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This is the author’s version of a work that was submitted/accepted for pub- lication in theSuryo, Eko Andi , Gallage, Chaminda , & Trigunarsyah, Bambang (2015) A method for predicting rain-induced instability of an individual slope. In Barnes, Paul H. & Goonetilleke, Ashantha (Eds.) The 9th Annual International Conference of the International Institute for Infrastructure Renewal and Reconstruction. (8-10 July 2013) , Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia, pp. 118-127. This file was downloaded from: https://eprints.qut.edu.au/61759/ c Copyright 2013 Please consult the authors Notice : Changes introduced as a result of publishing processes such as copy-editing and formatting may not be reflected in this document. For a definitive version of this work, please refer to the published source: http://digitalcollections.qut.edu.au/2213/ " id="pdf-obj-0-3" src="pdf-obj-0-3.jpg">

This is the author’s version of a work that was submitted/accepted for pub-

lication in the following source:

(2015)

A method for predicting rain-induced instability of an individual slope. In

Barnes, Paul H. & Goonetilleke, Ashantha (Eds.)

The 9th Annual International Conference of the International Institute for

Infrastructure Renewal and Reconstruction. (8-10 July 2013), Queensland

University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia, pp. 118-127.

This file was downloaded from: https://eprints.qut.edu.au/61759/

c Copyright 2013 Please consult the authors

Notice: Changes introduced as a result of publishing processes such as

copy-editing and formatting may not be reflected in this document. For a

definitive version of this work, please refer to the published source:

A Method for Predicting Rain-induced Instability of an Individual Slope

Eko Andi Suryo 1 , Chaminda Gallage 2 , and Bambang Trigunarsyah 3

1 Eko Andi Suryo, Brawijaya University Malang, Indonesia E-mail: andisuryo@gmail.com 2 Chaminda Gallage, QUT Brisbane, Australia E-mail: chaminda.gallage@qut.edu.au 3 Bambang Trigunarsyah, QUT Brisbane, Australia E-mail: bambang.trigunarsyah@qut.edu.au

Awareness to avoid losses and casualties due to rain-induced landslide is increasing in regions that rou- tinely experience heavy rainfall. Improvements in early warning systems against rain-induced landslide such as prediction modelling using rainfall records, is urgently needed in vulnerable regions. The existing warning systems have been applied using stability chart development and real-time displacement meas- urement on slope surfaces. However, there are still some drawbacks such as: ignorance of rain-induced instability mechanism, mislead prediction due to the probabilistic prediction and short time for evacuation. In this research, a real-time predictive method was proposed to alleviate the drawbacks mentioned above. A case -study soil slope in Indonesia that failed in 2010 during rainfall was used to verify the proposed predictive method. Using the results from the field and laboratory characterizations, numerical analyses can be applied to develop a model of unsaturated residual soils slope with deep cracks and subject to rainwater infiltration. Real-time rainfall measurement in the slope and the prediction of future rainfall are needed. By coupling transient seepage and stability analysis, the variation of safety factor of the slope with time were provided as a basis to develop method for the real-time prediction of the rain-induced instability of slopes. This study shows the proposed prediction method has the potential to be used in an early warning system against landslide hazard, since the FOS value and the timing of the end -result of the prediction can be provided before the actual failure of the case study slope.

Key Words : numerical analysis, rain-induced slope instability, real-time prediction.

1.

INTRODUCTION

The growth of the world population has created an intensive demand for residential and agricultural development 1) . The limited availability of suitable residential land has forced people to live in areas proven to be subjected to natural disasters, such as landslides and floods. It has been reported that most landslides occur in the rainy season, potentially causing damage to infrastructure and human lives 2), 3), 4), 5), 6), 7), 8), 9), 10), 11) . The effects of rainfall have to be considered in rain-induced landslide hazard assess- ments 12) . In Indonesia which is located in a tropical region with high seismic activity and receives a very high annual rainfall, rainfall-induced landslides are acknowledged as one of the major natural disasters. In-depth studies of the stability of these slopes, together with the related programs to increase the safety awareness of people living in these areas, has become important and challenging geotechnical engi- neering task. The existing warning systems against rain-induced slope failures are mainly based on the following:

Charts developed correlating past measured rainfall and observed slope failures associated with rainfall (e.g. 13), 14), 15), 16) ). These charts can be used with the real-time measured rainfall data to predict slope failures. The failure of individual slopes cannot be predicted accurately using this method due to its probabilistic nature. Further, these charts cannot be used to assess the stability gain of a slope after a rainfall event. Real-time displacement measurement on slope surfaces (using GPS, extensometers) or/and in the sub-soil (using inclinometers) (e.g. 17), 18), 19), 20) ). Although this method can be applied to an indi- vidual slope, it may give short time for possible evacuations, as the displacement is measured when the slope moves. The displacement measurement of the slope cannot be used to assess the stability gain of the slope after a rainfall event. Note: Slopes become less stable during and just after rainfall but sometimes do not fail, these slopes gain the stability with time after the rainfall event.

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Considering the drawbacks of the existing methods, there is a real need to develop a landslide pre- dictive method that can be used for predicting the rain-induced failure of individual slopes in real-time. This paper presents a method for predicting rain-induced slope instability. The method is based on coupled transient seepage and stability analyses that capture the mechanism of rain-induced slope in- stability. This method can be used in real-time, applied to an individual slope, and to predict the stability gain of the slope after a rainfall even. The applicability of the proposed method is also presented by using a case study slope that failed on the 31 st of October 2010.

  • 2. METHOD TO PREDICT RAIN-INDUCED INSTABILITY OF A SLOPE

When applying the proposed method to a slope, ‘critical slope’ that refers to soil slope that highly susceptible to landslide or slope failure that ranges in its potential effects from being a temporary nui- sance as a result of the partial closure of a roadway, to destroying human lives and physical structures, or being potentially catastrophic has to be identified. The proposed method of predicting rain-induced instability of a critical slope consists of the steps briefly described in the following sections.

(1) Land Survey and field observation

Field surveys and tests are conducted to obtain geometrical details of the critical slope, soil samples for laboratory testing, water table location, water content of the soil, deep crack locations and orienta- tion. The main equipment used in field survey includes a total station, a levelling apparatus, and a global positioning system (GPS) device. A number of bore-holes are drilled along the slope to identify soil

profile, to take undisturbed/disturbed soil samples for laboratory soil tests, to identify water table lo- cation. The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) survey is conducted in the subsoil to identify the location and geometrical information relating to subsoil cracks 21) .

(2) Laboratory investigations

Laboratory tests are conducted on undisturbed/disturbed soil samples collected from the field bore-holes to determine soil classification parameters, unit weight, water content, saturated/unsaturated shear strength parameters, and saturated/unsaturated hydraulic properties of the soil in each soil layer.

These parameters are needed for the modelling and analyses of the slope.

(3) Rainfall data collection & prediction

It is recommended to collect rainfall records at the selected location for at least five years are col-

lected for this research. Past and current rainfall data would then be used for predicting future annual, daily, and hourly rainfall. Most meteorological institutions provide long-term history rainfall records for research purposes. For instance, The Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geo- physics (Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika - BMKG) provides forecasts of monthly rainfall for up three months ahead. Simple statistically method also can be used to predict hourly rainfall. By calculating deviation of hourly rainfall in every single hour compare to previous hour, and then comparing the results over several years, the maximum deviation in each hour in a year can be determined. Regardless of its moderate level of accuracy, the maximum deviations can be applied as a threshold for predicting the hourly rainfall for slope stability analysis purposes. This study uses the combination of statistical methods and monthly rainfall forecast from climatology institution to predict future rainfall.

(4) Transient seepage and stability analyses

Based on the field and laboratory test results, the slope is modelled for transient seepage (using

SEEP/W) and stability (using SLOPE/W) analyses. The analyses are conducted following the steps listed below. The results of these analyses are used for warning (real-time) against rain-induced slope instability of an identified and investigated critical soil slope. The slope is modelled in SEEP/W and SLOPE/W, based on slope geometrical information obtained from the field survey, sub-soil layers and soil cracks identified by bore-hole data, geophysical surveys, and laboratory soil testings.

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The relevant boundary conditions are defined for both models in SEEP/W and SLOPE/W, and

necessary material properties are assigned for each layer. For the transient seepage analysis using SEEP/W, the hydraulic conductivity function for each soil needs to be given. For the stability analysis using SLOPE/W, shear strength parameters (c, φ, and φ b ) and unit weight should be given for each layer. The transient seepage analysis of the slope are performed using SEEP/W by giving initial

pore-water pressure condition in the soil based on water table and rainfall (unit flux) as a function of time on the surface boundary of the model. The results of the transient seepage analysis (the variation of pore-water pressure conditions in

the soil slope with time) can be used in SLOPE/W to get the pore-water pressure in the slope to calculate the stability of the slope at a given time. The above steps are schematically illustrated in Figure 1.

• The relevant boundary conditions are defined for both models in SEEP/W and SLOPE/W, and •

Fig 1: Illustration of coupled analysis of SEEP/W and SLOPE/W

Following the procedure outlined in Figure 1, the stability of the slope (FOS) can be calculated for a year in advance (365 days), based on the predicted rainfall pattern given in Figure 2. One year prediction of rainfall is based on the past rainfall records. If the calculated FOS of the slope reaches or goes below a critical FOS anytime during the forecast 365 days (Figure 3), it is recommended that a real-time stability analysis using an hourly or daily (24 hours) basis of recorded rainfall (Stage 2) be conducted commencing from the time when FOS = 1.1 * FOS critical . FOS critical has to be determined based on criticality of the consequences of the slope failure. Figure 4 shows that the FOS can be calculated near real-time in daily basis (one day ahead of the current time) based on the predicted maximum possible rainfall for the next day. If the next day FOS reaches or goes below the FOS critical, a warning should be issued for the evacuation of people in the potentially affected area.

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Fig 2: Typical measured and predicted rainfall patterns Fig 3 : Illustration of measured and predicted

Fig 2: Typical measured and predicted rainfall patterns

Fig 2: Typical measured and predicted rainfall patterns Fig 3 : Illustration of measured and predicted

Fig 3: Illustration of measured and predicted FOS

Fig 2: Typical measured and predicted rainfall patterns Fig 3 : Illustration of measured and predicted

Fig 4: Illustration of FOS using predicted daily rainfall

  • 3. THE CASE-STUDY SLOPE

(1) Location of the case-study slope

To verify the applicability of the proposed method, a residual soil slope located slopes in the hilly terrain in East Java Province in Indonesia were selected. As shown in Figure 5, the chosen slope located is located in a high seismic active region where three tectonic plates meet. The field investigation which consists of geo- metrical survey, surface observation, three bore–holes, and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) was conducted on the slope in May and June 2010. This slope failed on the 31 st of October 2010 during rainy season.

Fig 2: Typical measured and predicted rainfall patterns Fig 3 : Illustration of measured and predicted

Fig 5: (a) Map of Tectonic Plate in the Indonesian Archipelago; (b) Indonesian Region; (c) Selected slope location for this study

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Figure 6 shows the elevation contour map of the area where the selected slope is located. The land survey conducted on the slope gave the maximum average slope angle of about 30 0 along line BB’ (Figure 6). The ERT survey was undertaken along the line BB’ to detect the sub-soil cracks and the cracks observed on the surface are shown in Figure 6. As shown in Figure 6, three bore-holes (BH1, BH2, BH3) were conducted along line BB’ to get undisturbed soil samples for laboratory tests, to identify sub-soil profile, and to obtain ground water table location.

Figure 6 shows the elevation contour map of the area where the selected slope is located.

Fig 6: Topographical map of the case-study slope

(2)

Rainfall records and prediction in the area where the slope is located

Figure 7 shows the monthly rainfall records for five years from 2007 to 2011. These data were collected from rain gauges located not more than 5 km from the investigated slope. Though the rainfall data presented in Figure 7 are in monthly basis, both daily and hourly rainfall data were also collected for these five years (2007

to 2011).

1000 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 800 600 400 200 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May
1000
2007
2008 2009
2010 2011
800
600
400
200
0
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Rainfall (mm)

Time Elapse (month)

Fig 7: Mothly rainfall record form 2007 to 2011 at case-study slope

Several methods can be used to predict the rainfall for one year in advance by using the past recorded rainfall data. One of them is statistical method 22), 23) that is used by meteorological institutions to forecast the rainfall. The simple average or the maximum rainfall over the past five years (at least) on daily or monthly basis can be used as the predicted daily or monthly rainfall for the next 365 days. When it is necessary to predict the stability in near real-time (one day in advance), then the rainfall has to be predicted only one day in advance. One method is to use the next day rainfall forecast by the meteorological institute for the analysis. Another method is to calculate the maximum increase in rainfall for a given day (e.g.:

2 nd of January) with respect to the rainfall of the previous day (e.g.: 1 st of January) over the period where the past rainfall records are available (e.g.: five years) and then the maximum rainfall increase in the next day is added to the present day rainfall (measured) to predict the next day rainfall.

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4.

MODELLING of CASE STUDY SLOPE

Based on the field investigations and the laboratory soil testing, the slope can be modelled with two-layer soil profile with few deep cracks a shown in Figure 8.

4. MODELLING of CASE STUDY SLOPE Based on the field investigations and the laboratory soil testing,

Fig 8: Illustration of soil layers in case-study slope with crack zone and material

The slope has a length of 140 m and the maximum elevation difference of 35 m. The angle of the slope surface was up to 30 o . The location of the ground water table found on the day of investigation (12 th June 2010) is shown in Figure 8. A stream was found at the downstream of the slope with its water level at the elevation of 660 m at the time of the field investigation on 12 th June 2010. Based on the laboratory soil tests, properties and classification of soil in each layer is presented in Tables 1. These properties are used in transient seepage and stability analysis of the slope. The deeps cracks were modelled as “weak zones” which are zones of the silty soil that was being disturbed by direct rainwater infil- tration through the soil deep crack. Since deep cracks cause the direct infiltration of rainwater into soil slope 24), 25) , a thin layer (less than 20 cm) with very high hydraulic (k sat = 0.1 cm/sec) was introduced in to the weak zone to facilitate the direct infiltration process.

Table 1: Parameter of Soil Layers of Case-study slope

Parameter

Layer 1

Layer 2

Weak zone

USCS type

ML-MH

ML-MH

ML-MH

γ (kN/m3)

16

17

15

W (%)

36

38

43

C (kPa)

17

23

5.4

 

20

32

17.5

φ (degree) k sat (cm/sec)

3.87x10 -5

1.83x10 -6

0.001

Some of the properties of the weak zone were not measured, but were estimated based on some studies 24), 25), 26), 27) . Soil water characteristic curve (SWCC) is needed in transient seepage and stability analysis of unsaturated soil condition. Since SWCC was not measured for any soil type in the case study slope, therefore, the sample of SWCCs available in SEEP/W were assigned to the materials in the slope based on the results of the grain-size distribution test 28) that is available in SEEP/W. Due to the absence of grain-size distribution data of the weak zone soil, the SWCC of the weak zone at case-study slope was assigned by using a similar SWCC value as for the weak zone 21) , since both slopes were in close proximity. For determining φ b in this case study, the prediction method suggested in previous research was used 29) . To apply the proposed method of prediction of rain-induced slope stability and warning against the slope failure, of the case-study slope which failed on the 31 st October 2010, the following steps would be followed:

The ‘current day’ for prediction purposes was assumed to be 12 th June 2010 when field investigations were completed. The case-study slope shown in Figure 8 was modelled in SEEP/W, with the initial pore-water pressure in the slope being a based on water table location that was observed during the field investigation.

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Using average value of the past three years rainfall records and three monthly rainfall prediction from BMKG as mentioned in a previous section in this paper, the daily rainfall for the next 365 days from the 12 th of June 2010 (13 th June 2010 to 13 th June 2011) was predicted and shown in Figure 9. For this pre- diction, measured rainfall records for the last 3 years period (June 2007 to June 2010), were used.

0.070 0.060 0.050 0.040 0.030 0.020 0.010 0.000 Rainfall (m/day) 13-Jun-10 4-Jul-10 25-Jul-10 15-Aug-10 5-Sep-10 26-Sep-10
0.070
0.060
0.050
0.040
0.030
0.020
0.010
0.000
Rainfall (m/day)
13-Jun-10
4-Jul-10
25-Jul-10
15-Aug-10
5-Sep-10
26-Sep-10
17-Oct-10
7-Nov-10
28-Nov-10
19-Dec-10
9-Jan-11
30-Jan-11
20-Feb-11
13-Mar-11
3-Apr-11
24-Apr-11
15-May-11
5-Jun-11

Time Elapse (Daily)

Fig 9: Predicted annual rainfall data from 13 th June 2010 to 12 th June 2011

Figure 10 shows the maximum increase in daily rainfall with respect to the previous day over one year period (13 th June 2010 to 13 th June 2011) that was calculated using the daily rainfall records for the past years (June 2007 to June 2010).

• Using average value of the past three years rainfall records and three monthly rainfall prediction

Fig 10: Deviation chart of maximum increase of daily rainfall from 13 th June 2010 to 13 st June 2011

In the modelling of case-study slope using finite element in SEEP/W, as shown in Figure 8, the surface was defined as flux boundary where rainfall for the period of analysis was assigned. The left vertical boundary and the bottom boundary were considered as “no flow”. The right vertical boundary was defined as a constant head boundary as there is a stream in the area. The initial conditions (pore-water pressures) in the slope were given based on the location of the water table that was monitored during the field investigation. The pore-water pressure below the water table is positive and increase linearly with the depth at a rate of 9.8 kPa/m. It is negative above the water table and considered to be decreased linearly with the height (above the water table) at the negative rate of 9.8 kPa/m. The time-dependent pore water pressure distribution determined from SEEP/W analysis was then coupled with the stability analysis using SLOPE/W to obtain the variation of the FOS with time. The general limit equilibrium method available in SLOPE/W was used to analyse the stability of the slope during rainfall. By applying auto locate method to define 2000 iterations of trail failure surfaces for each scenario, the minimum safety factor of the slope under given conditions was obtained.

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5.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Transient seepage and stability analyses using the predicted daily rainfall for one year in advance (from 13 th June 2010 to 12 th June 2011) was performed and the variation of stability (Factor of safety -FOS) for this period is shown in Figure 11.

5. RESULT AND DISCUSSION Transient seepage and stability analyses using the predicted daily rainfall for one

Fig 11: Factor of safety of case-study slope with predicted rainfall from 13 th June 2010 to 12 th June 2011

It can be seen in the Figure 11 that case-study slope is in near failure condition (FOS = 1.04) on the current date (13 th June 2010) and FOS of the case-study slope will eventually go below unity at time step #155 (14 th November 2010) if the case-study slope receives the predicted rainfall. Since FOS is 1.04 on 12 th June 2012, the people living in the area that could be affected by the possible failure of the case-study slope can be in- formed to be ready for possible evacuation from the start of the next rainfall event. For this slope, it is im- portant to conduct near real-time stability analysis (daily) from 13 th June 2010, to closely observe the stability of the slope for accurate warning and safe evacuation of the people. It can be decided to warn and evacuate the people in the possible affected area when the real-time FOS is equal to, or just below 1.02. This evacuation could be possible, as it is not raining at present. If it is raining, an FOS = 1.04 could be critical for evacuation of the people With the start of rainfall at 1 pm on 22 nd September 2010, the real-time stability can be calculated. The de- viation chart as shown in Figure 10 was used. The result of the real-time stability analysis using daily rainfall is shown in Figure 13. In this real-time daily analysis, all analyses were started at 1 am in every single day during the observed time.

5. RESULT AND DISCUSSION Transient seepage and stability analyses using the predicted daily rainfall for one

Fig 13: FOS at day #141 (31 st October 2010) after assigned with predicted rainfall

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After predicted rainfall using deviation chart was assigned, it can be seen in Figure 13, the FOS on 31 st October 2010 had decreased below 1.02. The FOS value on 31 st October 2010 was very near to unity. Based on this daily prediction, it can be stated that the landslide at the case-study slope was likely to have occurred, after being triggered by the rainfall event on 31 st October 2010. This verification result shows that the predictive method could be used to prevent losses or casualties (e.g. closing of roads, movement of the people) in the area of the landslide disaster on 31 st October 2010, by giving an immediate warning for evacuation. Since this near real-time analysis can be done in short time, the analysis can be started at the beginning of rainfall with the result (FOS) able to be determined even before the rainfall stop. However, the safer warning should have been given before any rainfall event occurred from 13 th June 2010 since the FOS was very near to unstable conditions from the beginning of the analysis (FOS=1.04). By using long-term stability analysis, the landslide on 31 st October 2010 at case-study slope can be esti- mated to occur between 13 th June to 14 th November 2010. The near real-time stability analysis can predict a landslide at the beginning of the triggering rainfall, by detecting the decrease of FOS. However, in this study, it could be possible to have a discrepancy between calculated FOS and the actual stability due to the uncertainty of soil parameter and the accuracy of the rainfall prediction. It is recommended to use the probabilistic stability analysis to minimize above uncertainties.

6.

CONCLUSION

By coupling transient seepage analysis using the finite element method with slope stability analysis using the limit equilibrium method, a predictive method for rain-induced slope instability of natural residual soil slopes has been proposed in this paper. To apply the proposed method to a critical slope, field investigations, laboratory soil testing, and rainfall prediction have to be performed. The proposed method was applied to a natural slope in Indonesia which was investigated (field and laboratory testing) in June 2010 and failed on 31 st October 2010. The results of the analyses suggested that the application of the proposed method in near re- al-time (one day in advance) would have prevented the human casualties and minimized damage to movable properties.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT: The authors would like to express their gratitude to Perum JASA TIRTA I, Malang, Indonesia for their contribution for providing the rainfall data records.

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