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Science of Living Systems 12

Understanding Darwinism
Andrew Berry
OEB
berry@oeb.harvard.edu
BioLabs 1082b

Janet Browne
History of Science
jbrowne@fas.harvard.edu
Science Ctr 451

Charles Robert Darwin, Artichoke

“There is a
grandeur to
this view of
life....”
Head Teaching Fellow

Jenny Pham
OEB
jpham@fas.harvard.edu
BioLabs 2109
5

SLS 12 Andrew Berry, berry@oeb.harvard.edu BioLabs 1082


Janet Browne, jbrowne@fas.harvard.edu Science Ctr 451
Understanding Darwinism
Head TF Jenny Pham, jpham@fas.harvard.edu BioLabs 2109
Fall ‘18

Lecture Section Reading P'sets


Section reading Zimmer 2nd Ed
Requirements
[optional] (Chapt
equivalents in 1st Ed) Lecture: 1 hour 15 min Tues, Thurs 10.30-11.45
Tues 4 Sept 1. Introduction AB/JB
Thurs 6 2. What's the the big deal? AB/JB Ch 1 (1) Section: 1 hour 15 min weekly
Tues 11 3. Finding Design in Nature JB Ch 2 (2)
Thurs 13 4. 4004 BC? Geology & Earth History JB Mid-term x 3: 75 mins, in class.
Tues 18 5. Charles Darwin JB 1 Origin Ch 1, 2
Thurs 20 6. Those Finches! The Galapagos in Evolution JB No Final
Tues 25 7. Alfred Russel Wallace AB/JB 2 Origin Ch 3, 4
Thurs 27 8. Publication! Reception & Aftermath JB Problem Sets: two problem sets to prepare you for
Tues 2 Oct Mid-term One 3 MCZ Tour questions on the two science mid-terms
Thurs 4 9. Theory: Descent with Modification, Natural Selection AB
Tues 9 10. Mendel, Hardy Weinberg, & the Modern Synthesis AB 4 Cook et al Ch 5 (5) Response Papers: Brief weekly responses for section
Thurs 11 11. Population Genetics AB Ch 6 (6) P'set 1 reading
Tues 16 12. DNA AB 5 Double Helix/DNA extraction Ch 7 (7)
Thurs 18 13. Putting DNA to work: the Molecular Biology Revolution AB P'set 1 due Paper/Project: ~10pp term paper on a topic of your
Tues 23 14. Sex & Sexual selection AB 6 Knowlton et al Ch 9 (12)
choosing (vetted by us) or a project of your design. Due at
Thurs 25 15. Speciation AB Ch 10 (9) P'set 1 hand back
the end of Reading Period.
Tues 30 Mid-term Two No Section
Thurs 1 Nov 16. Reconstructing the past: phylogeny AB Ch 4 (4)
Tues 6 17. Reconstructing the past: fossils AB 7 Molec Evn Exercise Ch 3 (3)
Books:
Thurs 8 18. Genomics & Evolutionary Innovation AB Ch 8, Ch 11 (8,10)
Tues 13 19. Human Evolution AB 8 Gould & Lewontin Ch 14 (None)
• Charles Darwin/Jim Costa: The Annotated Origin of
Thurs 15 20. Neanderthals & Us AB P'set 2 Species Havard Univ Press Required
Tues 20 21. Sociobiology: Nature/Nurture? AB No Section
Thurs 22 THANKSGIVING • Carl Zimmer: The Tangled Bank: An Introduction to
Tues 27 22. Is Eugenics still alive & well? AB/JB 9 Origin Ch 14 P'set 2 due Evolution 2nd Ed (2014) Roberts Publishers
Thurs 29 23. Creationism AB/JB P'set 2 hand back Recommended
Tues 4 Dec Mid-term Three No Section

Assessment
Mid-terms: 15% each
P’sets: 7.5% each
Paper/Project: 25%
Participation: 15% Darwin’s Finches, Galapagos
(Illustration from Voyage of the Beagle)
Lecture Section Reading P'sets
Section reading Zimmer 2nd Ed
[optional] (Chapt
equivalents in 1st Ed)
Tues 4 Sept 1. Introduction AB/JB
Thurs 6 2. What's the the big deal? AB/JB Ch 1 (1)
Tues 11 3. Finding Design in Nature JB Ch 2 (2)
Thurs 13 4. 4004 BC? Geology & Earth History JB
Tues 18 Hist of Sci
5. Charles Darwin JB 1 Origin Ch 1, 2
Thurs 20 6. Those Finches! The Galapagos in Evolution JB
Tues 25 7. Alfred Russel Wallace AB/JB 2 Origin Ch 3, 4
Thurs 27 8. Publication! Reception & Aftermath JB
Tues 2 Oct Mid-term One 3 MCZ Tour
Thurs 4 9. Theory: Descent with Modification, Natural Selection AB
Tues 9 10. Mendel, Hardy Weinberg, & the Modern Synthesis AB 4 Cook et al Ch 5 (5)
Thurs 11 11. Population Genetics AB Ch 6 (6) P'set 1
Tues 16 12. DNA AB 5 Double Helix/DNA extraction Ch 7 (7)
Thurs 18 How Evolution
13. Putting DNA to work: the Molecular Biology Revolution AB P'set 1 due
Tues 23 14. Sex & Sexual selection AB 6 Knowlton et al Ch 9 (12)
Thurs 25 15. Speciation
Works AB Ch 10 (9) P'set 1 hand back
Tues 30 Mid-term Two No Section
Thurs 1 Nov 16. Reconstructing the past: phylogeny AB Ch 4 (4)
Tues 6 17. Reconstructing the past: fossils AB 7 Molec Evn Exercise Ch 3 (3)
Thurs 8 18. Genomics & Evolutionary Innovation AB Ch 8, Ch 11 (8,10)
Tues 13 19. Human Evolution AB 8 Gould & Lewontin Ch 14 (None)
Thurs 15 Human Evolution
20. Neanderthals & Us AB P'set 2
Tues 20 21. Sociobiology: Nature/Nurture? AB No Section
Thurs 22 THANKSGIVING
Tues 27 22. Is Eugenics still alive & well? AB/JB 9 Origin Ch 14 P'set 2 due
Thurs 29 23. Creationism AB/JB P'set 2 hand back
Tues 4 Dec Mid-term Three No Section

Turkish Creationist Organization


Tentative Section Times
Tuesday:
12-1:15pm
1:30-2:45pm
3-4:15pm
6-7:15pm If none of these times work for you, please
Wednesday: email Jenny jpham@fas.harvard.edu
9-10:15am
10.30-11.45am
12-1:15pm
1:30-2:45pm
3-4:15pm
6-7:15pm

Sections will be assigned next week. The first


section will take place in the week beginning
Mon 17 Sept.

• Review of lecture material


• Discussion of assigned reading
• Practice problems

SLS 12 Andrew Berry, berry@oeb.harvard.edu BioLabs 1082


Janet Browne, jbrowne@fas.harvard.edu Science Ctr 451
Understanding Darwinism
Head TF Jenny Pham, jpham@fas.harvard.edu BioLabs 2109
Fall ‘18

Lecture Section Reading P'sets


Section reading Zimmer 2nd Ed
Requirements
[optional] (Chapt
equivalents in 1st Ed) Lecture: 1 hour 15 min Tues, Thurs 10.30-11.45
Tues 4 Sept 1. Introduction AB/JB
Thurs 6 2. What's the the big deal? AB/JB Ch 1 (1) Section: 1 hour 15 min weekly
Tues 11 3. Finding Design in Nature JB Ch 2 (2)
Thurs 13 4. 4004 BC? Geology & Earth History JB Mid-term x 3: 75 mins, in class.
Tues 18 5. Charles Darwin JB 1 Origin Ch 1, 2
Thurs 20 6. Those Finches! The Galapagos in Evolution JB No Final
Tues 25 7. Alfred Russel Wallace AB/JB 2 Origin Ch 3, 4
Thurs 27 8. Publication! Reception & Aftermath JB Problem Sets: two problem sets to prepare you for
Tues 2 Oct Mid-term One 3 MCZ Tour questions on the two science mid-terms
Thurs 4 9. Theory: Descent with Modification, Natural Selection AB
Tues 9 10. Mendel, Hardy Weinberg, & the Modern Synthesis AB 4 Cook et al Ch 5 (5) Response Papers: Brief weekly responses for section
Thurs 11 11. Population Genetics AB Ch 6 (6) P'set 1 reading
Tues 16 12. DNA AB 5 Double Helix/DNA extraction Ch 7 (7)
Thurs 18 13. Putting DNA to work: the Molecular Biology Revolution AB P'set 1 due Paper/Project: ~10pp term paper on a topic of your
Tues 23 14. Sex & Sexual selection AB 6 Knowlton et al Ch 9 (12)
choosing (vetted by us) or a project of your design. Due at
Thurs 25 15. Speciation AB Ch 10 (9) P'set 1 hand back
the end of Reading Period.
Tues 30 Mid-term Two No Section
Thurs 1 Nov 16. Reconstructing the past: phylogeny AB Ch 4 (4)
Tues 6 17. Reconstructing the past: fossils AB 7 Molec Evn Exercise Ch 3 (3)
Books:
Thurs 8 18. Genomics & Evolutionary Innovation AB Ch 8, Ch 11 (8,10)
Tues 13 19. Human Evolution AB 8 Gould & Lewontin Ch 14 (None)
• Charles Darwin/Jim Costa: The Annotated Origin of
Thurs 15 20. Neanderthals & Us AB P'set 2 Species Havard Univ Press Required
Tues 20 21. Sociobiology: Nature/Nurture? AB No Section
Thurs 22 THANKSGIVING • Carl Zimmer: The Tangled Bank: An Introduction to
Tues 27 22. Is Eugenics still alive & well? AB/JB 9 Origin Ch 14 P'set 2 due Evolution 2nd Ed (2014) Roberts Publishers
Thurs 29 23. Creationism AB/JB P'set 2 hand back Recommended
Tues 4 Dec Mid-term Three No Section

Assessment
Mid-terms: 15% each
P’sets: 7.5% each
Paper/Project: 25%
Participation: 15% Darwin’s Finches, Galapagos
(Illustration from Voyage of the Beagle)
SLS 12 Andrew Berry, berry@oeb.harvard.edu BioLabs 1082
Janet Browne, jbrowne@fas.harvard.edu Science Ctr 451
Understanding Darwinism
Head TF Jenny Pham, jpham@fas.harvard.edu BioLabs 2109
Fall ‘18

Lecture Section Reading P'sets


Section reading Zimmer 2nd Ed
Requirements
[optional] (Chapt
equivalents in 1st Ed) Lecture: 1 hour 15 min Tues, Thurs 10.30-11.45
Tues 4 Sept 1. Introduction AB/JB
Thurs 6 2. What's the the big deal? AB/JB Ch 1 (1) Section: 1 hour 15 min weekly
Tues 11 3. Finding Design in Nature JB Ch 2 (2)
Thurs 13 4. 4004 BC? Geology & Earth History JB Mid-term x 3: 75 mins, in class.
Tues 18 5. Charles Darwin JB 1 Origin Ch 1, 2
Thurs 20 6. Those Finches! The Galapagos in Evolution JB No Final
Tues 25 7. Alfred Russel Wallace AB/JB 2 Origin Ch 3, 4
Thurs 27 8. Publication! Reception & Aftermath JB Problem Sets: two problem sets to prepare you for
Tues 2 Oct Mid-term One 3 MCZ Tour questions on the two science mid-terms
Thurs 4 9. Theory: Descent with Modification, Natural Selection AB
Tues 9 10. Mendel, Hardy Weinberg, & the Modern Synthesis AB 4 Cook et al Ch 5 (5) Response Papers: Brief weekly responses for section
Thurs 11 11. Population Genetics AB Ch 6 (6) P'set 1 reading
Tues 16 12. DNA AB 5 Double Helix/DNA extraction Ch 7 (7)
Thurs 18 13. Putting DNA to work: the Molecular Biology Revolution AB P'set 1 due Paper/Project: ~10pp term paper on a topic of your
Tues 23 14. Sex & Sexual selection AB 6 Knowlton et al Ch 9 (12)
choosing (vetted by us) or a project of your design. Due at
Thurs 25 15. Speciation AB Ch 10 (9) P'set 1 hand back
the end of Reading Period.
Tues 30 Mid-term Two No Section
Thurs 1 Nov 16. Reconstructing the past: phylogeny AB Ch 4 (4)
Tues 6 17. Reconstructing the past: fossils AB 7 Molec Evn Exercise Ch 3 (3)
Books:
Thurs 8 18. Genomics & Evolutionary Innovation AB Ch 8, Ch 11 (8,10)
Tues 13 19. Human Evolution AB 8 Gould & Lewontin Ch 14 (None)
• Charles Darwin/Jim Costa: The Annotated Origin of
Thurs 15 20. Neanderthals & Us AB P'set 2 Species Havard Univ Press Required
Tues 20 21. Sociobiology: Nature/Nurture? AB No Section
Thurs 22 THANKSGIVING • Carl Zimmer: The Tangled Bank: An Introduction to
Tues 27 22. Is Eugenics still alive & well? AB/JB 9 Origin Ch 14 P'set 2 due Evolution 2nd Ed (2014) Roberts Publishers
Thurs 29 23. Creationism AB/JB P'set 2 hand back Recommended
Tues 4 Dec Mid-term Three No Section

Assessment
Mid-terms: 15% each
P’sets: 7.5% each
Paper/Project: 25%
Participation: 15% Darwin’s Finches, Galapagos
(Illustration from Voyage of the Beagle)
Bird Collection, Harvard MCZ
Bird Collection, Harvard MCZ

16
Required Book:
Darwin/Costa, Annotated Origin
Recommended Book:
Zimmer, Tangled Bank

Assessment:

Three mid-terms (one for each third of the course; non-cumulative)


No Final

Homework:
• 2 problem sets
• Short weekly response papers for section reading assignment.
• One 10 pp term paper or final project
Overall: 15% per mid-term; 7.5% per p’sets; 15% participation
(including in-class responses); 25% paper/project
• Why Evolution?
• An explanation for biological
diversity
• A mechanism for “design” in
nature
• An understanding of where our
own species came from

• Evolution of an idea
• Explaining what we have long
sought to explain
• A coincidence? Simultaneous,
independent discoveries
• A confluence of social, economic,
technological factors

Lecture slides posted as pdfs


after each lecture
Thedosius Dobzhansky, 1973

“Nothing in biology makes


sense except in the light of
evolution.”

• Why Evolution?
• An explanation for biological
diversity
• A mechanism for “design” in
nature
• An understanding of where our
own species came from

• Evolution of an idea
• Explaining what we have long
sought to explain
• A coincidence? Simultaneous,
independent discoveries
• A confluence of social, economic,
technological factors
Thedosius Dobzhansky, 1973

“Nothing in biology makes


sense except in the light of
evolution.”

• Why Evolution?
• An explanation for biological
diversity
• A mechanism for “design” in
nature
• An understanding of where our
own species came from

• Evolution of an idea
• Explaining what we have long
sought to explain
• A coincidence? Simultaneous,
independent discoveries
• A confluence of social, economic,
technological factors
Echidna
Egg-laying mammal
(Monotreme)

Echidna puggle
• Why Evolution?
• An explanation for biological
diversity
• A mechanism for “design” in
nature
• An understanding of where our
own species came from

• Evolution of an idea
• Explaining what we have long
sought to explain
• A coincidence? Simultaneous,
independent discoveries
• A confluence of social, economic,
technological factors
• Why Evolution?
• An explanation for biological
diversity
• A mechanism for “design” in
nature
• An understanding of where our
own species came from

• Evolution of an idea
• Explaining what we have long
sought to explain
• A coincidence? Simultaneous,
independent discoveries
• A confluence of social, economic,
technological factors
Bonobo
Orang Gorilla Chimpanzees Human

Approx 7 million years

Phylogeny remained Great Ape Phylogeny


controversial (whether
chimpanzees or gorillas
were more closely Most recent common
related to humans) until ancestor of chimpanzee &
the application of human lineages
molecular sequence data
Genomes: now we can play Spot The Difference

Approx 3,000,000,000 base pairs


....ATGGCCTATTATTGGG....

2005

~1% difference

2003

Genomes: now we can play Spot The Difference

Approx 3,000,000,000 base pairs


....ATGGCCTATTATTGGG....

2010,
2016

much less than1% difference

2003
Evolution lies at the heart of all of biology, but
it’s much more than just a biological idea. Our
understanding of who we are, both as
individuals and as a species, is critically informed
by evolution. As such, the conceptual
transformation from Created-in-the-Image-of-
God to Modified-Ape is surely the single most
seismic shift in the history of ideas. Not only
did The Origin of Species disabuse us of the
notion that we humans are in some way set
apart from the natural world, but it also
provided a mechanism, natural selection,
whereby adaptation – that exquisite fit of
organisms to their environment – can arise
without divine intervention: man deposed, God
disposed of, and all in a single volume. It’s
perhaps not surprising that evolution remains
bitterly contested.

Stayed tuned: Thursday’s Lecture will look into some of these Big Issues

• Why Evolution?
• An explanation for biological
diversity
• A mechanism for “design” in
nature
• An understanding of where our
own species came from

• Evolution of an idea
• Explaining what we have long
sought to explain
• A coincidence? Simultaneous,
independent discoveries
• A confluence of social, economic,
technological factors
T H Huxley, “Darwin’s Bulldog”
On reading The Origin

“How extremely stupid not


to have thought of that!”

Alfred Russel Wallace


Charles Lyell

Joseph Hooker

Darwin’s study,
Down House

June 18 1858: Darwin receives Wallace’s letter from Ternate, Indonesia

• Why Evolution?
• An explanation for biological
diversity
• A mechanism for “design” in
nature
• An understanding of where our
own species came from

• Evolution of an idea
• Explaining what we have long
sought to explain
• A coincidence? Simultaneous,
independent discoveries
• A confluence of social, economic,
technological factors
Natural Theology

Psalms 19:11: “The Heavens


declare the Glory of the Lord
and Firmament sheweth his
handy work”

William Paley, 1743-1805

1802 Natural Theology: or Evidences of the


Existence and Attributes of the Deity collected
from the Appearances of Nature

“Examination of the
eye is a cure for
atheism”
“Every individual necessarily labours to render the
annual revenue of the society as great as he can. He
generally neither intends to promote the public
interest, nor knows how much he is promoting it... By
preferring the support of domestic to that of foreign
industry, he intends only his own security; and by
directing that industry in such a manner as its produce
may be of the greatest value, he intends only his own
gain, and he is in this, as in many other cases, led by an
invisible hand to promote an end which was no part of
his intention. Nor is it always the worse for society that
it was no part of his intention. By pursuing his own
interest he frequently promotes that of the society
more effectually than when he really intends to
promote it. I have never known much good done by
those who affected to trade for the public good.”

Adam Smith

In An Essay on the Principle of Population,


published in 1798, Malthus predicted
population would outrun food supply,
leading to a decrease in food per person.
This prediction was based on the idea that
population if unchecked increases at a
geometric rate whereas the food supply
grows at an arithmetic rate. Only misery,
moral restraint and vice (which for Malthus
included contraception) could check
excessive population growth. Malthus
favoured "moral restraint" (including late
marriage and sexual abstinence) as a check
on population growth. However, it is worth
noting that Malthus proposed this only for
the working and poor classes.

Thomas Malthus 1766-1834


A mechanistic
worldview: the
industrial revolution

Frankenstein 1818
Global travel: the voyage of the Beagle
Natural History Collections
Wallace (left) and Darwin (right) from about the time of their joint discovery, 1858