 j=1

Xn

= I+ (λj + λ2j + · · · )(x, ej )ej

j=1

n

X λj

= I+ (x, ej )ej .

1 − λj

j=1

kαT kop < 1 we can write

∞

X

2 2 3 3

x = (I + αT + α T + α T + · · · )f = (αT )j f.

j=0

(ii) Suppose that

Z b

n−1

(T x)(t) = Kn−1 (t, s)x(s) ds.

a

Examples IV 21

Then

Z b

n

(T x)(t) = K(t, s)(T n−1 x)(s) ds

a

Z b Z b

= K(t, s) Kn−1 (s, r)x(r) dr ds

a a

Z bZ b

= K(t, s)Kn−1 (s, r)x(r) dr ds

a a

Z b Z b

= K(t, s)Kn−1 (s, r) ds x(r) dr,

a a

i.e.

Z b

n

(T x)(t) = Kn (t, r)x(r) dr.

a

with

Z b

Kn (t, r) = K(t, s)Kn−1 (r, s) ds

a

as claimed.

11. We have

X∞ ∞

X

(T u, v) = λj (u, ej )ej , v = λj (u, ej )(ej , v)

j=1 j=1

∞

X ∞

X

= u, λj (ej , v)ej = u, λj (v, ej )ej

j=1 j=1

= (u, T v)

and so T is self-adjoint. Now consider Tn u defined by

n

X

Tn u = λj (u, ej )ej .

j=1

dimensional, and so Tn is compact. Since

2

∞

X

2

kTn u − T uk = λj (u, ej )ej

j=n+1

∞

X

= |λj |2 |(u, ej )|2 ,

j=n+1

22 4 Examples IV

we have from the fact that λn → 0 that given any > 0 there exists an

N such that for all n ≥ N we have |λj | < , and hence

∞

X ∞

X

2 2 2 2

kTn u − T uk ≤ |(u, ej )| ≤ |(u, ej )|2 = 2 kuk2 ,

j=n+1 j=1

i.e.

kTn − T kop ≤ ,

12. We have

Z b

Tu = K(x, y)u(y) dy

a

∞

Z bX

= λj ej (x)ej (y)u(y) dy

a j=1

∞

X

= λj ej (ej , u),

j=1

and so T ek = λk ek .

To show that these are the only eigenvalues and eigenvectors, if u ∈

L (a, b) with u = w + ∞

2

P

k=1 (u, ek )ek and T u = λu then, since w ⊥ ej for

all j,

∞

X

Tu = Tw + (u, ek )T ek

k=1

∞ Z

X b

= λj ej (x)ej (y)(u, ek )ek (y) dy

j,k=1 a

X∞

= λj (u, ej )ej (x)

j=1

and

∞

X

λu = λ(u, ej )ej (x).

j=1

λ(u, ek ) = λk (u, ek ),

so either (u, ek ) = 0 or λ = λk .

Examples IV 23

(i) Let (a, b) = (−π, π) and consider K(t, s) = cos(t−s). Then K is clearly

symmetric, so the corresponding T is self-adjoint. We have

recall that cos t and sin t are orthogonal in L2 (−π, π). We have

Z π

T (sin t) = K(t, s) sin s ds

−π

Z π

= cos t cos s sin s − sin t sin2 s ds

−π

= −2π sin t

and

Z π

T (cos t) = K(t, s) cos s ds

Z−π

π

= cos t cos2 s − sin t sin s cos s ds

−π

= 2π cos t.

Then in fact

r ! r ! r ! r !

3 3 8 5 2 5 2

K(t, s) = 4 t s + (3t − 1) (3s − 1) ,

2 2 5 8 8

q q

and so, since { 32 t, 58 (3t2 −1)} are orthonormal (they are some of the

Legendre polynomials from Chapter 6) the integral operator associated

with K(t, s) has

8

T (t) = 4t and T (3t2 − 1) = (3t2 − 1).

5

13. This equation is the equation in Theorem 14.2 with p = 1 and q = 0. So

it suffices to show that (i) u1 (x) = x satisfies the equation −d2 u/dx2 = 0

with u(0) = 0 (which is clear), (ii) that u2 (x) = (1 − x) satisfies the same

equation with u(1) = 0 (which is also clear), and (iii) that Wp (u1 , u2 ) = 1:

Or one could follow the proof of Theorem 4.12 with this particular choice

of G to show that u(x) as defined does indeed satisfy −d2 u/dx2 = f .

24 4 Examples IV

14.(i) If x 6= 0 then kxk > 0, from which it follows that kT xk > 0, and so

x ∈/ Ker(T ). So Ker(T ) = {0} and T −1 exists for all y ∈ range(T ).

Then we have

kT (T −1 x)k2 ≥ αkT −1 xk2 ,

(ii) Let λ = α + iβ. Then

= k(T x − αx)k2 − (T x − αx, iβx) − (iβx, T x − αx) + |β|2 kxk2

= kT x − αxk2 + i(T x − αx, βx) − i(βx, T x − αx) + |β|2 kxk2 .

and so

(iii) If λ ∈ C and T − λI has a densely defined inverse then (T − λI)−1 ∈

B(H, H), i.e. λ ∈ R(T ). So σc (T ) ⊆ R.

(iv) If the range of T − λI is not dense in H then by Question 3 we know

that λ̄ is an eigenvalue of T ∗ . If T is self-adjoint, we must have λ̄ an

eigenvalue of T . But all eigenvalues of T are real, so in fact λ is an

eigenvalue of T . So λ ∈ σp (T ) rather than σr (T ), which implies that

σr (T ) is empty.

15.(i) If y ∈ `q then

∞

X

|l(x)| =

xj yj ≤ kxkp kykq

j=1

(ii) Any x = (x1 , x2 , x3 , . . .) ∈ `p can be written as

∞

X

x= xj ej ,

j=1

Examples IV 25

continuous, so

n

X

l(x) = l lim xj ej

n→∞

j=1

n

X

= lim l xj ej

n→∞

j=1

n

X

= lim xj l(ej )

n→∞

j=1

∞

X

= xj l(ej )

j=1

X∞

= x j yj ,

j=1

an exam you should at least mention continuity of l as the justification

for taking it inside the infinite sum.]

(iii) We have

n n n

|yj |q p X

X X

kx(n) kpp =

yj

= |y j |p

q − 1 = |yj |q ,

j=1 j=1 j=1

1/p

Xn

kx(n) kp = |yj |q .

j=1

Also

n n

(n)

X |yj |q X

l(x )= yj = |yj |q .

yj

j=1 j=1

1/p

n

X n

X

|yj |q ≤ klkp∗ |yj |q ,

j=1 j=1

26 4 Examples IV

1/q

X n

|yj |q ≤ klkp∗ .

j=1

Since this holds for every n, we must have y ∈ `q with kykq ≤ klkp∗ .

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