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本英文版为内部资料,仅供参考,以中文

版 为 准 。
The Chinese version of standards has
precedence to their English translations
which are only for internal reference.

File No.: J44-2000 DL


中华人民共和国电力行业标准

Electrical Power Industry Standard


of the People's Republic of China

P DL 5000 – 2000

火力发电厂设计技术规程

Technical Code for Designing Fossil Fuel Power Plants

Issued on 2000 – 11 – 03 Implemented as of 2001 – 01 – 01

中华人民共和国国家经济贸易委员会发布

Issued by State Economic and Trade Commission of People's Republic of China


中华人民共和国电力行业标准
Electrical Power Industry Profession Standard of the People's Republic of China

P DL 5000 – 2000

火力发电厂设计技术规程

Technical Code for Designing Fossil Fuel Power Plants

Compiled by: China Electric Power Construction Engineering Consultation Corporation

Approved by: State Economic and Trade Commission of People's Republic of China

Approval Document No.: Guo Jingmao Dianli [2000] No. 1048

China Electric Power Publishing House

2000 Beijing

—1—
DL 5000 – 2000

Foreword

This code is a professional standard containing compulsory articles, and those underlined articles are
compulsory. Compulsory content in tables is indicated by notes for the table.

Since the issuance and implementation, DL5000 – 1994 “Technical code for designing fossil fuel
power plants” has played a positive role and achieved good effects in carrying out the capital
construction policies of the state, reflecting the economic and technical policies, unifying and
defining construction standards, ensuring adoption of advanced technology in the newly built and
expanded fossil fuel power plants, realizing safe, economic, full load and steady operation and
satisfying the environmental protection requirements in the construction of electric power facilities.

With the deepening of reform and advance of technology, some aspects of DL5000 – 1994 can no
longer meet the requirements in the development of construction of electric power facilities.
According to the arrangement in Item 42 of the document No. [1999] 40 “Notice on confirming
standard system and revision plan items in electric power industry in 1998”of the Department of
Electric Power of the State Economic and Trade Commission, the Electric Power Planning and
Design General Institute organized people to conduct the revision and compilation of DL5000 –
1994.

In this revision and compilation, the basic policies on electric power construction have been carried
out, the policy on “safe and reliable, economic and practical and complying with national conditions”
and a series of measures to control project cost conscientiously implemented, and mature and reliable
design technology adopting advanced techniques actively popularized, with due consideration given
to saving coal, water, power and land and controlling the size and standard of non-production
facilities. Attention has been paid to adapting to the socialist market economic system, to get well
prepared in design and technology for the electric power construction in the 21st century.

In this revision and compilation, no major revision has been made to the framework of DL5000 –
1994, only some revision, deletion and supplement have been made to the contents of relevant
sections, and some sections have been adjusted as appropriate.

To spreading and application of gas – steam combined recycling power generation technology, flue
gas desulfurization technology and clean coal power generation technology are the development
orientation of the power industry in the 21st century, however, compared with the conventional
coal-firing power generation technology, they are not so mature as there is not much practical
experience in the country. Therefore, in this revision and compilation, only some fairly mature
articles were prepared for perspectiveness.

—2—
This code was proposed by the State Electric Power Corporation.

This code shall be under the charge by China Electric Power Planning and Design Association.

This code was drafted by China Electric Power Construction Engineering Consultation Corporation.

The main drafters of this code are: Yang Xuzhong, Gao Lin, Guo Yali, Wang Zengyong, Jia Yuying,
Li Shufang, Li Jing, Qian Boai, Liu Qing, Xie Boyu, Shi Chongguang, Zhang Jianzhong, Sun
Jianxing, Fan Xinkuan, She Le, Hu Peiwen, Li Jushun, An Xudong, Chen Lin, Ge Simin, Li Jingzhen,
Li Wuquan and Zhao Min.

This code shall be interpreted by China Electric Power Planning and Design Association.

—3—
Table of Contents

Foreword…………………………………………………………………………………………2
1. Scope……………………………………………………………………………………………5
2. Reference Standards……………………………………………………………………………5
3. General Provisions……………………………………………………………………………10
4. Site Selection…………………………………………………………………………………13
5. Overall Planning………………………………………………………………………………18
6. Arrangement of Main Buildings………………………………………………………………34
7. Coal Handing System…………………………………………………………………………44
8. Boiler Equipment and Systems………………………………………………………………51
9. Ash and Slang Handing System………………………………………………………………66
10. Steam Turbine Equipment and Systems……………………………………………………71
11. Water Treatment Equipment and System……………………………………………………82
12. Thermal process Automation………………………………………………………………88
13. Electrical Equipment and System…………………………………………………………102
14. Hydraulic Facilities and Systems…………………………………………………………121
15. Auxiliary and Ancillary Facilities…………………………………………………………132
16. Building and Structure………………………………………………………………………136
17. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning…………………………………………………143
18. Environmental Protection……………………………………………………………………151
19. Labor Safety and Industrial Hygiene…………………………………………………………155
20. Fire-fighting…………………………………………………………………………………160
Appendix A Elucidation on Some Wording used in the Regulations……………………………164
Appendix B Gas-Steam Turbine Combined Circulation Generating Technology………………165
Appendix C Flue gas Desulfurization Technology………………………………………………169
Appendix D Clean Coal-Fired Power Generating Technology…………………………………172

—4—
1. Scope

This code has specified the principles that should be followed and the construction standards in the
design of large sized fossil fuel power plants.

This code is applicable to the design of condensing type fossil fuel power plants with units of
turbo-generator sets at capacity of 125MW~600MW, as well as fossil fuel power plants with heat
supplying units at or above 50MW. It can be used as reference for units of and above 600MW.

This code is applicable to the design of newly built or extension of power plants, and can be used as
reference for the design of modification projects.

2. Reference Standards

The articles contained in the following standards shall become articles of this standard by the
reference hereof. The indicated versions are effective at the time of publication of this standard. All
standards are subject to revision, therefore, the possibility of using the latest versions of the following
standards shall be discussed by the users of this standard.
GB150―1998 Steel pressure vessels
GB/T1596―1991 Fly ash used for cement and concrete
GB3095―1996 Ambient air quality standard
GB3096―1993 Standard of environmental noise of urban area
GB3097―1997 Sea water quality standard
GB3838―1998 Environmental quality standard for surface water
GB4053.1―1993 Safety requirements for fixed steel vertical ladders
GB4053.2―1993 Safety requirements for fixed steel oblique ladders
GB4053.3―1993 Safety requirements for fixed industrial protective railings
GB4053.4―1983 Fixed steel industrial platform
GB/T4064―1993 General guide for design of electrical equipment to satisfy safety requirements
GB4792―1984 Basic health standards for radiological protection
GB4830―1984 Pressure range and quality of air supply for the industrial process measurement
and control instruments
GB5083―1985 General rules for designing the production facilities in accordance with safety
and health requirements
GB5084―1992 Standards for irrigation water quality
GB5749―1985 Sanitary standard for drinking water

—5—
GB/T7064―1996 Requirements for turbine type synchronous machine
GB/T7409―1997 Excitation system for synchronous electrical machines
GB8173―1987 Control standards of pollutants in fly ash for agricultural use
GB8196―1987 Safety requirement for guard on machinery
GB8702―1988 Regulations for electromagnetic radiation protection
GB8703―1988 Regulations for radiation protection
GB8978―1996 Integrated wastewater discharge standard
GB9137―1988 Maximum allowable concentration of pollutants in atmosphere for protection
of crops
GB10070―1988 Standard of environmental vibration in urban area
GB10434―1989 Hygienic standard for hand-transmitted vibration in the work environment
GB10436―1989 Hygienic standard for microwave radiation in the work environment
GB11607―1989 Water quality standard for fisheries
GB12348―1990 Standard of noise at boundary of industrial enterprises
GB12523―1990 Noise limits for construction site
GB12525―1990 Emission standards and measurement methods of railway noise on the
boundary alongside railway line
GB12941―1991 Water quality standards for scenery and recreation area
GB13015―1991 Control standard on poly chlorinated biphenyls for waste slags
GB13223―1996 Emission standard of air pollutants for fossil fuel power plants
GB13271―1991 Emission standard of air pollutants for coal-burning boilers
GB14285―1993 Technical code for relay protection and security automatic equipment
GB/T14848―1993 Quality standard for ground water
GB15618―1995 Environmental quality standard for soils
GB50033―1991 Design standard for natural lighting in industrial enterprises
GB50034―1992 Design standard for artificial lighting in industrial enterprises
GB50040―1996 Design code for foundations of powered machines
GB50050―1995 Design code for treatment of industrial circulation cooling water
GB50057―1994 Design code for lightning protection for buildings
GB50058―1992 Design code for electrical installations in environment with explosion and fire
hazards
GB50059―1992 Design code for (35~110) kV substations
GB50060―1992 Design code for (3~110) kV high voltage distribution installations

—6—
GB50065―1994 Design code for grounding of AC electrical installations
GB50116―1998 Design code for automatic fire alarm system
GB50129―1995 Design code for water atomizing fire extinguishing system
GB50151―1992 Design code for low power foam fire extinguishing system
GB50156―1992 Design code for small sized petroleum depots and vehicle gas stations
GB50191―1993 Anti-seismic design code for structures
GB50210―1994 Standard for flood prevention
GB50217―1994 Design code for cables in power projects
GB50222―1995 Fire prevention code for designing internal decoration for buildings
GB50229―1996 Fire prevention code for designing fossil fuel power plants and substations
GB50260―1996 Anti-seismic design code for power facilities
GBJ11―1989 Anti-seismic design code for buildings
GBJ12―1987 Design code for standard gauge railways for industrial enterprises
GBJ16―1987 Code for fire prevention in building design
GBJ19―1987 Design code for heating, ventilation and air conditioning
GBJ22―1987 Design code for roads in factories and mines
GBJ74―1984 Design code for petroleum depot
GBJ84―1985 Design code for automatic water sprinkling fire extinguishing system
GBJ87―1985 Design code for noise control in industrial enterprises
GBJ101―1987 Coordination standard for modulus for building stairs
CJ18―1986 Quality standard for sewage water to be discharged into city drainage channels
DL408―1991 Safe working procedures for power industry (power plants and substation
electrical part)
DL435―1991 Explosion prevention code for pulverized coal boiler combustion chamber in
fossil fuel power plants
DL612―1996 Supervision code for boilers and pressure vessels in power industry
DL/T620―1997 Overvoltage protection and insulation matching for AC electrical units
DL/T621―1997 Earthing for AC electrical units
DL/T639―1997 Detailed rules on safety protection for manufacture, operation, testing and
maintenance personnel of SF6 electrical equipment
DL/T650―1998 Technical conditions for self-shunting static excitation system of large
turbo-generators
DL5003―1991 Technical code for designing power system dispatching automation

—7—
DL5025―1993 Technical code for designing power system microwave telecommunication
projects
DL/T5029―1994 Building decoration design standard for fossil fuel power plants
DL5032―1994 Design code for plot plan and transport for fossil fuel power plants
DL5053―1996 Design code for labor safety and industrial hygiene in fossil fuel power plants
SDJ2―1988 Technical code for designing 220~500kV substations
SDJ5―1985 Technical code for designing high-voltage power distribution units
SDJ9―1987 Technical code for designing electrical measuring instruments and devices
SD268―1988 Technical conditions for boilers in coal-firing power stations
SD269―1988 Technical conditions for stationary condensing turbines for power generation
SD270―1988 Technical conditions for turbo-generators
SD271―1988 Technical conditions for AC exciter excitation system of turbo-generators
TJ36―1979 Hygiene standard for designing industrial enterprises
Electric power law of People's Republic of Adopted at the 17th conference of the 8th Standing
China Committee of NPC in 1995, and issued by No. 60
President Order
Construction law of People's Republic of Adopted at the 28th conference of the 8th Standing
China Committee of NPC in 1997, and issued by No. 91
President Order
Environmental protection law of People's Adopted at the 11th conference of the 7th Standing
Republic of China Committee of NPC in 1989, and issued by No. 22
President Order
Law of People's Republic of China on Adopted at the 5th conference of the 6th Standing
prevention and control of water pollution Committee of NPC in 1996, and revised at the 19th
conference of the 8th Standing Committee of NPC
Law of People's Republic of China on Adopted at the 17th conference of the 8th Standing
prevention and control of solid waste Committee of NPC in 1996, and issued by No. 58
pollution President Order
Law of People's Republic of China on Adopted at the 22nd conference of the 8th Standing
prevention and control of environmental Committee of NPC in 1996, and issued by No. 77
noise pollution President Order
Law of People's Republic of China on Adopted at the 13th conference of the 9th Standing
protection of marine environment Committee of NPC in 1999, and issued by No. 26
President Order

—8—
Law of People's Republic of China on Adopted at the 15th conference of the 9th Standing
prevention and control of atmospheric Committee of NPC in 1995, and issued by No. 32
pollution President Order
Management ordinance of People's State Council Order [1990] No. 62
Republic of China on preventing and
controlling coastal engineering
construction projects from polluting and
damaging marine environment
Management ordinance of People's State Council Order [1990] No. 61
Republic of China on preventing and
controlling land source pollutants from
damaging marine environment
Water law of People's Republic of China Adopted at the 24th conference of the 6th Standing
Committee of NPC in 1988, and issued by No. 61
President Order
Water and soil conservation law of Adopted at the 20th conference of the 7th Standing
People's Republic of China Committee of NPC in 1991, and issued by No. 49
President Order
Labor law of People's Republic of China Adopted at the 8th conference of the 8th Standing
Committee of NPC in 1994, and issued by No. 28
President Order
Ordinance of People's Republic of China State Council Order [1994] No. 167
on natural reservation zones
Law of People's Republic of China on Adopted at the 29th conference of the 8th Standing
preventing earthquakes and reducing Committee of NPC in 1997, and issued by No. 94
disasters President Order
China seismic intensity zoning map (1990) State Seismological Bureau and Ministry of
Construction Zhenfaban [1992] No. 160
Ordinance of radioactive protection State Council Order (1989) No. 44
against radioisotopes and radiation devices
Environmental protection management State Council Order (1998) No. 253
ordinance for construction projects
Safety and technical supervision code for Ministry of Labor (1996)
steam boilers
Approval reply from the State Council on Correspondence from State Council (1998) No. 5
relevant issues of acid rain control zones
and sulfur dioxide pollution control zones

—9—
Technical specification for harbor works Ministry of Communications standard – 1987
Safety and technical supervision code for Quality and Technological Supervision Bureau Guofa
pressure vessels (1999) No. 154
Electrical safety code of People's Republic Laorenhu (87) No. 36
of China on locations with explosion
hazard
Tentative regulation on water and soil Ministry of Water Conservancy, State Electric Power
conservation work for electric power Corporation, Shuibao (1998) No. 423
construction projects
Environmental monitoring management Ministry of Electric Power Industry, Dianji (1996) –
regulation for fossil fuel power industry 280
Management regulation on completion National Environmental Protection Administration
acceptance of environmental protection (1994) No. 18 Order
facilities for construction projects
Management method for environmental National Environmental Protection Administration
protection against electromagnetic (1997) No. 18 Order
radiation
Safety and technical regulation for Ministry of Energy, Anbao (1991) No. 709
pressurized deaerators in power stations

3. General Provisions

3.0.1 This code has been specially formulated with the purpose to implement the national capital
construction policy, reflect the national economic and technological policies, unify and clarify the
construction standards in electric power construction, to ensure newly built and extension of fossil
fuel power plants (hereinafter referred to as power plants) to be safe and reliable, economic and
suitable for operation, complying with the national conditions and satisfying the requirements of
sustainable development, and to achieve the optimum economic and social efficiencies with
reasonable investment.

3.0.2 In the planning and design of power plants, we should reflect all round perspective, meet the
market demands, rely upon technological advancement, perform the survey and design
conscientiously, summarize the experience continually, actively and carefully popularize advanced
technologies both at home and abroad, employ mature new materials, new equipment, new
techniques, new layout and new structure, we should starting from actual conditions and make efforts
to raise the level of mechanization and automation, increase the efficiency while reducing manpower
and protect the environment, to create conditions for raising the reliability, economy, labor
productivity and civilized production level of the power plants, for saving energy, land, water and

— 10 —
materials, and for ensuring quality, controlling cost, organizing civilized construction and
shortening the construction schedule. In the meantime, the requirements on the power market in the
future shall be taken into consideration, such as connection of the power systems of the whole country,
nationwide optimized resources configuration and separation of network with plants and supplying
power to the grid with price competition.

3.0.3 The design of power plants must be proceeded according to the procedures for capital
construction specified by the State. The design documents shall go through the approval formalities
according to the specified contents and depth.

3.0.4 The construction standard of the imported complete sets of equipment and project constructed
by directly utilizing foreign capital shall be reference to this code, and the international prevailing
standards and standards of the countries of suppliers shall also be taken into consideration.

3.0.5 The type of design and check coal for newly built and extension of coal-firing power plants and
their analysis values shall be the fundamental basis for the design, and they will have influence on the
selection of equipment and systems, project cost and the production safety and economic operation of
the power plants. Therefore departments in charge and legal persons of the projects shall pay
sufficient attention to them, to determine them in a reasonable manner after necessary investigation
and study, so that they can represent the actual type of coal for long-term use. The oil or combustible
gas for ignition and for supporting combustion at low load for boilers in coal-firing power plants shall
have reliable supply sources.

Condensing type power plants burning low heat value coal (low grade raw coal, washed middlings,
lignite, etc.) should be built in the vicinity of fuel producing areas; and when conditions permit,
mine-mouth power plants shall be constructed. The mining area where the mine-mouth power plant is
to be located shall have sufficient exploitable coal reserve and reliable output, able to supply the
power plant with the required coal for 30 years or over continuously at the planned capacity of the
power plant.

For power plants with relatively long coal transport distance (exceeding 1000km), steam coal with a
heat value above 21.0MJ/kg should be used.

For power plants located in acid rain control zones and sulfur dioxide pollution control zones, the
requirements from environmental protection to control the coal sulfur content, sulfur oxidant
emission concentration, emission amount and total amount shall be met.

Anthracite or coal with slagging characteristics should be concentrated and supplied to some
designated power plants, for which necessary measures to ensure safe operation of boilers must be
taken.

3.0.6 In the design of extension and renovation of power plants, overall consideration and unified
coordination shall be made in conjunction with the features of existing plot plan layout, equipment
arrangement of existing production systems, existing building structures and operation management

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experience.

3.0.7 The unit capacity of power plants shall be selected in accordance with such factors as the
system planning capacity, load increase rate and grid configuration. Large capacity unit with high
efficiency shall be selected, provided that the maximum unit capacity should not exceed 10% of the
total system capacity.

3.0.8 The load regulating performance of power plant units, especially such parameters as the
minimum load carrying capacity without fuel oil support for boiler stable combustion shall meet the
system operation requirements. The selection of various auxiliary equipment and system design shall
also fulfill the respective requirements.

3.0.9 There should be no more than six units in a power plant, with no more than two capacity grades
for the units. Turbo-generators and boilers of the same capacity should be of the same type or
modified type, and with the same types of associated equipment.

A newly built power plant should be built in one or two phases to the planned capacity on the basis of
load demand and available capital. A large capacity power plant should be designed in one phase for
a number of large-capacity high-efficiency units of the same type, and be constructed successively.

3.0.10 When there is heat load demand of stable and certain amount, and the heat supply distance and
the technical and economic conditions are reasonable, a co-generation power plant shall be taken into
consideration in priority.

3.0.11 The location, planned capacity, construction scale and schedule of the current phase, capacity
of the unit selected, grid connection mode, source and type of fuel, and investment cost control
parameters for the power plant shall be based on the approved feasibility study report. If it is
necessary to change the original specifications due to changes in the specific conditions during design,
report shall be submitted to the original approval authority for review and approval again.

3.0.12 Under the premise of ensuring operation safety and being technologically and economically
rational and under suitable conditions, the power plant may cooperate with neighboring industrial
enterprises or other organizations to jointly construct part of the project facilities.

3.0.13 In the design of power plants, unified arrangement shall be made according to the planned
capacity, to meet the need of operation and maintenance for all stages, especially during the initial
period when the plant is put into operation. When the plant is constructed in different phases, the
design of each phase of project shall in principle only include the parts that must be constructed for
the current phase. Work items for which it is difficult or unreasonable to construct in phases can be
constructed in one time according to the planned capacity.

3.0.14 In the design of power plants, the following laws and regulations must be observed: “Electric
power law of People's Republic of China”, “Construction law of People's Republic of China”,
Environmental protection law of People's Republic of China”, “Law of People's Republic of China on
prevention and control of atmospheric pollution”, “Law of People's Republic of China on protection

— 12 —
of marine environment”, “Law of People's Republic of China on prevention and control of water
pollution”, “Law of People's Republic of China on prevention and control of environmental noise
pollution”, “Labor law of People's Republic of China”. Effective measures shall be taken to alleviate
the impact to the environment caused by emissions from power plants, including waste gas,
wastewater, fly ash and slag, noise and discharged water. The emission of various harmful substances
must conform to the related stipulations on environment as well as on labor safety and industrial
hygiene.

Engineering facilities for prevention and control of pollution must be designed, constructed and put
into operation simultaneously with the main body of the project.

If comprehensive utilization of fly ash and slag can be settled locally, coordinated provisions shall be
made in the power plant design for such utilization.

3.0.15 In the anti-seismic design for power plants, the policy of taking preventive measures as the
main must be carried out, and for power plants for which guard against earthquake shall be made
according to specification, the process and civil engineering design must follow the requirements in
the relevant anti-seismic design specifications, and effective measures shall be taken to resist and
alleviate possible seismic damages.

3.0.16 In power plant design, overall coordination shall be made and technical requirements shall be
raised on the main equipment and main auxiliary equipment and systems required, and selection shall
be made among the same type of equipment on the basis of technical performance, reliability, supply
conditions, prices and the performance and technical service quality of manufacturers. When
conditions are suitable, standard series products and energy-saving products shall be selected in
priority.

3.0.17 In power plant design, active attitude shall be taken to use the latest reference design, typical
design and advanced design method and means, to raise the design quality and control project cost,
and to make successive innovation in conjunction of project features.

3.0.18 In power plant design, in addition to the regulations in this code, the relevant national and
industrial standards currently in force shall also be conformed.

4. Site Selection

4.0.1 Site selection for power plants shall be conducted in two phases for planning and engineering,
and respectively as one of the main contents in the preliminary feasibility study and feasibility study.
Site selection for planning shall be based on the medium and long term electric power planning, and
site selection for engineering shall be based on the approved project proposal and the reviewed
preliminary feasibility study report.

4.0.2 In the site selection for power plants, overall consideration shall be given on the basis of such

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factors as medium and long term power planning, sources of fuel, transport conditions, local
natural conditions, environmental protection requirements and construction schedule; in the site
selection, various relations, such as that with the neighboring agriculture, factories and mining
enterprises, city planning, national defence facilities and people’s life shall be handled correctly with
the overall situation being taken into consideration.

4.0.3 In site selection for power plants, the following conditions shall be studied: grid configuration,
power and heat load, fuel supply, water source, traffic, transport of fuel and large equipment,
environmental protection requirements, disposal of fly ash and slag, outgoing line corridor, geology,
seismology, topography, hydrology, meteorology, land requisition and relocation, construction, and
influence of surrounding industrial and mining enterprises on the power plants, so that preliminary
schemes can be drawn up and justification and evaluation can be made through overall technical and
economic comparison and economic efficiency analysis.

In the site selection for planning, comments shall be made on the sequence of utilization and scale of
sites when there are a number of recommended sites.

In the site selection for engineering, comments shall be made on the construction scale and
completion time, with proposal on the number and capacity of units to be installed.

4.0.4 In site selection for power plants, full consideration shall be given to saving land by utilizing as
much as possible non-cultivable land and arid land, also to minimizing the house demolition and
population relocation, and avoiding damaging the existing forest and vegetables and minimizing
earthwork excavation.

4.0.5 The elevation of the site ground shall be based on the anti-flooding standard for the relevant
grade of power plants (see Table 4.0.5).

If the site ground elevation is lower than the standard required in Table 4.0.5, there must be
anti-flooding dyke or other reliable anti-flooding facilities for the site area.

Table 4.0.5 Grade and anti-flooding standard of power plants


Planned capacity
Power plant grade Anti-flooding standard (return period)
MW
I >2400 ≥high water (tide) level once in 100 or 200 years (1)
II 400~2400 ≥high water (tide) level once in 100 years
III <400 ≥high water (tide) level once in 50 years
Note: All parameters in this table are compulsory.
1) It shall be taken as 200 years for extra-large seashore power plants in areas with serious storm
surges.

For power plants located by seaside, the top elevation of anti-flooding dykes (or wave protection
dykes) shall be determined according to that required in Table 4.0.5 (return period) plus a wave
climbing height for 1% of accumulated probability for a return period of 50 years and a 0.5m extra

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height for safety margin; for power plants located by rivers and lakes, the top elevation of the
anti-flooding dykes shall be 0.5m higher than the high water level at 1% probability; when there is
considerable influence from wind, wave and tide, a wave-climbing height for a return period of 50
years shall be further added. The design of anti-flooding dykes shall obtain the consent by the local
water conservation department.

When a power plant is to be built in the water-logging area, the top elevation of anti-water-logging
dyke shall be determined as the design waterlogging level once in 100 years (or the maximum
historical waterlogging level) plus 0.5m as extra height for safety. In case there are waterlogging
drainage facilities, it shall be determined as design waterlogging level plus 0.5m as extra height for
safety.

For power plants located in mountainous areas, provisions to protect against and drain torrent shall be
taken into consideration, and such facilities shall be design for torrent with 1% probability.

Dykes or anti-flooding and drainage facilities should be constructed one time according to the
planned scale in the initial phase of project.

4.0.6 Investigation and exploitation of the geological conditions of the site and its surrounding area
shall be made, and survey technical schemes be worked out to conduct reasonable survey work and
provide survey report. In the site selection for planning, the main work shall be get sufficient
collection and analysis of existing data and site survey and investigation, with small amount of
exploitation when necessary, to know the geological data of the site area and the general conditions of
the site geology and topography, and to make evaluation on the regional stability of the site to be
chosen; in the site selection for engineering, engineering geological plotting, exploitation, in-situ
testing and laboratory testing shall be selected according to the complicacy of the site and
engineering requirements, to determine the engineering geological conditions affecting the site
stability and understand the main geotechnical engineering problems, to make evaluation on the
ground stability and engineering geological conditions of site.

4.0.7 The basic seismic intensity of power plant sites must be determined according to the “China
Seismic Intensity Zoning Map” and “Law of People's Republic of China on preventing earthquakes
and reducing disaster”. For the following newly built projects, intensity checkup or seismic safety
evaluation shall be conducted according to the specific conditions of the electric power projects:

1. Intensity checkup shall be carried out for power plants located close to the seismic intensity zone
boundary line;

2. Intensity checkup shall be carried out for power plants located in remote areas where seismic study
is inadequate and detailed data are not available, and with a planned capacity of 600MW or over;

3. Intensity checkup or seismic safety evaluation shall be conducted for power plants located in areas
with basic seismic intensity greater than or equal to 7 degree, and with a planned capacity of 2400
MW or over;

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4. Intensity checkup or seismic safety evaluation shall be conducted for power plants located in
areas with basic seismic intensity of 9 degree, and with a planned capacity of 600MW or over;

5. Intensity checkup or seismic safety evaluation shall be conducted for important power plants
located in areas where the seismic and geological conditions are particularly complicated.

When it is necessary to provide the seismic horizontal acceleration value, values can be taken
according to the following provisions: it shall be taken as 0.05g for degree 6, as 0.10g for degree 7, as
0.20g for degree 8 and as 0.40g for degree 9.

4.0.8 It is strictly forbidden to select a power plant site in area with highly developed landslide or
karst, or at active seismic fault belt or in seismic zones with a basic seismic intensity above degree 9;
power plants with unit capacity of 300MW or over or a total planned capacity of 1200MW or over
should not be built in areas with a basic seismic intensity of degree 9.

Sites for power plants shall avoid key natural reservation zones or humanistic relics and ruins, and
they should not be located above mine reserves with important tapping value or mined-out areas.

Power plant sites in mountainous areas should be on fairly flat slopes or hilly land, and cautions shall
be taken not to damage the natural relief and to avoid sections with hanging rocks, rolling stones or
mud rock flow.

4.0.9 A power plant site selected must have assured and reliable water supply source, and the
influence of water conservancy and hydropower planning on the change of such supply source shall
be taken into consideration.

When river water is taken as the water supply source, the water intake must be located at a section
where the riverbed is stable all the year round, and the influence of mud and sand, grass and wood,
icicles, floating wastes and reflux of discharged water shall be avoided. A model test shall be
conducted when necessary.

When underground water is to be used as water supply source, hydrogeological exploitation shall be
conducted according to the requirements in the current hydrogeological survey specification for
water supply of the State and the power industry, and a hydrogeological survey evaluation report shall
be submitted and approval from relevant department in charge of water resources shall be obtained.

4.0.10 A power plant of once-through circulating water system shall be located close to the water
source, and the influence of water intaking and discharging on the navigation in the water area,
environment, ecology and living water for the city shall be taken into consideration.

4.0.11 In areas close to coal supply source where the construction conditions are favorable but it is
short in water supply source, use of air-cooling system can be considered if it is deemed reasonable
after comprehensive technical and economic comparison.

4.0.12 For power plants to which the fuel is supplied via railway, it shall be considered that the
special railway for the power plant can be easily connected with the state railway line or special lines

— 16 —
for other industrial enterprises, and such inter-connection distance should be short and simple,
and construction of large bridge, tunnel or intersection with state trunk railway line shall be avoided.
For power plants to which the fuel is supplied via waterway, navigation channel shall be selected
within or in the vicinity of the site area, and a section with stable bank and beach, gentle water flow,
broad water surface, proper water depth, low depositing and good geological conditions be used for
the wharf according to the tonnage and berths of ships. For power plants to which the fuel is supplied
via highway, the existing highway conditions should be based on. For power plants close to the fuel
producing place, possibility of long-distance belt conveyor or vehicle transport of coal shall be taken
into consideration.

4.0.13 In the site selection for coal-firing power plants, proper ash yard must be selected. The ash
yard shall take no or little farmland, nor flood storage and discharge areas for rivers and lakes, and
shall satisfy the relevant requirements on environmental protection.

The total capacity of ash yard shall be able to store ash and slag for about 20 years calculated
according to the planned capacity. The ash yard shall be built in phases and zones, and the land
requisited for the initial phase should be able to store ash and slag for about 10 years calculated
according to the capacity of the current phase and design coal. When the conditions for
comprehensive utilization of ash and slag are good, the storage period of the ash yard can be reduced
as appropriate.

4.0.14 In selecting power plant sites, full consideration shall be given to the outgoing conditions for
connection with the grid when the power plants reach the planned capacity.

4.0.15 The power plant sites should be selected in priority in areas with large environment capacity
and good emission conditions.

No new coal-firing power plant shall be built in the urban area or near suburban area of large or
medium cities, except fossil fuel power plants for which the power generation is determined by heat
loading.

4.0.16 In selecting power plant sites, attention shall be paid to the interaction of the waste gas,
wastewater and waste slag discharged from the power plants and other industrial enterprises.

4.0.17 Power plant sites should be located on the upwind side in the wind direction with minimum
probability throughout the year to the neighboring town or living quarter.

When a living quarter is to be built, its location shall be such as to facilitate the living of staff. For
power plants in cities or near suburban areas, the living quarter should be arranged on a unified basis
in conjunction with the city planning.

4.0.18 In determining power plant sites, documents of consent or approval by relevant departments
shall be obtained. They mainly include documents on land use, fuel and water supply, railway
transport and interconnection, construction of highway and wharf, power transmission line and heat
supply pipeline corridor, and environmental protection.

— 17 —
If there is an airport, military facility or historic relics in the vicinity of the site, in addition to
taking into account their influence on the site, documents of consent or approval by relevant
departments in charge shall also be obtained.

5. Overall Planning

5.1 General Provisions

5.1.1 The overall planning of the power plant shall be based on the needs of production and
construction of power plants and livelihood of the staff, in combination with natural conditions of the
plant site and its neighboring areas as well as the construction planning. The following factors shall
be taken into consideration in the planning as a whole, starting from the near phase and stretching to
the far phase: the plant area, the construction area, the residential area, the locality of water source,
the water supply and discharge facilities, the waste water treatment facilities, the ash handling
pipelines, the ash yard, the comprehensive utilization of ash and slag, the communications and
transportation, the outgoing transmission lines corridors, the heating network, etc.

5.1.2 The overall planning of power plants must follow the principle of economization of land use.
The area of land used for plant production area, plant front area, construction site and residential areas
shall be controlled through optimization.

The scope of land to be used for the power plant shall be determined on the basis of needs in building
and construction and according to the planned capacity. The land use for plant should be expropriated
in stages and in batches.

5.1.3 The overall planning of the power plant shall also satisfy the following requirements:

1) Rational technological process flow;

2) Convenient communication and transportation;

3) Properly arranged relationships between in-site and off-site areas, between production and living,
and between production and construction;

4) Coordination with the planning of towns or industrial zones;

5) Convenient to construction, and favorable to future extension;

6) Reasonable utilization of topographic and geological conditions;

7) Minimizing field excavation work on site;

8) Low project cost, small operation expenses, and high economic benefit;

9) Complying with requirements in environmental protection, labor safety and industrial hygiene.

— 18 —
5.1.4 The overall planning of the power plant shall also meet the following requirements:

1. The plant is divided into zones according to their different functions, e.g. main building area,
distribution switchgear area, coal handling facility area, auxiliary production facilities area,
residential area, construction area, etc.

2. The arrangement of buildings in different zones shall consider the sunshine bearing and wind
direction, and reasonable compactness shall be realized as far as possible; the auxiliary and
subsidiary buildings and buildings for administration management and public welfare should be
combined in arrangement and in multi-storey structures.

3. Attention shall be paid to the space configuration of building and coordination of the building
group to beautify the surrounding, under the integrity point of view.

4. A plantation planning shall be made according to the site conditions, and the free land in the
production zone and the residential zone shall be planted with trees and grass. The greening coverage
in the plant area shall not be less than 10% of the plant total occupied area, but any expansion of plant
occupied area for sole greening purpose shall not be allowed.

5. The uncovered land in the outdoor switchgear yard can be covered with grass, crushed stones or
pebbles. In zones where flying dusts may be produced, such as coal yard and ash yard, and sulfur
absorbent storage yard, besides adopting dustproof measures, trees should be planted for isolation
when conditions permit. For power plants in areas with severe wind and sand intrusion, offsite
protection tree belts can be planted according to the actual conditions.

5.1.5 The arrangement of the buildings in the power plant operation area and in the residential area
shall comply with the fire prevention requirements.

The fire risk in the power production process and the minimum resistance class of all the operation
buildings shall be in compliance with Tables 5.1.5-1~5.1.5-3.

— 19 —
Table 5.1.5-1 Fire risk rating in production process and minimum fire
resistance class of main buildings
Fire risk rating in Minimum fire
No. Description of buildings
production process resistance class
Main buildings (turbine hall, deaerator bay, coal bunker,
1 D Class II
boiler house, central control building or room)
2 ID fan room D Class II
3 Precipitator structure D Class II
4 Stack D Class II
5 Indoor coal unloading facility and coal dumper room C Class II
Coal pulverizer room, transfer station and coal distribution
6 C Class II
building
7 Enclosed coal conveyor trestle, coal handling tunnel C Class II
8 Dry coal shed and thawing room C Class II
Ignition oil tank, oil unloading pump house and platform
9 C Class II
(diesel oil, heavy oil and residual oil)
Electrical control building (main control building, grid
10 E Class II
control building), microwave building, relay room1)
Indoor power distribution switchgear building (with
11 C Class II
equipment each filled with oil of over 60kg)
Indoor power distribution switchgear building (with
12 D Class II
equipment each filled with oil of less than 60kg)
13 Outdoor power distribution switchgear C Class II
14 Transformer room C Class II
15 General emergency oil storage pond Class II
16 Riparian water pump house and central water pump house E Class II
17 Slurry and ash pump house, ash precipitating pond E Class II
18 Living and fire fighting water pump house E Class II
19 Stabilizer room and dosing equipment room E Class II
20 Water intake building E Class II
21 Cooling tower E Class III
Chemical water treatment room and circulation water
22 E Class III
treatment room
Notes:
1. In addition to the building and structures specified in this table, the fire risk rating and fire resistance
class of other buildings and structures shall all comply with the relevant regulations in GBJ16 “Code for
fire prevention in building design”.
2. The parameters in this table are compulsory.
1) The fire risk rating of electrical control building (main control building, grid control building),
microwave building, relay room shall be C when no measure is taken to prevent fire from spreading when
cable is on fire.

— 20 —
Table 5.1.5-2 Fire risk rating and minimum fire resistance class of
auxiliary buildings and structures
Fire risk rating in Minimum fire
No. Description of buildings
production process resistance class
1 Startup boiler house D Class II
2 Oil treatment room and outdoor oil tank C Class II
3 Hydrogen generating station and hydrogen storage tank A Class II
4 Oxygen storage tank B Class II
5 Air compressor room (with lubrication oil) D Class II
6 I & C, electrical and metal laboratories D Class II
7 Overhead bridge E Class II
8 Overhead bridge (with cable mezzanine beneath) C Class II
9 Transformer repair shop C Class II
10 Drainage and sewage water pump house E Class II
11 Various maintenance shops E Class II
12 Sewage water treatment structure E Class II
13 Cable gallery C Class II
14 Diesel generator room C Class II
Notes:
1. In addition to the building and structures specified in this table, the fire risk rating and fire resistance
class of other buildings and structures shall all comply with the relevant regulations in GBJ16 “Code for
fire prevention in building design”.
2. The parameters in this table are compulsory.

Table 5.1.5-3 Fire risk rating and minimum fire resistance class of subsidiary buildings
Fire risk rating in Minimum fire
No. Description of buildings
production process resistance class
1 Office building Class III
2 Material warehouse C Class II
3 Materials storage shed E Class III
4 Locomotive garage D Class II
5 Truck garage and bulldozer garage D Class II
6 Fire engine garage D Class II
7 Guard and reception room Class III
8 Bicycle shed Class IV
Notes:
1. In addition to the building and structures specified in this table, the fire risk rating and fire resistance
class of other buildings and structures shall all comply with the relevant regulations in GBJ16 “Code for
fire prevention in building design”.
2. The parameters in this table are compulsory.

— 21 —
5.2 Plant Area Planning

5.2.1 The plant area planning for power plants shall follow the principle of rational technological
process flow, taking the main buildings as the center, combining the functions of production facilities
and systems, achieving centralization by zones, and arrange the layout in close cooperation and
according to the actual conditions. Buildings for administrative management and public welfare
should be arranged together on the permanent end side of the main buildings, to provide convenience
for linking with the production area, facilitate daily life and make the plant appearance beautiful. The
land for administrative management and public welfare buildings shall be strictly controlled
according to provisions in relevant standards of the state and the industry.

5.2.2 The arrangement of the buildings in the plant area of power plants shall, in addition to
compliance with the provisions in relevant current standards and specifications of the state on fire
prevention and principle requirements on environmental protection, meet the following
requirements:

1. The main buildings shall be arranged at proper positions of the plant area, and should be close to
water source when once-through water circulation is adopted. The main buildings and stacks should
be located in areas with homogenous soil quality and high ground foundation bearing capacity. The
permanent end of the main buildings should face the direction of city or town.

For air-cooling units with direct air cooling system, the effect of prevailing wind in summer on the
heat dissipation of the air-cooling condenser shall be taken into consideration in determining the
direction of the main buildings.

2. The arrangement of indoor and outdoor distribution units shall take into account convenience of
incoming and outgoing lines, and intersection of lines shall be avoided as far as possible.

3. For the arrangement of cooling towers, comprehensive consideration shall be given according to
such factors as the topographic and geological conditions and arrangement conditions of adjacent
facilities, as well as the wind direction during the year. The cooling towers should not be arranged on
the extension side in the initial phase of the project.

4. Coal yard should be arranged on the up wind direction with the minimum probability during the
year of the main buildings of the plant area.

5. The hydrogen generating station, oil supply and unloading pump houses and ignition oil tank shall
be separated from other auxiliary production buildings, and be arranged separately or form an
independent zone.

6. The production wastewater and domestic sewage qualified after treatment shall be discharged at a
port far away from the water intake for water for living purpose, and in a concentrated way
downstream. The drain water shall not be discharged via the trunk drainage pipe before inspection.

7. The power plant area should have two accesses, which shall be so located to facilitate internal and

— 22 —
external contact for the plant, and to separate flow of people from that of goods. During the
construction period, there should be a special access for construction. The main access to the plant
area should be located on the permanent end side of the plant area.

5.2.3 The minimum spacing between the buildings and structures in the power plants shall follow the
provisions in Table 5.2.3.

— 23 —
Table 5.2.3 Minimum spacing between buildings and structures in power plants
Administrative
Fire rating of Open door
Outdoor Natural Mechanical management, Centerline of In-site road
buildings of C, coal H2 Outdoor living and welfare Offsite
power draft draft H2 Ignition railway (Roadside)
No Description of buildings D and E unloading storage oil road Fence
distribution cooling cooling station oil tank buildings
equipment or tank storage (Roadside)
Class I Class switchgear tower tower Class I &
coal yard Class III In site Off site Primary Secondary
& II III II
Class I
1 10 12 10 12 12 20 12 10 12 5~6 with exit, 1.5 without exit, 3 with exit
Fire rating of buildings and III
20 35 15 3~5 without but without lead way, and 5
of C, D and E Class
2 12 14 12 14 15 25 15 12 14 exit 7~9 with lead way
III
3 Outdoor power switchgear 10 12 – 25 10 12 – – 1.5 –
4 Main transformer or ≤10 12 15 15 20 – – – –
5 outdoor auxiliary >10~50 15 20 40 60 50 25 25 20 25 – – – –
– 40 30
transformer oil volume
6 (t/piece) >50 20 25 25 30 – – – –
1)
7 Natural draft cooling tower 20 40 0.5D 40~50 25~30 20 30 25 15 25 10 10
Mechanical draft cooling
8 35 60 40~50 2) 40~45 25 35 35 20 35 15 15
tower
Open door coal unloading 15 – –
9 15 50 25~30 40~45 – 10 5 1.5 5
equipment or coal yard 25 for lignite – –
10 Hydrogen generating station 12 14 25 12 12 25 15 25 30 20 15 10 5 5
25 for
11 Hydrogen storage tank 12 15 25 12 3) 25 25 20 15 10 5 5
20 25 lignite
12 Ignition oil tank 20 25 25 4) – 25 32
25 30 20 15 10 5 5
13 Outdoor oil storage 12 15 15 15 – 5) 15 20
Class I
14 Administrative 10 12 10 25 25 15 6 7 5~6 with exit,
and II 25
management, living 30 35 25 3~5 without 3 with exit, 1.5 without exit 5
Class
15 and welfare buildings 12 14 12 32 20 7 8 exit
III
16 Fence 5 5 – 10 15 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 2 1.0 –
Note: The parameters in this table are compulsory.
1) D indicates the base diameter of the counter-flow natural draft cooling tower at the bottom rim of air inlet, and the diameter of the neighboring larger tower shall be taken.
2) The spacing between the mechanical draft cooling towers: it shall be 0.5 to 1.0 times the tower length according to the staggering condition of the towers in the group when the
prevailing wind direction is parallel to the longitudinal side of the tower group; and the net spacing of the tower top end shall not be less than 9 m when the prevailing wind direction
is perpendicular to the longitudinal side of the tower group, and the two rows of towers are arranged in a straight line.
3) The diameter of the neighboring larger hydrogen storage tank;
4) To be implemented according to the “Code of fire prevention in building design” currently in force;
5) For one group of open-air oil storage tanks having a total oil storage amount not more than 1,000m3, and the oil storage tanks can be arranged in two rows, the spacing between
tanks should not be less than 1.5 m.

— 24 —
The following provisions shall also be observed while implementing Table 5.2.3:

1. The minimum spacing shall be calculated according to the nearest distance between the external
walls of 2 neighboring buildings. If the outside wall has projections with inflammable structures, the
calculated spacing shall start from the projection of outside wall.

2. For two buildings, when the higher of the neighboring external walls is fireproof, the minimum
spacing is not limited, provided that for type A buildings, the minimum spacing shall not be less than
4 m.

3. The minimum spacing between high-storeyed buildings (buildings and warehouses with height
over 24 meters and with 2 storeys or more ) or between the high-storeyed building and the other
buildings shall add 3 m to the values in this Table.

4. For the two type C, D or E buildings, when the 2 neighboring external walls are all built with
non-flammable material, and have no exposed inflammable building brims, while the surface area of
the door or window openings of each wall is less than 5% of the wall surface area, and the door and
window openings are not opposite to each other, the fireproof spacing may decrease by 25%.

5. The fireproof spacing between types A and B buildings and civil buildings shall not be less than 25
m, and the minimum spacing from the important public buildings should not be less than 50 m.

6. The fireproof spacing between type A plant buildings and between type A plant buildings and
other plant buildings shall add 2 m to the values in the Table. The fireproof spacing between type E
plant buildings may be decreased by 2 m from the values in the Table.

7. For two Class I and II fire resisting plant buildings, when one of the adjacent external wall which
is lower is a fireproof wall and the fire resistance limit of the lower plant building roof is not less than
1h, then the fireproof spacing may be decreased as appropriate, provided that the spacing shall not be
less than 6 m buildings of types A and B and less than 4m for buildings of types C, D and E.

8. For two Class I and II fire resisting plant buildings, when the window and door openings in the
adjacent higher building external wall are provided with fire preventing rolling curtains and water
screens, the fireproof spacing may be decreased as appropriate, provided that the spacing shall not be
less than 6 m buildings of types A and B and less than 4m for buildings of types C, D and E.

9. For the several plant buildings with fire resistance rating not lower than Class II (except those
otherwise specified in this specification), when their fire risk rating is of type C with total occupied
ground area not exceeding 8,000 m2 (single storey) or 4,000 m2 (multi-store), or of type D and E with
total occupied ground area not exceeding 10,000 m2 (single, multi-storey), they can be arranged in
groups, and the spacing between the buildings in the group, shall be no less than 4m when the height
is not exceeding 7 m, and no less than 6 m when the height exceeds 7 m.

10. Outdoor oil-immersed transformers should have a net spacing of no less than 10m from an
external wall; when there is any fireproof door and non-inflammable fixed window on the external

— 25 —
wall close to the transformer within the scope of 3m to both sides of transformer outer shell and
below the level line of 3 m above the top of transformer, then the spacing of the transformer outer
shell to the wall of building can be 5~10 m; when there is no window or no ventilation opening on the
external wall in the above-stated scope, the spacing to the transformer outer shell can be within 5 m.

11. The minimum spacing from the outdoor switchgears shall be calculated from the insulators on the
structural frame; and the spacing between the outdoor oil-immersed transformers shall be determined
according to the installation process.

12. For the spacing of natural draft cooling towers and the mechanical draft cooling towers, the larger
values shall be taken for cooling surface larger than 3,000 m2, and the smaller values for cooling
surface equal to or less than 3,000 m2. For air-cooled condensing generating units, the spacing
between air-cooled towers or from an air-cooled tower to other cooling towers shall be 0.5 D
(diameter of air-cooled tower) or 40~50 m, with the smaller values taken for unit capacity of 125 MW,
larger values for unit capacity of or above 200 MW.

13. The spacing between a cooling tower and the main building shall not be less than 50 m.

14. The fireproof spacing from ignition oil tanks to unloading oil pumps and railway loading and
unloading equipment shall be no less than 10 m and 12 m respectively.

15. The spacing from the in-plant railway to oil-unloading equipment shall be no less than 20 m for
Class A and B liquid, and no less than 10 m for Class C liquid.

16. The spacing from the oil-unloading pump room to the pick pipe shall be no less than 8 m.

17. For the spacing from the open-air coal unloading devices or coal storage yard to the cooling
towers, the larger values shall be used when the cooling towers are located at the leeward side of the
dust sources under yearly prevailing wind direction; and the smaller values shall be when the towers
are located at the windward side.

18. The net spacing from the pipeline supporting columns or single columns to the roadside shall be
no less than 1 m.

19. The spacing from in-plant road edge to the centerline of in-plant railway shall be no less than
3.75m.

5.2.4 Design of special railway lines for power plants shall comply with the requirements in GBJ12
“Design code for standard gauge railways for industrial enterprises” currently in force.

The in-plant lines of special railways shall be planned one time according to the planned capacity of
the power plants and be constructed in phases. The lines shall be determined on the basis of coal
consumption for the planned capacity, coal handling method, oil consumption for boiler ignition and
for supporting combustion at low load and the construction needs.

5.2.5 For power plants mainly depending on water transport, the construction scale and plan layout

— 26 —
of the wharfs shall be arranged in overall coordination according to the planned capacity of the
power plants, the natural conditions of the sites and navigation channels and the in-plant coal
handling facilities.

The design of wharfs shall comply with the relevant provisions in the standard of the Ministry of
Communications “Technical specification for harbor projects” currently in force.

A Wharf shall be located at a section where the water depth is suitable, the navigation channel is
stable, with weak sediment movement, smooth and even water flow and good geological conditions,
and should match with the topographic elevation of the land area.

There shall be sufficiently open water area in front of the wharf. The distance from the wharf to the
cooling water intake and discharge outlet shall be determined rationally by taken into consideration
their possible interactions through model test and sufficient justification.

5.2.6 Design of roads in the site of power plant shall comply with the requirements in GBJ22
“Design code for roads in factories and mines” currently in force.

5.2.7 Between the buildings in the plant area, roads and passage ways for vehicles, fire engines and
pedestrians shall be provided according to the needs in production, living and fire fighting.

Ring road or passage ways for fire engines shall be provided around main buildings, power
distribution equipment, coal storage yard and oil tank area. For units with a capacity of 300MW or
above, road shall be provided between the rear of the boiler and the precipitator.

5.2.8 The width of vehicle passage of main trunk roads at main accesses to the plant area should be
the same as the connected accessing roads, or be 7m; the width of secondary trunk roads (ring roads)
should be 7m, or 6m if it is difficult to be 7m; the width of secondary roads should be 4m, or 3.5m if
it is difficult to be 4m; the width of pedestrian leading way to the accesses of buildings should match
with the width of doors.

For large-sized power plants depending on water transport and with wharf for heavy components, the
standard for the road from the bridge of wharf for heavy components to the ring roads around the
main buildings shall be determined in a rational manner according to the transport method for heavy
components, and the width should be 6m~7m.

5.2.9 The main roads in the plant area should have cement concrete or bitumen pavement.

5.2.10 The plan layout for the plant area fence shall be in a regular shape as far as possible while
minimizing the use of land.

5.2.11 Outdoor switchgears and oil tank area shall be provided with grill enclosures. Fire prevention
dyke or wall shall be provided around oil tanks. A fence of non-inflammable materials shall be built
for the hydrogen generating station for a height no less than 2m.

5.2.12 The vertical layout of the power plant area shall be based on comprehensive consideration of

— 27 —
production requirements, engineering geology, hydrological and meteorological conditions, and
ground elevation, and the following requirements shall be complied:

1. For plant areas without dyke or embankment, the design elevation of the outdoor ground in the
main buildings area shall be 0.5m higher than the design maximum water level.

2. The elevations of all buildings, structures, railway and roads shall be determined to facilitate
production and operation. Unified arrangement shall be made for the elevation and layout of the
foundations, pipelines, pipe supports, pipe trenches, tunnels and basements of the ground and
underground facilities, to achieve reasonable intersection, facilitate maintenance and extension and
enable unblocked water drainage.

3. The amount of earthworks in the current phase and extension shall be kept minimum, with
minimum expense for ground foundation treatment and ground leveling, and nearly balanced
backfilling quantity with excavated quantity. When it is not possible to achieve balance between
backfilling and excavation quantities, places to get or discard soil shall be settled.

4. The minimum slope and sloping direction of the plant area ground shall be determined according
to the principle of quick draining of ground water, and it shall adapt to the provision of rainwater
gullies and drain ports for buildings, roads and ground, and according to the factors of local
precipitation and ground soil conditions.

5. The vertical layout of power plants in hilly areas shall make rational use of topography while
satisfying the process requirements, minimize the quantity of earthworks and ensure side slope
stability.

5.2.13 When the elevation difference of the plant area natural topography is greater than 3%, terraced
layout can be adopted. The needs in production, convenience of transport and traffic and reasonable
layout of underground facilities shall be taken into consideration. At the interface of two terraces,
provisions on side slope stability shall be taken into full consideration according to the geological
conditions.

5.2.14 Design of plant area ground water drainage system shall be based on comprehensive factors of
topography, engineering geology and underground water level, and shall comply with the following
requirements:

1. The site drainage system design shall be totally considered according to the planned capacity of
the power plant, and shall assure unblocked drainage in each phase of the project. The plant site area
drainage should, according to practical conditions, be connected either to the main trunk pipeline
inspection well of the city type roadway sewage system through rainwater drainage openings, or to
the highway type roadway rainwater drainage system through open ditches. Whenever conditions
permit, gravity drainage shall be adopted. For the power plant with terraced layout, every terrace
should have its drainage provisions. For the power plant in mountainous region or in hilly area,
facilities to prevent torrents rushing into the plant area shall be provided at the plant area boundary.

— 28 —
2. For outdoor ditches above the designed ground elevation, overflow prevention measures shall
be taken, or drainage facilities shall be built at both sides of the ditches.

3. Drainage facilities shall be built around the coal storage yard, so that rainwater outside the yard
will not flow into it and rainwater in the yard will not flow out, and in the coal yard, precipitating
pond and provisions to facilitate coal slurry clearing shall be made.

5.2.15 The ground floor elevation of the production buildings should be 150~300 mm higher than the
designed outdoor ground elevation, and the effect of building settlement shall be taken into
consideration according to geological conditions.

5.2.16 The main pipe supports, pipelines and pipe ditches in the plant area shall be planned in a
unified way, and arranged in a concentrative manner based on plant planned capacity, with sufficient
reserves for pipeline corridors.

The pipe supports, pipelines and pipe ditches should be arranged along the roadway. Underground
pipelines and pipe ditches should generally be arranged outside the vehicle lane of the road.

5.2.17 The layout of the overhead and underground pipelines shall also comply with the following
requirements:

1. The process flow is reasonable, and the construction and maintenance convenient;

2. No secondary disaster shall occur in case of piping faults, especially the infiltration of sewage
water into living water supply pipelines and of harmful and inflammable gases into the other ditches
and underground rooms shall be prevented;

3. Mechanical damage and corrosion shall be avoided;

4. Liquid freezing inside the pipelines shall be avoided;

5. Infiltration of surface water, underground water and water from other pipe ditches into the cable
ditches and tunnels shall be avoided; and any flow back of all sorts of water into the cable ditches and
tunnels shall be avoided;

6. Fireproof partition walls shall be built at entrance of cable ditches or tunnel into buildings or at a
suitable distance and sections from the buildings; fireproof door shall be built in the fireproof wall of
cable tunnel.

5.2.18 The horizontal distance from the pipe ditches and underground pipelines to the buildings,
railways, roads and the other pipelines as well as the vertical distance of pipelines at crossovers shall
be determined according to various factors, including the embedded depth of the underground
pipelines and pipe ditches, foundation structures of buildings, construction and maintenance.

At intersections of high voltage overhead power transmission lines with roads, railways or other
pipelines, necessary safety net clearance shall be maintained according to regulations.

— 29 —
For overhead pipelines crossing over roads, a net overhead spacing of 4.5~5.0 m shall be
maintained; when large equipment transportation is required to pass or large hoisting facilities have
to pass through the road during maintenance period, the net clearance shall be determined according
to requirements. In crossing over railways, a net clearance of 5.5 m from the top of rails shall be kept
for ordinary pipelines, and of 6.0m for pipelines with inflammable or burnable liquid or gases. The
net clearance spacing of 6.55m shall be maintained when electric locomotive is used in traction.

5.2.19 The pipeline laying method shall comply with the following requirements:

1. Pipelines with conditions to be laid in a concentrated manner overhead should be laid on


all-purpose pipe supports; and the use of all-purpose pipe supports should be taken into consideration
in priority in areas where the soil is corrosive or the bedrock is shallow and is detrimental to the
construction of underground pipe ditches.

2. Production, domestic, firefighting water supply pipelines, and rainwater and sewage water
drainage pipelines should be laid underground.

3. Hydrogen pipelines, coal gas pipelines, compressed air pipelines, oxygen pipelines, ignition oil
pipelines and heating pipelines should all be laid overhead.

4. Acid and alkali liquid pipelines can be laid either in ditches or overhead. Where conditions permit,
ash handling pipelines should be laid on low supports or on pipe sleepers. Pipelines with the
possibility of spreading disaster during pipeline failure should not be laid in the same ditch.

5. The cables in the plant area can be laid in various forms, such as direct burying, underground
ditches, cable conduits, tunnels or overhead layout. Electric cables shall not be laid in the same ditch
with other pipelines.

5.3 Off-site Facilities Planning

5.3.1 The power plant off-site facilities, including those for communication and transportation, water
supply and drainage, ash and slag handling and treatment, electric power transmission lines and heat
supply pipelines, living area or construction area, shall be totally considered and comprehensively
planned according to the power plant planned capacity and the natural conditions of the plant site,
after the determination of plant site and the ascertaining of different main systems inside the power
plant.

5.3.2 The off-site communication and transportation planning of the power plant shall meet the
following requirements:

1. The special service railway lines shall be connected to the State and local railways or to the special
service railway lines of other industrial enterprises. The special service railway lines shall not be
connected to the inter-zone railway lines, and shall avoid the intersection with the regular railway
lines of the junction station, and shall make full use of the existing facility capacity and shall not
increase too much rebuilt expenses of the junction station.

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For large power plants, the possibility and rationality of the junction of power plant special
service railway line to the junction railway station shall be studied and proved practicable in the site
selection stage.

For the fuel and goods transport trains of power plants, the takeover method of sending in loaded cars
and sending out empty cars should be adopted in priority. No takeover station should be arranged
before the plant.

In severely cold regions where the incoming coal shall come via state trunk railway lines and the coal
car needs thawing, a plant front station can be set up for car takeover.

2. For a power plant mainly depending on water transportation, when the wharf is located outside the
plant area, or when the wharf is shared with other enterprises, coordination shall be carried out with
the planning organization and the relevant enterprises to assure the possibility of wharf construction,
and to determine the construction expenses and mode of operation after completion of construction,
at the same time, necessary agreements shall be acquired so as to assure a good and smooth
communication and transportation passage-way between thee wharf and power plant area.

3. For a mine-mouth power plant, for which the coal is supplied mainly from coal mines nearby the
power plant, transport by highway, by combination of highway and railway or by long belt conveyor
can be adopted, and the actual mode of transport can be determined after optimization through
comparison of different schemes.

4. The main entrance road to the power plant shall be connected to the high-way leading to the city or
town, and the connection should be short, speedy, and convenient to traffic, and should also avoid
crossing with a railway line. For the horizontal crossing of power plant entrance road with a railway
line, guarded crossing and other safety facilities shall be provided.

Road shall be built to connect the plant area to the off-site water supply and water discharge structures,
water source area, wharf, ash yard and residential area, and existing roads can be utilized or
special-purpose road can be built.

The main access road to the plant should have a width of 7m, with cement concrete or bitumen
pavement; other offsite special roads can have a width of 4m, or 3.5m under difficult conditions; the
road connecting the residential area should have a width of 7m, or 6 m under difficult conditions, and
should be of bitumen or cement concrete pavement. The special-purpose roads for ash handling and
coal transport into the plant shall be of a standard determined rationally according to factors of
transport volume and transport and unloading conditions, and they should be with cement concrete or
bitumen pavement.

5.3.3 The planning of the power plant off-site water supple and water drainage facilities shall be
reasonably arranged after alternatives study according to the planned capacity, water resources,
topographic conditions, environmental protection requirements and the relationship between present
phase of construction and future extension, and shall comply with the following requirements:

— 31 —
1. When once-through circulating water system is adopted, layout of the water intake and
discharge structures as well as the riparian (or central) water pump house and the route of the
circulating water pipelines (or channels) shall be properly selected.

2. For the circulating water supply system and the domestic water supply system, the location of the
off-site water source (or the catchment pond) and makeup water pump house and the route of
make-up water pipelines shall be properly selected.

3. Necessary telecommunication, traffic, living and sanitation facilities shall be considered for water
pump houses far away from the plant area.

4. The recovery and recycling of water energy shall be taken into consideration.

5.3.4 Planning on flood (water-logging) prevention and drainage for power plants shall be properly
done in conjunction with the actual conditions of the project, and full use shall be made to the existing
facilities for flood (water-logging) prevention and drainage. When it is necessary to build new
facilities, flood (water-logging) prevention dykes, drainage ditches or water stop walls should be
selected according to the actual conditions.

5.3.5 The design of off-site ash and slag handing facilities shall comply with the following
requirements:

1. The ash yard should be close to the power plant, and the valleys, depression, sea beach, beach land,
and subsided area nearby can be used to build ash yard, and multistep transportation should be
avoided.

2. The ash yard shall be built in an area where dam construction work quantity is small, and the
topography is favorable to arrangement of flood control and flood drainage structures; in the vicinity
of dam site, there shall be sufficient materials for dam construction, and possible conditions to divide
the construction of dam into stages by using ash and slag shall be considered.

3. When an ash yard is to be built in an valley, any harm of ash water from the ash yard to the
livelihood of the neighboring village inhabitants shall be avoided; influence of the flood discharge
structures to the downstream inhabitants shall be taken into consideration; its design shall be
determined after comprehensive study in combination with the locally planned flood control
capability. When the ash yard is located at the river shoal land, influence of the constructed ash dam
to the river course shall be considered, and documents of consent from the relevant organizations
shall be acquired.

4. The ash pipelines should be laid along the roadside and river network edges, and land section with
small elevation difference, less climbing, less crossing and less turning shall be selected; at the same
time, prevention of any influence to the agricultural cultivation shall be noted.

5. When ash and slag are transported by railway, truck or boat, the traffic capability of railway,
highway and river course together with the possible pollution to environment shall be fully studied,

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and corresponding measures shall be taken.

6. Necessary communication, transportation, living and sanitary facilities shall be considered for the
ash and slag pump houses and booster pump houses located far away from the plant area.

5.3.6 The outgoing transmission lines corridor of the power plant shall be planned according to
power system planning. The transmission line outgoing direction, voltage level and number of
circuits shall be planned in an overall way according to the planned capacity of the power plant,
avoiding cross-over as far as possible. The outgoing transmission lines corridor should be planned
beyond cities and towns or the planned industrial zones. For important facilities inside the zone
influenced by the high electric voltage, documents of approval or of confirmation from the relevant
organizations along the route of transmission lines shall be acquired.

The 220 kV and above high voltage outdoor switchgears may be arranged outside the plant area if
conditions are limited or when such layout is advantageous to the power system.

5.3.7 The off-site heat supply pipelines shall be rationally planned, and its coordination with general
arrangement of the power plant shall be noted.

The off-site overhead heating network pipelines should be laid with a number of pipes sharing
common supports.

5.3.8 The residential area of the power plant shall be planned according to the principle of favoring
production and facilitating livelihood of the staff.

For power plants close to cities and towns or industrial and mining zones, the residential area should
be arranged in conjunction with the planning for residential quarters of the city and town or industrial
and mining zone, and when conditions permit, the power plant should consider purchasing
commodity houses in priority without building a separate residential zone; for power plants far from
cities and towns or industrial and mining zones, when separate residential areas are built, they should
not be too far away from the plant area, but there shall be proper isolation zone between the plant area
and residential area.

Residential area shall be planned in one time according to the relevant provisions in the current
national standards and industrial standards, and be constructed in phases.

5.3.9 The construction area of the power plant shall be comprehensively planned according to the
planned capacity, and shall comply with the following requirements:

1. The layout shall be compact and reasonable, minimizing the use of land.

2. The construction temporary buildings, materials and equipment storage yard, construction
working site and temporary water supply and power supply main line routes for construction shall be
properly arranged according to the requirements of the construction process flow.

3. The construction site should have a separate drainage system, and the construction road should be

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built in combination with the permanent facilities.

4. For construction site leveling, the existing topography shall be followed to minimize the
earthwork and stonework, and large area damage to the construction area surface earth layer shall be
avoided, and soil erosion shall be prevented.

5. The layout of the construction site and passage-way shall minimize the interference to the
production, especially after some of the generating units are in operation. The layout should be
favorable to production, and also convenient to construction.

6. The layout of temporary buildings for construction shall not affect the extension of the power
plant.

6. Arrangement of Main Buildings

6.1 General Provisions

6.1.1 The arrangement of main buildings in power plants shall be adapted to the requirements of
electric power production technical process, and also attain the following: rational equipment layout
and space utilization, short and neat connection of pipelines, compact and proper layout of facilities
in buildings, and well-through passages for patrol inspection, so as to provide good conditions for the
safe operation, maintenance and repair in the power plants.

6.1.2 The main buildings arrangement in power plants shall provide good working environment for
the operation, maintenance, construction and erection personnel. The air quality, ventilation, natural
and artificial lighting and noise level in the buildings shall meet the provisions of relevant standards
currently in force. Relevant protection measures shall be taken in the equipment layout, and they shall
meet the relevant requirements in fire prevention, explosion prevention, moisture prevention, dust
prevention, corrosion protection and freezing protection. The layout of main buildings shall also
provide conditions for convenient construction.

6.1.3 The colors of the main buildings and the facilities, panels, pipelines, platforms and stairs in
them shall be soft and coordinated. The sizes of platforms, stairs and rails should be unified in the
whole plant or in a zone.

6.1.4 Two or more column spacing distances may be adopted while the process requirements are met
and convenience in maintenance is ensured. The requirements on modulus should be taken into
consideration for the column spacing, span and storey height of main buildings in assembled
reinforced concrete structure.

6.1.5 The main buildings layout shall take into account conditions for future extension according to
the requirements of overall planning.

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6.1.6 The main buildings layout shall be arranged rationally by taking notice of the site
topography, equipment features and construction conditions.

If the construction schedule requires concurrent work on two or more units, the layout of the main
buildings shall be such as to provide conditions for parallel continuous construction work.

6.2 Forms of Arrangement

6.2.1 The main buildings should be arranged in the order of boiler house, coal bunker bay, deaerator
bay (or combined coal bunker and deaerator bay) and turbine house, and their sizes should not exceed
those of the reference design for main buildings for units of the same category. When it is deemed
reasonable after technical and economic justification and according to the actual project conditions,
other new forms of arrangement that can control project cost and is favorable to operation,
maintenance and construction can also be adopted.

The comparable building volume of main buildings shall not exceed data of reference design of main
buildings for units of the same category.

6.2.2 When the same column spacing is adopted for the turbine house (or deaerator bay) and boiler
house (or coal bunker bay), the turbine house (or deaerator bay) shall not be separated from the boiler
house (or coal bunker bay) (i.e., single-row columns shall be provided). When it is reasonable in
technical and economic comparison to have different column spacings between the turbine house (or
deaerator bay) and boiler house (or coal bunker bay), separated arrangement (i.e., double-row
columns) can be adopted between the turbine house (or deaerator bay) and boiler house (or coal
bunker bay).

A partition wall shall be provided between the turbine house (or deaerator bay) and boiler house (or
coal bunker bay).

6.2.3 The heating station of heat supply network should be arranged in the main buildings. The
heating station using large horizontal heaters for heat supply network can be in open arrangement in
non-severely cold regions.

6.3 Boiler House Arrangement

6.3.1 In non-severely cold regions, boilers should be in open or semi-open arrangement.

In areas with severe cold or strong sandstorm, tower type boilers should be tightly enclosed with
outer wall boards, and non-tower type boilers shall either be tightly enclosed with outer wall boards
or be arranged indoor according to the equipment features and actual conditions of the project. In
regions with proper climate conditions, boilers with good sealing can be arranged without top
compartment and rain shield.

6.3.2 For boilers to be arranged in open or semi-open condition, the boiler manufacturer shall be

— 35 —
required to supply boilers suitable for such arrangement, i.e., the boiler body and its affiliated
systems and piping shall have provisions against rain, freezing and corrosion and withstanding wind
pressure and reducing heat loss.

6.3.3 Large-capacity boilers in open or semi-open arrangement should be in island type layout, i.e.,
no large platform shall be provided on its operation floor. When coal feeders are arranged around the
furnace, a large platform should be provided on the coal feeder floor. When the lower part of the
boiler body or the auxiliary equipment on the bottom floor of the boiler house are not suitable for
open-air arrangement or there are other requirements, the part below the operation floor may be in the
enclosed type structure.

For boilers in open or semi-open arrangement, when it is necessary to provide an operation zone
before the furnace above the operation floor, low enclosing type structure may be adopted.

The space in front of the furnace shall be minimized while the conditions for equipment and pipeline
arrangement, installation, operation and maintenance requirements are met. When conditions permit,
layout of combining the columns in front of furnace and coal bunker bay columns can be adopted.

6.3.4 The principles for open arrangement of main auxiliary equipment for boilers are as follows:

Ash removal equipment shall be in open arrangement, and provisions against dewing shall be made
for the ash hoppers of dry ash removal equipment.

In non-severely cold areas, the induced draft fans of boilers should be arranged in open. When island
open arrangement is adopted for boilers, the forced draft fans and primary fans should also be
arranged in open. For auxiliary machines in open arrangement, the motors should be of totally
enclosed type.

6.4 Coal bunker bay arrangement

6.4.1 The elevation of coal feeders in coal bunker bay shall be determined by the coal mills,
pulverized coal piping and the space required for their maintenance and hoisting equipment. To
facilitate operation and maintenance, the elevation of this floor should be the same as the boiler
operation floor.

6.4.2 The elevation of coal bunker floor of the coal bunker bay shall be determined according to the
design requirements for the raw coal bunker and pulverized coal bunker. Necessary operation
channels shall be provided on both sides of the belt conveyor. Within the coal bunker floor,
arrangement of necessary ventilation and dust removal devices, facilities to clean the floor and floor
drainage shall be taken into consideration. At the head of the belt conveyor, maintenance and hoisting
facilities shall be provided.

6.4.3 The coal storage capacity of the raw coal bunker and pulverized coal bunker shall be
determined according to the following requirements:

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For direct firing pulverizing system, in addition to the raw coal bunker for the stand-by coal
pulverizer, the total effective coal storage of all other raw coal bunkers shall satisfy over 8h of coal
consumption at the boiler maximum continuous evaporation rate for the design coal.

For bin storage pulverizing system, the effective amount of stored pulverized coal in the pulverized
coal bunkers shall satisfy over 2h of pulverized coal consumption at the boiler maximum continuous
evaporation rate for the design coal. The total effective coal storage of raw coal bunkers and
pulverized coal bunkers shall satisfy over 8h of coal consumption at the boiler maximum continuous
evaporation rate for the design coal.

To realize two-shift operation in the coal handling system, when it is deemed reasonable after
technical and economic comparison, the effective coal storage amount in the raw coal bunkers of
direct firing pulverizing system or the total effective coal storage amount in raw coal bunkers and
pulverized coal bunkers of bin type pulverizing system can be considered as being able to satisfy over
10h of coal consumption at the boiler maximum continuous evaporation rate for the design coal.

6.4.4 The design of raw coal bunkers shall conform to the following requirements:

1. Raw coal bunkers for large capacity boilers should employ steel structure cylindrical silo type,
with smooth inner wall resisting to abrasion. The geometric shape and structure of raw coal bunkers
shall enable smooth flow of coal, and for coal likely being blocked, stainless steel composite steel
plate, lined stainless steel plate or other smooth and fire-retarding wear-resisting materials should be
used for the exit section of the raw coal bunkers. On the outer wall of metal coal hoppers, vibrating
devices or other anti-blocking devices should be provided.

2. In severely cold areas, anti-freezing and insulation devices shall be provided on the walls for raw
coal bunkers in steel structure and reinforced concrete raw coal bunkers close to building outer wall
or exposed to the outside.

3. Raw coal bunkers shall be provided with coal level measuring devices, and steel raw coal bunkers
for large capacity boilers can be provided with devices for measuring coal amount.

6.4.5 The design of pulverized coal bunkers shall conform to the following requirements:

1. Pulverized coal bunkers shall be tightly enclosed, with flat, smooth and wear-resisting inner
surface where no pulverized coal will deposit. The geometric shape and structure of pulverized coal
bunkers shall enable smooth flow of coal.

2. Pulverized coal bunkers shall be protected against heat and moisture, and insulation shall be
provided on the outer wall of metal pulverized coal bunkers. In severely cold areas, anti-freezing and
insulation provisions shall be made for pulverized coal bunkers close to building outer wall or
exposed to the outside.

3. Pulverized coal bunkers must be provided with facilities to measure the coal level, temperature,
and for fire extinguishing, moisture absorbing and pulverized coal discharging. For all coal types

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except anthracite, pulverized coal bunkers must be provided with anti-explosion facilities.

6.5 Deaerator bay arrangement

6.5.1 The installation elevation of deaerator feedwater tanks shall ensure that no vaporization will
occur at the inlet of the feedwater pump or its booster pump under the transient condition of turbine
load rejection.

The deaerators and feedwater tanks should be arranged in the deaerator bay or deaerator coal bunker
bay, or their reasonable locations can be determined according to the conditions of main buildings
layout through justification and comparison of schemes. When the climate and layout conditions are
suitable, deaerators and feedwater tanks should be in open arrangement.

If it is indeed necessary to arrange the deaerator and feedwater tanks above the unit control room, the
ceiling of the unit control room must be cast as an integrated whole with concrete, and the floor for
the deaerator bay shall have reliable provisions against water.

6.5.2 For units of 300MW or above, when conditions are suitable (including provisions for
maintenance), horizontal heaters, booster pumps for turbine-driven feedwater pumps and
motor-driven feedwater pumps for startup and stand-by should be arranged in the deaerator bay.

In other cases, if conditions are suitable, part or all auxiliary power distribution devices can be
arranged in the deaerator bay, with consideration given to lighting, dust prevention and ventilation.

6.6 Turbine house arrangement

6.6.1 For units of 200MW and above, longitudinal line layout should be adopted. If conditions are
suitable and it is deemed reasonable after technical and economic comparison, transversal layout can
also be adopted.

For units below 200MW, whether it is to be arranged longitudinally or transversally should be


decided after justification and comparison according to actual project conditions.

Longitudinal line layout should be adopted for units with direct air-cooled condensing system.

6.6.2 The turbine house operation floor for units of 300MW or above should be in the large platform
arrangement. When such arrangement is adopted, the requirements on natural ventilation, heat
removal, moisture removal and lifting in the turbine house shall be taken into consideration.

For units below 200MW, whether the large platform or island arrangement is to be adopted shall be
decided after justification and comparison according to actual project conditions.

Island arrangement should be adopted for units of 125MW or below.

6.6.3 For units of 300MW or above, when the exhaust steam of the steam turbine for driving the
feedwater pump is led to the main condenser, the turbine driven feedwater pump should be arranged

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on the operation floor of turbine house, or on the bottom layer on the B-row columns of the
turbine house or on the bottom layer of the deaerator bay.

When the turbo-generator is provided with motor-driven feedwater pumps, the feedwater pumps can
be arranged on the bottom layer of turbine house or deaerator bay. If conditions are suitable, the
feedwater pumps can also be arranged in semi-elevated position.

6.6.4 The main oil tanks, oil pumps and oil coolers for large capacity turbines should be arranged at
zero elevation of the turbine house at the turbine front end on the A-row column side, and far away
from high temperature pipelines. For units of 200MW or above, composite oil tanks and jacketed oil
pipes should be used, and unit package type oil purifying devices should be provided.

Provisions against fire must be taken into consideration for the main oil tanks and oil system of
turbines. At appropriate locations outside the main buildings, emergency oil tank (pit) shall be
provided, and their elevation and design of the oil pipes shall meet the need for smooth oil drainage in
the event of an accident. The volume of emergency oil tank (pit) shall be no less than the oil quantity
of the oil system of one largest unit. The emergency oil drainage valve shall be arranged at a location
which is safe and convenient for operation, and can be accessed via two separate walking passages.

6.6.5 When longitudinal layout is adopted for large capacity units, the circulating water pump should
not be arranged inside the turbine house. The ball cleaning devices of the condensers should be
installed by the condensers.

When indirect air cooling system with mixed type condenser is adopted, the circulating water pump
and water turbine should be arranged inside the turbine house or by the turbine house.

6.6.6 The condensate polishing plant should be arranged at a proper position in the main building, or
at other locations close to the main building.

6.7 Central Control Building and Unit Control Rooms

6.7.1. For longitudinally arranged large capacity turbine-generator units, a central control building
should be shared by two units and be arranged between them. If conditions are suitable, the central
control building shall be extended into the deaerator and coal bunker bay. Central control building
may be jointly used by more than two units. Unit control rooms may be arranged in an independent
central control building, and may also be arranged at the operation floor of deaerator and coal bunker
bay or other appropriate locations.

6.7.2 The arrangement of equipment, instrument panels and activity spaces in the central control
building and unit control rooms shall be compact and reasonable while facilitating operation and
maintenance. The layout form of unit control rooms shall be selected on the basis of the actual
conditions and features of projects, and it is not proper to increase the area of central control building
for the purpose of arranging equipment not related to control room or arranging excessive living
facilities.

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6.7.3. A unit control room shall have no less than two accesses, and its net height shall be no less
than 3.2m. the unit control rooms and electronic equipment rooms shall have good provisions for air
conditioning, lighting, heat insulation and against dust, fire, water, vibration and noise.

Below the unit control room and electronic equipment room, there can be mezzanine for cables, and
its part adjacent with the Main building shall be sealed off.

The unit control room shall have an integral water-proof roofing.

6.7.4. In the unit control room, electronic equipment room and cable mezzanine, fire alarm and
signal devices shall be installed, and it is strictly forbidden to have steam, water and oil pipelines pass
through the cable mezzanine.

6.8 Maintenance and Repair

6.8.1. Maintenance space and place for storing repair tools shall be provided at suitable location in
the turbine house.

When the turbine operation floor is of large platform arrangement, every two units should be
provided with a zero elevation site for installation and maintenance. The area may be determined by
the requirement for lifting large components and for turning-over of the turbine cylinder.

When the turbine operation floor is of island type arrangement, for units of 200 MW and below, every
2~4 units should be provided with a zero elevation site for maintenance; for units of 300 MW and
above, every two units should be provided with a zero elevation site for maintenance. The set-up of
site for installation shall be decided according to the location of equipment entering the turbine house,
and as far as possible should be considered in conjunction with the zero elevation site for
maintenance.

6.8.2. The bridge type crane in the turbine house shall be provided according to the following
requirements:

1. Two bridge type cranes of the same lifting capacity can be installed for four and more
125MW~200 MW units, or for two and more 300 MW and above units.

2. The lifting capacity of the bridge type cranes shall be selected according to the heaviest piece to be
lifted during maintenance (not including the generator stator).

3. The installed elevation of bridge type crane shall be decided according to the lifting height for the
equipment to be lifted.

6.8.3 The main and auxiliary equipment in the Main building shall have necessary space for
maintenance, laying down area and transport passages. The longitudinal passages on the ground floor
of the Main building should be thorough and directly passable, with gates at both ends. In addition,
for the intermediate site for temperature at the zero elevation of turbine house by A-row columns, a

— 40 —
gate should also be provided and be open to the road in plant area. When the main transformer is
to be repaired in the turbine house, requirements for transporting the transformer, and for lifting the
shell shall also be satisfied.

Inside the Main building, transversal passages for operation and maintenance shall also be provided.

6.8.4 The number of elevators and mode of arrangement shall conform to the following
requirements:

1. For 220 t/h boilers, one elevator can be shared by four boilers;

2. For 410~420 t/h boilers, one elevator can be shared by two boilers;

3. For 670 t/h boilers, one elevator can be provided for each boiler when two adjacent boilers are
arranged relatively far apart; and one elevator can be shared by two boilers, when they are arranged
relatively close to each other;

4. For 1000 t/ h and above boilers, one elevator can be provided for each boiler;

5. The elevator should be of the types for both passengers and goods, with lifting capacity of 1t~2t,
and an ascending and descending speed not less than 1 m/s. The elevator shall be able to stop at
various major platform levels of the boiler proper;

6. The elevator should be arranged between the boiler and control room, close to the boiler front.

6.8.5 In the Main building, in addition to the bridge type crane for lifting equipment, necessary lifting
devices for maintenance shall also be provided according to the following requirements:

1. For equipment, pipe fittings and valves with lifting weight exceeding 1t to be repaired,
maintenance lifting facilities should be provided.

2. For lifting equipment with a lifting capacity exceeding 3t and to be frequently used, motor
operated lifting facilities should be provided.

3. For lifting equipment with a lifting capacity exceeding 10t, motor operated lifting facilities shall
be provided.

4. In main buildings where it is not convenient to provide fixed maintenance platform and fixed
lifting facilities, mobile hoisting facilities can be provided.

5. For equipment arranged in open area, mobile or stationary lifting facilities can be provided
according to the surrounding conditions.

6.8.6 In the main buildings, necessary openings for lifting and corresponding lifting facilities shall be
provided:

1. In the boiler house, there shall be motor-operated lifting devices and lifting openings for lifting
material from zero level to the boiler top platform, with a lifting capacity of 1t~3t.

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2. At the permanent end of the coal bunker bay, there shall be lifting openings from the ground
floor to coal bunker floor, and lifting facilities shall be installed.

6.9 Requirements for Combined Facilities

6.9.1 In main buildings for large capacity units, no or less underground pipe ditches and cable
trenches should be arranged. Water on the ground floor can be drained via the floor gullies to the
drain pipe network and then to collection wells. Industrial water discharge pipes can be pressurized
piping either elevated or directly buried.

In sections where trenches must be provided, crossover should be avoided and water blocking shall
be prevented.

Turbine houses for large capacity units should not be provided with full basement. Arrangement of
local basement can be considered according to the needs of actual arrangement when there are much
equipment on the zero floor of the turbine house, the ground water table is not high and it is deemed
reasonable through technical and economic comparison. Arrangement of basement shall meet the
requirements on traffic, water drainage, moisture prevention, ventilation and lighting.

6.9.2 Cables in main buildings should be laid on special overhead brackets, cable tunnel or ducts for
the purpose. Power cables and control cables should be arranged separately, and power cables should
be laid in conduits when conditions permit. When cables are laid with overhead brackets and cable
tunnels, provisions to prevent coal dust from accumulating on cables and to prevent fire spreading
shall be made.

The overhead bracket corridor shall be considered in a unified manner with the layout of main
equipment and pipelines in the main buildings, and should avoid sections likely to be subject to fire.
The route and layout of overhead brackets shall minimize the use of cables, facilitate construction and
normal maintenance, and shall also be neat and in good appearance.

It is strictly forbidden to use the cable tunnel as the drain passage for other pipe ditches. When the
cable tunnel runs across other pipe ditches, good protection against water shall be provided.

6.9.3 The window area of main buildings shall be determined by coordinating between the
architecture and other process specialties, taking into overall consideration all conditions of
ventilation, natural lighting, heating, energy saving, convenience in cleaning and architectural
treatment, and large area glass windows shall be avoided.

6.9.4 In power plants, a general emergency oil storage pit for electrical equipment shall be provided,
its volume shall be determined according to the oil quantity of the largest transformer. The general
emergency oil pit shall have oil and water separation facilities.

An oil storage sump shall be provided below outdoor oil-filled electrical equipment with an oil
quantity of 600kg or over. The size of the sump shall be larger than that of the equipment profile, and
the sump shall be laid with a layer of pebbles for a thickness no less than 250mm. The sump shall also

— 42 —
have the facilities to drain the oil into the general emergency oil storage pit.

6.9.5 The main building accesses and the stairs and passages on each floor shall conform to the
following requirements:

1. There shall be accesses at both ends on the ground floor of the turbine house and boiler house;

2. There shall be stairs leading to each floor and roofing at the permanent end. When the power plant
has reached its planned capacity, there shall also be stairs leading to each floor and roofing at the
extension end. Whether separate evacuation stairs are to be provided shall be determined according to
the fire control specification of the state;

3. Intermediate accesses and stairs shall be provided when the longitudinal length of the building
exceeds 100m, and their spacing shall not exceed 100m;

4. For turbine houses installed with air-cooled units, there shall be an access leading to outdoor at
Row-A columns;

5. The main passage in the main building shall not be zigzagged, its width shall not be less than 1.5m,
and it shall be close to the stairs and accesses.

6.9.6 For large capacity units in unit arrangement, the main structure of the main building should be
divided into units. The longitudinal expansion joints should be arranged between two units.

6.9.7 Main valves, dampers and actuators shall be able to operate normally and be serviced
conveniently, and operation and maintenance platforms shall be provided when necessary.

6.9.8 The boiler dosing, feedwater dosing and steam and water sampling devices shall be located at
proper positions close to dosing and sampling points in the main building. The stores for chemicals
required by the dosing devices can be arranged on the ground floor close to the dosing units.

— 43 —
7. Coal Handling System

7.1 General Requirements

7.1.1 The coal handling system for a newly built power plant shall be designed according to the
planned capacity, kinds of coal, mode of incoming coal transportation, local meteorological
conditions and shall be planned in coordination with the capacity of the current stage as a whole and
shall be constructed in several stages or completed in one stage.

7.1.2 The coal handling system design of an extension power plant shall fully utilize the existing
facilities and equipment and in coordination with existing system..

7.2 Coal Unloading Facilities

7.2.1 When incoming coal is transported by railway, the capacity of the coal unloading machineries
shall be determined according to the capacity of the power plant and the conditions of incoming train.
Under normal condition, the time from the train entering the plant site and taking its position to the
completion of unloading can be considered as not more than 4h, while in the sever cold region, the
time for unloading coal can be suitably prolonged.

The number of railway owned wagons entering the plant site for each time shall be determined
according to daily coal consumption:

(1) 1/3 train for power plant with daily coal consumption below 2,000 t;

(2) 1/2 train for power plant with daily coal consumption 2,000~4,000 t;

(3) Whole train for power plant with daily coal consumption above 4,000 t;

When single railway line slot type coal unloading trench is used for unloading coal, the effective
length of the coal trench shall be the length of ten wagons the maximum length shall not be longer
than 1/2 the length of each incoming train. When double railway line slot type coal unloading trench
is used, the length of each coal trench shall not be longer than the length of ten wagons, the maximum
length shall not be longer than 1/4 the length of the incoming train.

7.2.2 When power plant is constructed in the coal mine area, belt conveyor or self-unloading type
hopper wagon should be adopted for transportation of the coal outside the power plant.

The length of the coal unloading facility for self-unloading type hopper wagon shall be determined
according to the type of coal unloading facility, the mode of unloading, buffering capacity of the
system and the practice of train dispatching. Short coal unloading trench may be considered when
conditions are suitable and its output capacity shall match with the unloading capacity. When slot
type coal trench unloading coal in groups in adopted, the effective length of the coal unloading trench

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should be determined according to Article 7.2.1. The number of reserve hopper wagon should be
determined according to the actual condition. It is not suitable to be less than 15%.

7.2.3 The coal unloading facility composed of screw type unloading machine and slot type coal
trench may be used in the power plant with generating capacity not more than 600 MW or coal
consumption less than 350 t/h.

7.2.4 When single route belt conveyor is used under the slot type coal trench, one reserve impeller
feeder shall be provided.

7.2.5 When the incoming coal of the power plant is transported by railway and the coal consumption
is 250 t/h and above, or the capacity of the power plant is 400 MW and above, trippers may be
considered for unloading coal. For power plant of 600 MW and above or coal consumption 350~800
t/h, two trippers shall be provided.

When lump coal and frozen coal are used in the power plant and its coal consumption is 200 t/h and
above, trippers can also be considered.

When random wagons are existed in the incoming coal train, which can not be dumped, its unloading
facility may be cleaned together with the empty wagons. About 50 m long ground surface will be
hardened to the side of the empty line. When the number of the random wagons is on large side,
appropriate coal unloading facilities may be added.

When only one tripper is considered for planned capacity of the power plant, reserve coal unloading
facilities shall be provided.

7.2.6 For large capacity power plant in the severely cold region where the incoming coal by railway
is deeply frozen and difficult to unload, thawing facilities shall be provided. However, the report on
special topic of thawing facility should be given for discussion during the project study phase.

7.2.7 When coal is transported by water, wharf coal unloading machinery shall be installed. The total
rated output of the unloading machinery shall be determined according to the tonnage of the coal ship
and the coal unloading time agreed by the transportation authority but shall not be less than 300%of
the total coal consumption of all the boilers at maximum continuous evaporation rating. The installed
coal unloaders provided for the whole power plant shall not be less than 2 sets.

Bridge, clamshell and rope pulling type ship unloaders shall be used for the large wharf.

Bunker cleaning machinery shall be provided at the coal wharf for unloading 10,000 ton class or
above non-self-unloading ships.

When conditions permit, the continuous ship unlodaders or self ship unloading system can be
considered.

7.2.8 When partial or all coal is transported by trucks, the corresponding size of coal receiving station
shall be set up based on the annual incoming coal quantity by trucks. It shall not be suitable to use the
bucket wheel and clamshell coal unloaders on the coal piles of the coal yard. When partial coal for the

— 45 —
power plant is transported by highway, the capacity of railway unloading facilities shall be
considered comprehensively and suitably adjusted in conjunction with the capacity of the coal
receiving facility for highway transportation.

(1) When the annual incoming coal transported by trucks of the power plant is 3×105 t and below, the
receiving station shall be arranged in the coal yard. Then an area or several areas in the coal yard can
be used as the coal receiving station, and the clamshell crane, unloaders and bulldozers can be used as
the cleaning facilities of the coal receiving station. When the coal is mainly transported be loading
trucks, simply unloading machinery shall be provided at the coal receiving station.

The underground coal receiving hoppers shall be used for coal handling at the station. The handling
system shall be shared with the coal yard.

(2) When the annual incoming coal transported by trucks of the power plant is 3×105t~6×105t, the
multiple coal receiving hoppers in series of shallow slot type coal trench can be adopted at the coal
receiving station. When the coal is mainly transported by the loading trucks, the coal unloading
machinery shall be provided at the station.

The coal handling system of the receiving station will be shared with the coal yard as for as possible.

(3) When the annual incoming coal transported by trucks of the power plant is 6×105t and above, the
slot coal trench unloading devices can be used at the coal receiving station. When the incoming coal
is mainly transported by loading trucks, the truck unloaders shall be provided at the station.

7.3 Belt Conveyor System

7.3.1 Double routes shall be provided for the belt conveyor entering the boiler house and the
conditions of simultaneous operation of both routes shall be considered. The output of each route of
belt conveyor shall not be less than 150% of the total coal consumption of all the boilers in the power
plant at maximum continuous evapovation.

7.3.2 The rising inclined angle of the belt coal conveyor should be 16°, but shall not be greater then
18°.

7.3.3 Enclosed type belt conveyor gallery should be adopted in the cold, windy and sandy regions. In
the region where climate conditions are appropriate, the outdoor type may also be adopted.
Semienclosed type or light enclosed type may be adopted in the other regions.

Protective cover for the belt conveyor shall be installed where the outdoor gallery is adopted.

The corridor dimensions of the belt conveyor gallery (tunnel) shall be determined according to the
following requirements:

(1) The net width of the operation access shall not be less than 1m;

(2) The net width the maintenance access shall not be less than 0.7 m;

— 46 —
(3) The net height of the conveyor gallery for belt width 800 mm and below shall not be less than
2.2 m;

(4) The net height of the conveyor gallery for belt width 1000 mm and above shall not be less than 2.5
m;

(5) The net height of the underground belt conveyor tunnel shall not be less than 2.5 m;

(6) When double drum coal unloader is adopted for the belt conveyor in the coal bunker floor, the net
clearance on both sides of the coal unloader during traveling shall not be less than 0.8 m, the distance
between the unloader and column side shall not be less than 0.6 m, the net height where coal unloader
passes in the corridor shall satisfy the needs of operation and maintenance of the coal unloader.

7.3.4 In the coal handling system of the power plant using lignite and high volatile, easy of
spontaneous combustion type of coal, non-inflammable rubber belt shall be used for the belt
conveyor with fire fighting facilities provided.

7.3.5 Sealing measures shall be taken for the belt conveyors in the coal bunker bay to prevent
spreading of fly ash during coal unloading.

7.3.6 Water scraper shall be installed on the outdoor belt conveyor when arranged horizontally.

7.4 Cal Storage Yard and Equipment

7.4.1 The capacity and the coal storage facilities of the coal storage yard shall be considered
according to the transportation mode and distance, meteorological conditions, coal categories and
quality, the capacity of the power plant as well as the importance of the power plant in the electrical
power system.

The design capacity of the coal storage yard should be determined according to the following
principles:

(1) When the incoming coal of the power plant is transported through the State trunk railway line, the
capacity of the coal storage yard shall not be less then 15 day coal consumption of the whole power
plant. For 300 MW and above generating units or 200 MW and above co-generation units, the
capacity of the coal storage yard should be designed for 20 day coal consumption of the whole power
plant.

Under the condition that no effective measures for preventing spontaneous combustion is taken, the
capacity of Lignite coal storage yard should not be more than 10 day coal consumption of the whole
power plant and not exceed 15 day coal consumption as a maximum.

(2) When the incoming coal of the power plant is transported by belt conveyor without passing the
State trunk railway line, the capacity of the coal storage yard shall not be less than 5 day coal
consumption of the whole. Under the condition that the coal supply can assure steady and full
generation of the power plant, the coal storage yard may not be necessary, if technical and economical

— 47 —
study proves it .

When the truck transportation is the only coal incoming mode in the power plant, the capacity of the
coal storage yard should be also greater than the coal consumption for the possible maximum
continuous breaking days of the truck transportation.

(3) Dry coal storage facilities for the power plant in the rainy regions shall be determined according to
the coal physical characteristics types of the coal pulverizing system and equipment in coal yard. If
the dry coal storage facilities are necessary, its capacity shall not be less than 3 day coal consumption.
The total capacity of the coal storage yard should include that of the dry coal storage facilities when
the calculation is carried out.

7.4.2 When regional coal storage yard has to be built to increase the coal storage capacity by
incorporating with the newly built or extension project due to the necessity in the network, official
approval document of the feasibility study is required as the design basis.

7.4.3 The output and the quantity of the coal storage yard equipment shall meet the following
requirements:

(1) The stacking capacity of the coal yard equipment shall satisfy the requirements of the output
capability of the unloading facilities. The coal reclaiming capability shall be the same as the output of
the coal handling system entering the boiler house, no reserve is required. In the initial stage, when
one stacker/reclaimer is provided as the large-sized coal yard equipment, reserve facilities with an
output of not less than the total coal consumption of all the boilers in the power plant at maximum
continuous evaporation shall be considered.

In the large capacity power plant where trippers self-unloading hopper wagons with short trench are
installed or where the incoming coal is transported by water, buffering facilities shall be considered in
the system.

(2) When multi-purposes gantry type (loading / unloading bridge) or bridge type coal grab is used as
unloading, stacking, reclaiming and blending coal facility, the total rated output shall not be less than
250% of the total coal consumption of all the boilers in the power plant at maximum continuous
evaporation, no reserve is required. But when only one coal grab is provided, reserve reclaiming
machinery (Such as bulldozer, etc) shall be provided. When gantry type (loading / unloading bridge)
or bridge type grab is used together with crawler grab, the total average output also shall not be less
then 250% of the total coal consumption of all the boilers in the power plant at maximum continuous
evaporation.

7.4.4 The quantity of the coal yard auxiliary equipment (such as bulldozer, etc) shall be determined
according to the auxiliary stacking and reclaiming activities and a mount of work for leveling and
compacting of coal pile, handling of spontaneous combustion coal, etc.

7.4.5 Coal silo should be adopted as the coal storage facility of the power plant when the physical
properties of the coal is appropriate and necessary preventive measures for choke up of the coal shall

— 48 —
be considered. When lignite and high volatile, easy of spontaneous combustion type of coal are
stored, anti-explosion, ventilation, temperature monitoring and sprinkling attemperation facilities
should be also provided and the coal storage duration should be strictly controlled.

The storage capacity of the coal storage duration should be strictly controlled:

(1) As a coal blending facility, the capacity should be one day coal consumption of the whole power
plant;

(2) As a buffering facility of the coal handling system, then the coal silo shall be incorporated with the
operation of single bucket wheel stacker / reclaimer and become the reserve stacker / reclaimer. The
capacity shall be one day coal consumption of the whole power plant;

(3) For the city cogeneration power plant, due to the narrow site area of higher environmental demand,
the construction of outdoor coal yard has no suitable conditions, then the coal silo may be provided.
The capacity of the coal silo should not be more than 7 day coal consumption of the whole plant.

7.5 Coal Blending Equipment

For the power plant using different kinds of design coal and blending coal, the blending coal facilities
shall be provided.

7.6 Coal Screening and Crushing Equipment

Single stage screening and crushing equipment should be provided in the coal handling system. The
size of coal after screening and crushing shall be suitable to the demand of the coal mill, usually not
larger than 30 mm.

7.7 Control Mode

7.7.1 Sequence control shall be adopted and control room should be built for the coal handling
system in the newly built power plant. Automatic interlock and signal devices between each coal
handling facilities, necessary dispatching communication equipment and industrial TV monitoring
system shall be provided in the coal handling system.

7.8 Coal Handling Auxiliary Facilities

7.8.1 In each route of the coal handling system, single stage magnetic iron separator shall be installed
at the first transfer tower after unloading facility, at the outlet of the coal yard belt conveyor and in
front of the coal crusher. When medium speed or high speed coal mills are used, single stage or
double stage magnetic iron separator after the coal crusher shall be increased.

The iron pieces separated from the coal stream should be collected and sent to the facility on ground.

When conditions permit, the facility for handling wood block and lump coal at the first transfer tower
should be set up.

— 49 —
7.8.2 Weighing devices for plant incoming coal and the coal entering the boilers shall be
installed in the newly built power plant as well as in the extension project, when condition permits.

In the coal handling system, verification measures shall be provided for the weighing devices for
plant incoming coal and the coal entering the boilers. When railway weigher for incoming coal by
railway transportation and underground weigh-bridge for incoming coal by highway transportation
are installed, no verification device for incoming coal is required.

7.8.3 Mechanical continuous sampling device shall be installed for coal entering the boiler in the coal
handling system of a newly built power plant. Mechanical sampling device shall be added in the
power plant where the incoming coal is transported by railway, when conditions permit.

7.8.4 The following measures shall be taken for the design of the receiving coal hoppers and coal
chutes in the coal handling system:

(1) The included angle between the intersection line of two adjacent walls of a rectangular receiving
coal hopper and horizontal plane shall not be less than 55°. It shall also satisfy the intersection angle
between the wall surface and horizontal plane not less than 60°. The inner lining of the intersection
angle of two adjacent walls shall be made in arc shape, the radius of the are shall not be less than 200
mm. The intersection angle between the bottom hopper wall of a round coal silo and the horizontal
plane shall not be less than 60°. The sloping internal wall surface shall be lined with smooth and
wearable material.

(2) The angle of inclination between the coal chute and horizontal plane shall not be less than 60°.
Under restricted condition, when the angle of inclination can not reach 60°, measures to prevent coal
choking shall be taken according to the water content of the coal, the size composition, the
cohesiveness, etc, such as installation of vibrator, etc, but the angle of inclination of the coal chute at
this time also shall not be less than 55°.

(3) The cross-sectional area of the coal hopper outlet shall be enlarged as possible. In the arrangement
of the coal handling system the drop of coal chutes shall be diminished to the greatest extent and
bends shall be avoided. Wear resistance measures shall be taken for the surfaces in contact with the
coal in the coal chute.

7.8.5 For the convenience of maintenance and repair of coal handling equipment, necessary lifting
facilities and maintenance space shall be provided.

7.8.6 Water flushing or vacuum cleaning shall be adopted for cleaning the coal handling buildings.
When water flushing is adopted, the arrangement of equipment and the related processing and the
design of building shall satisfy the requirement of water flushing and the facilities for precipitating
and recovery of fine coal shall be provided.

In the design of underground coal unloading trench tripper room, transfer tower, coal crusher room
and belt conveyor floor in the coal bunker bay, measures for preventing flying coal dust shall be
taken.

— 50 —
Spray water devices shall be installed in the coal storage yard.

8. Boiler Equipment and Systems

8.1 Boiler Equipment

8.1.1 The type, number and capacity of power plant boilers shall be selected according to the
following requirements:

(1) The type selection of boiler equipment and technical requirements shall be as specified in
“Technical Specifications for Coal Fired Power Plant Boiler” SD 268-1988.

The type of the boiler equipment must be suited to the quality characteristics of the coal used and the
allowable variation of the coal quality in the current specifications. The physical and chemical tests
and analyses of the coal and its ash shall be performed to obtain the normal and abnormal
characteristic data of the coal quality.

(2) For the reheating unit, one boiler to one turbine shall be adopted. The maximum continuous
evaporation rating of the boiler shall match with the inlet steam flow when the turbine govenor valve
is fully open.

(3) For the power plant provided with the non reheating steam supply unit and header system for the
main steam, when the largest capacity steam boiler is out of service, the other boilers (including
utilizable and reliable heat sources) shall satisfy:

a. The quantity of process steam required for the continuous production of the heat end-user;

b. 60%-75% of the heat for heating in winter, ventilation and domestic usage. In the severely
cold regions, the higher limit shall be adopted. In the mean time, a portion of the power
generation output may be reduced.

(4) The selection of the network heating supply capacity of the power plant provided with reheating
cogeneration unit shall be considered together with the other heat source capacity of the same heating
network. When one largest capacity steam boilers are out of service, if the network heating supply
capacity from the remaining boilers can not satisfy the requirements in this Article, clause 3, the
insufficient portion shall be compensated with the other heat sources of the same heating network.

8.1.2 The pressure drop from the superheater outlet of the large capacity boiler to the turbine inlet
shall be 5% of the rated inlet steam pressure of the turbine. For the unit with subcritical and below
parameters, the rated steam temperature at the superheater outlet shall be 3°C higher than the rated
inlet steam temperature of the turbine. For the supercritical unit, such temperature shall be 5°C higher
than the rated inlet steam temperature of the turbine. At rated conditions, the pressure drops of the
cold reheat steam piping, reheater and hot reheat steam piping shall be 1.5%~2.0%, 5%, 3.5%~3.0%
respectively, of the HP turbine exhaust steam pressure at the rated operation conditions. The rated

— 51 —
steam temperature at the reheater outlet shall be 2°C higher than the rated inlet steam
temperature of the IP turbine.

8.1.3 The design of the pulverizing system for boiler combustion and the equipment shall be in
accordance with the design of the boiler proper and its safety protection monitoring system and shall
conform with the specifications is “Anti-explosive Directories of the Pulverized Coal Boiler
Combustion Chamber of Fossil fuel power plant” DL 435.

8.2 Pulverized Coal Preparation

8.2.1 The type of the mills and the pulverizing system shall be based on the coal quality and the
possible variation of the coal categories, load characteristics, applicable conditions of the mills as
well as the structures of boiler furnaces and burners, and determined after the technical and
economical comparison.

(1) When the category of coal is suitable for the large capacity unit, the medium speed mills shall be
the priority choice;

When lignite with high moisture content and less abrasiveness is used, the beater mills shall be
adopted;

When low volatile lean coal, anthracite or the coal with high abrasiveness are the available fuel, the
tube mills shall be adopted.

When anthracite, lean coal with low volatile matter and explosive bituminous with high abrasiveness
are considered technically and economically reasonable, the double inlet and outlet tube mills shall
be used.

(2) Direct firing pulverizing system shall be adopted when medium speed mills, beater mills or
double inlet and outlet tube mills are used;

When medium speed mills are used, the coal handling system shall be equipped with effective
facilities for separating iron pieces, wood blocks, stones and lump coal pieces. And facilities for
separating pyrites should be taken into consideration;

When medium speed mills and double inlet and outlet tube mills are used and the air preheaters can
satisfy the demands, the positive pressure cold primary air system shall be adopted;

When the normal tube mills are used, the bin-and-feeder pulverizing system should be adopted.

8.2.2 The numbers and capacity for the mills in direct firing pulverizing system shall be selected
according to the following requirements:

(1) When high or medium speed mills are adopted, standby mill shall be provided.

4 medium speed mills as a minimum for 200 MW and above boilers.

3 medium speed mills as a minimum for 200 MW and below boilers, one as standby.

— 52 —
(2) When the double inlet and outlet tube mills are adopted, standby mill is not required. At least
2 mills shall provided for each boiler.

(3) At least 3 beater mills shall be provided for each boiler, one as standby.

(4) When 6 or move beater mills in the normal operate mode are provided for each boiler, one of
which shall be as standby for operation and one for maintenance.

(5) The margin shall be given for the calculated mill output:

a) When the design coal is pulverized, the total output for high and medium mills (except the
standby mills) shall not be less than 110% of the coal consumption of boilers at the maximum
continuous evaporation. When the check coal is pulverized, the total output of all the mills
before maintenance shall not be less than the coal consumption of boilers at the maximum
continuous evaporation.

b) When the design coal is pulverized, the total output for double inlet and outlet tube mills shall
not be less than 115% of the coal consumption of boilers at the maximum continuous
evaporation. When the check coal is pulverized, the output of the mills shall not be less than
the coal consumption of boilers at the maximum continuous evaporation. When one side of
one of the mills is in operation, the total continuous output of the mill shall satisfy the
demands of the turbines under the rated operating conditions.

c) The calculated output for medium mills and beater mills shall be considered according to the
output at the middle or later stage of abrasiveness. The output for the double inlet and outlet
tube mills shall be taken according to the ball charge recommended by manufacturers.

8.2.3 The numbers and output of tube mills with bin-and-feeder

pulverizing systems shall be selected according to the following

requirements:

At least 2 mills shall be provided for each boiler, and no standby mills are required.

The calculated output of the design coal for the mills of each boiler (for the large mills with optimum
ball charge) shall not be less than 115% of the necessary coal consumption of the boiler at maximum
continuous evaporation. When the check coal is used, the output shall not be less than the necessary
coal consumption of the boiler at maximum continuous evaporation.

When one of the tube mills is out of operation, the calculated output of the remaining mills, on the
design coal basis, shall be able to maintain safe and stable operation of the boiler, without supporting
fuel oil. However the pulverized coal may be delivered from the adjacent boilers, if necessary.

8.2.4 The type, number and output of coal feeders shall be selected according to the following
requirements:

— 53 —
(1) The selection of coal feeders shall be based on the arrangement of the pulverizing system,
demands on boiler loads, quantity adjustability for coal fed, operation reliability as well as coal
metering requirements. The coal feeders with the positive pressure direct firing pulverizing system
shall be good in tightness and withstanding pressure. The coal feeder with bin-and-feeder pulverizing
system shall be also well sealed to reduce air leakage.

a) When the high speed mills with direct firing pulverizing system are adopted, metering scraper
coal feeders shall be used.

b) When the medium speed mills with direct firing pulverizing system are adopted, the coal
feeders of weighing belt type shall be used.

c) When the double inlet and outlet tube mills are provided with the direct firing pulverizing
system, the scraper coal feeders shall be used.

d) When the tube mills are provided with the bin-and-feeder pulverizing system, the scraper or
belt coal feeders shall be selected. For the small capacity unit, the vibration coal feeders may
be adopted.

(2) The number of coal feeders shall be the same as that of the coal mills. For the unit adopting the
double inlet and outlet tube mills, 2 coal feeders shall be provided for one mill.

(3) The calculated output of coal feeders shall comply will the following specifications:

a) The calculated output of the vibration coal feeders shall not be less than 120% of the mill
maximum calculated output.

b) The calculated output of a single coal feeder for the double inlet and outlet tube mill shall not
be less than that of the mill with one side operation.

c) The calculated output of the other types of coal feeders shall not be less than 110% of that of
the mill.

8.2.5 The number and maximum output of pulverized coal feeders shall be selected according to the
following requirements:

(1) The number of pulverized coal feeders shall be the same as that of the primary air connections of
the boiler burners. For the double line pulverized coal feeders with good distribution, one pulverized
coal feeder can be also connected with two primary air pipes.

(2) The maximum output of one pulverized coal feeder shall mot be less than 130% of the maximum
design output of the burner with which the feeder is connected.

8.2.6 The pulverized coal handling facilities for the bin-and-feeder pulverizing system may be
installed as needed. The chain conveyor or other type of conveyors in reliable quality may be chosen.
The principle of setup and the capacity of the conveyor shall be defined according to the following

— 54 —
requirements:

(1) When two coal mills are provided for each boiler, the pulverized coal bunker between the two
adjacent boilers may be interconnected with the pulverized coal conveyor;

(2) When four mills and two pulverized coal bunkers are provided for each boiler, the pulverized coal
conveyor may be interconnected with the two adjacent pulverized coal bunkers of the same boiler or
with the two adjacent bunkers between the two boilers;

(3) The capacity of pulverized coal conveyor shall not be less than the maximum calculated output of
one mill among the mills connected;

(4) When the length of pulverized coal conveyor exceeds 40 m, the dual end drive mode shall be
used;

(5) The pulverized coal conveyor shall be good in tightness;

(6) When the arrangement is in such an appropriate way that the fine coal can be supplied directly to
the two adjacent pulverized coal bunkers of the same boiler or to the two said bunkers between the
two boilers through the fine coal chute of the fine coal separator, the pulverized coal conveyoring
equipment may be not required.

The pulverized coal conveying equipment shall not be provided for highly volatile bituminous and
lignite coal.

8.2.7 Anti-explosion and fire extinguishing facilities shall be provided for the pulverizing system
(with the exception of firing entirely with anthracite). Facilities for access of inertia media and
fire-extinguishing media shall be provided for pulverized coal bunker, mills and pulverizing system.

8.2.8 The type, number, air flow and pressure head of primary air fans shall be selected according to
the following requirements:

(1) When three sector rotary air preheaters are adopted for the positive pressure direct firing
pulverizing system or bin-and-feeder system with hot air for cutting in pulverized coal, the single
speed centrifugal fan shall be used as cold primary air fan. The moving vane regulating type axial fan
may be also adopted as the cold primary air fan.

When two sector rotary air preheaters are adopted for the positive pressure direct firing pulverizing
coal system, the single speed centrifugal fan shall he adopted as the hot primary air fan,.

(2) The number of cold primary air fans should be two sets. Spare positive pressure direct firing
system shall not be provided. The number of hot primary air fans shall match with that of the coal
mills.

(3) The air flow and pressure head of primary air fans shall be based on the features of air preheaters
and different pulverizing coal system.

— 55 —
a) When the three sector rotary air preheaters are used, the cold primary air fans for the positive
pressure direct firing pulverizing coal system shall be selected according to the following
requirements:

The air flow of fans shall be calculated on the design coal basis and should include the primary air
flow required for boilers at maximum continuous evaporation, the manufacturer’s guaranteed air
leakage from the primary air side of the air preheaters after one-year operation and the sealing air
loss from mills for which the air is supplied by primary air fans (calculated on all mills basis).

The margin for the air flow of fans shall not be less than 35%. The temperature margin is
additional and may be determined on the basis of “the ourtdoor calculated temperature with
ventilation in summer”. The margin for pressure head of fans shall be 30%. The pressure head
margin may be increased to 35% for the coal primary air fan in serial operation with forced draft
fans.

b) When the three sector rotary air preheater is used, the cold primary air fans for the bin-and-feeder
system shall be selected according to the following requirements:

The air flow of fans shall be calculated on the design coal basis and should include the primary air
flow required for boilers at the maximum continuous evaporation and the manufacturer’s
guaranteed air leakage from the primary air side of the air preheaters after one-year operation.

The margin for the air flow of fans shall be 20%. The temperature margin is additional and may
be determined on the basis of “the outdoor calculated temperature with ventilation in summer”.
The margin for pressure head of fans shall be 25%.

c) When the two sector rotary or tubular air preheaters are adopted. The hot primary air fan for each
mill in the positive pressure direct firing pulverizing coal system shall be selected according to
the following requirements:

The air flow of fans shall be calculated on the design coal basis and shall be that of the primary air
at the calculated output of each mill minus the sealing air flow for each mill.

The margin of the air flow of fans shall not be less than 5%. The additional temperature margin shall
be determined according to the upper limit of coal moisture content variation. The pressure head
margin of fan shall not be less than 10%.

8.2.9 The number, air flow and pressure head of the pulverized coal exhauster shall be selected
according to the following requirements:

(1) The number of pulverized coal exhausters shall be the same as that of mills.

(2) the basic air flow of pulverized coal exhausters shall be determined from the thermal calculation
of the pulverizing coal system with the design coal.

(3) The air flow margin of the pulverized coal exhausters shall not be less than 5%. The pressure head

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margin shall not be less than 10%. The maximum design value of fans shall satisfy the air
demands for mills at the maximum ball charge.

8.2.10 When sealing fans are needed in the positive pressure direct firing pulverizing coal system of
medium speed mills and double inlet and outlet tube mills, the number and the margins for air flow
and pressure head shall be selected according to the following requirements:

(1) Not less than two sealing fans shall be provided for each boiler, one of which is as standby. When
each mill is provided with its own sealing fan, no spare sealing fan shall be required.

(2) The air flow margin for sealing fans shall not be lower than 10%.the pressure head margin for
sealing fans shall not be lower than 20%.

8.3 Air and Gas System

8.3.1 The type, number, air flow and pressure head for FD (forced draft) fans shall be selected in
accordance with the following requirements:

(1) The axial fans with adjustable moving vanes shall be selected as the FD fans for large capacity
boilers. Axial fans with adjustable static vanes or centrifugal fan with high efficiency may be used as
well. When double speed centrifugal fans are adopted, the low speed range shall satisfy the turbine at
THA load and run in the high efficient range. The other type of speed governing fans may be adopted
through the technical and economic comparison.

(2) Each boiler shall be provided with two FD fans and no spare fan is required.

(3) The air flow and pressure head of FD fans shall be selected to the following requirements:

a) The air flow of FD fans shall be calculated on the design coal basis and should include the air
flow required for boilers at the maximum continuous evaporation and the manufacturer’s
guaranteed net air leakage from the drafting side of air preheater after one-year operation.

b) When the three sector rotary air proheaters are adopted, the air flow margin for FD fans shall not
be lower than 5%. The temperature margin shall be additional and the same as that of the primary
air fans. The pressure head margin for FD fans shall not be less than 10%.

c) When a cold primary air fan is connected at the outlet of the FD fan, the air flow margin shall be
calculated separately. The air flow margin for the primary air system shall be taken as described
in Clause 3, Items a), b), Section 8.2.8. The air flow margin for FD fans shall not be less than
10%.

d) When two sector rotary or tubular air preheaters are adopted, the air flow margin for FD fans
shall be 10%, and the pressure head margin shall be 20%.

(4) When the coal with low calorific value or low volatile matter is used for boilers and each boiler is
provided with two FD fans, the air flow margin for fans shall be rechecked so as to satisfy the demand

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of the boiler at the minimum stable combustion load without cutting in oil and with one FD fan
under the operating condition.

8.3.2 The type, number, air flow and pressure head of ID (induced draft) fans shall be selected
according to the following requirements:

(1) The axial fans with adjustable static vanes or high efficient centrifugal fans shall be selected as ID
fans for the large capacity boiler. If the dust concentration of flue gas at the fan inlet satisfy the
demand of fans and the technical and economic comparison supports such selection, the axial fans
with adjustable moving vanes may be adopted. When double speed centrifugal fans are selected, the
low speed range shall satisfy the turbine at the rated operating condition and rum within the high
efficient range. The other type of speed governing fans may be adopted through the technical and
economic comparison.

(2) Each boiler shall be provided with two ID fans and no spare fan is required.

When the load variation is relatively large, the fuel structure is complicated or when the unit capacity
is 600 MW and above, two more ID fans for a boiler can be used.

(3) The air flow and pressure head for ID fan shall be selected to the following requirements:

a) The air flow of ID fan shall be the sum of flue gas flow of the boiler at maximum continuous
evaporation using the design coal, the manufacturer’s guaranteed air leakage from the gas side of
air preheater after one-year operation and the air leakage from the air and gas system.

b) The air flow margin for ID fan shall not be less than 10%. The temperature margin shall be
additional and not lower than 10°C.

c) The pressure head margin of ID fans shall not be lower than 20%.

(4) When the coal with low calorific value or low volatile matter is used for boilers and each boiler is
provided with two ID fans, the air flow margin for fans shall be rechecked so as to satisfy the demand
of the boiler at the minimum stable combustion load without cutting in oil and with one ID fan under
the operation condition.

8.3.3 Two centrifugal fans shall be used as the cooling fans for large capacity boiler, one for
operation and one for standby.

The air flow margin of the fans shall be 15%. The pressure head margin shall be 25%.

8.3.4 A ignition fan may be provided for a large capacity boiler as required. No spare ignition fan is
provided.

The air flow margin of fans shall be 15%. Its pressure head margin shall be 25%.

8.3.5 The selection of precipitators shall allow the dust content and concentration from the gas
emission to meet the requirements of the current environmental protection standards. Moreover,

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consideration shall be given to the ash properties, technical process and the requirements of
comprehensive utilization of the ash and slag.

At least two sets of electrostatic precipitators shall be provided for each boiler. For 220 t/h ~ 420 t/h
boiler, one set may be provided as the case may be.

The guaranteed duct collecting efficiency shall be obtained by using the selected electrostatic
precipitators under the following conditions:

(1) When one of the power supply areas is stopped.

(2) When the gas flow of electrostatic precipitator is calculated according to the gas flow at the air
preheater outlet with the design coal to be used and boiler at the maximum continuous evaporation.
The margin shall be 10%.

(3) The gas temperature shall be the design temperature plus 10°C.

8.3.6 The number, type and height of stacks and the gas flow rate at the stack outlet shall be
determined according to the requirements of environmental protection and corrosion resistance for
stacks. Meanwhile the comprehensive consideration on the number of boilers to be set up and the
structure arrangement of stacks shall be taken economically and reasonably. The number of boilers to
be connected to the same stack shall be selected as follows:

(1) For 300 MW and below unit, 2~4 boilers.

(2) For 600 MW unit, 2 boilers.

8.4 Fuel Oil System for Ignition and Combustion supporting

8.4.1 The oil category for ignition and combustion supporting shall be based on the capacity, number
and coal for boilers, fuel oil sources, price as well as the transportation conditions. The technical and
economic comparison should be made also:

(1) Normally light oil shall be used for ignition and stable combustion at low load.

(2) In the extension power plant, light oil may be used for ignition, heavy oil for startup combustion
and low load stable combustion according to the conditions of the existing plant.

(3) Combustible gases may be used for ignition and low load stable combustion under the appropriate
conditions. In this case, the design shall be done as referred in the related safety and technical
specifications.

(4) When the supply and quality of heavy oil are guaranteed, heavy oil may be also used for ignition
and low load stable combustion.

8.4.2 The design output for ignition and combustion oil system in the whole power plant shall be
selected to the following requirements:

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(1) The output of the system using one single category of fuel oil shall not be less than the sum of
the maximum ignition oil consumption of one boiler and the startup combustion oil consumption of
the maximum capacity of another boiler. When two different categories of fuel oil are used as ignition
oil and startup combustion supporting oil, the output of ignition oil system for the whole plant shall
not be less than the maximum ignition oil consumption for one boiler. The output of startup
combustion supporting oil system shall not be less than the maximum startup combustion supporting
oil consumption of the maximum capacity of one boiler. When a boiler at low load needs one
category of coal to support oil combustion, the output of the system shall not be less than the sum of
oil consumption required for startup combustion supporting of one boiler and low load stable
combustion for one boiler.
(2) The ignition fuel oil consumption of boiler shall be determined according to the total output of the
ignition guns (provided by manufacturer) to be used at the same time.

(3) The fuel oil consumption for boiler start up combustion supporting shall be selected according to
the coal category, boiler type and the arrangement of burners:

When bituminous coal and lean coal with high-volatile matter are used, the oil consumption shall be
10% of input heating at the maximum continuous evaporation of a boiler.

When anthracite and low-volatile lean coal are used, the oil consumption shall be 20% of input
heating at maximum continuous evaporation of a boiler.

(4) The oil consumption for stable combustion of boiler at low load shall be determined according to
coal category, the minimum stable combustion load of a boiler without supporting oil and the
operation mode of a boiler, and if necessary, 5% of input heating at the maximum continuous
evaporation of a boiler shall be chosen.

(5) The return oil quantity of the system shall be determined according to the design characteristics of
burners, the requirements of combustion safety and protection as well as the parameters of fuel oil.
This quantity shall not be less than 10% of the design output of the system.

(6) The design output of the system shall be the sum of the fuel oil consumption and the minimum
return oil quantity, its margin shall be 10%.

8.4.3 The number and volume of fuel oil tanks for ignition and startup combustion supporting shall
be comprehensively considered and determined according to the capacity of a single boiler, coal
category, oil category, fuel oil consumption, the mode and cycle of incoming oil , and should meet the
following requirements:

(1) For light oil, two oil tanks to be provided; for heavy oil, three oil tanks to be provided.

(2) The volume of the oil tanks for ignition, start up and combustion supporting shall be selected as
specified below:

a) 420 t/h and below boilers, 2×500 m3 or 3×200 m3;

— 60 —
b) 670 t/h boiler, 2×1000 m3 or 3×500 m3;

c) 1000 t/h boiler, 2×(1000m3~1500m3) or 3×1000 m3; to be determined according to coal and oil
cotegories;

d) 2000 t/h boiler, 2×(1500m3~2000m3) or 3×(1000m3~1500 m3), to be determined according to


coal and oil categories;

e) 2000 t/h and above boiler, 2×2000 m3 or 3×1500 m3.

(3) When two oil sources are used for ignition oil and startup combustion

supporting oil ,the capacity of ignition oil tank shall be selected as specified

below:

a) 1000 t/h and below boilers, 2×100 m3;

b) 2000 t/h and below boilers, 2×200 m3;

(4) When coal category is needed for oil stable combustion of a boiler at low load, the capacity for a
single oil tank of combustion supporting shall not be less than the monthly average oil consumption
of the whole plant.

(5) If the oil tanks for combustion supporting are far away form the Main building or there is a
number of boilers that require different oil qualities, the daily oil tanks shall be set up nearby the Main
building. One daily oil tank may be provided per boiler of one tank for a whole plant, for which the
capacity shall be as follow:

a) 200 MW and below units, 100 m3;

b) 300 MW unit, 200 m3;

c) 600 MW unit, 300 m3;

When one daily oil tank is shared by several boilers, the capacity of the tank shall not be less than the
oil consumption of all oil systems for 3 hours.

8.4.4 The fuel oil for ignition and start up combustion supporting may be transported by railway,
highway, water or piping and shall meet the following requirements:

(1) When oil is delivered by railway, the length of oil unloading station should accommodate 4~10 oil
wagons unloaded at the same time. 6 h ~ 12 h can be considered for oil wagons from entering the
plant to the completion of oil unloading.

(2) If the power plant is near the oil source, oil may be transported by cars.

(3) When oil comes by water, the oil unloading wharf shall be constructed beside the ash and slag

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wharf, large size of piece wharf or coal wharf;.

(4) Piping delivery can be considered for oil source nearby.

8.4.5 The oil unloading mode shall be determined according to the oil quality characteristics,
transportation mode, oil tank conditions, after the technical and economic comparison. The type,
number and flow of oil unloading pumps shall be selected as required below:

(1) The type of oil unloading pump shall depend on the oil viscosity, oil unloading mode as well as
fire fighting codes and requirements.

(2) Two oil unloading pumps shall be provided as a minimum. When the maximum one is out of
service, the total flow of the other pumps shall be sufficient for unloading the trucks, ships during the
specified period.

(3) The head of oil unloading pump and its motor capacity shall be considered according to the
conditions of the fuel oil delivery at maximum viscosity ,the head margin shall be 30%.

8.4.6 The type, flow and number of oil delivery (supply) pumps shall meet the following
requirements:

(1) The type of oil delivery (supply) pump shall depend on the oil quality and parameters. Centrifugal
pumps or screw pumps shall be chosen.

(2) The number of oil delivery (supply) pumps should be three sets. The capacity may be 2×100%+
1×30% or 3×50%. Two sets of with the capacity 2×100% may be used as well. When the largest one
is out of service. The total flow of the other pumps shall not be less than 110% of the sum of the fuel
oil consumption and the oil return quantities of the whole plant fuel oil systems.

(3) The flow margin for oil delivery (supply) pumps shall not be lower than 10%. The head margin for
them shall not be lower than 5%. The total resistance margin for the fuel oil piping system used for
head calculations (not including the atomizing oil pressure and the height difference of oil guns) shall
not be less than 30%.
(4) When the screw oil pump is used, one standby pump for maintenance shall be supplied.
8.4.7 The oil delivery pump house should be located nearby the oil storage area, while the oil supply
pump house for the daily oil tanks should be near the boiler house.
In the oil pump house, the proper ventilation, lifting facilities, the necessary maintenance area as well
as shift operator room shall be provided. However, when the automatic controls and fire
extinguishing facilities satisfy the unattended requirement, then, the shift operator room shall not be
considered. The electrical equipment in the oil pump house shall be anti-explosion.
8.4.8 A single oil pipe line for supplying ignition and combustion supporting oil (when the same oil
is used) to the boiler house shall be adopted. When there are many boilers in the power plant and fuel
oil supply to the boiler house is directly from the oil storage area, double pipelines may be adopted for
the combustion supporting oil .

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When the ignition oil and combustion supporting oil are two different kinds, one oil return line
for each oil shall be adopted and when they are the same oil, only one oil return line shall be provided.
For the fuel oil system in the boiler house, single ring pipe should be used.
The oil flow metering device shall be provided on both oil supply and return pipings of each boiler.
On the main oil supply pipe, oil flow metering device may be installed. Quick shut-off valves and
bypass valves for tests shall be provided on the oil supply pipe of each boiler. On the oil return piping
of each boiler, quick shut off valves shall be installed and the check valves may be also provided.
8.4.9 For the fuel oil with high viscosity and easy condensation, its unloading, storing and supplying
systems shall be provided with heating and purging facilities. The heat tracing piping and steam or
compressed air purging piping may be provided for the fuel oil piping. Means for preventing the
backward flow of fuel oil into the steam purging system shall be provided.
8.4.10 Outdoor arrangement for fuel oil heaters may by adopted. They may be placed at the vicinity
of the boiler house, if the conditions for such arrangement are suitable.
Two heaters for heavy oil shall be provided, one of them is as standby.
8.4.11 Waste oil, waste water collecting and the related oily water treatment facilities shall be
provided in the fuel oil system.
8.4.12 The fuel oil system design shall be in accordance with the requirements in the “Design Code
for Oil Storage Areas” GBJ 74.
The anti-static and lightning for the fuel oil tanks, oil delivery pipes and fuel oil pipes shall be
designed as required in “Ground for AC Electrical devices” DL/T621 and “Over Voltage Protection
and Insulation for AC Electrical Devices” DL/T620.

8.5 Boiler Auxiliary System


8.5.1 The equipment for continuous and periodical blowdown system of boilers shall be selected as
required below:
(1) For drum type boiler, a single stage continuous blowdown flash system shall be adopted. For the
drum type boiler in the cogeneration plant where high pressure units are installed, two stage
continuous blowdown flash system should be adopted according to the flash steam utilizations. In the
continuous blowdown system, bypass for switching over the continuous blowdown to the periodic
blowdown shall be provided.
(2) For generating units of 125 MW and below, one set of flash system should be provided for two
boilers; while for units of 125 MW and above, one blowdown flash system should be provided for
each boiler.
(3) The requirements of boiler emergency blowdown shall be considered in the selection of the
capacity of the periodic blowdown flash tank. When suitable flow restriction measures shall be taken
after mutual agreement with the boiler manufacturers.
(4) For drum type boiler with subcritical parameters, the continuous blowdown system will not be

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provided if conditions are appropriate.
8.5.2 The noise suppression of boiler steam to atmosphere shall meet the environmental
requirements. The silencers shall be provided for stean exhaust pipes (exhaust to atmosphere) of
boiler ignition and pressure release valves (PCV), the steam exhaust pipes of drum safety valve with
minimum starting pressure, superheater safety valve and reheater safety valve of IP turbine startup
unit. Silencers may be also installed on the steam exhaust pipe of periodical blowdown flashers. In
the severely cold regions, steam and water separators for those steam exhaust pipes shall be provided.
8.5.3 To prevent the corrosion and ash fouling of the air preheaters at low temperature, air heating
system shall be provided at the inlet of air preheaters as actual case needed. The air heating systems
such as steam air heater, heat air recirculation or front-air preheater shall be adopted after technical
and economic comparison. When the coal is of good quality, the ambient temperature is much higher
or the corrosion resistant material is used on the cold section of air preheaters to prevent the air
preheaters from getting corrosion and ash fouling, air heating system may not be provided.
(1) Steam air heater system shall be selected by the following requirements:
a) The location of the steam air heaters shall be determined through the technical and economic
comparison. In the colder north regions, the steam air heaters should be placed at the inlet of
FD fans.
b) For the rotary three sector air preheaters, when the primary air is first heated by flue gas, then
no steam air heaters will be provided at the primary air side of the air preheaters.
c) The requirements of anti-freeze, anti-ash fouling and anti-corrosion shall be considered for the
structure and arrangement of steam air heaters. The steam air heaters with the low annual
service hours can be provided with movable structure or bypass air ducts.
d) The heating temperature of the average temperature in the coldest months in winder shall be
taken for selecting the ambient temperature of the steam air heaters.
(2) The heat air recirculation system shall be used for the tubular air preheaters or in the regions the
coal quality is good and ambient temperature is high. When the heat air recirculation system is used
for the rotary air preheaters, the requirements of anti abrasiveness with dust should be considered for
fans and air ducts. It shall not be appropriate if the heat air recirculation rate is high. The heat air
outlet shall be located at the portion with low gas dust content.
8.5.4 The steam soot blowing system shall be provided for removing ash fouling of the air preheaters.
With the technical and economic comparison, pneumatic pulse device or hydraulic flushing device
(used during boiler shutdown) can be also used.

8.6 Startup Boiler


8.6.1 For power plants that need to install startup boiler, the number, capacity and fuel of startup
boilers shall be determined in accordance with the unit capacity, startup mode and the specific
conditions in the regions:

— 64 —
(1) For startup boiler capacity, only steam consumption required during starting up shall be
considered. It is unnecessary to take into account of marginal allowance, steam consumption for trial
test of the main turbine, the steam consumption for construction that can be stopped temporarily and
the other steam consumption not for start up.
(2) The number and capacity of startup boilers shall be selected as follows:
a) For 300 MW and below units, 1×10 t/h (in no heating and transit areas)~2×20 t/h (in heating
areas);
b) For 300 MW units, 1×20 t/h (in no heating and transit areas)~2×20 t/h (in heating areas);
c) For 600 MW units, 1×35 t/h (in no heating and transit areas)~2×35 t/h (in heating areas);
(3) The startup boiler shall be designed for the fuel oil quick charging boiler. In the severely cold
districts, the startup boiler may be considered in combination with the boiler supplying steam for
construction purpose, and coal should be used. Quick charging type of boiler or conventional type
may be selected.
8.6.2 For the steam parameters, LP (1.27 MPa) boiler shall be used as startup boiler. The related
systems shall be simple, reliable and easy to operate, whereas no spare one for its auxiliary devices
shall be provided. The design of the startup boiler using coal shall be simple, and the design for the
process system should satisfy the requirements for the production and environmental protection.
8.6.3 For extension of existing power plant, the auxiliary steam of existing plant should be used as
startup steam source and no startup boiler is required.

— 65 —
9. Ash and Slag Handling System

9.1 General Specification

9.1.1 The selection of the ash and slag handling system shall be based upon: the quantity and
chemical and physical properties of ash and slag, the type of ash precipitator and bottom ash removal
equipment, the flushing water quality and quantity, the distance between, and the elevation difference
of power plant and the disposal area, topographic, geologic and meteorologic conditions of the power
plant site and the ash storage yard. Moreover, the technical and economical comparison of the system
shall be carried out for determination of the optimum selection.

In the design of the ash and slag handling system, full consideration shall be given to the
comprehensive utilization of ash and slag, the environment protection requirements and the
implementation of water saving policy. When conditions are technically and economically
reasonable, dry ash handling shall be used.

9.1.2 When conditions for comprehensive utilization of ash exist in the power plant, the principle of
separate handling of the wet and dry ash, fine and coarse ash, fly ash and bottom ash, shall be
followed in designing the ash centralizing system. This system shall satisfy the defined requirements
of ash comprehensive utilization and the conditions for transferring outside of the power plant.

In case comprehensive utilization of ash and slag is required, but the ways and conditions are
temporarily unavailable, reservation for such construction of ash and slag comprehensive utilization
shall be provided in the design.

9.1.3 The capacity of ash and slag handling system shall be calculated according to the total amount
of ash and slag discharged from the system with boiler at maximum continuous evaporation and
using the design coal. The margin shall be considered. Besides the installation of ash and slag
transferring system as required by comprehensive utilization, facilities for transferring the total
amount of ash and slag to ash storage yard shall be also provided.

9.2 Dry Ash and Slag Handling System

9.2.1 When a boiler is provided with a slag conveyor and dry bottom ash need to be removed outside,
the pneumatic ash handling shall be adopted.

9.2.2 The centralized system consisting of pneumatic vacuum ash handling, pneumatic pressure
system and air-slide, submerged slag conveyor, screw shag conveyor and the combined system of the
above mentioned modes shall be selected for the pneumatic ash handling system in accordance with
the conveying distance, ash amount and characteristics, the arrangement of ash collector hoppers as
well as the technical and economic comparison.

— 66 —
9.2.3 Pneumatic ash handling system for large capacity generating units should be classified
according to the capacity of the generating units as stipulated below:

For single unit of 300 MW, one pneumatic ash handling system should be provided for serving 1-2
generating units;

For single unit of 600 MW, one system for each unit.

9.2.4 The design capacity of the pneumatic ash handling system shall be based on the discharge ash
amount, type, operation mode, etc. The system with continuous operation mode shall be provided
with the margin not less than 50% of the discharge ash amount of the system using the design coal,
satisfy the conveying requirements with a margin of 20% when the check coal is used. The system
with intermittent operation mode shall be provided with the margin not less than 100% of the
discharge ash amount when design coal is used. The appropriate facilities for handling emergency
should be provided when necessary.

The volume of the first electric field collector ash hoppers of the electrostatic precipitator should not
be less than that of the quantity of ash collected in 8 hours.

9.2.5 The total volume of the ash silos should be determined with the following requirements:

(1) When the ash silo is used for the purpose of transit or buffering storage, an 8 h ash storage of the
system discharge ash amount should be satisfied.

(2) When the ash silo is used for the purpose of storing the ash for external transportation, storage of
24 h discharge ash should be considered.

(3) Two units of 300 MW~600 MW shall be provided with two coarse ash silos and one fine ash silo.
For the unit of 600 MW with large ash quantity, three course ash silos may be shared with two such
units or two course ash silos for each unit.

9.2.6 The ash unloading facilities of ash silo shall be provided as required below:

(1) When hydraulic ash handling is used for remote conveying (outside of the power plant), dry ash
slurry preparation facilities shall be provided;

(2) Suitable facilities shall be provided to prevent dry ash particles flying up during unloading and
loading wagons (barges);

(3) For external transportation of wetted ash water mixture, stirrers shall be provided for preparing
the ash water mixture.

9.2.7 The pneumatic vacuum ash handling system shall be provided with evacuation equipment
specially for the system.

In one unit system that normally has 1~2 set of evacuation equipment in operation, a standby one
should be provided.

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9.2.8 The pneumatic pressure ash handling system shall be provided with special pressurizing
air fans or air compressor.

In one unit system that normally has 1~2 air fans in operation, a spare one should be provided.

In one air supply unit system that normally has 1~2 air compressor in operation, a spare one should be
provided. In the unit system that normally has 3 or more air compressors in operation, two Spare ones
should be provided.

9.2.9 The straight pipes of the piping for pneumatic ash handling system shall be carbon steel ones.
The abrasive resistant piping may be used for those transferring the medium with high flow rate and
seriously wearing after the technical and economic comparison.

9.3 Hydraulic Ash and Slag Handling System

9.3.1 When the hydraulic ash system is intended to use, the discharged water of the power plant
should be reused according to the engineering conditions and fresh water shall not be used. The ash
slurry preparation mode and ash slurry water concentration should be determined through the
technical and economic comparison.

9.3.2 According to the type of slag removal equipment used for the bottom ash removal, the boiler
house arrangement, the plant site arrangement and the mode of transferring the slag and ash to the
outside of power plant, the pressurized pipelines and the sluice trough shall be adopted for the
hydraulic ash and slag handling system within the plant.

9.3.3 In the separate handling system for ash and slag, the slag de-watering bin scheme may be
adopted when hydraulic means is used for transferring and trucks, barges or other mechanical means
are used for slag transportation to outside of power plant. If the technical and economical comparison
shows that the slag precipitating pond is a more rational choice, then slag precipitating pond may be
adopted. For slag top boiler, the slag precipitating pond scheme should be adopted.

9.3.4 When centrifugal slurry pump is adopted in the hydraulic ash and slag handling system, if the
lift of a single stage slurry pump could not stratify the requirement, connecting the slurry pumps
directly in series may be adopted.

9.3.5 Ash and slag separate handling shall be used with the displacement slurry pump system. When
the separate handling is not appropriate, The mixed handling may be used. If the ash and slag mixed
handling system is used, the process of having the slag sieved should be adopted according to the slag
sizes.

9.3.6 According to the following factors, namely, the quantity of ash and slag slurry, the size analysis
of ash and slag particles, velocity of sedimentation and the externally transferring conditions, etc, the
geometrical dimension of the precipitating pond for ash and slag shall be determined. The effective
volume of each compartment of the precipitating pond should be considered according to the 24h
discharge quantity of ash and slag handling system.

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The volume of dewatering bins or slag silos shall be determined according to the factors of the
boiler bottom ash discharge quantity and the externally transferring conditions. The effective volume
of slag storage silo or for each dewatering bin shall be able to satisfy the 24~36h slag discharge
quantity of the ash and slag handling system.

When the slag storage silo is used only for the purpose of transit or buffering storage silo, it shall
satisfy the 8h slag discharge of the slag handling system.

9.3.7 An emergency outlet shall be available in the thickener for ash water mixture. When such
emergency outlet is not available, a extra thickener shall be provided as standby.

9.3.8 For a complete unit of hydraulic ash and slag handling system, the number of standby for the
main equipment is stipulated as follows:

(1) For clear water pump that operates daily, a spare one shall be provided as standby.

(2) In one pump room, the number of standby pumps for centrifugal ash slurry pump and
displacement slurry pump shall be determined with the following principles:

a) When one pump is in operation, one standby shall be provided;

b) When 2~3 pumps are in operation, two standby pumps shall be provided.

c) In case that the displacement slurry pump is only provided with one standby pump, the
foundation for the second standby pump may be reserved.

9.3.9 When 1~3 lines of ash and slag (slurry) pipes are used outside of the plant, one spare pipeline
shall be provided. When the ash and slurry piping is worn or with heavy scale, the wearing or scaling
resistant and scale removal measures should be taken.

Under the prerequisite that the ash and slag delivering has been satisfied for the ash and slag separate
handling, a common pipe may be provided as standby.

9.3.10 The clarified water from thickener, sedimentation chamber and dewatering bin as well as the
cooling water overflowing from slag removal equipment of boilers shall be considered for reuse. If
the water quality fails to satisfy the water demand for ash handling, the corresponding treatment
measures shall be taken and impurity pumps shall be used for delivery.

9.3.11 Hydraulic ejector delivery system, mechanical delivery system or the other delivery means
shall be selected for the pyrite conveying system according to the pyrite quantity, conveying distance
and arrangement, etc, through the technical and economic comparison.

9.4 Transportation with Wagons, Barges and Mechanical Means

9.4.1 Based upon the transportation conditions, freight volume, environmental protection and the
wagon loading requirements, the self-dumping wagons of comparatively large capacity, the railway

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open freight cars or the bulk weight sealed wagons may be adopted, when wagon transportation
is chosen for transporting ash and slag.

The truck loading capacity shall be selected in conformance with the design loading capacity of
roadway and bridges (trucks passing) inside and outside of the power plant.

9.4.2 When shipping is adopted for transportation of ash and slag, the ash wharf and barge loading
facilities shall be provided according to the freight volume of ash and slag as well as the types of
shipping vessel adopted.

9.4.3 When the belt conveyor for ash is used, slag should be cooled and dewatered, while the ash
shall be properly wetted with water. The measures for short term storage should be considered.

The belt conveyor should be designed for a single line. The design capacity shall be based on the
conveying capacity, distance and operation mode of the system, and shall not be less than 100% of the
maximum ash (slag) conveying capacity calculated with the planned capacity of the plant.

The belt conveyor shall not be provided with enclosed gallery, but with the necessary guards, except
those in the severely cold regions.

9.5 Control Mode and Auxiliary Maintenance Facilities

9.5.1 The control mode for ash and slag handling system shall be determined according to the
complexity of the system and operation requirements of the equipment, and the centralized control,
the automatic programmed control or the local control may be adopted accordingly.

The ash and slay handling system with automatic programmed or centralized control shall not be
provided with the local control devices, but the local control button for commissioning shall be
provided as required.

The control (shift) room of the ash and slag handling system and control room for electrostatic
precipitator shall be combined as one.

9.5.2 The necessary maintenance area, lifting facilities and storage place for tools and spare parts
shall be provided at the location where the ash and slag handling equipment are centralized.

9.5.3 The necessary facilities for floor flushing, sweeping and drainage shall be considered at the
location where the ash and slag handling equipment are centralized.

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10. Steam Turbine Equipment and Systems

10.1 Steam Turbine Equipment

10.1.1 The selection and technical requirement of the steam turbine equipment shall be in accordance
with the stipulations of SD269 Specification for Stationary Utility Condensing Steam Turbine in
force.

10.1.2 The steam turbine shall undertake the base load or the varying load according to the load
requirement of the power system. The characteristics of equipment and system of the generating units,
which undertake varying load in the power network, shall meet the requirement for peak load
regulation and ensure the life of the units.

10.1.3 In regions that require thermo-load additionally, when economic and technical comparison
proves to be reasonable, co-generation units shall be adopted. The type, capacity and quantity of the
co-generation units shall be determined according to the magnitudes and characteristics of the heat
loads in the near future and the planned heat loads, after technical and economical comparison under
the principle of “Electric power generation is decided by heat load”. The extraction type
co-generation units of high steam parameters and large capacity should be selected as priority. When
there are stable and reliable heat loads, the back pressure type unit or the back pressure type unit with
extraction should be adopted, and should be used in conjunction with extraction type co-generation
unit.

10.1.4 The steam turbine equipment and its system shall have reliable measures to prevent the
turbine from water induction.

10.1.5 For the first unit of newly developed or renovated steam turbine of large capacity, their
regenerative heat cycles shall be determined by optimizing calculation.

10.1.6 The back pressure of steam turbine and the cooling surface of condenser shall be determined
after optimizing calculation based on the engineering hydrometeorological conditions and the
circulating water supply scheme. The rated back pressure of steam turbine shall match design water
temperature of circulating water system. The design water temperature should use average annual
water temperature and shall take the integer.

10.1.7 Under working condition for the capacity, the steam turbine shall have output shown on the
name plate (rated output), however the testing of unit performance and the optimization of the system
should take the rated working conditions as the base.

When the regulating valve of the steam turbine is full open, the volume of steam intake should not be
less than 105% the volume of steam intake of the turbine at maximum continuous output.

— 71 —
10.2 Main Steam, Reheat Steam and By-pass Systems

10.2.1 For the power plants installed with high pressure co-generation units, the steam piping system
with change-over main shall be adopted; For the power plants installed with re-heating condensing
type units or re-heating co-generation type units, unit system shall be used for main steam system.

10.2.2 For the first newly developed or renovated steam turbine unit, the diameter and quantity of
pipelines of the main steam and reheat steam shall be determined by optimizing calculation.

10.2.3 The installation and the type, capacity and control level of the by-pass system of re-heating
turbine unit shall be determined according to the type, structure and performance of the turbine and
the boiler, as well as the operation mode of the turbine unit required by the power network.

10.3 Feedwater System and Feedwater Pump

10.3.1 The feedwater system shall be selected according to the following principles:

(1) For power plants installed with high-pressure co-generation units, piping system with feedwater
main shall be adopted.

(2) For power plants installed with re-heating condensing type or re-heating co-generation type
turbine units, unit system shall be adopted.

(3) When fix-speed feedwater pump(s) are adopted, the quantity and capacity of feedwater regulating
valve system shall be studied and determined according to the regulating range of boiler, the number
of boiler inlet routes and the characteristics of regulating valve.

When variable-speed feedwater valve(s) are adopted, no regulating valve system shall be installed to
feedwater main pipe, however regulating valve(s) shall be installed to the startup branch pipe
according to the characteristics of regulating of variable-speed pump(s).

10.3.2 For each feedwater system, the total flow at the feedwater pump outlet (i.e. the maximum
feedwater consumption, excluding the stand-by feedwater pump) shall ensure the feedwater supply to
all boilers in the connected systems at MCR with following margins:

For drum type boiler: 110% boiler MCR;

For once-through boiler: 105% boiler MCR.

For re-heating turbine units, the total flow at feedwater pump inlet shall be added with the flow
extracted from the intermediate stage of the pumps used for reheat steam temperation, as well as the
flow difference between leak-out and in-flow of the pump sealing water. The total flow at the booster
feedwater pump discharge shall be equal to the sum of the total inlet flow of the feedwater pumps and
extracted flow between booster pumps and feedwater pumps.

10.3.3 When the largest feedwater pump in the feedwater system with feedwater main is shutdown,
the remaining feedwater pumps shall be able to meet feedwater demand of the whole system.

— 72 —
10.3.4 For 125MW and 200MW units, two motor-driven variable-speed feedwater pumps, each
with a capacity of 100% maximum feedwater flow, or three, each with a capacity of 50% maximum
feedwater flow, should be provided. For 200MW units, turbine-driven feedwater pump(s) may be
provided when technical and economical comparison proves to be reasonable.

10.3.5 For 300MW units, either two turbine-driven feedwater pumps, each with a capacity of 50%
maximum feedwater flow, or one with a capacity of 100% feedwater flow should be provided.

For 600MW units and over, two turbine-driven feedwater pumps, each with a capacity of 50%
maximum feedwater flow should be provided.

10.3.6 For 300MW units, when one turbine-driven feedwater pump with 100% capacity is provided,
one motor-driven variable-speed feedwater pump with a capacity of 50% maximum feedwater flow
should be provided as a start-up or stand-by pump. When two turbine-driven feedwater pumps with
50% capacity are provided, one motor-driven variable-speed feedwater pump with a capacity of
25~35% maximum feedwater flow should be provided as a start-up or stand-by pump. It may also use
fix-speed motor-driven feedwater pump together with throttle valve of large pressure difference.

For 600MW units and above, one motor-driven variable-speed feedwater pump with a capacity of
25~35% maximum feedwater flow should be provided as a start-up or stand-by one.

10.3.7 For units of 300MW and above, three motor-driven variable-speed feedwater pumps with
each capacity of 50% maximum feedwater flow may be provided in any of following cases when
technical and economical comparison proves to be reasonable:

(1) The regenerative heat cycles of the turbine and the margin of the generator are suitable for using
motor-driven feedwater pumps as operating feedwater pumps;

(2) Generating units using air-cool system;

(3) Extract co-generation units.

10.3.8 The rated discharge head of feedwater pump shall be calculated as the sum of the following
items:

(1) The total friction loss due to fluid flowing from the deaerator feedwater tank outlet to the
economizer inlet (calculated on the basis of feedwater flow at boiler MCR): for drum type boiler,
20% margin shall be added; for once-through type boiler, 10% margin shall be added.

(2) For drum type boiler: the static pressure difference of water column between normal water level in
boiler drum and the normal water level in deaerator feedwater tank;

For once-through boiler: the static pressure difference of water column between the average elevation
of starting and ending points of vaporization of boiler water in boiler water walls and the elevation of
normal water level of deaerator feedwater tank.

— 73 —
If the static pressure difference has been included in the total friction loss of the boiler by the
manufacture, the static pressure difference of water column between economizer inlet and normal
water level of deaerator feedwater tank shall apply.

(3) The feedwater pressure at economizer inlet when boiler is at MCR.


(4) Rated working pressure of deaerator (take negative value).

In case there are booster feedwater pump(s), the sum of discharge head of booster pumps and
feedwater pumps shall be larger than the total of the above items.

For discharge head of booster pump, the total friction loss due to fluid flowing and static pressure
difference between boost pump outlet to feedwater pump inlet shall be calculated, in addition, the
head requirement necessary to ensure no vaporization at feedwater pump inlet during transient load
shedding of turbine shall be satisfied.

10.3.9 Fast change-over feedwater by-pass shall be provided to high-pressure heaters. The by-pass
should adopt large by-pass, i.e. a common by-pass from the inlet of the first high-pressure heater to
the discharge of the last high-pressure heater.

10.4 Deaerator and Feedwater Storage Tank

10.4.1 For the deaerator of re-heating turbine unit, the sliding pressure operation mode shall be used.

10.4.2 The total capacity of deaerator shall be finalized according to the maximum feedwater
consumption. Each unit should be equipped with one unit of deaerator.

One-stage high-pressure deaerator should be adopted for re-heating condensing turbine units. For the
high-pressure and re-heating co-generation turbine units, one-stage high-pressure deaerator may be
used subject to oxygen content of feedwater is secured. Otherwise, condenser with bubbling
deaerator shall be adopted or a low-pressure deaerator shall be provided to deaerate the make-up
water.

10.4.3 The capacity of deaerator feedwater tank should be determined according to the following
requirements:

For the generating units of 200MW and below, the storage capacity shall not be less than 10 minutes
feedwater consumption at boiler MCR.

For the generating units of 300MW and above, the storage capacity shall not be less than 5 minutes
feedwater consumption at boiler MCR.

The storage capacity of the deaerator feedwater tank means the capacity from normal water level
down to the level at the top of outlet pipe of the tank.

10.4.4 The start-up steam of the deaerator shall come from start-up auxiliary boiler or plant service

— 74 —
auxiliary steam system. The stand-by steam of the deaerator shall come from extracted steam of
one higher pressure stage of the regenerative extractions, which would be used for low load condition
of the steam turbine.

10.4.5 The design of the deaerator and its related system shall include reliable measures to prevent
the deaerator from over-pressure explosion, and shall be up to document Neng Yuan An Bao (1991)
No. 709 Technical Regulations for Safety of Pressure Deaerator in Power Plant in force.

10.4.6 For the deaerator feedwater tank in unit system, start-up feedwater circulating pump or
re-boiling tube may be used as the heating method during start-up period. When the re-boiling tube is
used, the pressure of all the steam used shall be controlled and measures shall be taken to prevent
water hammer or vibration in operation.

The capacity of feedwater start-up circulating pump should not be less than 30% rated flow rate of the
nozzle block used during start-up of the deaerator.

10. 5 Condensate Equipment and Equipment

10.5.1 The quantity and capacity of condensate pumps for condensing turbine unit shall be
determined according to the following requirements:

(1) Two condensate pumps, each with a capacity of 100% maximum condensate flow, should be
installed for single condensing turbine unit. If three condensate pumps, each with a capacity of 55%
maximum condensate flow, are required for large capacity turbine units, it shall not be finalized until
technical and economical comparison is made.

(2) The maximum cndensate flow shall be the sum of the following items:

(a) The condensated steam flow of the steam turbine at maximum steam throttle flow condition;

(b) The constant inlet drain flow to the condenser;

(c) The normal make-up water flow entering the condenser.

When the stand-by pumps are put into operation for a short period, they shall meet the requirements
of delivering contingency drain, which may flow from low-pressure heater to the condenser, or
delivering the condensate flow when the by-pass is put into operation.

10.5.2 The quantity and capacity of the condensate pumps for co-generation turbine unit shall be
determined according to the following requirements:

(1) For industrial extraction turbine or dual extraction turbine for industrial and district heating
purpose, two or three condensate pumps should be installed for each unit.

(a) When the unit is going to supply heating externally immediately on operation, two
condensate pumps each with a capacity of 110% condensate flow at the working condition of
designed heat load, or two condensate pumps each with a capacity of 55% maximum

— 75 —
condensate flow, whichever is greater, should be provided.

(b) When the unit, after operation, is necessary to run for a long period under pure condensing
working condition or under low heat load condition, three condensate pumps, each with a
capacity of 110% condensate flow at designed heat load, or three condensate pumps, each
with a capacity of 55% maximum condensate flow, whichever is greater, should be installed.

(2) For extraction turbine unit supplying district heating, three condensate pumps, each with a
capacity of 55% maximum condensate flow, may be installed.

(3) The maximum condensate floe shall be:

(a) When the make-up water normally is not delivered into the condenser, the flow calculation is
based on pure condensing conditions, the method being the same as condensing type steam
turbine;

(b) When the make-up water normally is supplied to the condenser, the flow calculation is based
on the maximum extraction conditions, with the addition of make-up water flow, and then
compared with the calculated flow under pure condensing condition, whichever is greater.

(4) The condensate flow under conditions of designed heat load shall be:

(a) The condensed steam flow of the unit running at the conditions of designed heat load;

(b) The constant drain flow entering the condenser and the normal make-up water flow.

10.5.3 One-stager condensate pump should be adopted in the condensate system. When all
condensate is required to treat and low-pressure condensate polishing equipment is adopted,
condensate booster pumps shall be provided and their quantity and capacity shall be same as
condensate pumps. If equipment allows, tandem shaft condensate pumps with booster pumps should
be adopted.

10.5.4 In case there is no polishing plant, the total head of the condensate pump shall be calculated as
the sum of the following items:

(1) The friction loss due to fluid flowing (calculated at maximum condensate flow) from the hot well
of the condenser to the condensate inlet of deaerator (including atomizing nozzles), plus 10~20%
margin;

(2) The static pressure difference of water column between condensate inlet of deaerator and the
lowest water level in condenser hot well;

(3) The maximum working pressure of the deaerator, plus 15% margin;

(4) The maximum vacuum in the condenser.

In case there is polishing plant, the total head of the condensate pumps and the condensate booster
pumps may be calculated with reference to the above principles and added with the friction loss of the

— 76 —
polishing plant.

10.5.5 For the make-up water of the re-heating condensing type unit, the make-up water tank and
make-up water pump shall be installed before the make-up water entering the condenser according to
the necessity of the system.

The capacity of the make-up water tank: for 125MW and 200MW units, not less than 50 M 3; for
300MW units, not less than 100 m 3; for 600MW units and above, not less than 300 M 3.

No stand-by pumps shall be provided for make-up water pump. The total capacity of the make-up
water pumps shall be determined according to the quantity of make-up water needed at start-up of the
boiler.

10.5.6 The capacity of low-pressure heater drain pump shall be calculated according to the total sum
of the drain flow of the low-pressure heaters connected with the pump suction when steam turbine is
operating at maximum throttle flow conditions, added with 10% margin.

10.5.7 The total head of low-pressure heater drain pump shall be calculated as the sum of the
following items:

(1) The friction loss due to fluid flowing (calculated on the basis of the condition of the steam turbine
corresponding to the maximum condensate flow) from the low-pressure heater to the condensate inlet
of deaerator (including atomizing nozzles), added with 10 ~ 20% margin;

(2) The static pressure difference between the condensate inlet of deaerator and the lowest water level
in the low-pressure heater;

(3) The maximum working pressure in the deaerator, added with 15% margin;

(4) The vacuum in the low-pressure heater at the condition of the maximum condensate flow (if it is
positive pressure, take negative value).

10.6 Drain Water Facilities

10.6.1 For re-heating condensing type units, drain water tank and drain water pump may not be
provided.

10.6.2 For the power plant with steam main piping system, two drain water tanks with total capacity
not less than 30 M3 should be installed. Two drain pumps shall be provided and the capacity of each
pump shall be able to pump out total water stored in the tank within half an hour.

When number of units is more than four, a second group of drain facility may be installed.

10.6.3 When the main steam piping system with steam main is adopted, the low point drainage flow
is large and the water quality is good enough for use, one low elevation collecting tank with a
capacity of 5 M3 and one collecting water pump should be installed. The capacity of the collecting
water pump shall be able to pump out all water stored in low elevation collecting tank within half an

— 77 —
hour.

When number of units is more than four, a second group of low elevation drain facility may be
installed.

10.7 Industrial Water System

10.7.1 The industrial water system of the power plant shall have reliable source. The cooling water
system for auxiliary equipment shall be determined reasonably according to the different
requirements for the source and the quality of the cooling water for the condenser, and the quantity,
temperature and quality of the cooling water required by the equipment.

The hardness of the carbonate in the cooling water for the bearing of rotating machines should be less
than 250 mg/L (calculated as CaCO3), pH value shall not be less than 6.5 and should not be more than
9.5. The content of suspended matter, for 300MW units and above, should be less than 50 mg/L, and
for other units, shall be less than 100 mg/L.

10.7.2 When fresh water is used as cooling water for the condenser and it can be used as cooling
water for auxiliary equipment without treatment, the open-cycle cooling system should be adopted.
When treatment is necessary, the cooling water system combining open-cycle and close-cycle,
depending on specific condition, may be used.

The open-cycle cooling water shall be taken from the circulation cooling system of the condenser. It s
suitable for providing cooling water to the equipment with large water demand and the quality of
circulation cooling water is up to the requirement, and to close-cycle cooling water heat exchangers.

The close-cycle cooling water should be de-mineralized water or condensate. It is suitable for
providing cooling water to the equipment with less water demand and higher water quality
requirement.

10.7.3 When seawater is used as cooling water source for the condenser, the cooling water for
auxiliary equipment should use close-cycle circulation cooling water system with de-mineralized
water. At this time, the heat exchanger of close-cycle cooling water shall use seawater as cooling
water source. For 200MW units and below, when technical and economical comparison proves to be
reasonable, open-cycle cooling system with special fresh water cooling tower may be used as the
cooling water for auxiliary equipment.

10.7.4 Service water system is used to provide water to factory houses, to wash or flush equipment in
maintenance or to cool the equipment with less water demand while the water is not recovered.

10.7.5 Two heat exchangers with 65% heat exchange surface should be installed for close-cycle
cooling system. When seawater is used as the cooling water source for the heat exchanger of the
close-cycle cooling system, the heat exchanger shall use titanium material.

10.7.6 Two circulation water pumps shall be installed in close-cycle cooling water system. The
capacity of one circulating pump shall not be less than 110% maximum cooling water flow of the unit.

— 78 —
The head of the circulating pump shall allow the maximum resistance of piping in the system
calculated on the basis of maximum cooling water flow, added with 20% margin.

For open-cycle cooling system, calculation shall be made according to the layout of the system to
determined whether the installation of booster pump is necessary and the range of water supply of
booster pump if it is the case. When it is necessary, two booster pumps shall be installed. The
capacity of one booster pump shall not be less than 110% cooling water flow boosted. The head of the
booster pump shall be calculated as the sum of the following items:

(1) The maximum resistance of piping in the system calculated on the basis of maximum cooling
water flow, added with 20% margin.

(2) The net pressure difference between the highest point where industrial water is used and the center
line of the booster pump;

(3) The water pressure difference between the suction piping and discharge piping of circulating
water (taking negative value).

10.7.7 Elevated expansion device and make-up water system shall be installed to close-cycle cooling
water system.

10.7.8 The operating pressure at the side of close-cycle circulating water of heater exchanger of
close-cycle cooling water shall be larger than the one at open-cycle circulating water side.

10.7.9 Cooling water system for auxiliary equipment should be separately installed for air-cooled
units and it should use cooling tower to circulate cooling water. When air-cooled condensing turbine
units and several conventional turbine units are installed simultaneously in a power plant, the cooling
water for auxiliary equipment of air-cooled units may also be acquired from the conventional units.

10.7.10 The cooling water system for auxiliary equipment of units with single capacity of 125MW
and above, unit system should be adopted, or the enlarged unit system, after technical and economical
comparison proves to be reasonable, may also be adopted. For service water system, two machines
should be taken as one unit or the whole plant should be taken completely into consideration.

10.8 Auxiliary System and Equipment of Co-generation Unit

10.8.1 The capacity and quantity of the heater for district heating network shall be determined on the
basis of district heating, ventilation and heat load for daily life. No stand-by heater shall be provided.
However in case any of heater is shutdown, the remaining ones shall meet 60~75% heat load demand
(in severely cold area, the high limit applies). When designing, whether the spaces of corresponding
heaters for future expanded district heating should be reserved or not shall be determined according
to the possibility of increase of heat load and the steam supply capacity for heating extraction of the
steam turbine.

Installation of peak load heaters for district heating shall be studied and determined comprehensively
according to factors of the nature of heat load, the distance of delivery, local climate and the district

— 79 —
heating system.

10.8.2 The other equipment in the district heating system shall be determined according to the
following requirements:

(1) Water pump in district heating network shall not be less than two, while one of them is stand-by;

(2) Condensate pump for district heating network heaters shall not be less than two, while one of
them is stand-by;

(3) In case the make-up water can not be supplied directly to the district heating network, two
make-up water pumps shall be installed for the district heating network, while one of them is stand-by.
The stand-by one shall be capable of putting into operation automatically. In case the make-up water
can be supplied directly to the district heating network, but the static pressure of the district heating
network can not be secured when district heating network water pumps shutdown, one make-up
water pump for district heating network shall be installed, on the contrary, district heating network
make-up water pump may not be installed.

When the normal make-up water flow in the close-cycle district heating network equals to 1 ~2% of
the circulating water flow in the network, the capacity of the make-up water equipment shall ensure a
supply of 4% circulating water flow in the network, of which 2% (but not less than 20t/h) shall be
deaerated and chemically softened water as well as boiler blow-down water, while the remaining 2%,
the industrial water or portable water.

In order to strictly control the quantity of make-up of industrial water (or portable water),
register-type flowmeter shall be installed in the system.

10.8.3 For fossil fuel power plant installed with extraction type steam turbine (s) and back pressure
type steam turbine (s), one unit of pressure reducer and attemperator shall be installed respectively as
stand-by in accordance with parameters of industrial extraction steam and exhaust steam at different
stages. Its capacity shall equal to the maximum extracted steam flow or maximum exhaust flow of
one turbine.

In case any turbine is shutdown, the remaining ones are still capable of supplying 60~75% heat
consumption for heating, ventilation and daily life use (in severely area, high limit applies), the
stand-by pressure reducer and attemperator for the heating extraction steam may not be installed.

For pressure reducer and attemperator constantly in operation, one unit for stand-by shall be
provided.

10.8.4 The equipment for collecting return water shall be installed in case the heat users can return
condensate and the technical and economical conditions are reasonable. Return water booster pump
should not be less than two, while one of them is stand-by. The quantity and capacity of return water
tank shall be determined according to specific conditions, but should not be less than two.

10.9 Condenser and Its Auxiliary Facilities

— 80 —
10.9.1 The material of tube sheet and tube bundle of the condenser shall be determined
according to the quality of circulating cooling water.

For turbine units of large capacity, to which seawater, or, river water with higher content of chlorine
ion caused by sea tide, is used as cooling water, the condenser of titanium tube should be used.

10.9.2 For steam turbine condenser, sponge rubber ball cleaning device shall be installed. However,
for direct cooling water supply system, if sand content in water is relatively high or for other reason,
it is proved that it neither scales nor deposits on the tube, the sponge rubber ball cleaning device may
not be installed.

In case there is suspended matter in cooling water and it is easy to form one-way block, reverse
flushing device should be installed.

For the surface type condenser of air-cooled condensing steam turbine, installation of sponge rubber
ball cleaning device is not necessary.

10.9.3 Reliable vacuum equipment shall be provided to the condenser. For turbine units with
capacity of 300MW and below, two water ring type vacuum pumps or other type vacuum equipment
(such as water jet extractor) should be installed. The capacity of each vacuum equipment shall meet
the requirement of the vacuum at normal running of the condenser. For units of 600 MW and above,
three water ring vacuum pumps should be installed with each capacity meeting 50% vacuum at
normal running of the condenser.

When all vacuum equipment are running, it shall meet the requirement of the vacuum at the startup of
the unit.

For units with capacity of 200MW and above, when direct cooling water supply system is used, one
vacuum pump for condenser water chamber should be installed.

10.9.4 For units with capacity of 300MW and above, leakage detecting device for condenser shall be
installed.

— 81 —
11. Water Treatment Equipment and System

11.1 Pretreatment of Raw Water

11.1.1 The requirements and selection of raw water source shall meet followings:

(1) Power plant shall have appropriate and reliable raw water source. Adequate water quality total
analysis data of recent years shall be obtained and attention shall be paid to analyze the changing
trend of water quality of the source. The designer shall analyze and verify the water quality total
analysis data obtained and put forth recommended opinions regarding design water quality
information and check water quality information. When several sources are available, it shall not be
finalized until technical and economical comparison is made.

(2) If the water quality of the water source selected presents seasonal worsening, spare water source
may be reserved after technical and economical comparison is made. In case the salinity and sand
content in the water is too high for a short period of time, water pond (reservoir) may be provided in
accordance with the law of variation and measures shall be taken to prevent water quality from
secondary pollution.

11.1.2 The raw water pretreatment system shall be finalized reasonably by optimizing on the basis of
comprehensively taking design and management of water of the whole plant into consideration. The
method of raw water pretreatment shall meet the following requirements:

(1) For water with high content of sand, pre-settling facilities shall be used to reduce sand content;

(2) When surface water is taken as water source, contact coagulation, filtration or coagulation,
clarification and filtration shall be adopted respectively as pretreatment according to different content
of suspended matters in the raw water;

(3) When underground water is taken as water source, in case the raw water contains more sand and
colloidal silica, and after calculation it is confirmed that the quality of boiler steam can not meet the
requirements, relevant measures shall be taken.

(4) In case the raw water contains more organic matters, chlorination, clarification, coagulation and
filtration may be used to treat it. If after above said treatment it still can not meet the requirement of
water for the equipment of next stage, active carbon, absorbing resin or other methods may be used to
remove organic matters.

(5) After the raw water is pretreated, the turbidity of the clean water and the content of free chlorine
and organic matter shall meet the technological requirements of the later stages of the water
treatment.

(6) When the carbonate hardness of the raw water is relatively high, lime pretreatment may be
adopted.

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11.1.3 The clarifier (pond) installed should not be less than two units. In case the suspended
matter is high only for a short period of time and it is for seasonal pretreatment purpose, one clarifier
(pond) may be required, however by-pass and contact coagulation facilities shall be installed. The
quantity (or compartment) of filter (pond) shall not be less than two.

11.2 Boiler Make-up Water Treatment

11.2.1 The boiler make-up water treatment system, including pre-demineralization system, shall be
determined according to factors of raw water quality, the standard for the quality of raw water and
boiler water, the rate of make-up water, the blow down rate, the supply condition of equipment and
chemicals. The system will be finalized after technical and economical comparison.

11.2.2 For condensing type power plant, the normal boiler blowdown rate should not exceed 1%,
while co-generation type power plant, not exceed 2%.

11.2.3 The total output of water treatment system shall, after necessary checkup and calculation, be
determined according to the normal steam and water losses of the power plant, and also taking
consideration of additional output of water treatment equipment increased by unit startup or
contingency.

The output of water treatment equipment required for normal steam and water losses of the power
plant and the output increased by consideration of unit startup and contingency shall be calculated
according to Table 11.2.3.

11.2.4 When content of soluble solids in raw water is 500mg/L ~ 700mg/L, technical and economical
comparison of the system shall be made to finalize whether the pre-demineralization unit of
anti-permeation will be used or not. When soluble solids in raw water are over 700mg/L, the
pre-demineralization unit of anti-permeation may be used.

11.2.5 The equipment for demineralization shall be selected according to the following principles:

(1) For each type of single stage ion exchanger, not less than two units shall be installed. In normal, 1
~ 2 times of regeneration for each unit should be considered for each day and night, it shall be
determined by optimizing according to engineering conditions.

(2) For condensing type power plant, when no stand-by ion exchanger for regeneration is installed,
the water reserved for generation can be accumulated in the de-mineralized water tank. For
co-generation power plant, de-mineralized water tank with adequate capacity may be installed to
store reserved water for regeneration, or stand-by ion exchanger for regeneration may be installed.

(3) When one train (unit) of equipment is under maintenance, the remaining equipment shall meet
normal make-up water demand of the whole plant.

(4) When pre-demineralization unit of anti-permeation is installed, the output of the water treatment
system shall meet the requirements for providing normal make-up water to the whole plant,
additionally, it shall fill de-mineralized water tanks fully in 7 days.

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11.2.6 The capacity of de-mineralized water tank shall meet the requirement of process and
regulation.

(1) The total effective volume of de-mineralized water tanks shall match the output of water treatment
equipment and meet the requirement of water demand for acid wash of biggest boiler or the startup of
the unit. It should not be less than 2h MCR of the biggest boiler. For co-generation power plant, it
shall not be less than 1h normal make-up water.

(2) When no regeneration stand-by equipment is provided for ion exchanger, for de-mineralized
water tank, water reserved for the period of generation shutdown shall also be taken into
consideration.

(3) For condensing type power plant, the water treatment system should be operated in two shifts on
the basis of considering the capacity of de-mineralized water tank, the output of the system, the layout
of the de-mineralized water tanks, the connect type of de-mineralized water pumps and the way of
control.

Table 11.2.3 Steam and Water Losses in the Power Plant

Output increase of water


Serial treatment system considered for
Title of Losses Normal Losses
No. startup and contingency of
generating unit (for 4 units)
1 Units of 1.5% of the boiler
300MW and MCR
Losses in steam
above 6% MCR of the largest boiler in
and water cycle
Units of 2.0% of the boiler the plant
inside the plant
150MW ~ MCR
200MW
2 Losses for external steam supply According to given

data
3 Losses of steam and water for other According to given

use of the plant data
4 Losses of drum boiler blowdown As per calculation,
but not less than —
0.3%
5 Losses of close-cycle cooling 0.5% of cooling

system for auxiliary equipment water flow
6 Losses of close-cycle hot water 1~2% of the water 1~2% of the water contained in
heating network contained in the the heating network, but the sum
heating network or of it and the normal losses shall
according to given not be less than 20t/h
data

— 84 —
Output increase of water
Serial treatment system considered for
Title of Losses Normal Losses
No. startup and contingency of
generating unit (for 4 units)
7 Water used outside the plant According to given

data
Notes:
1. The normal blowdown rate of the boiler shall be calculated as normal losses of items 1, 2 and 3 of the
Table.
2. For other purpose use of steam and water in the power plant and the make-up water for close-cycle hot
water heating network, the appropriate way of steam supply and treatment of make-up water shall be
finalized reasonably after technical and economical comparison.
3. When de-mineralized water is used as circulating cooling water for air-cooled condensing units, the
make-up water to compensate leakage in the system shall be considered.

11.2.7 The capacity of de-mineralized water pump and the make-up water piping from water
treatment room to the Main building shall be selected according to the sum of the make-up water
delivered at startup of the largest unit or the water required for boiler chemical cleaning and
simultaneously the normal make-up water for other units. When the number of make-up water piping
is two or more, if any of them is outage, the remaining one shall meet the requirement of delivering
normal make-up water to all units.

11.3 Condensate Polishing for Steam Turbine Unit

11.3.1 The condensate polishing system for steam turbine unit may use the type of iron removal
(silicon removal) treatment at unit startup period or the continuous ion exchange treatment. The
configuration of the system shall be determined according to the factors of the type and parameters of
the boiler, the quality of cooling water and the material of the condenser.

(1) For the steam turbine unit with the main steam supplied by once-through boiler, all the condensate
shall be polished. If necessary, iron removal facility may be provided for the unit startup.

(2) For the steam turbine unit with the main steam supplied by sub-critical drum boiler, technical and
economical comparison shall be made in light of material of the condenser, to determine whether the
iron removal, silicon removal treatment system or ion exchange treatment system will be used.

(3) For the steam turbine unit with the main steam supplied by high-pressure or extra high-pressure
drum boiler, if there is frequent start-stop, after comprehensively taking consideration of the drain
volume at unit startup, the protection measures of the boiler at shutdown, the material of the
condenser and the management level of the operation, technical and economical comparison should
be made to determine whether condensate iron removal facility shall be used for unit startup.

(4) When indirect air-cooled condensing system with mixed type condenser is used, all the

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condensate of the steam turbine unit shall be polished and special iron removal facility should
also be provided for unit startup.

(5) The condensate of direct air-cooled units should adopt iron removal and CO2 removal treatment.

11.3.2 Medium pressure condensate polishing system should be adopted for steam turbine unit with
sub-critical parameters and above.

11.3.3 Filters and ion exchangers in condensate polishing system shall be determined according to
the following principles:

(1) When the filter is used only for iron removal at unit startup, no stand-by one shall be provided;

(2) No stand-by one may be provided to the external regeneration ion exchanger for condensate
polishing of 300MW sub-critical unit.

(3) For condensate polishing treatment of 600MW sub-critical units, if iron removal facility is used
simultaneously, external regeneration ion exchanger may not be provided with stand-by one.

11.3.4 Under permissible condition, one common unit of external regeneration in condensate
polishing system for two steam turbine units shall be adopted.

11.4 Production Return Water Treatment

When the heat consumers are able to supply return water, the reclamation of the return water as well
as the installation of the return water treatment equipment shall be determined according to the
quantity and quality of the return water after technical and economical comparison is made.

11.5 The Correction Treatment of Condensate, Feedwater and Boiler Water and the Steam and
Water Sampling of the Thermodynamic System

11.5.1 Corresponding chemicals feeding facilities shall be provided for the correction treatment of
the condensate, feedwater and boiler water according to the type and parameters of the boiler and
turbine and the regimes of water chemicals,

11.5.2 For 300MW and over units with condensate polishing system, if once-through boiler is
equipped, when condition allows, feedwater should be treated with neutralized oxygen adding or
oxygen adding together with ammonia.

11.5.3 For thermodynamic system with units of different parameters, corresponding centralized
steam and water sampling facilities and monitoring instruments shall be provided. The signal for
sampling analysis shall be the input signal of the relevant control system. In this case, no in-site steam
and water control lab may be provided.

11.5.4 The layout of the equipment for the correction treatment of condensate, feedwater and boiler
water and for steam and water sampling and analysis of the thermodynamic system, which locates in
the Main buildings, should be relatively centralized with condensate polishing treatment system. And

— 86 —
centralized control and data management shall be applied.

11.6 Circulating Cooling Water Treatment

11.6.1 When there is possible of the growth of biological organisms, corrosion and scaling in the
cooling water system and inside the condenser, corresponding preventive measures shall be taken
after technical and economical comparison and verification tests are made.

11.6.2 The concentration rate and drain rate of circulating cooling water system shall be determined
in accordance with the total water consumption and water quality of the whole plant, also taking
consideration of the material of the condenser and after tests and technical and economical
comparison is made. If necessary, the method of adding sulfuric acid, adding anticorrosive agent,
anti-scaling agent, soften treatment of make-up water, circulating cooling water by-pass treatment or
the combination of the above shall be used to prevent corrosion and scale.

(1) For the power plant in the area of water shortage, the make-up water for circulating cooling water
should be treated with lime or weak acidic ion exchange to remove hardness of carbonate. The rate of
the treatment of make-up water shall be determined by optimizing according to the water volume
balance of the power plant.

(2) For circulating cooling water system, when the rate of concentration is high, factors of dust
content in surrounding air and the content of suspended matter in make-up water shall be
comprehensively considered. When technical and economical comparison proves to be reasonable,
circulating cooling water by-pass treatment may be used.

11.6.3 For the treatment of circulating cooling water to prevent biological pollution, the method of
adding chlorine or feeding other agent to prevent biological pollution may be used.

(1) In case adding chlorine is necessary, the unit of electrolyzing (salt water or seawater) to make
sodium hypochlorite or vacuum chlorine adding machine may be used.

(2) The measuring of chlorine adding shall be determined according to tests. At the time to obtain the
result of preventing biological pollution, the concentration of residual chlorine at drain and vent ports
shall be up to the standard for drain and vent.

11.6.4 For the circulating cooling water of the air-cooled condensing turbine unit, chemicals feeding
facilities shall be provided according to the requirement of the system.

11.7 Chemicals Store

The size of chemicals store for chemical water treatment shall be determined according to factors of
the consumption of chemicals, the supply and transportation conditions for chemicals.

In chemicals store, corresponding anti-corrosion measures and ventilation facilities shall be provided
as well as necessary mechanized facilities for loading, unloading and transportation.

— 87 —
11.8 Anticorrosion

In the water treatment system, all the equipment, valves and pipes which are in contact with corrosive
mediums and affecting the quality of effluent water, shall be coated or lined with appropriate
anticorrosive layer or shall be made of anticorrosive materials.

12. Thermal process Automation

12.1 General Requirements

12.1.1 The design of the thermal process automation system and the equipment of the power plant
must follow the principle of “ Being safe, reliable, economical, applicable and tally with condition of
China”. The design shall be made in accordance with the characteristics of the unit so as to meet the
requirements for safe and economical startup, operation and shutdown.

12.1.2 Technically advanced and quality reliable equipment and components shall be selected in the
thermal process automation design for the power plant.

New products and new technique shall not be used unless successful testing and qualification
appraisal are made.

Imported products, including imported package of the thermal process automation system, shall also
be technically advanced with proved experience.

12.2 Level of Thermal Process Automation

12.2.1 The level of thermal process automation in a power plant shall be comprehensively embodied
in many aspects: the way of control, the configuration and function of thermal process automation
system, the organizing of running, the layout of control room and the controllability of main
equipment and auxiliary equipment.

12.2.2 The level of thermal process automation in a power plant shall be determined according to
factors such as the standing of the unit in the power network, the capacity and characteristics of the
unit and the anticipated management level of the power plant operation.

12.2.3 The generating unit with centralized control shall have high automation level. It shall, with
coordination of cyclic inspection and little manipulation by local operators, be able to startup or
shutdown the unit, to monitor and regulate operation conditions as well as to deal with contingencies
in unit control room.

12.2.4 The main system of thermal process automation of the steam turbine unit should use
distributed control system. Its function shall include data collecting and processing, analog control,
sequence control and monitoring the safety of boiler furnace chamber. For units of 50MW ~ 200MW,
its function may be simplified appropriately.

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For generating units of 300MW and above, if response speed allows and there is successful
experience of application, the protection of steam turbine may also be included in the distributed
control system.

12.2.5 The testing instrument and implementing equipment supplied or installed completely with the
main equipment and auxiliary equipment shall meet the requirement for the running of the generating
unit, the function of thermal process automation and the interface technology.

12.3 Control Mode and Control Room

12.3.1 For newly built generating units of 125MW and above and for expansion project of generating
units of 200MW and above, boilers, turbines and generators shall be centralized controlled in the unit
control room. For expansion project of unit system generating units of 125MW, either boilers,
turbines and generators or boilers and turbines may be centralized controlled, depending on specific
condition.

For the power plant with steam main, workshops or turbines and boilers should be centralized
controlled and local control may also be adopted.

12.3.2 The feedwater deaerating system of unit system or extended unit system shall be controlled in
the unit control room or in central control room of boilers and turbines.

12.3.3 The heating network system of co-generating power plant supplying municipal heating and
industrial steam may, as necessary, be controlled in the control room for generating units, or a
separate heating network system control room may be provided.

12.3.4 For generating units of 300MW and above, circulating water pump should be controlled in the
unit control room. When unit system water supply system is used, the control room for circulating
water pumps should be included in the distributed control system network. When the extended unit
system is used for water supply system, the control of circulating water pump should be included in
the distributed control system commonly shared by twin units. When the pump house is far away
from the power plant boundary, it may also be controlled in the workshop.

The control systems and control points of adjacent auxiliary production workshops or auxiliary
process systems with similar nature should be combined. The control point for auxiliary workshop
should not be more than three (coal delivery, de-ash and melting water). For other workshops, they
may be designed as person-free duty.

12.3.5 The air-cooling system of air-cooled units should be controlled in the unit control room.

12.4 Thermal Process Monitoring

12.4.1 Thermal process monitoring shall include:

(1) The operating parameters of the process system;

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(2) The operating status of auxiliaries;

(3) The opening and closing status of electric, pneumatic and hydraulic valves and the amount of
opening of regulating valves;

(4) The supply status and operating parameters of the power supply, air supply, water supply and
other necessary conditions of supplies and operating parameters;

(5) Necessary environment parameters.

12.4.2 The distributed control system for central control of boilers, turbines and generators shall also
include monitoring of parameters and status of main electric system and equipment.

12.4.3 Industrial TV should be provided to monitor flame in furnace chamber of boiler with a
capacity of 410t/h and above.

For steam turbine units with a capacity for single machine of 200MW and above, one set of vibration
monitoring and trouble diagnosis system should be commonly provided for several machines, and the
signal of shaft vibration shall be connected from steam turbine monitoring instrument system.

For boilers of generator unit of 300MW and above, one set of boiler tube leakage monitoring system
should be commonly provided for several boilers.

12.4.4 For generating unit with a capacity of 300MW and above, the system for monitoring metal
temperature of boilers and turbines and the temperature of coils and iron cores of generators should
use separate remote I/O to send it to the distributed control system via data communication interface.
If technical and economical comparison proves to be reasonable, it may also be directly completed
with the remote I/O of the distributed control system.

12.4.5 The primary instrument for measuring oil, water, steam, etc shall not be introduced into the
control room. Explosive preventing measures of corresponding class shall be taken for the measuring
instrument of inflammable gas parameters, and its primary instrument must not be introduced into
any control room.

12.4.6 Instrument and measuring apparatus containing harmful substances to human body should not
be used in the power plant. Instruments containing mercury are strictly prohibited.

12.4.7 Necessary local thermal process detecting instrument shall be provided in the power plant for
operators’ on-site inspection and local operation.

10.5 Thermal Process Alarm

12.5.1 The thermal process alarm may consist of regular alarm and / or alarm function in data
collecting system. The thermal process alarm shall include:

(1) Deviation of the main operating parameters of the thermal process system from the normal
operation limits;

— 90 —
(2) Actuation of thermal process protection and failure of main or auxiliary equipment;

(3) Failure of thermal process monitoring system ;

(4) Failure of thermal process power supply or air supply;

(5) Failure of main electrical equipment;

(6) Failure of auxiliary system.

12.5.2 When regular alarm system is provided, the input signal should not be taken from the output
of the distributed control system.

All analog input, digital input, analog output, digital output, intermediate variable and calculations of
the distributed control system may be the alarm source of data collecting system.

12.5.3 The regular alarm system in the control room shall have functions of self-flash, repeat
sounding and manual confirmation as well as functions of test lamp, test sound and re-positioning.

12.5.4 All alarm items within the range of the distributed control system shall be displayed on
cathode ray tube and printed in a printer. At the time of startup or shutdown of the generating units,
false alarms shall be restrained.

12.6 Thermal Process Protection

12.6.1 The thermal protection shall meet the following requirements:

(1) The design of thermal process protection system shall include measures for preventing mal-action
or refuse-action. The break and resume of the power supply for protection system shall not give any
instruction of mal-action.

(2) The thermal process protection system shall observe following “ independent” principles:

(a) The installation of logic controller for tripping protection system of boilers and turbines shall
be independent and redundant;

(b) The protection system shall have independent I/O passage and measure for electric isolation
shall be provided;

(c) The redundant I/O signal shall be introduced in via different I/O modules;

(d) The binary instrument for tripping protection signals of generating units and the transmitters
shall be installed separately. If there is difficulty and it is necessary to be commonly used
with other systems, its signal shall be firstly introduced into the protection system;

(e) The commend for tripping generating units shall not be transmitted through communication
main line;

(3) The tripping protection circuit for 300 MW generating units and above should be able to carry out

— 91 —
actuation test when the generating unit is running without affecting the protection functions and
normal operation of the generating unit;

(4) Master tripping buttons for fuel, turbines and generators shall be installed on the control console.
The tripping buttons shall be connected directly to the driving circuit for shutdown of boilers and
turbines;

(5) The reasons for protection actuation for shutdown of boilers and turbines shall have sequence
record of the event. Unit system generating unit shall also have function of memory of event.

(6) The operation instructions given from the thermal process protection system shall have priority
than any other instruction, i.e. to carry out the principle of “Priority is protection”;

(7) In protection circuit, no operation equipment shall be installed for operators to switch in or put in
protection.

12.6.2 For generating units with protection functions not included in the distributed control system,
their functions may be realized through programmable controllers or relays. In case programmable
controllers are used, it should have communication interface with the distributed control system so as
to deliver monitoring information to the distributed system.

12.6.3 For unit system generating units, the occurrence of any of following cases shall actuate the
shutdown protection of the generating units:

(1) Boiler emergency shutdown;

(2) Turbine emergency shutdown;

(3) Actuation of generator main protection;

(4) When FCB function is not installed to the unit system generating unit, the disengaging of the
generating unit caused by any reason.

12.6.4 Following protections shall be provided to boilers:

(1) The boiler feedwater system shall have following protections:

(a) Steam drum water level protection for drum boilers;

(b) Low feedwater protection for once-through boilers.

(2) Boiler steam system shall have following thermal process protections:

(a) Main steam pressure high (over pressure) protection;

(b) Reheat steam pressure high (over pressure) protection;

(c) Reheat steam temperature high water spray protection.

(3) Boiler furnace chamber safety protection shall have following functions:

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(a) Boiler purging;

(b) Leakage test of oil system;

(c) Fire extinguishing protection;

(d) Boiler furnace chamber pressure protection.

(4) Occurrence of any of following cases during running of boilers shall give instruction of tripping to
realize emergency shutdown protection of boilers:

(a) Manual boiler shutdown instruction;

(b) No flame in full furnace chamber;

(c) Pressure high/low in furnace chamber;

(d) Water level high/low of steam drum;

(e) Tripping of all induced fans;

(f) Tripping of all draft fans;

(g) When operating the burner of coal powder, all primary fans trip;

(h) All fuel suspended;

(i) Too low of total air volume;

(j) Power failure of the safety monitoring system for boiler furnace chamber;

(k) Other protection conditions for boiler shutdown required by the characteristics of boilers,
such as the tripping for the over temperature of reheat heater which is not allowed to heat
without water and the tripping of all boiler water circulating pumps of forced circulating
boilers, etc.

12.6.5 Steam turbines shall be equipped with the following protections:

(1) When the steam turbine generating units are running, the occurrence of any of following cases
shall actuate emergency shutdown protection of the turbine:

(a) Steam turbine over speed;

(b) Too low of condenser vacuum;

(c) Low pressure of lubricating oil;

(d) Great vibration of bearings;

(e) Large axial displacement;

(f) Failure of generator cooling system;

— 93 —
(g) Manual shutdown;

(h) Power off of steam turbine digital electro-hydraulic control system;

(i) Other protection items recommended by turbine and generator manufacturers.

(2) The steam turbine shall further be equipped with following thermal process protections:

(a) Reserve flow preventive protection of extraction steam;

(b) Over-temperature preventive protection of low-pressure cylinder steam exhaust;

(c) Water introduction preventive protection of steam turbine;

(d) Low vacuum protection of steam turbine.

12.6.6 The thermal dynamic system of the power plant shall be further equipped with the following
thermal process protections:

(1) Deaerator water level and pressure protection;

(2) Water level protection of high and low pressure heaters;

(3) Steam turbine bypass system de-superheating water pressure low protection and outlet
temperature high protection;

(4) Relevant protections of air-cooled condensing generating unit.

12.6.7 The thermal process protection of important auxiliaries (such as feedwater pumps, induced
and forced draft fans, etc.) shall be designed according to the operation requirements of the power
plant thermodynamic system and combustion system, as well as the technical requirements of
manufacturers of the auxiliaries.

12.7 Thermal Process Binary Control and Interlock

12.7.1 The function of the thermal process binary control of the power plant shall meet the control
requirements for startup, shutdown and normal operation of the generating unit. And it shall also
realize the control operation of the generating unit at emergency and under abnormal condition so as
to secure the safety of the generating unit. The binary control shall fulfil the following functions:

(1) The realization of sequence control, control operation and test operation of main/auxiliary
equipment shifting, of valves and dampers;

(2) The interlock control of large auxiliary equipment and their relevant cooling systems, lubricating
systems and sealing systems;

(3) Interlock actuation of stand-by equipment when there is tripping by local equipment failure;

(4) The realization of protection of status alarm, combined actuation and single machine shifting.

— 94 —
12.7.2 Sequence control should be provided to auxiliary systems, which have frequent regular
operation. The sequence control system of the power plant shall include the sequence control system
of main and auxiliary equipment of unit system generating unit and the sequence control system of
auxiliary system of the power plant. The sequence control system of the generating unit shall be
based mainly on subgroup control, that is, to carry out sequence control of the relevant equipment in
an auxiliary system.

12.7.3 Boiler auxiliaries shall have the following interlock items:

(1) The sequence interlock of the induced draft fan, regenerative air pre-heater and forced draft fan
during startup, shutdown and fault-trip;

(2) The interlock of the startup. shutdown of the induced draft fan, regenerating air pre-heater and
forced draft fan with the opening and closing of their relevant dampers in the flue gas and air duct;

(3) The interlock to shutdown the combustion system and the pulverized coal system when all the
forced draft fans shutdown;

(4) The sequence interlock of the startup, shutdown and fault-trip of the raw coal feeder, coal
pulverizer, primary air fan or exhaust fan in the pulverized coal system;

(5) The interlock of the exhaust fan and the pulverized coal feeder, where exhaust fan is used to feed
the pulverized coal to the burners;

(6) The interlock between the outlet air damper and cold air damper with the flue gas re-circulating
fan during startup and shutdown;

(7) The interlock between the large auxiliaries with their lubricating oil system, cooling and sealing
systems and automatic startup interlock of stand-by pump when the working pump in the system
fault-trips.

12.7.4 The steam turbine auxiliaries shall have the following interlocks:

(1) In lubricating oil system, the interlock between AC and DC lubricating oil pumps, jack oil pump
and turning gear pump, with the lubricating oil pressure;

(2) The interlock between the feedwater pump, condensate pump, condensate booster pump, vacuum
pump, circulating water pump, drain pump and other diverse pumps and their corresponding system
pressure;

(3) The interlock for the automatic startup of the stand-by pump when the working pump fault-trips;

(4) The interlock between different pumps and their electric valves at inlets and outlets.

12.7.5 When the sequence control function of the generating unit can not be included in the
distributed control system, its function shall be realized with programmable controllers. The
programmable controllers shall have communication interface with the distributed control system.
The binary control of auxiliary process system may be realized with programmable controllers.

— 95 —
12.7.6 The design of the sequence control shall follow the principle of “Give priority to
protection and interlock operation”. In the process of sequence control, when there is instruction of
protection and interlock, the process of control shall be interrupted and the process system shall
implement the instruction of protection and interlock.

The sequence control, when it is running, if any trouble occurs or if it is interrupted by any operator, it
shall break the running sequence and make the process system to be at safe status.

The sequence control shall have measures to avoid mal-operation.

12.8 Thermal Process Analog Control

12.8.1 Generating units of different capacities shall be equipped with comparatively complete
thermal process analog control system. For the unit system generating unit, the turbine-boiler
coordination control shall be adopted and it shall be able to work with primary and secondary
frequency modulation. Its functions shall be selected reasonably according to the capacity of the
generating unit. The operating mode of the coordination control system for generating unit of 300
MW and above should include turbine-boiler coordination control, turbine following boiler, boiler
following turbine and manual operation.

The control circuits of different analog control systems shall be designed according to the principle of
“Practical and reliable”. And it shall satisfy, as possible, the requirements of safe and economical
operation of the generating unit during startup, shut down and under different loads as well as taking
consideration of coordination control with relevant interlock protection of the generating unit in
emergency or under abnormal working condition.

For generating unit with steam main system, the control system of boiler setting load based on
corrected steam main setting pressure should be adopted.

12.8.2 Steam turbine electricity regulating system shall be provided to the generating units of 125
MW and above. The electricity regulating system for the generating units of 300 MW and above shall
have, at least, the functions of speed control, load control, automatic startup and shutdown and stress
monitoring.

12.8.3 Change-over logic and double-action bumpless change-over shall be provided to different
control modes in turbine-boiler control system,

12.8.4 The installation of the transmitters for major projects with thermal process analog control
should be duplicate (or triplicate).

12.9 The Distributed Control System of the Generating Unit

12.9.1 The steam turbine digital electro-hydraulic control system and the feedwater pump steam
turbine digital electro-hydraulic system shall be supplied by the manufacturer of the steam turbine.
When selecting the model, the principle of “Sophisticated and reliable “ shall be followed. When the

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model-selection of the steam turbine digital electro-hydraulic control system can not agree with
that of the distributed control system, communication interface shall be provided so as to realize
information exchange with the distributed control system.

12.9.2 When the sequence control of generator-transformer group of unit system generating unit and
the plant service power is included in the distributed control system, the automatic pressure regulator
in the excitation system of generator, the automatic quasi-synchronization device, the relay protection,
the trouble wave recorder and the automatic change-over function of the plant service power shall be
realized by special units.

12.9.3 When more utility systems controlled by unit operators (such as public plant service power
system, circulating water pump house, compressor house, etc.) are included in engineering, public
network should be installed for two units of generating units. All these utility systems shall be
included in the utility distributed control system network and respectively connect to the distributed
control system of the two generating units via communication interface. The above said utility system
shall be monitored and controlled in the two sets of distributed control system and it shall ensure that
at any time only one unit of generating unit will give effective instruction of operation. Without
successful experience and when it is not completed proved, the direct coupling of the distributed
control system network of the two generating units for the reason of plant service power system shall
be avoided.

12.9.4 When the generating unit adopts distributed control system with four functions included, less
operating equipment ensuring safe shutdown should be equipped. For one set of unit generating unit
shall be designed according to the principle that it shall be centralized controlled by unit operators.

The back-up monitoring equipment shall be configured according to the following regulations:

(1) When there is overall or major trouble in the distributed control system (such as: power failure of
the distributed control system, interrupting of the communication, no function of all operator stations,
no control or protection function of key control stations), to ensure safe emergency shutdown of the
generating unit, the following back-up operating means, which are independent from the distributed
control system, shall be installed:

(a) Tripping of the steam turbine;

(b) Tripping of master fuel;

(c) Tripping of generator-transformer group;

(d) Safety door of the boiler (It may not be installed for mechanical type.);

(e) Emergency drain door for steam drum;

(f) Vacuum collapse door of the steam turbine;

(g) DC lubricating oil pump;

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(h) AC lubricating oil pump;

(i) Motor de-magnetic switch;

(j) Startup of the diesel engine.

(2) Back-up operating means may not be provided to the sequence control system of unit generating
units and analog control system of boilers and steam turbines.

(3) No indicating or recording instrument other than KWh meter and accident wave recorder, to
which the distributed control system does not reach the precision and resolution of time, should be
installed.

(4) Regular illuminating word board alarm device should not be installed to turbines and boilers. If
necessary, less than 20-word illuminating board alarm windows shall be provided according to the
following principle for each unit of generating unit:

(a) Deviation of major parameters from normal values;

(b) Major protection tripping of unit generating units;

(c) Power failure of important control devices.

When the range of function of the distributed control system for generating units of 200 MW and
below is less than four functions, the monitoring equipment shall be installed as necessary to those
control systems not included.

12.9.5 The distributed control system shall be designed according the principle of de-mixing. The
driving class hardware and software of auxiliaries and valves (dampers) shall work independently
from upper stage and shall ensure that the allowable conditions and protection signals for safe startup
and shutdown of the auxiliaries themselves to be introduced into the driving control modules directly.

The thermal process protection, interlock signals of auxiliaries and their logic may be included in the
distributed control system (or programmable controllers) together with the sequence control logic.

12.10 Plant Class Monitoring and Management Information System

12.10.1 When the planned capacity of the power plant is 1200 MW and above and the single unit
capacity is 300 MW and above, plant class real time monitoring system may be installed. The plant
class real time monitoring system shall have good communication interface with the distributed
control system of the unit generating units and the control system of the utility auxiliary system.

12.10.2 The turbine-boiler coordination control system for unit system generating units of 125 MW
and above shall install interface with power network automatic power generating control.

The remote operating terminal should be connected with the turbine-boiler coordination control
system by hard connection line type. When plant class monitoring system is provided, the power
network coordination automation system shall also be connected with the plant class monitoring

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system and communicate with the distributed control system of the generating units so as to
exchange command and information of coordination.

12.10.3 The side of coordination shall transmit to the power plant the signals of generating power
settings, commands issuing and deleting for remote control mode of generating unit load and control
quit from power network automatic power generating control.

The power plant shall transmit to the side of coordination the signals of the present maximum and
minimum output of the generating units, the control mode (remote or local) of the generating units,
load decreasing caused by generating units trouble and withdrawing from primary frequency
modulation and allowing remote control.

12.10.4 The configuration of Management Information System of the power plant shall be
completely planned and implemented step by step by each independent power generating company
according to the actual need and the feasibility for technical development. Its final function shall
mainly include commercial operation management, equipment and maintenance management,
operation management, fuel management, inquire about key criteria, safety and environment
protection management, financial affairs and material management, human resource management,
office automation, etc.

12.11 Power Supply for Thermal Process Control

12.11.1 The voltage of the incoming power supply for thermal process control panels (cabinets) must
not exceed 220V. Both AC supply and DC supply for the thermal process control panels (cabinets)
shall be equipped with two circuits, each as stand-by to the other, apart from no mutual influence after
a period of power off. Failure of working power shall immediately change over to the other circuit
and automatic change-over device shall be installed.

12.11.2 Each thermal process AC supply distribution panel shall be provided with two incoming
feeders from different sections of the low voltage plant service low voltage auxiliary power bus. If the
power plant is provided with emergency power supply, one of feeders shall come from the emergency
power section of auxiliary power bus.

12.11.3 For the power supply of the distributed control system, the turbine electro-hydraulic control
system, the protection circuits for generating units, fire detecting device and the cooling fan control
for fire detecting, one circuit shall be from AC uninterrupted power supply (UPS) and the other shall
be from the plant service emergency power supply.

12.11.4 UPS may be centrally provided to each unit of generating unit or arranged in a distributed
way.

12.12 Cable and Tubing for Thermal Process Control and Arrangement of Local Equipment

12.12.1 The material of the core of cable and conductor for thermal process measuring, control and
power circuits shall be copper. The core material of compensation cable and compensation wire for

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measuring and control use shall be the same as the wire of thermal coupler or shall match the
characteristics of thermal process.

For the circuit of the instrument and computer with requirement for anti interference, shielded cable
with relevant shielding type shall be used.

For some thermal process instrument and control equipment, when the manufacturers have set
specific requirements for the specification of the connecting cables and wires, design shall be made
according to the requirements of the manufacturers.

12.12.2 Cables for thermal process use should be installed in cable tray or rack. The passage of the
tray and rack shall be prevented from damages by foreign mechanical force, overheat, corrosion and
combustible and explosive material. It shall also be isolated in accordance with fireproof
requirements.

12.12.3 The components taking the source shall be installed on the process equipment (piping) which
can reflect real parameters of the medium measured. The material of the primary pressure tubing and
primary valves shall be selected according to the highest pressure and temperature attainable by the
measured medium, with consideration of requirements for welding technology. The material of the
secondary tubing, secondary valves, blowdown valves, test valves and fittings shall meet the
requirements of the highest pressure attainable and the highest temperature during blowdown.

12.12.4 The shell of thermal process electric equipment, the trays and metal racks which are not
required to be overhead ones, and the armored layer of armored cable shall be grounded for
protection. The protection grounding shall be firm and reliable and shall not be grounded in series.
The resistance of protection grounding shall be up to the regulations in force for the electric
protection grounding.

The computer system should be commonly grounded with grounding network of the whole plant and
no special separate grounding network should be provided. The grounding of different natures in the
computer system, such as power supply grounding, logic grounding, grounding of overhead cabinets,
shall have firm and reliable general grounding plate (box). In case the computer manufacturer has
specific requirements for them, design shall be made according to the specific requirements.

The shielding layer of the cable for computer signals must be grounded.

12.12.5 The locally arranged thermal process equipment shall be provided with necessary protection,
antifreeze and anti-explosion measures as required.

12.13 Simulator for Training

12.13.1 The installation of simulator for training operators for generating units of 600 MW and
above shall be studied by each independent power generating company according to the principle of
regional cooperation to decided whether it is necessary or not.

12.13.2 The training simulator should cover the simulation of the whole scope and procedures of the

— 100 —
whole process. The less important auxiliary systems may be simplified.

— 101 —
13. Electrical Equipment and System

13.1 Generator and main transformer

13.1.1 Type selection and technical requirements of generator and its excitation system should
respectively comply with the GB/T7064《Technical requirements of synchronous electrical machine
in turbine type 》,GB/T7409.1~7409.3《excitation system of synchronous electrical machine》and
DL/T650《Technical conditions of high capacity turbo-generator with stationary excitation system in
self shunt exciting》.

13.1.2 The technical conditions of generator of 300 MW and above should be meet the following
requirements:

1. Rated capacity of generator should match with turbine rated output. In condition of the rated
power factor and rated hydrogen pressure of generator, the selection of rating of generator should be
coordinated with the rated output of turbine, and the selection of maximum continuous rating of
generator should be coordinated with the maximum continuous output of turbine, but the inlet
temperature of the cooler suits to match the temperature of cooling water in condition of
corresponding turbine operation mode.

2. Natural torsion vibration frequency of turbo-generator shaft system should keep away from the
power frequency and double power frequency.

3. The structural strength of turbo-generator parts should be subject to sudden short-circuit on its
terminals in any conditions under the rated capacity and 105% rated voltage, and should endure the
single phase reclosing of the circuit breaker of high voltage transmission line connected with.

4. In accordance with the requirements of power system, the generator should have certain capability
to absorb reactive power, to take up the peak-load, and to operate asynchronously for a short time
under loss of excitation.

5. The characteristics and parameters of excitation system should meet the requirements of various
operating modes of the power system, and the mature equipments recommended by manufactures can
be selected. If after system stability calculating, the maximum voltage must be considered as twifold
and more, and then through the techno-economical comparisons, the stationary excitation system in
self-shunt exciting can be used, which is integrated maturely with main machine.

13.1.3 The main transformer connected as unit with the unit of 300 MW and smaller should be
used in three-phase type, if not restricted by transportation condition; In accordance with
transportation and manufacturing conditions, the main transformer connected as unit with 600 MW
unit can adopt single-phase transformers or three-phase transformer after techno-economical study.

— 102 —
When single-phase transformer units are selected, according to the conditions of connected
power system and equipments, whether the spare phase needs to install or not.

13.1.4 In the power plant with units of 60 MW and smaller, the main transformers connected to
generator voltage bus should not be less than two sets. The determination of total transformer
capacity should consider the annual growth of loads, and meet the following requirements:

1. When load on generator voltage bus is minimum, the remaining power can be sent to the power
system.

2. When output of the power plant is limited due to outage of the largest generator connected to the
generator voltage bus, or due to variation of thermal load of heat-supplying units, the power plant
should be able to obtain power from the power system to satisfy the maximum load demand on
generator voltage bus.

13.1.5 When the generator of 200 MW and bigger connected with main transformer as unit, the
capacity of transformer can be selected according to the deduction of the calculated load of one
auxiliary transformer from maximum continuous output of generator, and the average temperature
rise of transformer windings not exceeding 65°C under normal ambient temperature or cooling water
temperature.

13.1.6 For power plant with the smallest unit of 100 MW and bigger, the voltage of outgoing lines
should be not exceed two kinds. The small power loads in nearby power plant area should be supplied
by local power system.

The power supply voltage and load supply mode in nearby heat-supplying plant area should be
determined after techno-economical studies.

13.1.7 When power plant with the largest unit of 125 MW and smaller and with two step-up voltages
supply power to consumers or connect to the power system, the main transformer suits to adopt
three-winding transformer, but the power through each winding should be over 15 % of rated
capacity of the transformer.

The unit of 200 MW and bigger should not suit to use three-winding transformer. If it is necessary to
connect high voltage and medium voltage, interconnecting transformer can be installed in the power
plant or interconnecting is made through sub-station.

The three-winding transformer connecting in two kinds of step-up voltages should not exceed two
sets.

If neutral grounding of two step-up voltage systems is directly grounded, autotransformers can be
selected if it is reasonable to prove economically and technically, but the direction of main power
flow should be from low and medium voltage side to high voltage side.

13.1.8 For the interconnecting transformer with power flow large variation and voltage large change;
the transformer with on-load voltage regulation can be adopted.

— 103 —
13.2 Main electrical connections

13.2.1 Generator voltage of unit of 60 MW and smaller are selected according the following
conditions:

1. When the voltage of generator is directly connected to buses, it is possible to adopt 6.3 kV or 10.5
kV according to local power network requirement.

2. If generator and transformer are connected as unit and there are the auxiliary power branch lines, it
is suitable to adopt 6.3 kV.

13.2.2 If the units in the power plant are connected to power system, and the capacity of unit is
relatively small as compared with that of power system and doesn’t coordinated, an extended unit
connection of two generators with one transformer (two-winding transformer or split winding
transformer) can be adopted, or two generator and two-winding transformer unit can use one
circuit breaker as an extended unit connection.

13.2.3 The generator voltage buses can adopt double bus or double bus sectionalized connection.
For limiting short-circuit current, the reactors can be installed in the sectionalized bus circuit. If it
does not meet the requirements, the split reactors may be installed in generator or main transformer
circuit, or the reactors can be installed in the directly outgoing lines.

13.2.4 The rated current of reactor at sectionalized bus should be selected in accordance with the
maximum current possibly flowing through the reactor when a largest generator is tripped from the
bus due to faults. If no accurate load information, the selection of rated current of reactor should be in
accordance with 50 % to 80 % of rated current of the generator connected to.

13.2.5 For the unit of 200 MW and bigger, the generator-transformer-line unit connection can be
adopted, if it is reasonable economically and technically.

13.2.6 In 330~500 kV lightning arrestor circuit, disconnecting switch should not be installed. For
lightning arrestor with potential transformer of buses 220 kV and below, a common disconnecting
switch can be installed. For potential transformer with coupling capacitor or capacitor potential
transformer of 110~500 kV line, it is not suitable to install a disconnecting switch. For the lightning
arrestor of line 220 kV and below, and lightning arrestor circuits connected to generator and
transformer outgoing leads or lightning arrestor connected to neutral point, disconnecting switch
should not be installed.

13.2.7 A circuit breaker or load switch should not suit to install in the parallel reactor circuit of
330~500 kV line, but in the conditions of some specific functions and operation mode, it could be
installed.

The single bus arrangement is suitably adopted between its power source and the parallel reactor
which is connceted to low voltage side of 330~500 kV interconnecting transformer.

— 104 —
13.2.8 When generator of 125 MW and smaller are connected with two-winding transformer as
unit connection, it is not suitable to install a circuit breaker between generator and transformer. When
the generator is connected with three-winding transformer or autotransformer as unit, it is suitable to
install a circuit breaker and a disconnecting switch between generator and transformer, and auxiliary
power branch should be connected between the transformer and its circuit breaker.

When 200~300 MW generator is connected with two-winding transformer as unit connection, circuit
breaker, load switch, or disconnecting switch should not be installed between generator and
transformer, but a connection-point breakable should be installed there.

A circuit breaker or load switch can be installed at terminals of unit of 600 MW, if techno-economical
study proves it reasonable. In this case, an on load regulating voltage mode should be adopted for the
main transformer or HV working auxiliary transformer.

When two generators connected with one transformer, or two generators and one two-winding
transformer form an extended connection unit, the circuit breaker and disconnecting switch should be
installed between generator and transformer.

13.2.9 The outgoing leads of generator of 200 MW and bigger, auxiliary power branch, and
down-leads of potential transformer and lightning arrestor circuits, etc, the isolated-phase continuous
metal-enclosed bus should be adopted.

13.2.10 The generator neutral grounding system can use ungrounded, through arc extinguishing coil
or high resistance grounding system. For generator capacity of 300 MW and bigger, the grounded
through arc extinguishing coil or high resistance grounding system should be used.

13.2.11 The 35~220 kV switchgear connection should be determined in accordance with following
conditions: the position of the power plant in the power system, load conditions, number of outgoing
lines, equipment characteristics, type of switchgear, single unit capacity, planned capacity of the
power plant, etc.

When the switchgear holds an important position in the power system, heavy is load, power flow
variation is large, and number of outgoing lines are comparatively large, then double bus or double
bus-sectionalized arrangement should be adopted.

When the 110~220 kV switchgear use single bus or double bus, if SF6 gas insulated metal-enclosed
type is selected for the switchgear, it should not to install the by-pass facility; if SF6 gas insulated
circuit breaker used, the bypass facilities do not suit to be installed; if the circuit breaker used the low
oil content type, the bypass facilities suit to install, unless the circuit breakers could be shut down for
maintenance. When there are four or more outgoing lines of 220 kV and six or more outgoing lines of
110 kV, the bypass bus with dedicated bypass circuit breaker can be used.

For 220 kV switchgear of power plant with units of 300 MW and bigger, if double bus-sectionalized
arrangement cannot satisfy the requirements for power system stability and district power system
reliability, one-and-half circuit breaker arrangement can also be adopted, if techno-economical study

— 105 —
proves it reasonable.

When 35~63 kV switchgears adopted single bus-sectionalized arrangement, and when the circuit
breaker no condition to make maintenance after outage, the by-pass bus without dedicated circuit
breaker can be installed. When double bus arrangement adopted, the by-pass bus is not suitable to
install, but a by-pass disconnecting switch can be installed, if the condition permitted.

The circuit breaker on the high voltage side of generator-transformer unit is not suitable to connect
onto the by-pass bus.

At early stage of the project, temporary connection configuration with fewer circuit breakers may be
adopted, but layout of the switchgears should be convenient for extension to the final connection
configuration.

13.2.12 When power plant is connected to 220 kV system, and if double bus-sectionalized
arrangement is adopted, the section circuit breaker can be installed according to following conditions:

1. For units of 200 MW and smaller, when the total installed capacity of power plant is 800 MW and
bigger, and the number of 220 kV outgoing lines 10 to 14 circuits, double bus with single
bus-sectionalized can be adopted. When the total installed capacity of power plant is 1000 MW and
bigger, and the number of 220 kV outgoing lines reached 15 and more, double bus with double
bus-sectionalized can be adopted.

2. For units of 300 MW, and when three or more units installed in the power plant and double
bus-sectionalized have be selected, the requirements of power system stability and district power
supply reliability should be considered. When any one circuit breaker failure or reject operation,
whether double bus with single bus-sectionalized or with double bus-sectionalized arrangement can
be determined according to system stability and number of cut-off units and cut-off outgoing lines
allowed by district power supply. For large power system with capacity bigger than 10000 MW, and
when 3~4 units installed in the power plant, double bus with single bus-sectionalized arrangement
can be adopted; when the units number more than 4, double bus with double bus-sectionalized
arrangement can be adopted. For medium power system with capacity 5000~10000 MW, where the
power plant has installed 3 units, double bus with one bus-sectionalized arrangement can be adopted;
when 4 units are installed in power plant, double bus with double bus-sectionalized arrangement can
be adopted.

3. When the double bus with double bus-sectionalized arrangement of 220 kV switchgears is adopted,
if there is difficulty in the layout, the double bus with single bus-sectionalized arrangement can be
adopted.

13.2.13 The connection of 330 ~ 500 kV switchgear must satisfy the requirements of system stability
and reliability, and also consider the flexibility of operation and economy of construction. When the
number of incoming and outgoing lines is six or more, and the switchgear is important position in the
system, one-and-half circuit breaker arrangement suits to be adopted. When the number of incoming

— 106 —
and outgoing lines is less than six, and if system stability and reliability requirements can be
satisfied, double bus can also be adopted.

In the one-and-half circuit breaker arrangement, power source lines and load lines should be arranged
in pair to form series, with same title circuits arranged in different series. If only two series in the
initial stage, the same title lines suit connect to different sides of the buses, and the incoming and
outgoing lines should install disconnecting switches. If the number of one-and-half circuit breaker
reaches three series or more, the same title circuits can be connected to same side of the bus, and
disconnecting switches not suit installed on incoming and outgoing lines.

In double bus-sectionalized arrangement, power source line and load lines suit evenly arranged on
different section of the buses.

13.3 Auxiliary power system

13.3.1 The power plant can use 3 kV, 6 kV or 10 kV as the voltage of HV auxiliary power system, if
the units of 60 MW and smaller and generator voltage of 10.5 kV, it can use 3 kV; generator Voltage
of 6.3kV, it can use 6kV, the units of 100~300 MW, the 6 kV. For the units of 600 MW, the voltage of
HV auxiliary power system can adopt one level - 6 kV, or two levels - 3 kV and 10 kV.

For the units of 200 MW and bigger, the LV auxiliary power system within the Main building, the
power equipment and lighting circuits should be separately supplied. The voltage for power circuits
suits to use 380 V.

13.3.2 When the grounded capacity current in HV auxiliary power system is smaller than 7A, its
neutral suits to ground through high resistance or ungrounded. When the grounded capacity current
is 7A and bigger, its neutral suits to ground through low resistance, or ungrounded.

13.3.3 The LV auxiliary power system in the Main building suits to ground through high resistance,
or solidly grounded.

13.3.4 The loads not related to power plant production should not be connected into the auxiliary
power system.

13.3.5 For generator as unit connection, when there is no circuit breaker or load switch at generator
terminal, the HV working auxiliary transformer connected through auxiliary power branch should not
employ on-load voltage regulation. For large capacity generator requiring leading phase operation,
the voltage regulation mode of auxiliary transformer should be determined after comprehensive
techno-economical comparison.

The selection of impedance and voltage regulation mode of HV standby auxiliary transformer should
be determined after calculation and techno-economical comparison.

13.3.6 High voltage working auxiliary power sources can employ following connection types:

1. If there are generator voltage buses, the auxiliary load of unit should be supplied from section of

— 107 —
the bus connected to the generator.

2. When generator and transformer as unit connected, the auxiliary load of the unit can be supplied
from low voltage side of the main transformer.

13.3.7 The capacity of HV working auxiliary transformer suits to be selected according to the
summation of the calculated load of high voltage motors plus calculated load of low voltage auxiliary
power. If the common load is normally supplied by the first unit (set) startup/standby transformer, it
should be considered for the total common load supplied by first HV working auxiliary transformer,
or shared percent loads by both the first unit (set) and second (set) of HV working auxiliary
transformer, when the startup/standby transformer is under maintenance.

The capacity of LV working auxiliary transformer suits to have a margin of about 10% of the rating.

13.3.8 For 125 MW and smaller unit, a circuit breaker suits to be installed on auxiliary power branch
circuit. If no circuit breaker with sufficient interrupting capacity for selection, a circuit breaker that
can satisfy the dynamic stability can be used; but it is necessary to take the measure let the circuit
breaker to cut-off the short circuit fault within permissible interrupting capacity, or the disconnecting
switch or connection link plate, etc, which are satisfied the requirements of dynamic stability can be
used.

When the isolated-phase metal-enclosed bus is adopted for auxiliary power branch circuit, the circuit
breaker and disconnecting switch should not be installed, but a breakable point should be provided.

13.3.9 The HV and LV auxiliary power bus connected with category I load should have standby
power source. When standby power source adopted dedicated standby mode, there should also be
installed with standby power source automatic closing device.

For HV and LV auxiliary power bus connected with category II load, the standby power source with
manual switching should be installed.

For category III load, the standby power source cannot install.

13.3.10 The HV auxiliary power standby or startup/standby power source can use following
connections:

1. When there is no generator voltage bus, it can connect from the bus lowest voltage level among the
high voltage buses, which power source is reliable, or connected from the tertiary (low voltage side)
winding of interconnecting transformer. It should be guaranteed that, when the whole power plant is
shutdown, sufficient power source could be obtained from external power system, including the
medium voltage side of three-winding transformer, which the power is provided from HV side.

2. When there is generator voltage bus, a standby power source can be connected from this bus.

3. When it is techno-economically reasonable, it can be supplied by dedicated transmission line


connected from external power network.

— 108 —
4. When the number of HV standby (or startup/standby) auxiliary power sources is two or more,
they should be connected from two relatively independent power sources.

13.3.11 The capacity of standby auxiliary transformer (reactor) or startup/standby auxiliary


transformer in power plant should be selected according to the following requirements:

1. The capacity of HV standby auxiliary transformer (reactor) or startup/standby auxiliary


transformer should not be less than the largest unit (set) of HV working auxiliary transformer
(reactor). When there are common loads supplied by the startup/standby auxiliary transformer, its
capacity should also be sufficient to meet the requirements for the standby of a largest unit (set) of
HV working auxiliary transformer.

For 600 MW unit, when circuit breaker or load switch is installed at generator terminal, the capacity
of standby auxiliary transformer should be selected according to the 60~100% capacity of one HV
working auxiliary transformer.

2. The capacity of LV standby auxiliary transformer should be the same as one largest LV working
auxiliary transformer.

13.3.12 For the working auxiliary power source of 200~300MW unit, a split-winding transformer
suits used. For HV working auxiliary power source of 600MW unit, one or two transformers can be
used.

13.3.13 The number determination of HV standby auxiliary transformer (reactor) should meet
following requirements:
1. For units smaller than 100 MW, when the number of HV working auxiliary transformers (reactors)
is six and more, a second HV standby auxiliary transformer (reactor) can be installed.
When the unit control has been used at 100 ~ 125 MW units, and if the number of HV working
auxiliary transformers (reactors) is five and more, a second HV standby auxiliary transformer can be
installed.
The secondary sides of two (set) HV standby auxiliary transformers (reactors) suit mutually
connected.
2. For 200 ~ 300 MW units, one HV startup/standby auxiliary transformer can be installed for every
two units.
3. For 600 MW units, when no circuit breaker or load switch installed at generator terminal, one or
two HV startup/standby auxiliary transformers may be installed for every two units. If two HV
startup/standby auxiliary transformers installed, it should consider that when one HV startup/standby
auxiliary transformer under maintenance, it should not affect any unit startup and stop. When the
circuit breaker or load switch installed at generator terminal and four or less units, one HV standby
auxiliary transformer can be installed; for five or more units of same capacity, one HV working
auxiliary transformer can also installed, but doesn’t make its connection.

— 109 —
13.3.14 For unit of 300~600 MW, connection arrangement of HV side of startup/standby
auxiliary transformer should satisfy to following requirements:
1. When the common auxiliary loads of 600MW unit supplied by two HV startup/standby auxiliary
transformers standby each other, one circuit breaker suits installed at HV side of the transformers.
2. When the common auxiliary loads supplied by HV startup/standby auxiliary transformers, and the
HV working auxiliary transformer as standby power source, or the common auxiliary loads supplied
by HV working auxiliary transformer, for each two HV startup/standby auxiliary transformer can
respectively installed disconnecting switches, and common use one circuit breaker.
3. When one circuit breaker installed for the HV working auxiliary transformer, the loads should be
supplied by one power source line, if two or more circuit breakers installed, suit supplied by two
power source lines.
13.3.15 When LV standby auxiliary power source supplied by dedicated standby transformer, and if
the number of LV auxiliary transformer 125 MW and smaller is eight or more, a second LV standby
auxiliary transformer can be installed. For 200 MW units, one LV standby auxiliary transformer suits
installed for every two units. For 300 MW and bigger units, one LV standby auxiliary transformer
suits installed for each unit.
When the LV auxiliary transformers are configured in couples, the mutually standby load should be
separately supplied from two transformers, in such case, the automatic closing device of standby
power source should not be installed between the two transformers standby each other. It is suitable to
adopt the standby arrangement that is the standby power of Category II loads far away from the Main
building is supplied by two near-by transformers mutual standby. For the LV auxiliary transformers
mutual standby, the dedicated standby transformer should not be installed again.
13.3.16 The HV auxiliary bus should use single bus arrangement. When the boiler capacity is less
than 400 t/h, the load of each boiler can be supplied from one bus section. When the boiler capacity is
400 t/h and bigger, the loads of each boiler and of each voltage level of HV auxiliary power should be
supplied from no less than two bus sections.
The LV auxiliary bus should also use single bus arrangement. When the boiler capacity is 220 t/h and
the Category I loads of boiler and turbine connected from the bus, the bus suits sectionalized
corresponding to boiler or turbine. When the boiler is 400~670 t/h capacity, the load of each boiler
can be supplied from two bus sections, and the motors of double donkey-set should be separately
connected to two bus sections; the two bus sections may be supplied by one transformer. When the
boiler is 1000 t/h and bigger, two bus sections should be installed for each boiler, one transformer
should supply the bus section.
13.3.17 For 200 MW and bigger unit, AC safety power source should be provided, it is suitable to use
quick startup diesel generator.
The voltage and neutral grounding arrangement of AC safety power source should be consistent with
LV auxiliary power system.
13.3.18 When computer monitor controls the unit, AC uninterrupted power supply should be

— 110 —
installed for each unit, it is suitable to adopt static inverter device, and no standby device needs
installed.
13.3.19 In power plant, permanent AC low voltage network for maintenance should be installed, and
the maintenance power source boxes install at various maintenance site, supplying electric welding
machine, electric driven tools, testing equipment, etc.
13.3.20 Arrangement of auxiliary power switchgears should be determined according to the
arrangement of Main building, do the best to save cable, and keep away from moist, high temperature
and dusty places. For 200 MW and bigger units, auxiliary power switchgears suits arranged in the
turbine hall, if the place for arrangement is limited, the partial auxiliary switchgears can also be
arranged in centralized control building or other suitable places.
13.3.21 For 200 MW and bigger unit, in the Main building and network control building, the LV
auxiliary transformers should use dry-type transformer.
13.3.22 For 200 MW and bigger unit, the circuit breaking equipment of HV auxiliary power suits to
adopt the mixed type of vacuum circuit breaker (or high voltage fuse) in series with vacuum contactor.
For 125 MW and smaller unit, the circuit breaking equipment of HV auxiliary power suits to adopt
the low-oil-content type, but for frequently close or open in operation, it is suitable to adopt the mixed
type of vacuum circuit breaker (or high voltage fuse) in series with vacuum contactor.

13.4 Direct current system

13.4.1 In power plant, the battery banks should be installed for supplying loads of control, signal,
relay protection, automatic devices (“control loads” infra for short) and DC oil pumps, AC UPS,
closing mechanism of circuit breaker and AC emergency lighting, etc (“power loads” infra for short).
The battery banks should operate under full floating charging mode.

For power plant with main control room, when total capacity is 100 MW and bigger, two battery
banks can be installed. For other conditions one battery bank can be installed.

For 125 MW and bigger unit with unit control room as control mode, each unit can install one battery
bank. For 200 MW and bigger unit with step-up voltage 220 kV and below, each unit can install one
(supplying both control loads and power loads) or two battery banks (supplying separately control
loads and power loads). For 300 MW and bigger unit, each unit suits to install three battery banks
(among them two supplying control loads, the other one supplying power loads), or install two
battery banks (supplying both control and power loads).

When the network control system of power plant covers 500 kV electrical equipments, two battery
banks should be installed. For 220 kV network control system of power plant with capacity 800 MW
and bigger, two battery banks may be installed. In other case, one battery bank may be installed.

13.4.2 The voltage of battery bank in power plant can be determined according to the following
requirements:

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1. The voltage of battery bank special for control loads (for network control room it can include
other DC loads) suits to use 110 V dc.

2. The voltage of battery bank special for power loads suits to use 220 V dc.

3. The voltage of battery bank for supplying both control loads and power loads suits use 220 V dc.

13.4.3 The battery bank especially for control loads, should not install end cell, other battery bank
suits not install end cell. When battery bank is installed with end cell, the measures should be taken to
prevent end cell from sulfuration.

13.4.4 Load statistic of battery banks in power plant should meet the following requirements:

1. When two battery banks with same voltage are installed, for control loads the load of each battery
bank can be determined in accordance with the all loads in that control room, and for direct current
emergency lighting load, the load of each battery bank can be determined in accordance with 60% of
all loads in that control room. It is suitable to divide the power load equally between two battery
banks; the load of each battery bank can be determined in accordance with its own connected.

2. For unit control room, when two battery banks are interconnected, the load of each bank can be
determined in accordance with the its own connected, and the increase of load due to interconnection
may not be considered.

13.4.5 For the power plant connected to power system, when the capacity of battery bank determined,
the calculated outage time of AC auxiliary power source due to failure should be one hour; the
calculated time for the DC loads of AC uninterrupted power supply (UPS) should be 0.5 h.

13.4.6 The configuration of normal charging and floating charging devices for battery bank, should
satisfy following requirements:

Each battery bank should install one charging device. For two battery banks the same voltage should
also have one charging device in the same capacity as common standby. When only one battery bank
is installed in power plant, two charging devices of the same capacity could be installed.

The capacity and regulating range of charging device should satisfy the requirements of floating
charging and normal charging of battery bank.

13.4.7 The direct current system in power plant suits adopt single bus or single bus-sectionalized
arrangement. When single bus-sectionalized arrangement is adopted, each battery bank with its
charging device should be connected to the same bus section, the common standby charging device
should be able to switch to corresponding two bus sections.

13.4.8 When AC excitation system adopted, the manufacturer provides necessary standby measures,
and the standby exciter should not be installed.

13.5 High voltage switchgear

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13.5.1 The design of high voltage switchgear in power plant should be comply with SDJ5
《Technical code for design of high voltage switchgears》and GB50060《Code for design 3~110kV
high voltage switchgears》.

13.5.2 The type selection of switchgear should satisfy following requirements:

1. 35 kV and below switchgears suit shall adopt the indoor type.

2. For 110-220 kV switchgears:

1) The outdoor switchgears should adopt the half-high type or high type arrangement, if
possible. In regions with seismic basic intensity of eight grade and above or in lean soil
region, the outdoor medium type should be adopted, and the external insulation level should
be determined according to atmospheric pollution conditions.

2) The switchgears in severe atmospheric pollution regions or limited by site should adopt the
indoor type (in accordance with the features of dirtiness and dampness, operation experience,
equivalent salt coated density from test, and pollution classification standard). If it is intend
to adopt the SF6 gas insulated metal-enclosed switchgears (GIS), it must to do
techno-economical study.

3) 330kV~500kV switchgears shall adopt the outdoor medium type; in severe atmospheric
pollution regions or limited by site, through the techno-economical study, the SF6 gas
insulated metal-enclosed switchgears can be adopted (in accordance with the features of
dirtiness and dampness, operation experience, equivalent salt coated density from test, and
pollution classification for operation standard).

— 113 —
13.6 Electrical control building

13.6.1 The position of electrical control building (main control building or network control building)
should be convenient for operation and saving control cables.

13.6.2 Main control building should be adjacent to switchgear building. When main control building
is separated from Main building, an overhead bridge should connect the both buildings.

An overhead bridge is not suitable for connecting network control building and Main building. If it’s
possible (such as in short distance or easy to connect), the upper inspection passage of outdoor
switchgears in high arrangement type can be used for connection.

13.7 Electrical measuring instrumentation

13.7.1 The design of electrical measuring and instrumental facilities in power plant should be in
accordance with the requirements of SDL9《Technical Code for Design of Electrical Measuring and
Electric energy metering Devices》.

13.7.2 Instrumental transformers, transducers, AC acquiring device, measuring instruments, etc,


should meet the requirements of measuring accuracy for economical assessment.

13.7.3 The terminals of electric energy metering for calculating tariff should be installed in power
plant, in order to realize following functions: energy metering onto network, time-sharing storage and
treatment, and communication with main station. The equipments should satisfy the design
requirements of network electric energy tariff calculating system.

13. 8 Secondary wiring

13.8.1 For power plant with 100 MW and below the control mode of main control room shall be
adopted. For power plant with 125 MW capacity, the control mode of unit control room shall be
adopted. For power plant with 200 MW and above, the mode of unit control room shall be adopted.

For power plant adopting the mode of unit control room, the power network control portion should be
installed in first unit control room.

13.8.2 The electrical elements in unit control room shall be controlled by heavy current control or by
distributed control system; the control, signal, measuring and automatic devices of the generator
should be coordinated with the thermal process instrumentation and control. The signal system may
adopt heavy current or weak current control or enter to DCS.

The electrical elements of power network shall adopt computer monitoring system or heavy current
connection; the signal system may adopt heavy current or weak current connection or be connected to
computer monitoring system. The computer monitoring system of electrical network can consider the
requirements of supervision of chief shift operator.

The electrical elements in main control room can use heavy current connection, while the signal

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system can be controlled with heavy current or weak current.

13.8.3 The equipments and elements, which should be controlled in main control room, are :
generator, main transformer, interconnecting transformers, bus section, reactors, bus ties, tie lines,
by-pass circuits, 35 kV and above lines, HV auxiliary power source lines, working and standby
auxiliary transformers (reactors), standby exciters, DC system, and common fire-fighting water
pumps for whole power plant.

13.8.4 The following equipments and elements should be controlled in unit control room: generator,
generator-transformer group, HV working auxiliary transformer, HV standby or startup/standby
auxiliary transformer, HV auxiliary power source line, dedicated standby power source in Main
building, LV mutual standby auxiliary transformer, and other equipments and elements that
necessitate centralized control in the unit. For the common equipments in whole power plant, it is
suitable to centralize them in the first unit control room, network control room or other suitable
places.

The following equipments and elements are to be controlled by network system: interconnecting
transformer, equipments on high voltage bus, 110(63) kV and above lines, shunt reactors, etc. In
addition, there are also the signals of circuit breaker at HV side of generator-transformer group and
HV standby or startup/standby auxiliary transformers of each unit, and necessary measuring signals.

When one-and-half circuit breaker connection is adopted, the two circuit breakers of
generator-transformer group should be controlled in the unit control room. Also, if network control
room is available, the signals of the above circuit breakers should be here.

13.8.5 6 kV or 10kV indoor switchgear for outgoing lines to consumers, the auxiliary transformers
supplying auxiliary shops, AC emergency power source, etc, shall adopt local control.

13.8.6 The relay protection devices and the metering electric energy devises for various equipments
and elements can be installed in switchgear room or relay protection room of outdoor switchgear, or
the location in which the equipments and elements are to be control.

The environmental conditions of relay protection room of outdoor switchgears should satisfy the
requirements of safety and reliable operation of relay protection devices.

13.8.7 In the main control room or unit control room of the power plant, the automatic
quasi-synchronization device should be installed, or the manual quasi-synchronization device with
interlock can also be installed.

In network control room, the manual quasi-synchronization device with interlock or the
synchronization interlock device should be installed.

13.8.8 When heavy current control is used, the emergency alarm device (e.g. flash enunciator)
should be installed, or the emergency signal and anticipating signal devices which can act repeatedly
and stop audible alarm automatically with time delay can be installed.

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Monitoring of control circuits of circuit breakers can use visual or audible signals.

13.8.9 When the remote temperature-measuring device of generator is installed, it is suitable to


install that on the turbine control panel. When the remote temperature-measuring device of
transformer installed, it is suitable to install that on the panel controlling that device.

13.8.10 Between disconnecting switch and corresponding circuit breaker and grounding switch, the
interlock devices should be installed. Interlock devices can consist of mechanical, electromagnetic or
electrical circuit lock. Completed high voltage switchgear cubicle should have following functions:
to prevent fault trip and fault closing of circuit breaker, to prevent open and close of disconnecting
switch under load, to prevent closing (connecting) grounding circuit or grounding switch under
voltage, to prevent closing circuit breaker or disconnecting switch when the switch is grounded and to
prevent operator entering energized cubicle. For screen door of each cubicle of 3 kV and above
indoor switchgear, the devices to prevent entering the energized cubicle should be installed.

13.8.11 For all local operated maintenance disconnecting switches the position indicators cannot be
installed in the control room.

13.8.12 When heavy current control is adopted, the color of signal lamps and push buttons for
closing position (turn-on) should be red; for tripped position (turn-off) green.

13.8.13 When the distributed control system is adopted, it is suitable to coordinate the electrical
automation control level with that of thermal, its monitoring extent should be divided according to the
units; the necessary emergency manual operating device can be kept down, and the functions of relay
protection, automatic quasi-synchronization device, automatic voltage regulation, fault wave record,
and auxiliary power source quick switching should be performed by specific devices.

The close and open commands from relay protection and safety automation system should be directly
connected into close-open operating circuit of circuit breaker.

13.8.14 The computer monitoring system of power network should adopt the open or distribution
system, it is suitable to adopt double machine and double network configuration. For local monitor
components, if an intelligent device is taken, it is suitable to have it arranged locally.

13. 9 Lighting system

13.9.1 The design of lighting system in power plant should be in accordance with the stipulation of
GB50034《Code for design of lighting in industrial enterprises》.

13.9.2 The lighting in power plant should have separated power supply circuit for normal lighting
and emergency lighting, and the following power supply modes suit to be adopted.

1. Normal lighting:

When the neutral of LV auxiliary power system is directly grounded and the unit capacity is 125 MW
and below, the normal lighting should be supplied by LV auxiliary transformer commonly used by

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both power load and lighting load.

When neutral of LV auxiliary power system is not solidly grounded, or the unit capacity is 200 MW
and above, the normal lighting is supplied by lighting transformer (secondary side voltage should be
380/220 V, solidly grounded neutral) connected from HV or LV auxiliary power system. The lighting
transformer connected from LV auxiliary power system can also be installed in a distribution mode.

2. Emergency lighting:

For power plant with units of 125 MW and below, the emergency lighting should be supplied by
battery.

For power plant with units of 200 MW and above, the emergency lighting in unit control room,
network control room and emergency diesel generator room should be supplied by battery; other
emergency lighting may be supplied by AC emergency power source.

The emergency lighting at main exits and entrances, passages, stair well of the Main building and the
important working places far away from Main building should adopt the emergency lamps of
emergency illumination.

13.9.3 The luminaries installed at height less than 2.2 m, and those in thermal piping and cable tunnel
should adopt 24 V power supply. If 220 V is adopted, the measures to prevent electric shock should
be taken.

13.9.4 Lighting devices should be selected according to the environmental conditions of working
places and service requirements, and it is suitable to use luminaries of high luminous efficiency and
long life. They shall be convenient for maintenance.

The installation position of indoor and outdoor luminaries should be convenient for maintenance.
The luminaries of outdoor and indoor switchgears should also be maintain able in safety when the
equipments are energized.

13.9.5 The installation of obstruction indication lighting on chimney and other tall buildings and
structures should be determined by consulting with the aviation administrative department.

The installation of obstruction indication lighting at water inlet/outlet and wharf should be
determined by consulting with navigation administrative department.

13 .10 Cable selection and cabling

13.10.1 The design of cable selection and cabling in power plant should be in accordance with the
stipulation of GB50217《Code of cable design in power engineering》.

13.10.2 The cabling in Main building and auxiliary buildings should adopt effective fire retardant
and anti-fire sealing measures. In Main building the cables in the zone, which can be easily affected
by external fire (such as location of the head of turbine, or the zone directly facing explosion door in

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boiler house, and the zone nearby slag discharge gate, etc), the fire-preventing measures should
be taken.

13.10.3 In area of Main building of unit capacity of 300MW and above, coal handling, oil storage,
and other inflammable and explosive places, the inflaming retarding cables should be selected.

13.10.4 The cables of power plant common use for important load circuits in the same route should
be segregated from each other by fire resistant barrier, or laid in cable raceways independent to each
other.

13.10.5 The cables from Main building to network control building or electrical main control
building should be segregated from each other by fire resistant barrier, or laid in independent
raceways, if the capacity is as follows:

1) Three units with unit capacity lower than 100 MW;

2) Two units with unit capacity of 100~125 MW;

3) One unit with capacity of 200 MW and above.

13.11 Communication In power plant

13.11.1 Internal communication in power plant should include the production management
communication and the production dispatching communication. For power plant with 300 MW unit
and above, the maintenance communication facilities should be provided.

13.11.2 The telephone exchange capacity of production management communication in power plant
(excluding residential region) should be selected according to management system, staff organization,
automation level, planned unit number and capacity of the power plant:

1. For unit of 125 MW unit and below, 50 lines shall be the base, and then 70 lines shall increased for
each unit.

2. For unit of 125 - 300 MW, 70 lines shall be the base, and then 70 lines shall be increased for each
unit.

3. For 600 MW units, 90 lines should be taken as base, and then 90 lines shall be increased for each
unit.

13.11.3 The type of telephone exchange for production management communication should
coordinated with local telephone bureau and communication department of electric power system,
and should adopt programmable telephone exchange.

13.11.4 For the power plant arranged with unit control room and network control room, the general
dispatching telephone exchange should be installed. When the programmable dispatching telephone
exchange is selected, it is suitable to arrange one general dispatching telephone exchange in whole

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power plant, and a sub-dispatching telephone exchange in each unit control room and network
control room.

When there is a main control room in the power plant, an independent dispatching telephone
exchange should be installed in the main control room.

According to the size of the coal handling system in the power plant, an independent dispatching
telephone exchange or interphone broadcasting system should be installed. For auxiliary shops far
away from Main building, necessary communication facilities should be installed.

13.11.5 For the power supply of communication facilities in power plant, one of the following power
supply modes can be selected:

1. Supply from two direct supply rectifiers. The AC power supply of direct supply rectifier can be
supplied by reliable auxiliary power source and the power source from battery bank through inverter,
and it is possible to switch automatically between two power sources.

2. Supply from one communication battery bank and one rectifier. In addition one standby rectifier
shall be provided. Two auxiliary power circuits should supply the AC source of these two rectifiers.
For selection of capacity of communication battery bank, the discharge time should be taken in one
hour.

3. One auxiliary power circuit should supply AC power source of communication facilities for coal
handling system.

13.12 System communication

13.12.1 In power plant, the dedicated dispatching communication facility serving electric power
dispatching should be installed. Communication mode should be determined according to the
approved electric power system communication design, or the corresponding communication design
connecting to the system.

In power plant, a reliable dispatching channel to the dispatching center should be provided. For the
main power plant in system, two dispatching channels to the dispatching center should be provided,
which are independently each other.

13.12.2 For power plant within the communication network, its communication design should satisfy
the requirements of building communication network of power system that the power plant is
connected into.

13.12.3 The communication facility room of power plant should satisfy the requirements of
communication facilities in power system or of communication facilitles that are correspondingly
connected into communication design of the system for long-term arrangement and the suitable space
for extension should be reserved in accordance with the future development of power system.

For power plant equipped with microwave communication and optical fibers communication, the

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microwave communication room and optical fibers communication room shall be in same
building, with the electrical power carrier wave and other communication equipment rooms if the
conditions of microwave and optical fiber routes permitt.

13.13 Other electrical facilities

13.13.1 The design of relay protection and safety automation devices, overvoltage protection and
grounding, and electrical installation in explosive and fire-hazard area and dispatching automation in
the power plant should respectively comply with the stipulations of the GB14285《Technical code of
relay protection and safety automation devices》, DL/T620《Overvoltage protection and insulation
coordination of AC electrical devices》, DL/T621《Grounding of AC electrical devices》, GB50058
《Technical code of electrical installations in environment of explosive and fire-hazard area》,
DL5003《Technical code for design of dispatching automation in electric power systems》.

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14. Hydraulic Facilities and Systems

14.1 Water Management

14.1.1 The rational use of water, the conservation of water resource and the prevention of environmental
pollution of discharged water shall be realized by water management and engineering approaches in the power
plant design.

14.1.2 The prevailing State’s law and standard related to the water management shall be complied
with and executed in the power plant design such as《Water Law of the People’s Republic of China》,
《Law for Prevention and Curing of Water Pollution, PRC》, GB3838《Environmental Quality
Standard for Surface Water》, GB5749《Sanitation Standard of Potable Water》, GB8978《Integrated
Wastewater Discharge Standard》,etc.

The related stipulations and requirements of the district where power plant is located shall also be
observed.

14.1.3 In power plant design, the overall planning, comprehensive balancing, optimization and
comparison shall be carried out for all types of water supply, water usage and water discharge in order
to achieve economical and reasonable consumption, multi-usage and comprehensive utilization of
water, increasing the water reuse rate, lowering the water consumption index of the whole plant, and
the reduction of the waste water discharge while the discharge water quality shall comply with the
discharge standard.

1. For circulating and reuse water systems, the water quality balance shall be carried out and
measures for water quality improvement shall be taken.

2. All wastewater shall be reused in accordance with the water condition or after easy treatment
according to the local requirement. When the wastewater is not proper to be reused it shall be treated
and discharged after discharge standard is met.

14.1.4 The water supply index for fossil fuel power plant shall conform the following requirements:

1. For power plant using circulating water supply system and single generating capacity higher than
300 MW, the designed water consumption should not exceed 0.8 m3 /s for every 1000 MW of
generating capacity.

2. For power plant using circulating water supply system and single generating capacity lower than
300 MW, the designed water consumption should not exceed 1m3 /s for every 1000 MW of
generating capacity.

3. For power plant using once-through sea-water supply system and single generating capacity not
lower than 300 MW, the designed fresh water consumption should not exceed 0.12 m3 /s for every
1000 MW of generating capacity.

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4. For power plant using once-through sea-water supply system and single generating capacity
lower than 300 MW, the designed fresh water consumption should not exceed 0.20 m3 /s for every
1000 MW of generating capacity.

14.1.5 Necessary flow meters and monitoring devices shall be provided for various kinds of water
system in power plant where the water quality and quantity control are necessary.

14.1.6 The adoption of a water ash storage yard or a dry ash storage yard shall be determined
according to the factors such as local ash storage yard conditions, ash transportation distance, weather
conditions, water quantity balance as well as overall utilization and environment requirements. In
this course, the ash transportation in and out of the plant shall be considered and an overall technical
and economical comparison shall be made.

14.2 Water Supply Systems

14.2.1 Power plant water supply system shall be selected according to the water source condition and
the planned capacity of the power plant after technical and economical comparison.

The once-through or combined flow water supply system may be used when the water source
condition is allowable. The circulating or hybrid water supply system may be used when the water
source is limited.

14.2.2 When surface water is used as water source, the necessary water quantity for full load
operation of the power plant shall be guaranteed under the following dry water conditions and an
official document from the water resource administration authorizing the using of water shall be
acquired.

1. For water taken from natural rivers, the minimum water flow with guaranteed frequency of 97%
deducting the planed necessary industrial and agricultural water consumption from upper reach of
water intake point shall be considered.

2. When the river is regulated by the reservoir, the minimum discharge of the reservoir with
guaranteed frequency of 97% deducting the planed necessary industrial and agricultural water
consumption from upper reach of water intake point shall be considered and the official data from the
reservoir administration shall be acquired.

3. For water taken from reservoirs, the low water year with guaranteed frequency of 97% shall be
considered.

14.2.3 When underground water is used as make-up water source, the water taken shall be
determined according to the planed necessary water consumption of the district industries and
agriculture, and after water balance calculation based on dry water year or continuous dry water years.
The quantity of water taken from underground shall not exceed the permitted amount and an official
document from the water resource administration authorizing the using of water shall be acquired.

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14.2.4 For circulating or hybrid water supply system, the optimizing calculation shall be carried
out according to the monthly average meteorological conditions over the years, combined with the
turbine characteristics and system layout in order to determine the optimized surface area of the
condenser, cooling water quantity, water pumps and the arrangement of water intake and discharge
piping or culverts, as well as the type selection and economic arrangement of cooling towers.

According to the optimized cooling water quantity and under the conditions of highest calculated
cooling water temperature, the turbine backpressure shall be guaranteed not to exceed the maximum
allowable value at full load operation.

14.2.5 For once-through or combined flow water supply system, the maximum calculated
temperature of cooling water shall be determined according to the years average water temperature of
day and night at frequency of 10% during the hottest period (calculated for three months), and the
effect of the warm discharge water to the intake water temperature shall be considered.

14.2.6 For circulating water supply system, the maximum calculated temperature of cooling water
should be calculated according to the years average meteorological conditions of day and night at
frequency of 10% during the hottest period (calculated for three months).

14.2.7 The cooling water of auxiliary equipment may be taken from the circulating water inlet. In
case the water temperature is too high, or the water contains too much silt and floating matters in
flood period, or sea water is used as cooling water, then corresponding measures shall be taken, or
other water source shall be used.

When surface water is used as cooling water make-up, in case the suspended matter in the water is
higher than 50 mg/l ~ 100 mg/l, water pretreatment shall be considered. After treating, the suspended
matter content shall not exceed 20 mg/l, so to be in accordance with GB 50050 《Industrial
Circulation Cooling Water Treatment Design Regulation》.

The water used for hydraulic ash removal shall be taken from the cooling water outlet of the
condenser, or other drainage water may be used.

14.2.8 The discharge of once-through water supply system and the blow down of the circulating
water system may be used for agriculture of other industries under the condition that the economic
operation of the power plant is not affected and the requirement of usage is satisfied. For the
discharged water from once-through, hybrid or combined flow water supply system, the utilization of
the hydraulic energy should be considered if possible.

14.2.9 The unit water supply system should be adopted for power plant with unit capacity of 200
MW and above.

14.2.10 For once-through , combined flow or hybrid water supply system, the location and type of
water intake and discharge shall be determined through model experiment and digital-model
calculation based on the various factors such as: the features of the water source, the impact of the
warm water discharge, the sedimentation, the project construction, etc.

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14.2.11 Motor-driven device shall be provided for the outlet and inlet valves and
interconnecting valve of condenser, pump discharge valve with a diameter of 400 mm and above,
other valves with a diameter of 600 mm and above as well as the valves requiring automatic control.

In the area far away from the power source, other valves with a diameter of 800 mm and below may
also be manually operated.

14.2.12 For air cooled condensing system, the mode of cooling system and the initial temperature
difference value adopted shall be optimized according to the local meteorological conditions and the
turbine features for determination of the mode of air cooling, design temperature, the rated turbine
backpressure as well as the appropriate number of heat radiators.

14.3 Water Intake Structure and Pump House

14.3.1 The design of surface water intake structure and pump house shall be based on the low water
level with guaranteed frequency of 97% and checked with the low water level with guaranteed
frequency of 99%.

14.3.2 The surface water intake structure shall be divided into several individual chambers and bar
screens or bar screen with mechanical cleaning trash rake, plane screens or traveling screens, and
flushing or measures for cleaning the garbage shall be provided according to water source water
quality and the quantity of intake water.

When the water carries ice or large amount of silt and waterweeds thereby affecting the water intake,
appropriate measures shall be taken in the design of water intake structure. When the engineering
condition is complicated, the design of water intake structure should be determined by hydraulic
model experiment.

14.3.3 For water intake with gravity flow pipe, the number of intake pipes shall not be less than two
at planned capacity. In case one of the pipes is with malfunction, the water demand of the equipment
matching with the system shall be satisfied by the remaining intake pipe or pipes.

14.3.4 The arrangement of the flow-passage shall be determined after technical and economical
comparison of several plans considering the factors such as hydrological conditions of water intake,
intake mode, intake quantity as well as the selection and arrangement of cleaning equipments.

14.3.5 The ±0.00m floor elevation of the riparian pump house (the designed elevation of ground
surface at pump house entrance) for surface water supply shall be the flood level (or tide level) of 1%
frequency plus the wave height of 2% frequency and plus 0.5m of extra height, while measures to
prevent from wave climb-up shall be taken.

The ±0.00m floor elevation, determined by the above statement, shall not be lower than the flood
level of 0.1% frequency, otherwise measures to prevent from flood shall be taken for the pump house.

In case the flood level difference between 1% and 0.1% frequency is very large for the rivers in

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mountainous district, the ±0.00m floor elevation of pump house shall be referred to the site
elevation, and determined after analysis and study.

The wave height of 1% of wave train accumulated frequency of 50 years recurrence multiplied by a
coefficient of 0.6~0.7, may be used as the wave height of 2% frequency.

14.3.6 For the unit water supply system, two circulating water pumps should be provided for each
turbine unit. The total output of the two pumps shall be equal to the maximum calculated water flow
of the unit. The adjustable blade water pump or water pump driven by variable speed motor may be
used if the pump supply condition permits and technical and economical study proves it reasonable.

14.3.7 For central pump house with water main supply system, not less than four circulating water
pumps shall be installed in the pump house when reaching the planned capacity of the power plant.
The total output of the water pumps must satisfy the maximum calculated cooling water flow
required and no standby pump shall be provided. The pumps may be installed in stages according to
the schedule of construction, but not less than two pumps shall be installed in the first stage.

14.3.8 When seawater is used as cooling water, the main component of the pump and parts directly in
contact with the seawater and not easily replaceable in maintenance, shall be made of different types
seawater corrosion-resistant materials according to different conditions. In addition, the parts of the
traveling screen, flushing pump, drainage pump and valves directly in contact with seawater shall
also be made of seawater corrosion-resistant materials.

14.3.9 When seawater is used as cooling water, measures taken to prevent from the marine organisms
growing and adhering to the surface of the intake/discharge structures and equipment shall be
considered.

14.3.10 Check valves may not be installed at the outlet of the circulating water pump. The
motor-driven butterfly valve or hydraulic damping butterfly check valve should be used for discharge
valve of the pump according to the system arrangement and characteristics of the pump.

14.3.11 The number of make-up water pumps for centralized intake should not be less than three sets,
in which, one as standby.

14.3.12 When tube wells are used to take underground water as make-up water for the power plant,
standby wells shall be provided. The number of standby wells should not be less than 15% of the
total number.

14.3.13 Lifting equipment shall be provided for the pump house and the intake chamber. But when
conditions are proper and the equipments are arranged in the open air the fixed lifting equipment may
also not be installed. Flushing pump and drainage pump shall be installed in the pump house. A
maintenance space, a shift control room as well as a maintenance platform for intermediate bearing
should also be provided when necessary.

It should be considered to provide lifting devices in the changeover valves room.

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14.4 Piping and Culvert

14.4.1 For unit water supply system or enlarged unit water supply system, one inflow pipe and one
discharge pipe/culvert for each unit should be provided.

For water mains system, not less than two inflow pipes and two discharge pipes/culverts should be
provided when reaching the planned capacity of the power plant, and may be constructed in stages
according to the specific condition of the project. When one pipe is shutdown, the other pipe or pipes
shall be able to deliver 75% of the maximum calculated water flow.

14.4.2 The number of make-up water main pipes shall be considered according to the planned
capacity of the power plant and the condition of the water source. Two main pipes should be adopted,
and may be constructed in stages according to the specific condition of the project. One main pipe
may also be adopted if there are other water supply sources.

In case each make-up water main pipe can guarantee to supply 60% of make-up water, the connecting
pipe between the two main pipes may not be provided.

Flowmeters shall be installed at the main pipe of the make-up water system and at the branch pipes of
he main consumers.

14.4.3 The culvert may be constructed in one stage according to the planned capacity. In culvert
design, the influence of the change of the existing surface drainage system and the effect of the rise of
ground water level to the farmland and building in the neighboring district shall be considered.

14.4.4 The material of pressure pipe lines shall be determined through technical and economical
comparison in accordance with the pipe line working pressure, water quality, geological conditions
along pipeline route, transportation and construction conditions, supply of material, etc. The
following requirements shall be observed:

1. Prestressed reinforced concrete pipes should be used for seawater transportation.

2. Prestressed reinforced concrete pipes may be used for large diameter circulating water pressure
pipe, except those sections near the Main building where steel pipe should be used.

3. Prefabricated three-stage prestressed reinforced concrete pipes, prestressed reinforced concrete


pipes with outer or inner steel sleeves may be used for make-up water pipelines;

The reinforced concrete structure may be used for gravity flow pipes and culverts.

14.5 Cooling Pond and Cooling Tower

14.5.1 Reservoir, natural lake, or river network may be utilized as cooling pond of power plant. The
impacts on industry, agriculture, fishery, navigation and environment by the changes of water
quantity, water quality and water temperature shall be considered in the design and the agreement

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document shall be acquired from the authority concerned.

The design of the cooling pond shall be based on digital-model calculation (or model experiment data
tested under similar conditions) and original observation data.

14.5.2 For regular turbine-generator units, the natural draft-cooling tower should be selected as the
right tower type and the mechanical draft-cooling tower can be used in high temperature and high
humidity district, or used in combined flow system as well as under other special conditions.

For air-cooling tower of indirect air-cooling system, natural draft cooling tower of reinforced
concrete structure should be used. For air-cooled condenser of direct cooling system, the mechanical
draft system should be used.

14.5.3 For large capacity turbine-generator units, one natural draft-cooling tower should be provided
for each unit.

14.5.4 The factors of aerodynamic disturbance, ventilation, maintenance and arrangement of pipes
and culverts shall be considered in the arrangement of cooling towers. Prevention from the return
flow effect of moist warm air shall be considered when the cooling tower is arranged in mountainous
area and hilly zone. The net spacing between towers, and that between tower and neighboring
buildings shall be complied with the stipulations specified in Section 5.2.3(Table 5.2.3) of this Code.

14.5.5 For natural cooling tower, the supporting column at the air inlet as well as the structures in air
flowing part of the tower shall take a low airflow resistance section type.

14.5.6 Drift eliminators shall be installed in newly constructed cooling towers.

14.5.7 The fillings of cooling tower shall be selected according to the conditions of thermal
characteristic, air-flow resistance, endurance, price, supply of material, and shall be easy to construct
and to repair. When conditions are similar, the lightweight type fillings shall be used.

14.5.8 For cooling towers located in the cold district, anti-freezing measures shall be taken.

14.5.9 The structure and size of the air-cooling tower shall be determined by optimization combined
with the process arrangement. Measures taken to reduce the impact to heat dissipating effect of the
air-cooling tower by the strong natural wind shall be considered in the arrangement of heat radiators.

14.5.10 The Lifting device for maintenance of heat radiators, the water flushing device for removing
the dust of the heat radiators as well as anti-freezing measures shall be considered in air cooling tower
design.

14.5.11 For units using direct cooling system, the air cooling condenser should be arranged on the
ground platform outside the turbine-generator house A and in longitudinal direction along the house.
Besides, the relationship between the Main building layout and the main summer wind direction
should be considered.

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14.5.12 For units using direct cooling system, a lifting device and a maintenance platform shall
be provided for the axial fan and its gear-down devices under the heat radiators. More insulation
devices shall be provided in very cold districts.

14.5.13 When the noise level of the cooling tower is limited by environment, measures of prevention
and curing shall be taken.

14.6 Off-plant Ash Disposal and Ash Storage Yard

14.6.1 The pressurized ash slurry pipe outside the plant area shall be laid on the ground surface. If
there is reliable evidence to prove that the scaling and erosion of the pipes are not serious, it may also
be laid underground directly.

The ash slurry pipe inside the plant area may be laid in the culvert, or laid along ground surface or
over-head if condition is allowable.

The slope of the ash slurry pipe should not be less than 0.1% and measures for easy drain out of the
pipe shall be taken.

14.6.2 The ash slurry pipe outside the site area should be laid along the roadside to fully utilize the
existing road for maintenance. If it is necessary to build a road or part of road for maintenance, a
simply built type road shall be constructed and attention shall be paid to save land and not to affect the
farming of land.

14.6.3 In the design of ash slurry pipeline, suitable material for pipes shall be selected according to
the ash/slag and ash water characteristics. Steel pipe may be used for ash slurry pipe. For the ash
slurry pipe with serious erosion or wearing, the thin wall steel pipe (or concrete pipe) with basalt
lining should be used.

14.6.4 In the design of dikes for valley type water ash storage yard and flood drainage structure, the
flood regulation function of the yard. In the design of a valley type dry ash storage yard, the
flow-guiding devices for flood-catch and flood-discharge shall be considered.

14.6.5 A perfect ash water recovery system shall be provided for the fresh-water low-concentration
ash-transporting water ash storage yard. As for the seawater ash-transporting beach ash yard, the
recovery of ash water shall be determined according to the project condition and the environmental
requirement. The recovered water from the ash storage yard shall be reused in ash-flushing system.

14.6.6 When dry ash disposal system is adopted, the following requirements shall be complied with
in the design of dry ash storage yard.

1. The dry ash storage yard shall be rationally planned and used in stages and in blocks consecutively.
When the ash is filled up to the design level of each plot, back fill with earth for farming or greenery
by vegetation shall be followed.

2. When there is convergent water flow around the dry ash storage yard, it shall be cut-off and guided

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into the down stream; the collected run-off is not allowed to flow into the dry ash yard.

3. Dry ash storage yard shall be provided with necessary scraping/compacting machineries for
construction and operation of the ash yard with appropriate reserve.

4. The dry ash storage yard shall be provided with necessary water spray devices to prevent dry ash
flying.

5. A greenery isolation zone shall be provided around the plane type ash storage yard.

14.7 Potable Water Supply and Waste Water Drainage

14.7.1 When the power plant and its living quarters are near to the city or other industries and
enterprises, the piping network of the potable water supply and drainage system should be connected
to the water supply and drainage system of the city or other industries and enterprises.

For power plant with its own potable water system, the selection of water source, the water source
sanitary protection and curing, and the water quality shall be complied with the stipulation of
GB5749《Sanitation Standard of Potable Water》.

14.7.2 Complete separate flow system should be used for the drainage systems of sewage, production
wastewater and rain run-off within the power plant area.

14.7.3 The waste water which contains corrosive substances, oil or other harmful substances, and
waste water with temperature higher than 40℃, as well as sewage shall be drained into the production
waste water and rain run-off pipe or culvert after being treated to the required quality.

14.7.4 A rainwater sediment pond for coal yard should be provided in the power plant.

14.8 Hydraulic Structures

14.8.1 The design of hydraulic structures shall be determined according to the hydrological,
meteorological, geological, construction conditions, and supply of construction material, as well as
the local specific condition, and through technical and economical comparison.

14.8.2 For hydraulic structure design, the related stipulation in Chapter 16 《Construction and
Structure》of this Code shall be executed.

14.8.3 The hydraulic structure shall be planned as a whole according to the power plant planned
capacity, and may be constructed in stages where the condition is suitable. It may also be constructed
in one stage according to the planned capacity, in case of difficulty in construction, limitation in
arrangement, as well as economically unreasonable for construction in stages.

14.8.4 For pump house and intake/discharge structures located inside the plant site area, their
architectural appearances shall be coordinated with that of the other buildings; for pump house and
intake structures outside the site area, the treatment of the architectural appearance shall be

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coordinated with the surroundings.

14.8.5 For the pump house far away from the plant site area, necessary facilities for production and
living shall be provided.

14.8.6 The terrazzo surface may be provided for the ground surface of electric operating floor of
circulating water pump house and electric motor floor of the vertical pump. The cement surface may
be used for other ground surface, but the surface shall be smooth.

14.8.7 An outfall shall be provided at the connection between the discharge trench and the river bed.
The type of the outfall shall be determined according to the topographic and geological conditions as
well as the energy and heat dissipating requirements.

14.8.8 Material of anti-corrosive to sea water shall be used in sea water structures of other effective
anti-corrosion measures shall be taken, and related stipulations in the《Technical Specification for
Harbor Engineering》issued by the Ministry of Communications of PRC shall be complied with.
Special protection shall be considered for steel pipeline used for seawater intake.

14.8.9 When the hydraulic structure is to be built on the weak foundation soil, the deformation and
stability of foundation soil shall be considered. Foundation soil treatment measures shall be taken if
the design requirement cannot be satisfied. Subsidence observation points should be installed around
the buildings.

14.8.10 The dam of the ash storage yard shall be planned according to the planned capacity of the
power plant, and constructed in stages and in blocks. The ash storage capacity formed by the initial
dam shall not be less than the ash quantity of three years according to the planned coal species.

A shift room with necessary living, communication, lighting etc. facilities for operation and
management should be provided nearby the ash storage yard.

14.8.11 The design standard for dams of valley type ash storage yard shall be executed according to
Table 14.8.11.

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Table 14.8.11 design Standard for Dams of
Valley Type Ash Storage Yard
Classification index Factor of safety against slide
Torrent frequency Extra height of
Total ash Down-stream
Final (%) dam (m) Up-stream slope
Yard slope
Class height of
volume,
dam,
V Design Check Design Check Basic Special Basic Special
H(m)
(×108m3 )
I V>1 H>70 1 0.2 1.0 0.5 1.25 0.05
50<H≤
II 0.1<V≤1 2 0.5 0.7 0.4 1.20 1.05
70 1.15 1.00
0.01<V≤ 30<H≤
III 5 1 0.5 0.3 1.15 1.0
0.1 50
Notes:
1. When the dam is built of ash/slag, the extra height and factor of safety against slide shall be raised by one
class;
2. When using ash dam, the operational mode of evenly ash discharge in front of the dam shall be adopted;
3. When the dam height is not corresponding to the total storage volume, the design standard may be raised or
lowered one class, for example:
0.1<V≤1, H>70m; may be designed by raising one class.
0.1<V≤1, H<50m; may be designed by lowering one class.
4. The indexes in the table are compellent.

14.8.12 The design standard for dike of ash storage yard at the river, lake and sea beach (shoal) shall
be executed according to Table 14.8.12,and shall also be approved by the local relevant organization.

Table 14.8.12 Design Standard for Dikes of Ash Storage


Yard at River, Lake and Sea Beach (shoal)
Max. tide level (flood Dike extra
Factor of safety against slide
level) recurrence (a) Wave recurrence height (top of
Class (a) wave retaining Down-stream
Up-stream slope
Design Check wall) (m) slope
Design Check Design Check Basic Special Basic Spec
I 50 100 50 50 0.4 0.0 1.20 1.05 1.15 1.00
II 20 100 20 20 0.4 0.0 1.15 1.00 1.15 1.00
Notes:
1. The class of the dike in the In the Table shall be determined according to the storage volume of the ash yard,
the degree of hazard after the dike failure, and the local design standard of dike, land reclamation, etc.
2. The extra height from the surface of the disposed ash to the top of the dike shall not be less than 1.0m.
3. The wave climb-up height of corresponding recurrence and wave height with accumulated frequency of the
project area shall be included in calculating the wave height. The standard for designed wave height with
accumulated frequency may refer to the related regulations in the ministry standard – 1987 《Technical
Specification for Harbor Engineering》issued by the Ministry of Communications of PRC.
4. The indexes in the table are compellent.

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14.8.13 The flood- catching culvert shall be provided around the valley type dry ash storage
yard and the design standard shall be executed according to a flood recurrence of every ten years.

14.8.14 When a flood barrage is adopted in the upper reach of a valley type dry ash storage yard, the
adjusted reservoir capacity, the dam height and the discharge facilities shall be determined by
hydrological calculation and optimization. The design standard of the barrage shall be executed
according to Table 14.8.11 and it shall be controlled by upper reach flood reservoir capacity.

The height of the lower reach rock stack shall be determined according to the ash storage yard
topography and should not be lower than 3m.

14.8.15 Local construction material should be used for the dike-body structure of the ash storage
yard. The secure, economic and rational type of dike shall be selected through technical and
economical comparison.

14.8.16 When the dike is built in the seismic region with seismic basic intensity of Ⅶ and above, the
measures to prevent the liquefaction of the dike body and foundation soil shall be taken.

15. Auxiliary and Ancillary Facilities

15.0.1 The maintenance for the new-built and enlarged power plant shall be carried out by special
maintenance companies or in a way of centralized maintenance by district cooperation. A central
maintenance shop shall not be set up.

15.0.2 The repair shop for boiler, steam turbine, electrical, thermal process, fuel handling, ash
handling, chemical water treatment subdivisions, etc, shall be established in the power plant. The
setup of equipment as well as the area of repair shop shall be determined according to the present
relevant regulations in force.

The transformer repair shop shall not be established in the power plant but necessary conditions such
as space, etc, for local or nearby repair of transformers applying a voltage not higher than 220kV shall
be provided. When conditions are suitable, the transformers not higher than 220kV can also be
repaired inside the turbine house.

15.0.3 The equipments and instruments applied in metallurgical, chemical, electrical and thermal
process laboratories as well as in the environment protection and labor protection monitoring stations
shall be determined in accordance with the relevant regulations and actual demand. The equipments
and instruments of higher cost and lower usage rate shall be arranged as a whole under the principle
of district cooperation. The above-mentioned laboratories and monitoring stations may be properly
incorporated according to the specific conditions of the project under the principle of “ less personnel
and more efficiency”.

15.0.4 The acetylene generation station and the oxygen generation station shall not be established in

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the power plant.

15.0.5 Compressed air system for thermal process control and maintenance application shall be
established in power plant and the system as well as its air compressor shall be designed according to
the following requirements:

1. For 300 MW and above units, one set of service compressed air system and one set of thermal
process control compressed air system as well as their air compressors shall be shared by two units.
Unit system can also be considered when it is rational after technical and economical comparison.
For 200 MW and below units, these two compressed air systems can be provided for the whole power
plant usage.

2. The air compressors of the same type and same capacity shall be applied to thermal process and
service compressed air systems and these compressors shall be set up and arranged collectively. The
air compressor outlet pipelines shall join together but the air storage tanks and air supply systems
shall be arranged separately. The work pressure of the air compressed air system shall meet the
requirements of the user end. The stainless steel pipeline shall be used to supply air to thermal
process compressed air system.

3. The number of operating air compressor shall be 2 sets and their total capacity shall meet the
maximum continuous air usage of thermal process pneumatic equipments. Two other sets shall be
prepared as reserve.

4. When all the air compressors are shut down, the capacity of the air storage tank of the thermal
process compressed air system shall be able to maintain the air supply for not less than 5 minutes.
Specialized pressure regulative air storage tanks shall be provided for pneumatic protective
equipments and the air users far from the air compressor house.

5. The thermal process control compressed air system shall be provided with dust filter and air dryer
and the air supplied shall conform to the relevant regulations in GB4830《The Pressure Range and
Quality of the air supply of the Industrial Automatic Instrument 》. The capacity of the air dryer shall
match with that of the air compressor.

6. The air compressor for large capacity units shall be located near to the Main building or centrally
arranged in a proper place on the ground floor of the Main building. The anti-noise and anti-vibration
measures shall be taken.

15.0.6 The design of insulation and painting shall meet the following requirements:

1. The major insulation material shall be rationally selected according to the temperature of the heat
medium. Priority shall be given to those materials which have low heat conductivity, low unit weight,
reasonable price and which are easy to installation and maintenance.

2. The calculation of economic thickness of the insulation layer shall be carried out in the design, and
the surface temperature of the insulation layer shall not be higher than 50 ℃.

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3. The design of insulation and painting in the power plant shall also conform to the stipulations
of the national standard and professional standard in effect.

15.0.7 In the power plant design, anticorrosion and upkeep measures shall be considered during the
shutdown of major thermal equipment.

15.0.8 The oil purification equipment and oil storage tanks for turbine oil and transformer insulating
oil shall be provided in the power plant and the following requirements shall be met:

1. For units with one unit capacity of 200 MW and above, each unit shall be equipped with one set of
turbine oil purification equipment and two units may share one turbine lubrication oil storage tank.
One unit can also be equipped with one turbine lubrication oil storage tank. The capacity of the oil
storage tank shall not be less than the oil quantity in the lube oil system of a biggest unit. The oil
storage tank can also be arranged as incorporating with the emergency oil tank as regulated in Section
6.6.4.

For units with one unit capacity of 125 MW and below, two units shall share one set of turbine lube
oil purification equipment and one set of oil storage tank.

The turbine lube oil purification equipment shall be arranged inside the turbine house and the turbine
lube oil storage tank shall be installed in a proper place outside the turbine house.

2. The output of the turbine lube oil purification device shall be determined as that the oil treating
quantity shall be 20% of the total oil quantity in the system and the capacity of each turbine oil
storage tank shall not be less than 110% of the system lube oil quantity in one unit.

3. One set of transformer insulating oil purification device and 2 sets of the insulating oil storage tank
shall be provided in the power plant and the purification device and the storage tank shall be arranged
near to the voltage-elevating station. The capacity of the insulating oil storage tank shall not be less
than 110% of oil quantity in a largest transformer.

When the oil insulating purification work is consigned to a special professional company, the
transformer oil purification device may also not to be established.

15.0.9 If qualified hydrogen can be obtained from nearby hydrogen generation factory, the hydrogen
generation equipment is not required for the power plant installed with hydrogen cooled generator.

When it is necessary to install a hydrogen generation equipment, the total capacity of the hydrogen
generation equipment shall be considered according to the normal consumption of all the hydrogen
cooled generators, as well as adding the accumulation in seven days hydrogen quantity, equivalent to
the amount of filling hydrogen for startup the largest hydrogen cooling generator once. The total
effective volume of the hydrogen storage tank shall be considered according to the sum of the storage
of normal hydrogen consumption of all hydrogen cooled generators during the overhaul period of the
hydrogen generation equipment, together with the filling of hydrogen for startup the largest hydrogen
cooled generator once.

— 134 —
The permissible leakage rate of hydrogen of the generator shall be determined according to the
relevant stipulations currently in effect as well as the guaranteed figures from the manufacturer.

When hydrogen cylinders are used for supplying the hydrogen, the total effective capacity of the
hydrogen storage tanks and hydrogen cylinders shall satisfy ten days normal consumption of all
hydrogen cooled generators and filling hydrogen for startup of the largest hydrogen cooled generator
once.

When pipe is used for delivering hydrogen from hydrogen generation factory to the power plant, the
total effective volume of hydrogen storage tank in the power plant should be determined according to
the condition of hydrogen storage in the hydrogen generation factory, and the reliability of the
hydrogen delivery piping from the hydrogen generation factory; but at least it shall satisfy four days
normal hydrogen consumption of all the hydrogen cooled generators.

The humidity of the hydrogen delivered to the hydrogen-cooled generator shall satisfy the
requirements of the generators operated under different hydrogen pressure.

15.0.10 Fixed facility for boiler chemical cleaning shall not be installed but necessary cleaning and
treatment facilities shall be provided according to the chemical cleaning and waste liquid treatment
alternatives of the project approved in the project preliminary design.

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16. Building and Structure

16.1 General Requirements

16.1.1 The civil works design for a power plant shall completely carry through the principles of
safety, applicability, economy and aesthetics.

16.1.2 Architectural design shall be based on the factors of production process, usage requirement,
natural conditions, surrounding environment, building material, building technique, etc,; make
efforts to achieve a good plan arrangement, space organization, architectural configuration and color
treatment of the building and the selection of enclosure structure by integration with the technological
design; resolve the problems of internal communication, fire protection, explosion-proofing and
pressure-relieving, water-proofing, corrosion protection, noise protection, dust-proof, protection
from small animals, earthquake resistance, vibration isolation, thermo-insulation, daylight, lighting,
natural ventilation, living facilities, etc, inside the buildings by cooperation with the technological
engineering. In the configuration design, outward appearance and interior treatment of the plant
architecture, the color of the building and technological equipment shall be considered as a united
integrity and the group of buildings shall be in harmony with the surrounding environment.

16.1.3 The fire protection design of the various buildings inside the power plant shall meet the
requirements in GB 50229, “Specifications for Fire-fighting Design of Steam-Power Plants and
Substations” and the relevant national fire protection standard and norms.

16.1.4 The principle of area division for building fire protection of the main building is that no
transverse partition wall is to be provided in various workshops. The partition walls between the
turbine house, and deaerator bay, including the combined deaerator bunker bay, and the boiler room,
bunker bay should be made of incombustilble materials.

16.1.5 The fire protection and explosion-proof requirements of the outdoor switchyard structures
shall conform to the relevant requirements in GB 50060 “Specifications for Design of 35~110kV
Substation”, SDJ2 “Technical Code for Design of 220~500kV Substation” and SDJ 9 “Technical
Code for Design of High Voltage Switchgears”.

16.1.6 The size and area of the plant auxiliary, ancillary and living buildings shall follow the relevant
prevailing national and industrial regulations: it is preferable to adopt multi-storeyed or combined
structures.

16.1.7 The characteristics of different regions shall be taken into account in selection of building
materials to adapt local condition.

16.1.8 The structural design shall meet the requirements of production purpose in the loading
capability, stability, deformation, endurance, etc, meanwhile the construction conditions shall be
taken into account. For concrete structures, cracking resistance or cracking width of the structures

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shall be analyzed, if necessary. Dynamic analysis shall be conducted for those structures affected
by dynamic loads.
Pulverized coal bins shall be seal treated and the requirement for explosion-proof shall be taken into
account. The bins shall be designed to withstand the internal explosion pressure of 9.8 kPa.
If the condition permits, it is recommended to adopt the three-dimensional space analysis method.
16.1.9 The maximum interval of longitudinal expansion joint of the main building should not be
more than 75 m for cast-in-place reinforced concrete structures, 100 m for prefabricated reinforced
concrete structures, or 150 m for steel structures. The expansion joint may be arranged between the
buildings of two generating units.
The interval of expansion joint may be properly increased if doing so is proved to be able to meet the
design requirements by temperature stress analysis after effective measures are taken.
It is recommended to adopt double columns, double trusses for the expansion joint for the main
building. Cantilever structure may be used for the beam slab and enclosure structure at the expansion
joint.
16.1.10 For exposed parts of structures of power plant at the margin of sea, the measures of
anti-corrosion of salt fog should be adopted.

16.2 Seism-Resisting Design

16.2.1 The principle to prevention first shall be insisted in the seism-resisting design for a power
plant, so as to mitigate the damage of the buildings, avoid personnel casualty and reduce economical
losses of buildings after taking seism-resisting measures.

16.2.2 Seism-resisting measures shall be taken for buildings in the district with a seismic basic
intensity VI and above.

Seism-resisting measures for power plant buildings shall be taken in accordance with GBJ 11 “Code
for Seismic Design of Buildings”, GB 50191 “Code for Seismic Design of Structures” and GB 50260
“Code for Seismic Design of Electric Power Facilities”.

1. The main structures of the main building, boiler frames, chimney, flue gas duct, coal conveyor
trestle, coal crusher room and coal transfer station, main control building (including central control
building), indoor switchgear building, communication building for uninterruptible communication,
network control building, etc, of the power plant with generating unit of 300 MW and above and
planned total capacity of 800 MW and above, as well as the power plant owned by especially
important industrial and mining enterprises, shall be designed with the seism-resisting measures in
accordance with the requirement for Type B building in GBJ 11 “Code for Seismic Design of
Buildings”.

2. Main productive buildings, and buildings used for continuous production operation, as well as
public buildings, important warehouses, etc, of a power plant with unit generating capacity below
300 MW and planned total capacity below 800 MW shall be designed with seism-resisting measures

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in accordance with the requirement for Type C building in GBJ 11 "Code for Seismic Design of
Buildings".

3. Secondary buildings like general warehouse, plant fence, bicycle shed, etc. shall be designed with
seism-resisting measures in accordance with the requirement for Type D building in GBJ 11 "Code
for Seismic Design of Buildings".

16.3 Main building Structures

16.3.1 Reinforced concrete structures are recommended to use for the main building frame, while
composite structures can also be adopted conditionally. Steel beams-concrete slab composite
structures may be used for the operating floor platform of turbine and boiler. If necessary, steel
structures may be used for the main load-bearing structures in the main building for the generating
unit of 300 MW and above.

16.3.2 Roof structural systems with purlins, non-purlin, or slab-beam (truss) combined structure
shall be selected for the roof structure of the main building. If construction condition and material
allow, It is recommended to adopt large prestressed roof slabs for the building with non-purlin system.
For the purlin system roof, it is preferable to adopt small channel slab or cast-in-place reinforced
concrete roof slab with channeled steel deck plate as the bottom form.

16.3.3 It is preferable that reinforced concrete truss is used for main building truss with a span of 18
m and below; steel structure truss is used for that with a span of more than 18 m. Adoption of net
structure shall be determined by economical and technical comparison.

16.3.4 The enclosure structure of the main building shall be in coordination with the load-bearing
structure system, and hollow earthen bricks, or reinforced concrete wall panels may be used. If
necessary, new type light wall panels also may be employed.

16.3.5 Settlement joints and seismic joints shall be reserved between different structural sections of
the main building in compliance with the load, engineering geology and the fortified intensity for a
seism-resisting design.

16.3.6 It is recommended to adopt an independent type arrangement for the suspension


boiler-supporting frame. Reinforced concrete structure may be used for the boiler-supporting frame.
Steel structure is recommended to use for the boiler-supporting frame of generating unit of 300 MW
and above.

16.3.7 Turbine generator foundations shall be designed in accordance with GB 50040 “Code for
Design of Dynamically Loaded Foundation” and in reference with the requirement of the
manufacturer. It is preferable to carry out a model test for the foundation of the first new type unit of
600 MW and above.

16.4 Ground base and Foundation

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16.4.1 For the design of ground base and foundation, the safe, economical and reasonable type
of ground base and foundation shall be adopted according to the engineering geological data and the
requirement of the power plant for the different buildings (structures) in their application, after full
referring to local experiences in construction works and taking comprehensively those factors such as
the type of structure, the supply of material, the construction conditions, etc. into account.

16.4.2 In the design of the main building ground base, it is recommended to adopt same type of
ground base. Different types of ground base and different bearing stratums for pile foundations also
may be adopted according to the different engineering geological conditions or different structural
elements of the building.

16.4.3 In addition to calculation of the bearing capability of the ground base, the deformation and
stability of the ground base also shall be analyzed if necessary. If the bearing capability, deformation
and stability of the ground base cannot meet the design requirement, an artificial ground base shall be
adopted. For ground treatment of the important building or structure, the undisturbed soil test should
be conducted. If the ripe experiences are available for the ground treatment planed to adopt in an
engineering construction site, the undisturbed soil test may be exempted in the extension project.

16.4.4 The selection of the type of foundation for the plant building mainly depends on the bearing
capability and compressibility of the ground base. It is preferable to adopt an independent foundation
if there are a higher bearing capability and a lower compressibility of the ground base, otherwise,
strip, raft or box foundation is recommended to adopt orderly provided that the requirement for
deformation of the ground base may be met.

16.4.5 Depending on the geological conditions, affection brought by stacking shall be taken into
account for the buildings within or nearby a coal yard or an extended load-bearing region. When the
ground base cannot satisfy the design requirement, the base soil of the coal yard shall be treated.

16.4.6 Settlement observation points shall be provided on the main buildings/structures. The impact
from the building/structure in extension on the existing building/structure shall come into the
designer’s mind in the extension project design.

16.5 Lighting and Natural Ventilation

16.5.1 Natural lighting for buildings should be taken in priority.

The indoor natural lighting illuminance in building shall meet the requirement in GB 50033
“Standard for Lighting Design in Industrial Enterprise”. Too large lighting openings are not
recommended, and the arrangement shall avoid light is sheltered by any equipment. Energy
conservation and convenient cleaning operation shall be taken into account in side window designs so
that extended glass windows shall be avoided.

16.5.2 When the span of turbine house is larger than or equal to 30 m, it is recommended to adopt the
side window and roof combined lighting mode. Lighting on the operation floor may be designed as

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Class V.

16.5.3 In general buildings, natural ventilation is recommended to adopt. Ventilating openings in


walls and on floors shall be arranged reasonably to avoid airflow shortcut and back flow, and to
reduce the dead angles of airflow.

16.6 Water Prevention and Drainage

16.6.1 Organized drainage shall be planed for the ground floor of the main building, deaerator floor,
coalbunker floor, piping floor, and the floors (including coal conveyor trestle) requiring frequent
flushing. The main building roofing (including the boiler top structure and the operating floor
platform of the outdoor boiler), the ceiling slabs of the control room and the buildings where
electrical equipment is installed shall be waterproof and provided with organized drainage.

16.6.2 All indoor trenches, tunnels, basement, underground sumps, etc. shall be provided with proper
drainage design and reliable water preventing and drainage facilities. When drainage of gravity flow
cannot be ensured, mechanical drainage shall be used to prevent water from flowing back.

It is strictly prohibited to use cable trenches and cable tunnels as drainage passage of ground flushing
and other water flow.

16.6.3 In the rainy area, it is recommended to adopt cast-in-place reinforced concrete structure for
the roofing of electrical installation buildings (for the roofing of prefabricated integrated structure, a
complete layer of cast-in-place concrete shall be additionally made), and high quality waterproof
layer and organized drainage shall be provided.

16.7 Indoor and Outdoor Finishing and Decoration

16.7.1 Indoor and outdoor wall surfaces of buildings shall be properly finished as the requirement for
their out-looking and application.

In addition to the technological requirement, wear-resisting and non-dusty materials are


recommended to use for the ground surface and floor surface of the buildings.

Indoor finish shall be conformity with GB 50222 “Specifications for Design of Inner-Building Finish
Fire Prevention”.

16.7.2 The interior surfaces in rooms, such as battery room, acid room, etc., where some corrosive
substance are used or stored, including the interior surfaces of indoor and outdoor drainage trenches,
shall be protected from corrosion.

In rooms where exists a combustible gas, the internal structural members shall be arranged so that gas
may be easily exhausted.

16.8 Doors and Windows

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16.8.1 Steel doors or steel framed wooden doors are recommended to use as doors used in plant
transportation.

Electrical motor-driven rolling doors may be used for access of the large-sized equipment.
Well-insulating and tightened doors and windows shall be selected in cold and severely cold regions.

Doors made of the non-combustible material shall be used for the buildings and rooms where
electrical equipment is installed, and measures shall be taken for doors, windows and openings in
wall to prevent small animals from entering.

16.8.2 It is recommended to use steel, plastic, or aluminum alloy windows in buildings. Screen
windows may be added if necessary.

It is recommended to adopt side-hung windows or sliding windows for zones where frequent manual
activity is required.

Mechanically opening and closing devices is recommended to use for the high side windows for
ventilating purpose.

Convenient maintenance and cleaning of the window casements shall be taken into account in all
building designs.

16.8.3 Doors and windows used in electrolyzer room of the hydrogen generating station shall be
made of non-sparking material.

16.8.4 Corrosion resistance of the doors and windows in battery rooms and acid rooms shall be taken
into account.

16.8.5 Corrosion resistance of the doors and windows of buildings in the power plant at seaside shall
be taken into account.

16.9 Living Facilities

16.9.1 Living facilities such as lounges and changing rooms shall be provided at the central control
building, coal conveying, ash disposing and other systems where operators are relatively gathered.

16.9.2 The centralized bathroom shall be provided in the plant area. Special purpose bathrooms shall
be provided nearby the fuel division.

16.9.3 Potable water facilities shall be planed to set at the major working floors of the main building
in addition to toilets and washing sinks.

16.10 Chimney

16.10.1 It is recommended to select the height and internal diameter at the top exit of a chimney from
the following series:

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80, 100, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 270, or 300m for the height of a reinforced concrete chimney (m)

The module may be taken to equal to 0.5m for the internal diameters at the top exit below 8 m, or 1m
for those above 8 m, module of lm may be used.

16.10.2 Regardless of single shaft type, bushing shaft type or multi-shafts type, any of them may be
used for the chimney structure. The selection of chimney type depends on the strong or weak
corrosion of the flue gas and the requirement for environmental protection. Of course, the
characteristics of the project shall come into the designer’s mind, too.

1. A bushing shaft type structure should be adopted for the chimney discharging strong corrosive flue
gas, and the acid-resistant material structure shall be adopted for the flue gas discharging inner shaft;

2. An anti-corrosive single shaft type structure is recommended to adopt for that discharging
middle-corrosive flue gas. A bushing shaft type structure also may be used if doing so is proved to be
reasonable technically and economically;

3 An anti-corrosive single shaft structure should be used for the chimney discharging weak corrosive
glue gas;

4. Adoption of a multi-shafts type structure should be proved to be reasonable by technical and


economical comparison.

The following anti-corrosive measures shall be taken, when a chimney of anti-corrosive single shaft
type structure is adopted:

1. To adopt the proper acid resistant lining and acid resistant and heat insulating material;

2. To increase the density and compactness of the lining structure, so as to prevent or reduce the
leakage of flue gas;

3. If the lining structure cannot prevent flue gas from leaking, an anti-corrosive isolation layer shall
be applied on the internal surface of the outer shaft, and the density and compactness of the outer
shaft of reinforced concrete shall further be improved.

16.11 Coal Conveyor Trestle

16.11.1 The reinforced concrete structure may be used for the coal conveyor trestle. When the span
of a coal conveyor trestle is above 24 m, steel structure should be used in its longitudinal truss.

16.11.2 Light enclosure structures should be used for the coal conveyor trestle.

16.11.3 It is preferable to adopt a steel structure for the roof of a coal shed. When its span is larger
than 45 m, a net structure is recommended to use.

17. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

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17.1 General Requirements

17.1.1 The district where average annual number of days with a mean daily temperature stabilized
below or equal to 5℃ over the past years is more than or equal to 90 days, is specified as a centralized
heating district.

Productive buildings and auxiliary buildings located in a centralized heating district shall be provided
with the centralized heating design.

17.1.2 The district meeting one of the following conditions is specified as a transit district:

1. The average annual number of days with mean daily temperature stabilized below or equal to 5℃ over
the past years is 60~89 days.

2. The average annual number of days with mean daily temperature stabilized below or equal to 5℃ over
the past years is 45~59 days; Meanwhile, the average relative humidity in the coldest month is greater
than or equal to 75 % over the past years, and annual average percentage of winter sunshine over the past
years is below or equal to 25 %.

It is recommended to design a centralized heating mode for some productive buildings and some
auxiliary buildings located in a transit district.

17.1.3 Heating of auxiliary productive buildings outside the plant area shall be in accordance with
the local construction standard.

17.1.4 It is recommended to adopt hot water as the heating medium, and the direct turbine extraction
steam heating mode is unsuitable for the larger-sized heating system.

When hot water is adopted as the heating medium in the centralized heating district, the temperatures
of water of supply and back water are preferably below 110℃ and 70℃, respectively.

When steam is taken as heating medium, the temperature of steam shall be not above 160℃ for the
severe cold district, or 130℃ for the cold district.

17.1.5 The chilling and cooling water source of an air conditioning system shall be determined based
on the conditions of the region where the plant is located, and water quality and supplying condition
of the cooling water source available for the whole plant by technical and economical comparison.
The natural cooling water source shall be given priority in use, when the supply condition and quality
of industrial water or industrial circulation water may meet requirements, and continuous supply is
secured, it shall be taken as the cooling water source in priority.

17.1.6 Buildings where transporting, storing or production process will produce inflammable and
explosive gas or substance are strictly prohibited from using open fire or an electric heater to heat.

17.1.7 In power plants located in the centralized heating district and transit-heating district, standby

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steam source shall be provided if the heating system adopts extraction steam from a single
turbine unit as heat source.

17.1.8 Design parameters for outdoor heating, ventilation and air conditioning shall be calculated in
accordance with GBJ 19 “Specification for Design of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning”.

In the design of winter ventilation, the outdoor temperature shall be used for the draft system of the
turbine house, boiler room, battery room, and underground coal conveyor building, as well as other
draft systems with local compensating exhaust.

17.1.9 In the winter heating design various buildings of the power plant, the indoor temperature
should be determined according to need of production and TJ 36 “Hygienic Standard for Design of
Industrial Enterprises”.

17.1.10 Fire protection and smoke exhaust facilities shall be contained in the ventilation and air
conditioning design according to the relevant provisions in GB 50229 “Specifications for
Fire-fighting Design of Steam-Power Plants and Substations” and other fire protection norms, and
shall be interlocked with the fire-fighting system.

17.1.11 When no special technological requirement is specified, the summer air temperature at the
workshops where manual operation is constantly required shall not exceed the specified value listed
in Table 17.1.11.

For working places within a workshop with natural ventilation, if the summer air temperature
exceeds the specified value in Table 17.1.11, mechanical ventilation shall be provided. If mechanical
ventilation still cannot meet the requirement, then local normative temperature-lowering measure
should be taken.

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Table 17.1.11 Normative Summer Air Temperature at Working Places
within Workshops (℃)
Calculated summer outdoor
≤22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29~32 ≥33
ventilating temp.
Allowable temperature difference 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
Working place temperature ≤32 32 32~35 35
Note:
1. So-called working place means the place where workers often or regularly stay for observation
and management of production process, if production is operated at different points in a
workshop, the entire workshop is considered to be the working place.
2. Under limited conditions, the allowable temperature difference may be increased by 1~2℃, if
the requirement listed in this table cannot be met after taking local temperature-lowering
measures.

17.1.12 The insulation layers on the air ducts and various pipelines of the ventilation and air
conditioning system shall be made of non-flammable materials.

17.1.13 A heating system may be provide for the productive building where indeed is a need for
heating as the required in the production process.

17.1.14 The covering scope of an air conditioning system and installation shall be determined as the
required in production process and the needed in practical production.

17.1.15 The air temperature at job zones in the workshop where are a larger heat dissipating capacity
and a larger humidity dissipating capacity shall be conformity with the requirement in Table 17.1.15.

Table 17.1.15 Requirements for summer air temperature at job zones in the workshop
Characteristics of the job zone in a workshop Air temperature at the job zone in a workshop
Not exceed the calculated outdoor temperature
Heat dissipating capacity, Q<23W/m3
of summer ventilation by 3℃.
Heat dissipating capacity 23W/m3 ≤ Q < Not exceed the calculated outdoor temperature
116W/m3 of summer ventilation by 5℃.
Not exceed the calculated outdoor temperature
Heat dissipating capacity, Q>116W/m3
of summer ventilation by 7℃.
Note: So-called the heat dissipating zone means the space up to 2m above the ground at the working
place.

17.1.16 Ventilation designs for different buildings and workshops in the power plant shall be
conformity with the following principles:

1. For the building and workshop where are much waste heat and much waste moisture, the
ventilation capacity required to remove waste heat or waste moisture, whichever is larger, shall be

— 145 —
taken as the basis to determine the ventilation capacity required there.

2. For the workshop where is a possibility to emit a certain toxic and/or harmful gas, the ventilation
capacity required shall be determined according to the rate of air circulation needed to lower the
concentration of the harmful gas down to the indoor allowable maximum concentration, and
recirculation of the indoor air is strictly prohibited. Emission of any toxic and/or harmful gas shall be
conformity with the requirement in national norms in force..

3. It is recommended to adopt the forced ventilation with an air inlet filtering device when air quality
is poor or technological equipment is required to equipped with dust-proofing device there, and air
intake shall be filtered.

4. The workshop required explosion-proof shall be provided with emergency ventilation, and the
emergency ventilation and the motor used shall be of explosion-proof. The emergency ventilation
may be used for ventilation in summer.

17.2 Main building

17.2.1 It is recommended to calculate the thermal load of the enclosure structure in main building heating
so that an indoor temperature at 5 ℃ may be kept. The heat dissipated by equipment and pipelines is not
calculated into.

17.2.2 In the main building ventilation design for the indoor arranged generating unit, it is
recommended to utilize the forced draft fans in summer as the mechanical air exhaust fan of the main
building, exhausting the hot air sucked from the boiler room and turbine house into the boiler. While
in winter the air volume sucked from the top of boiler by the boiler forced draft fans shall be
determined by heat balance calculation.

17.2.3 In summer, it is recommended to adopt natural ventilation for the main building. Mechanical
ventilation or natural and mechanical combined ventilation shall be adopted when only natural
ventilation cannot meet the sanitary or production requirement.

For the generator cooled with hydrogen, the hydrogen-exhaust measure shall be provided at the top of
the turbine house roof.

17.2.4 For the totally enclosed main building, mechanically forced draft and exhaust shall be
adopted.

17.2.5 For the computer room, electronic equipment room, central control room, unit control room,
air conditioning installations shall be provided as the requirement for whole year air conditioning
running. Indoor design parameters shall be determined according to the technological requirement,
and the following parameters may be taken as the basis of design in case no definite requirement is
available.

Summer: temperature 25℃±1℃~27℃±1℃, relative humidity 60%±10%;

— 146 —
Winter: temperature 20℃±1℃, relative humidity 60%±10%.

Other control rooms shall be equipped with air conditioning installations as the technological
requirement.

17.2.6 It is recommended to provide double-stage sprinkler room for the air-cooling facility that
adopt natural cooling source.

17.2.7 It is preferable to provided two sets of air treatment device for the centralized air conditioning
system as 2×100% of the design refrigeration duty and air volume, one of them serves for stand-by.

17.2.8 For the air conditioning system for centralized refrigerating, and centralized heating systems,
as well as central control buildings, a central control mode shall be adopted.

17.2.9 The operation floor, the body and top of the boiler in the boiler room shall be equipped with
the vacuum cleaning system, which is used to clean out deposited dust there and at the position where
water flushing is unsuitable in the coal bunker bay, besides, the following requirements shall be met:

1. Selection of main equipment and preparation of the delivery ductwork shall be conducted for the
high vacuum suction type.

2. Either vehicular or fixed vacuum cleaning device shall be selected according to the factors, such as
the boiler is enclosed or not, the capacity of the boiler, arrangement condition of the cleaning device,
and the mode of ash handling system. If a set of fixed cleaning device cannot fully meet the
requirement, two sets may be installed.

17.3 Electrical Purpose Buildings and Electrical Equipment

17.3.1 It is recommended to provide air conditioning installations for the main control room, network
control room, relay room, uninterruptible power system(UPS)room, telephone exchanger room,
transfer switchboard room, power line carrier (PLC) equipment room, microwave equipment room,
field regulator room, and generator protected room in summer.

17.3.2 A mechanical ventilation unit or air conditioning system shall be provided for the battery
room based on the type of equipment and local weather condition.

17.3.3 It is preferable that the indoor ambient design temperature is not higher than 35℃ when the
electric equipment with a larger heat dissipating capacity, such as high voltage switch cabinet, or
dry-type transformer, is installed in the electric equipment house of the main building. It is
recommended to take a temperature-lowering measure for the ventilation system if one of the
following conditions is met:

1. Outdoor calculated temperature for summer ventilation t≥33℃;

2. Outdoor calculated temperature for summer ventilation 30℃≤t<33℃, and the monthly average
relative humidity in the hottest month Ф≥70%.

— 147 —
17.3.4 The emergency exhaust volume for the plant service switchgear room shall be designed
as a rate of air circulation of not less than 10 times per hour. The emergency exhaust fan may be
concurrently used for ventilation in summer.

17.3.5 Fire protection and smoke evacuation facilities for the ventilation and air conditioning
systems in the electric equipment building and electric equipment room depend on property of the
fighting facilities used.

17.4 Coal Handling and Ash Handling Buildings

17.4.1 For the regions where the calculated outdoor temperature for winter ventilation is equal to or
below -10℃, hot air curtain shall be provided for the wagon tripper room. For the regions where the
calculated outdoor temperature for winter ventilation is within the range from 0℃ to -10℃, hot air
curtain may also be provided if technical and economical comparison proves it reasonable.

17.4.2 For heating transit districts, to prevent freezing in the coal handling building in winter, heating
facilities may be installed in the coal crusher room and the transfer station.

17.4.3 Underground coal unloading trench, underground coal conveyor tunnel, underground coal
transfer station, etc. of the coal handling system shall be equipped with ventilating facilities. Heat
consumption of the underground coal unloading trench located in the heating district in winter
ventilation shall be jointly compensated by both the heat radiator and the hot blasting unit.

17.4.4 Dust control units shall be provided at the coal handling system where flying coal dust is
heavy. If there is the enclosed coal conveyor floor in the coalbunker bay, necessary ventilation and
dust control measures shall be taken for the floor.

17.4.5 The dust control, water sprinkling, and spraying systems of the coal handling system shall be
linked with the coal handling equipment, signals to operate the dust control equipment shall be sent to
the coal handling control room.

17.4.6 When coal-defrosting room is required, the defrosted mode, e.g. defrosted by means of hot air
plus steam calandria, infrared ray, or steam calandria, shall be determined by technical and
economical comparison.

17.4.7 The design summer ventilation air rate for the ash pumphouse shall be determined according
to the heat dissipation of the equipment.

17.5 Chemical Purpose Buildings

17.5.1 It is recommended to adopt natural ventilation for the electrodialysis room, reverse osmosis
room, and filter and ion exchanger room of the chemical water treatment plant in summer. In the
design, winter heating is calculated as the indoor temperature of 5℃, and the heat dissipation of the
equipment is not calculated into.

— 148 —
17.5.2 The acid store and acid metering room shall be equipped with mechanical ventilation,
and recirculation of indoor air is strictly prohibited there. It is recommended to adopt natural
ventilation for the alkali store and alkali metering room. In the centralized heating district and transit
heating districts, ventilation shall be separately provided for acid and alkali stores. In the non-heating
district, if the acid store and alkali store are in the same house, ventilation design shall take the
requirement of the acid store as the basis.

17.5.3 The ventilation mode and ventilation air rate for other chemical purpose buildings shall be
determined according to the property of the workshop and the gas to be exhausted.

17.5.4 The anti-corrosive measure shall be taken for the heating and ventilating equipment, pipelines
and their accessories.

17.6 Other Auxiliary and Ancillary Buildings

17.6.1 Ventilation of the oil feeding and unloading pumphouse is determined according to the
following requirements:

For the overground oil feeding and unloading pumphouse, natural ventilation is recommended to
adopt. For underground oil feeding and unloading pumphouse, mechanical ventilation shall be
adopted, and recirculation of indoor air is strictly prohibited. When mechanical ventilation is adopted,
the draft fan shall be of explosion-proof.

17.6.2 The measure to remove waste heat shall be taken for the central water pump house and
riparian water pump house in summer. In the heating district, heating may be designed based on the
indoor temperature keeping at 5℃ in winter.

17.7 Plant Refrigerating, Heating Stations and the Pipeline System

17.7.1 When hot water is used as the heating medium in the plant, the plant heating station shall be
furnished.

17.7.2 The capacity and number of the equipment in the plant heating station shall be determined
according to the relevant contents in Clause 10.8, it is preferable to leave room enough for a
long-dated plan.

17.7.3 The measure to recover and utilize condensed water shall be taken for the steam heating
system.

17.7.4 Laying of the pipeline system for the plant heating system and the plant cooling water system
shall adopt overhead, in-trench, or plow-in mode depending on actual condition of the project and
comparison result in technology and economy.

17.7.5 The main trunk pipelines of the plant heating and cooling water system shall pass through the
heat load concentrated area, and the design of pipeline system type shall be reasonably determined

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based on the plant layout.

17.7.6 In the centralized and transit heating districts, if the water make-up pump house, riparian
water pump house, or the management station of the ash storage yard is far away from the plant, and
the plant heating system is unavailable for heating these places, a locally centralized or decentralized
heating mode is recommended to adopt in the production and living buildings, and no stand-by
heat-source equipment shall be provided.

17.7.7 When an artificial cold source is adopted as the cold source of an air conditioning system, it is
recommended to set the refrigerating station and the plant heating station into the same house. If the
centralized refrigerating station is required to set separately for technological need, it shall be close to
the building with a heavier cooling load as much as possible.

17.7.8 The cold capacity and layout of the pipeline system in the whole plant air conditioning system
shall be integrally planed based on actual condition of the project.

17.7.9 Selection of an artificial cold source shall be conformity with the following requirements:

1. For a newly built power plant, the electric compressor refrigeration mode shall be adopted if
reliable supply of steam source is unavailable;

2. For a renovated or extended power plant, the lithium bromide absorption refrigeration mode shall
be adopted provided that reliable supply of steam source is available.

17.7.10 Type selection of a refrigerating machine set shall be conformity with the following
requirements:

1. When a compression-type cooling water set is adopted, it is recommended to select based on 2×


75% or 3×50% of the design cold load;

2. When a LiBr absorption-type cooling water set is adopted, it is recommended to select based on 2
×60% of the design cold load, and no stand-by equipment is provided;

3. When some cooling water set of other type else or an integrate air conditioner set is adopted, it is
recommended to provide a reasonable stand-by capacity based on the design cold load.

17.7.11 Water quality of the cooling water used in the refrigerating system shall be conformity with
the requirements in GB 50050 “Specifications for Design of Treatment of Industrially Circulating
Cooling Water” and of the relevant products.

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18. Environmental Protection

18.1 General Requirements

18.1.1 Ordinances, regulations, standards, and provisions related to environmental protection


promulgated by the State must be followed out in the power plant environmental impact assessment
report and the environmental protection engineering design of the power plant.

18.1.2 The environmental protection design of a power plant shall be conducted in the four stages
including brief environmental impact analysis, environmental impact assessment (containing water
and soil conservation scheme, the same below), conception on environmental protection engineering
(containing water and soil conservation scheme, the same below), environmental protection and
renovation scheme design (containing water and soil conservation scheme, the same below), and
environmentally protection and renovation facilities design, which shall constitute one of main
contents in the preliminary feasibility study, the feasibility study, the preliminary design, and the
working drawing design, respectively.

In environmental impact assessment, the conception on environmental protection engineering in the


feasibility study report of the power plant shall be taken as one of main bases; the environmental
protection and renovation scheme design in the preliminary design shall take the environmental
impact report approved in the feasibility study stage as the basis, and shall be optimized, if any
important part of its contents is modified or altered, a supplemented assessment must be done.

18.1.3 The clean production process shall be adopted, prevention and control measures of various
pollutants, as well as the afforesting and greening plan to improve the production and living
environment shall be contained in a power plant design.

18.1.4 The methods and means used for assessment of the existing environmental conditions and
forecast of environmental impact shall be in accordance to the related regulations in the State and
industrial standards in force.

18.1.5 In treatments of wastewater, waste gas and waste residue, the chemicals selected shall be of
non-toxic, less toxic, high effective, and less contaminative. If there is a possibility to generate
secondary pollution from the waste treatment process, corresponding control measures shall be taken.

18.2 Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution

18.2.1 The power plant flue gas emission shall be in accordance to the State-promulgated GB 13223
“Emission Standards of Air Pollutants for Fossil fuel power plants”, GB 3095 “Ambient Air Quality
Standard”, and the requirements for control of total emission of the pollutants. If there are special
provisions in the district where the power plant located, the local pollutant emission standard shall
also be followed.

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18.2.2 The boiler in a fossil fuel power plant must be equipped with high-efficient ash collectors,
and its smoke and dust emitting concentration and ash-collecting efficiency must conform to the
requirement in GB 13223 “Emission Standards of Air Pollutants for Fossil fuel power plants”.
Smoke and dust emission of the boiler in its staring stage must conform to GB 13271 “Emission
Standard of Air Pollutants for Coal-Burning Boilers”.

18.2.3 For the power plant located in the acid rain control district and the sulfur dioxide control
district, its sulfur dioxide emission in the whole plant shall be not more than the allowable emitted
concentration and the allowable emitted amount in GB 13223 “Emission Standards of Air Pollutants
for Fossil fuel power plants”, and the requirements in GB 3095 “Ambient Air Quality Standard” and
the requirements for control of total emission of the pollutants.

For the power plant that is located in neither acid rain control district nor sulfur dioxide control
district, its sulfur dioxide emission in the whole plant shall be not more than the allowable emitted
amount in GB 13223 “Emission Standards of Air Pollutants for Fossil fuel power plants”, and shall
conform to the requirements in GB 3095 “Ambient Air Quality Standard” and the requirements for
control of total emission of the pollutants.

18.2.4 The chimney height, the numbers of chimneys and the inner shafts, and the internal diameter
of chimney exit, desulfurization amount, and desulfurization efficiency in a power plant shall be
calculated and optimized according to the weather parameters, sulfur dioxide emission from coal
combustion in the whole plant, sulfur dioxide emitted concentration, sulfur dioxide concentration at
the ground, and other data.

The height of each chimney of a power plant shall be 2.0 times taller than the tallest building in the
power plant site.

18.2.5 For the generator set of 300MW or above, the low nitrogen oxide combustion technique and
unit shall be used for its boiler.

18.2.6 Measures to prevent secondary pollution of flying dust shall be furnished in the preparation,
storage and transport systems of fuel, ash, and desulfurizing absorbent.

18.3 Waste Water Treatment

18.3.1 Based on the principle that the clean and polluted effluents shall be collected and handled
separately, the various waste and polluted effluents from various production work places in the power
plant shall be collected, delivered, and treated according to their degree of pollution and reuse and
discharge requirements. Reasonable recover, reuse, and discharge of wastewater shall be
comprehensively optimized by design according to factories, including the quality and volume of
waste effluents from various production units, difficult extent to treat them, requirement of the reuse
system for water quality, and efforts to minimize total amount of pollutants discharged out. The
discharged-out water quality must conform to GB 8978 “Integrated wastewater discharge standard”,
GHZB1 “Standard of Environmental Quality of Surface Water”, GB 3097 “Sea water quality

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standard”, and corresponding requirements in GB 11607 “Water quality standard for fisheries”,
GB 15618 “Standard for Environment Quality of Soil”, and GB 5084 “Standards for Irrigation Water
Quality” and the local standards related to sewage discharge at the region where the plant will be built.
The wastewater or sewage to fail to meet the discharge standards is not allowed to discharge into
natural waters or ad arbitrium.

1. The acidic and alkaline wastewater shall be neutralized prior to allowable reuse or discharge.

2. The coal yard drainage and the flushing water from coal conveying facilities shall be treated with
sedimentation process and the treated water preferably is reused. It is recommended to treat flushing
wastewater containing suspended matter by adding chemicals plus sedimentation, and the treated
water preferably is reused or discharged.

3. It is recommended to treat the wastewater containing metal ions in centralized wastewater


treatment system by oxidation, pH-value regulation, and flocculation and clarification treatment, and
the treated water is reused or discharged.

4. The treatment scheme of the waste fluid form chemical cleaning of the boiler shall be determined
according to the cleaning scheme. Neither acid cleaning with hydrofluoric acid, nor passivation with
phosphate and nitrite is suitable for chemical cleaning purpose of the boiler. If the hydrofluoric acid
cleaning scheme is a sole choice required by the manufacturer of boiler, it is necessary to design a
lime treatment facility for the waste fluid and furnish a monitoring apparatus, and the treated fluid is
not allowed to discharge until it may conform to GB 8978 “Integrated Wastewater Discharge
Standard”.

5. Recover and reuse is preferred scheme for the wastewater containing ash form the ash storage yard,
if it is intended to discharge, must conform to GB 8978 “Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard”.
The wastewater containing slag shall be repeatedly reused

6. The oil-contaminated water shall be treated with the oil and water separation process. Reuse is the
preferred scheme after treatment. If intended to discharge, it must conform to GB 8978 “Integrated
Wastewater Discharge Standard”.

7. The domestic sewage from power plant shall be treated in accordance with the standard before it
may be reused or discharged. If intended to discharge, it must conform to GB 8978 “Integrated
Wastewater Discharge Standard”. When the power plant is located in the city, it will be the preferred
choice to discharge the domestic sewage into city sewage system, and this moment its quality shall
conform to CJ 18 “Quality Standards of Sewage Discharged into City Sewerages”.

18.3.2 In the district where the standard to control quality of discharged water is stringent, the
relatively centralized wastewater treatment facility is preferably selected for the power plant with
generating units of 300 MW and above. Centralized discharge shall be adopted for the power plant
adopting the decentralized treatment mode, and the number of discharge outlets in the whole plant
shall be not more than two.

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18.3.3 When surface water is adopted as the water source for the direct flow or mixed flow
water supply system of the power plant, preventive measures shall be taken to avoid the harmful
thermal pollution impact on the principal aquatics in the affected zones of the receptacular waters.

18.3.4 For the treatment of non-recurrent boiler wastewater, a wastewater pond of suitable volume
shall be provided in the power plant. The volume of such a pond shall be determined based on the
following factors: the boiler water volume, the boiler-cleaning medium, the quantity of flushing
water for cleaning air-preheater, the way to treat wastewater, etc.

18.3.5 If there are residents and the object to be protected such as potable water sources around the
hydraulic ash storage yard, impact of the hydraulic ash storage yard on groundwater shall be assessed,
if necessary, the seepage of waste water in the ash storage yard shall be prevented by taking
corresponding measures such as intercepting trench, impervious layer, and monitoring well; when the
cost to build these anti-seeping facilities looks as if unacceptable, the decision shall not be made until
comparison with the dry ash storage yard scheme is completed.

18.4 Ash and Slag Treatments and Comprehensive Utilization

18.4.1 It is forbidden to dump ash and slag into waters, such as rivers, lakes, seas, etc.

18.4.2 The scheme to supply ash outward and corresponding ash handling system shall be selected
and determined according to the following factors such as grade, quality, and quantity of the ash
supplied outward, saved space of the ash storage yard, etc. by comprehensive optimization.

18.4.3 For the project that is required to utilize the warm water efflux in the official reply of the
environmental impact report, conditions shall be created for comprehensive utilization of the warm
water efflux.

18.5 Noise Prevention and Control

18.5.1 The impact of power plant noise upon its surrounding environment must be in compliance
with the provisions in GB 12348 “Standard of Noise at Boundary of Industrial Enterprises” and GB
3096 “Standard of Environmental Noise of Urban Area”.

18.5.2 The power plant noise shall be controlled at its source primarily. It is required that the
equipment manufacturer shall supply qualified equipment that complies with the national standard
for noise control. For the noise generated during production operation, which is ineradicable at its
source, efficient measures to control noise shall be taken.

18.5.3 Functions of the total plane arrangement of the power plant, buildings, and greenbelts in
insulation, extinction, and absorption of noise shall be optimized to minimized affection of noise of
the power plant.

18.6 Environmental Protection Monitoring

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18.6.1 The dilution- or thermally tracing-sampling type continuous flue gas monitoring system
shall be adopted for the boiler with a output of 1,000ton/hr or above; the online or electrochemical
type continuous flue gas monitoring system may be adopted for those of 420 to 670 ton/hr; the
portable flue gas monitoring apparatus may be used for those of 410 ton/hr or below.

18.6.2 The outfall of wastewater of a power plant, including its ash storage yard, shall be designed in
compliance with the specification, and shall be equipped with the water flow monitor.

If the wastewater and circulated water of a power plant are planed to discharge into the same
receptacular waters, they may be discharged after merged together provided that doing so is subject to
technical and economic comparison, agreed by the local competent department of environmental
protection, and a water quality and flow continuous monitor must be mounted prior to their mergence.

19. Labor Safety and Industrial Hygiene

19.1 General Requirements

19.1.1 The design of power plant must earnestly carry out the policy "Putting safety first and taking
precaution measures as principal”. Labor safety and industrial hygienic facilities must be
simultaneously designed, simultaneously constructed, and simultaneously put into operation with the
main engineering installation in a newly built, renovated, or extension project.

19.1.2 For newly built, extended and renovated power plant projects, the content to prove the labor
safety and industrial hygiene must be contained at the feasibility study stage; A special section on
labor safety and industrial hygiene with details desired shall be presented in the preliminary design
stage.

19.1.3 The design of labor safety and industrial hygienic facilities must be put into practice of
various specialized designs, and various measures taken in project design shall conform to the
provisions in relevant national standards in force and DL 5053 “Specifications for Labor Safety and
Industrial Hygiene Design in Steam Power Plants”, in addition to the regulations.

19.2 Fire Prevention and Explosion-Proof

19.2.1 The design of fire prevention zones in fire-proof isolation, fire-proof spacing, and safety
evacuation and fire-fighting passages in power plant productive buildings, working areas, auxiliary
and ancillary buildings, living buildings, and inflammable and explosive hazard areas, as well as
underground buildings shall all conform to the provisions in the relevant specifications including
GBJ 16 “Specifications for Design of Building Fire Prevention”, GB 50222 “Specifications for
Design of Inner-Building Finish Fire Prevention”, and GB 50229 “Specifications for Fire-fighting
Design of Steam-Power Plants and Substations ”.

19.2.2 Safety evacuation facilities of power plant shall have adequate lighting and eye-catching

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evacuation indicating marks.

19.2.3 The process and civil works design of equipment with explosive hazard, and relevant
electrical installation, process system and plant building must be provided with respective
explosion-proof measures according to different types of explosive sources and dangerous factors.
Explosion-proof design shall conform to the relevant provisions in GBJ 16 “Specifications for Design
of Building Fire Prevention”, GB 50058 “Specifications for Design of Power Installations in the
Environments with Explosive and Fire Hazard”, GB 50217 “Specifications for Design of Electric
Engineering Cables”, GBJ 65 “Specifications for Earthing Design of Industrial and Domestic Power
Installations”, DL/T 621 “Earthing of Alternating Current Electric Apparatus”, GF(1982) No.22
document “Interim Regulations on Supervising the Safety Technology for Boilers and Pressure
Vessels”, ZJJJGF(1999)No.154dicument “Regulations on Supervising the Safety Technology for
Pressure Vessels”, NYAB(1991)No. 709 document “Technical Specifications for Safety of Pressure
Type Deaerators for Power Station”, DL 612 “Regulations on Supervising the Safety Technology for
Boilers and Pressure Vessels in Electric Power Industry”, GB 150 “Steel Pressure Vessels”, DL 435
“Regulations on Explosion-proof of Combustion Chambers of Pulverized-fuel Boilers in Steam
Power Plants”, LRH(87)No.36 document “Rules of P. R. China on Electric Safety in Explosive
Hazard Area (For Trial Implementation)”, and other relevant standards, codes and regulations in
force.

19.3 Prevention of Electric Injury

19.3.1 The arrangement of electric equipment shall satisfy the requirements for safety protection
distance of live equipment, and shall be provided with necessary isolative and protective facilities
and measures to prevent misoperation. There shall be provided with necessary devices to prevent
from direct lightning stroke, and safety grounding devices.

The design preventing electric injury shall be conformed to the provisions in SDJ 5 “Technical
Specifications for Design of High Voltage Switchgear”, GBJ 65 “Specifications for Earthing Design
of Industrial and Domestic Power Installations”, GB 50057 “Specifications for Lightling Protection
Design of Buildings”, GB 50060 “Specification for Design of 3- 110kV Substation”,DL/T621
“Earthing of Alterlating Current Electric installations”, DL/T620 “Overvoltage Protection and
Insulation Co -ordination of Alterlating Current Electric Installations”, DL408 “Rules on Safe
Operation in Power Industry”, GB/T 4064 “General Guide for Designing of Electrical Equipment to
Satisfy Safety Requirements” and other relevant standards, norms and regulations in force.

19.4 Prevention of Mechanical Injury and Falling Down Injury

19.4.1 The design for prevention of mechanical injury and failing down injury shall conform to the
provisions in GB 8196 “Sefety Requirement of Guard on Machinery”, GB 5083 “General Rules for
Designing the Production Facilities in Accordance with Safety and Health Requirements”, GB
4053.1 “Safety Requirements for Fixed Steel Vertical Ladders”,GB 4053.2 “Safety Requirements for

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Fixed Steel Oblique Ladders”, GB 4053.3 “Safety Requirements for Fixed Industrial Protective
Railings”, GB 4053.4 “Fixed Steel Industrial Platform”, GBJ 101 “modulus coordination standard
for building stairs”and other relevant standards, norms and regulations in force.

19.4.2 In power plant design, measures to preventfrom mechanically injured by mechanical


equipment shall be taken at production places, and for all exposed parts of mechanical rotating
elements, protective covers and necessary interlock devices shall be provided.

At both the sides of the operation passages by belt conveyors, protective railings shall be provided,
and at places for personnel crossing-over the conveyor, crossing bridge (crossing stair) shall be
provided. The driving and tail pulleys of conveyor shall be equipped with guards, and the grating
plate shall be provided at the coal-discharging ports.

In addition to interlock emergency stop-pushbutton at the driving and tail pulleys of the belt conveyor,
emergency cord switches and alarm devices shall be installed along the whole length of belt
conveyor.

Belt conveyors shall have interlock device with startup warning bells.

19.4.3 At the edges of platform, walking platform (walking passage), lifting opening, hauling
opening, valve well and at edges of ditch and pond, and other places where are danger of falling down,
railings or gratings shall be provided. At places necessary to climb up for inspection or maintenance,
steel platforms and stairs with handrails, which shall not be substituted with ladders, shall be
provided. The ladders used for chimney, microwave tower, and cooling tower shall be equipped with
cage hoops.

19.5 Injury Prevention from Dust, Toxic and Other Chemicals

19.5.1 In the design of a power plant, measures to prevent coal dust from flying shall be taken. The
coal storage yard, including dry coal sheds, shall be equipped with water sprinkling devices which are
able to cover the whole coal stack. It is recommended to provide coal-wetting facility at the
coal-unloading place. The coal handling system shall have comprehensive preventive measures to put
the precaution measure first. Various buildings of the coal handling system are recommended to clean
with water as principal medium. Dust flying shall be prevented in the conveyed and stored course of
pulverized coal. The measures to prevent coal dust and ash dust from leaking shall be taken for the
coal pulverizing system and the ash handling system.

The boiler room or the boiler shall be equipped with the vacuum dust exhaust apparatus, which is
used for dry cleaning of coalbunker bay, too.

19.5.2 In the coal handling system, the comprehensive dust control design shall be conformed to the
following standards:

1. When the content of free SiO2 in coal dust exceeds 10% or more, in the working place, the dust

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concentration in air shall be not greater than 2mg/m3,and the respiratory dust concentration shall
be not greater than 1mg/m3. When the concentration of respiratory SiO2 in air exceeds 1mg/m3,
necessary personnel protection measure shall be taken. The emission concentration of the dust
collecting system to outdoor shall be not greater than 60mg/m3.

2. When the content of free SiO2 in coal dust is below I0%, the dust concentration in air shall be not
greater than 10mg/m3, and the respiratory dust concentration shall be not greater than 3.5mg/m3.
When the concentration of respiratory SiO2 in air exceeds 3.5mg/m3, necessary personnel protection
measure shall be taken. The emission concentration of dust collecting system to outdoor shall not be
greater than 120mg/m3.

19.5.3 For the places where one or more harmful gas(es) or corrosive medium(s) is/are stored or
generated, and instrument and apparatus using the substance harmful for human, the protection
measure to defend from toxic substance and chemical injury shall be provided, and the provisions in
current standards and norms including TJ 36 “Hygienic Standard for Design of Industrial
Enterprises” shall be followed.

19.5.4 The chlorination system shall be equipped with chlorine leakage alarming devices, chlorine
absorption devices, etc, as safety protection facilities. The design of safety protection facilities shall
conform to the provisions in current relevant standards and norms.

19.5.5 SF6 high voltage switchgear room and SF6 high voltage switchgear maintenance room shall be
equipped with mechanical exhaust facilities, and recirculation of indoor air is not allowed there.
Content of SF6 in indoor air shall not exceed 6,000mg/m3. The design of safety protection facilities
shall conform to the provisions in DL 408 “ Rules on Safe Operation in Power Industry”, DL/T 639
“Rules for Safety Protection of SF6 Electrical Equipment Operation, Testing and Maintenance
Personnel”, as well as other relevant standards and norms.

19.5.6 When the control oil of the governing system and by-pass system of the steam turbine
employs non-inflammable oil, necessary safety protection facilities shall be provided. The
concentration of harmful matter in indoor air shall not exceed the allowable value in current national
rules on hygienic standard.

19.6 Noise and Vibration Prevention

19.6.1 In power plant design, the noise in boiler room, turbine house and coal handling system shall
be controlled. Noise produced from the equipment during production process shall first be controlled
from the noise source. Control measures for isolation, silencing and absorption of noise, and
vibration suppression shall also be taken. The design of noise control shall conform to the provisions
in GBJ 87 “Specifications for Noise Control Design in Industrial Enterprises” and other relevant
standards and norms.

19.6.2 Prevention of vibration hazard shall first be controlled from the vibration source, and
measures to isolate and suppress vibration shall be taken. The vibration suppression design shall

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conform to the provisions in GB 50040 “Specifications for Design of Power Machines”, GB
10434 “Hygienic Standard for Hand-transmitted Vibration in the Work Environment” and other
relevant standards and norms.

19.7 Prevention from Heatstroke, Cold Wave and Humidity

19.7.1 The design for heatstroke prevention, winter protection, and dampproof shall conform to the
provisions in TJ 36 “Hygienic Standard for Design of Industrial Enterprises”, GBJ 19 “Specification
for Design of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning” and other relevant standards and norms.

19.7.2 The underground coal unloading trenches, coal conveying tunnels, underground transfer
stations, etc. of a power plant shall be equipped with dampproof facilities.

19.8 Protection from Ionizing Radiation and Electromagnetic Radiation

19.8.1 The setup and the protection design of an ionizing radiation (such as X-ray, γ-ray, etc) working
room, radiation source storage room, etc, must conform to the provisions in GB 4792 “Basic Health
Standards for Radiological Protection”, (89) The statute of the State Council No.44 “Regulations for
Radioactivity Protection against Radio Isotopes and Radiation Apparatus”, GB 8703 “Regulations
for Radiation Protection”, and other relevant standards and norms.

19.8.2 The protection design against microwave radiation shall conform to the provisions in GB
10436 “Hygienic Standard for Microwave Radiation in the Work Environment”, GB 8702
“Regulations for Electromagnetic Radiation Protection”, DL 5025 “Technical Specifications for
Design of Microwave Communication Engineering in the Power System”, and other relevant
standards and norms.

19.9 Labor Safety and Industrial Hygienic Organizations and Facilities

19.9.1 The design of the safety education room and medical and care establishment shall conform to
the provisions in current national and industrial standards and norms.

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20. Fire-fighting

20.1 General Requirements

20.1.1 The fire-fighting design of a power plant shall carry out the policy of “Putting fire prevention
first, and combining it with the fire fighting” to avoid or abate fire hazard, assure personal safety and
property security.

20.1.2 The power plant shall be equipped with a complete fire-fighting water supply system,
automatic fire alarm and special fire extinguishing devices, and reasonably distributed fire
extinguishers according to the actual conditions of the objects to be protected. The fire-fighting
design of buildings (structures) and various technological systems in a power plant shall be complied
with the provisions in national standards including GB 50229 “Specifications for Fire-fighting
Design of Steam-Power Plants and Substations ”, GBJ 116 “Specifications for Fire Prevention
Design of Building”.

20.2 Fire-fighting Purpose Water Supply System

20.2.1 The probability fire occurs at the same time inside a power plant shall be taken as one time.
The plant fire-fighting purpose water supply shall be calculated as the maximum water supply
amount in a fire, i.e., the sum of water volume used to extinguish indoor and outdoor fire.

20.2.2 The fire-fighting purpose water system in a power plant shall be supplied from the urban
water-supply system, a natural water source or the fire-fighting water pond. The selected water
source and the mode of water intake must be able to ensure the reliability of the fire-fighting water
supply.

20.2.3 The fire-fighting purpose water in the power plant with generating unit of 100MW or below
may adopt the mode to use jointly the same water supply system with domestic purpose water. The
fire-fighting purpose water supply in the power plant with generating unit of 125MW or above shall
use a separate water supply system.

20.2.4 The volume of the fire-fighting pond shall satisfy the demand of the total water consumption
for indoor and outdoor fire fighting within the duration of a fire disaster. Reliable measures to ensure
the fire-fighting water supply shall be taken for the water pond that is simultaneously used to supply
production and domestic purpose water. In case the volume of the pond exceeds 1000 m3, it shall be
divided into two ponds.

20.2.5 It is preferable that the time to make up the fire-fighting water pond does not exceed 48 hrs,
however, the time can be extended to 96 hr in the region lacking of water.

20.2.6 The ring-type fire-fighting water supply network shall be provided around the main building,
coal storage yard, and oil tank farm. There shall be not less than two incoming water pipes leading

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water into the ring-type piping network; when one of the pipes is in fault, yet the other pipe(s)
may supply 100% of the total fire-fighting water consumption. The ring piping shall be divided into
several sections by valves.

20.2,7 Indoor fire hydrants shall be provided in the following buildings:

1. Main building (each floor in turbine house, ground floor and operating floor of the boiler room,
each floor of the coalbunker bay, operating floor and deaerator floor of the deaerator bay, each floor
of the elevator and staircase compartment, etc );

2. Coal conveying building;

3. Production and administration buildings;

4. Material warehouse;

5. Start-up boiler room;

6. Diesel generator room;

Setup of indoor fire hydrants in the other buildings shall be executed in accordance with the relevant
national standards and norms in force.

20.2.8 When the high pressure fire-fighting purpose water supply system is used, the elevated water
tank may be exempted provided that the water flow and water pressure of the hydrants at the most
unfavourable position and at the automatic fire-protection sprinkler can be guaranteed.

20.3 Special Fire-Extinguishing System

20.3.1 It is recommended to equip fire-fighting facilities at the oil unloading platform, oil wharf, fuel
oil pump station and fuel oil tank farm. Their design shall conform to the relevant provisions in GB
50151 “Specifications for Design of Low-Expansion Foam Fire-extinguishing System”, GBJ 74
“Specification for Design of Oil Storage”, and GB 50156 “Specifications for Design of Small Oil
Storages and Gas Stations”.

20.3.2 For the power plant with unit capacity of 300 MW and above, gas fire-extinguishing devices
shall be equipped at the control rooms, computer rooms, electronic equipment rooms, and relay
rooms in the central control building and the network control building. The design of gas fire
-extinguishing device shall conform to the requirements in relevant national specifications.

20.3.3 The oil-immersed transformer with a capacity of 90,000 kVA or above shall be equipped with
the water-spray or other type fire-extinguishing device.

20.3.4 The water curtain fire-isolating facilities shall be equipped at the joint between the coal
conveyor trestle and the transfer station, coal crusher room and main building. For the power plants
which uses lignite or easily hypergolic high-volatiles coal species and has a unit capacity of 300MW

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and above, automatic fire-prevention sprinklers shall be equipped at the trestles of 200m long
and above.

20.3.5 For the power plant with unit capacity of 300 MW and above, the main oil tank and oil storage
tank in the main building shall be equipped with the water spray or sprinkler fire-extinguishing
devices.

20.3.6 For the power plant with unit capacity of 200 MW and below, it is recommended to adopt the
movable fire extinguisher and fire hydrants as the fire-extinguishing facilities used for the main
buildings and equipment except the heavy-duty oil-immersed transformer.

20.3.7 For the power plant with unit capacity of 300 MW and above, appropriate special fire-fighting
devices shall be provided for electric equipment, cables, the oil system, and the coal conveying
system as the required in GB 50229 “Specifications for Fire-fighting Design of Steam-Power Plants
and Substations ”, in addition to the special fire extinguishing installation which must be provided as
stated above.

20.3.8 The design of water spray fire-extinguishing device, pre-acting, wet-, and dry-type sprinkling
devices used in the power plant shall conform to the relevant provisions in the national standards GB
50129 “Specifications for Design of Water Spray Fire-Extinguishing System”, and GBJ 84
“Specifications for Design of Automatic Sprinkling Fire-Extinguishing System”.

20.3.9 When water sprinkler system is provided, the possibility to drain off the fire-fighting
wastewater shall be taken into account. Measures to prevent fire spreading shall be taken for
fire-fighting purpose drainage in the oil system.

20.4 Fire-fighting Water Pump House

20.4.1 Fixed type fire-fighting water pumps shall be furnished with standby pumps with capability
not less than the largest one of the main fire-fighting water pumps. A standby power source shall be
provided in the fire-fighting water pump house. If it the duplicate supply or two-loop supply is
unavailable, proper internal combustion engine may be used as standby power.

The fire-fighting water pump shall be directly coupled to the prime mover.

20.4.2 The fire-fighting water pump should be designed as a pressure intake type. Not less than two
suction pipes shall be provided for each fire-fighting pumping set. When one of the pipes is broken,
the other pipe(s) shall allow pass of all fire-fighting water consumption. In high pressure, temporary
high pressure, and living-fire-fighting combined water supply system, an independent suction pipe
shall be provided for each fire-fighting operating pump.

Not less than two discharge pipes shall be provided to connect directly to the ring-type piping
network for the fire-fighting water pump. When one of the pipes is under maintenance, the other
pipe(s) shall allow sufficient supply of the fire-fighting water consumption.

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20.4.3 Anti-freezing measures shall be taken for the fire-fighting water pump house.

20.5 Fire Engine

20.5.1 The fund used for purchase of fire engines and construction of the fire engine garage shall be
listed into the budget of the power plant, and it is preferable to relegate the fire engines to local fire
station for united use.

20.6 Fire Detection and Automatic Fire Alarm

20.6.1 The fire detection and automatic fire alarm devices shall be provided at the locations being
more fire prone in the power plant, and the type and location to equip the detector shall conform to the
relevant provisions in GB 50229 “Specifications for Fire-fighting Design of Steam-Power Plants and
Substations”.

20.6.2 The design of fire alarm system, and the fire-fighting control and its function shall meet the
requirements in GB 50116 “Specifications for Design of Automatic Fire Alarm System”.

20.6.3 It is recommended to mount the central control panel for fire-fighting in the central control
room.

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Appendix A (attached to the standards)

Elucidation on Some Wording used in the Regulations

A.0.1 For the purpose of the regulations, strictness of requirements stated in the text is expressed in
the following way to differentiate them during their implementation.

1. To express a requirement is very strict or something has to be done in the way stated, we use:

“must” for confirmative;

“strictly prohibit” for negative.

2. To express a requirement is strict or something always should be done in the way stated under
normal conditions, we use:

“should” for confirmative;

“should not” or “no… is allowed” for negative.

3. To express some options are permissible, and the something should be given priority to do in the
way stated if the condition allows, we use:

“it is recommended/preferable to do/that…”, “preferably” for confirmative;

“it is not recommended to do/that”, “unsuitable” for negative.

4. To express selection, and something can be done under regular conditions, we use: “yes”.

A.0.2 To express something shall be executed as the provided in for other relevant standard or norm,
we generally use “should be done as the provisions in…” or “should conform to the requirement in”.
If it is not necessary to do as the provided in some standard or norm, may be written into “ may
reference to…”.

A.0.3 To express the requirements related to some clause hereinbefore or hereinafter in the context,
we use “meet the following requirements/provisions’, “follow the following provisions”.

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Appendix B (appendix as a prompt)

Gas-Steam Turbine Combined Circulation Generating


Technology

B.0.1 If steady supply of oil and gas as fuel is assured, and is thought reasonable by technical and
economic comparison, the gas-steam turbine combined circulation generating set may be adopted.

B.0.2 For selection of a gas turbine, the following provisions shall be followed:

1. The gas turbine with a smaller capacity and minor annual service hours may adopt a single
circulation mode, and whether to put the space aside for future waste heat boiler and turbine is to be
decided by technical and economic comparison.

2. When a combined circulation set is adopted, and the gas turbine and the steam turbine are
simultaneously built, it is recommended that adoption of coaxial arrangement mode enjoys priority,
and a decision to adopt a coaxial or a multi-axial arrangement mode may be made for actual work by
taking the characteristics of the project construction into account.

3. If heavy oil, dual fuel of low-BTU gas and light oil, or mixed oil of crude oil and diesel oil is taken
as fuel, or the number of annual service hours is larger, the heavy-duty gas turbine shall be adopted.

B.0.3 The following provisions shall be followed in selection of a waste heat boiler:

1. It is recommended to adopt a gas turbine equipped with a waste heat boiler for gas-steam combined
circulation, and no stand-by is required.

2. The waste heat boiler shall be designed according to the requirement of steam circulation and
characteristics of the flue gas, and shall be able to adapt instant startup of the gas turbine.

3. The type of waste heat boiler shall be a forced or natural circulation one, and shall be determined
by technical and economic comparison based on actual project condition.

4. Setup of a chimney shall be determined according to such factors as the circulation mode of the set,
the type and arrangement mode of the waste heat boiler, and its height shall meet the requirement for
environmental protection.

For the single circulation set, it is recommended to provide one steel chimney for each turbine; for
combined circulation set, it is recommended to provide a by-pass chimney and a waste heat boiler
chimney if the gas turbine and the steam turbine are arranged in an out-of-axial mode.

The vertical waste heat boiler is recommended to equip with a steel chimney, which directly mounts

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on the top of the boiler.

For the horizontal waste heat boiler, one chimney preferably is provided for each boiler, or more
boilers, depending on the set arrangement.

B.0.4 The following provisions shall be followed in selection of a steam turbine:

1. Only a gas turbine shall be equipped for a unit of gas-steam combined circulation, that is, a unit
consists of one or more gas turbines and one steam turbine.

2. The throttle flow of the steam turbine preferably matches with the sum of the maximum steam
output of the corresponding waste heat boiler; it shall be determined by technical and economic
comparison to adopt single-, double-, or triple-pressure in its steam circulation mode, and with or
with no reheating; Coordination between the steam turbine and the waste heat boiler in their
parameters may be realized as the provided in Chapter VIII in principle.

3. For the combined circulation set in which one unit consists of more gas turbines and one steam
turbine, the main steam system of each unit of its shall adopt the manifold system; for a co-axial
arranged combined circulation set, its main steam system shall adopt the unit system.

4. It is allowed to provide nothing but deaerator for the thermodynamic system in a combined
circulation set.

B.0.5 The following provisions shall be followed in arrangement of the main building:

1. It is recommended to arrange the gas turbine outdoors, however, noise- and vibration-proof
measures may meet the requirement in current standards and norms shall be taken for the turbine; if
necessary, the gas turbine also may be arranged indoors.

2. It is recommended to arrange the waste heat boiler outdoors, if necessary, indoors.

3. A steam turbine with axial steam exhaust shall be arranged at a lower elevation, and no operation
floor shall be provided; when a steam turbine emits steam exhaust downward, an operation floor shall
be provided.

4. It is recommended to provide a central control room for the combined circulation power plant; the
control room for the single circulation power plant may be arranged on-site, or be centralized into a
room with those for other gas turbines.

B.0.6 The following provisions shall be followed in selection of the fuel system:

1. Natural gas, liquefied gas, light oil, crude oil, or heavy oil may be taken as fuel of the gas turbine
according to conditions of the project and equipment, and the result of technical and economic
comparison. When crude oil or heavy oil is employed, light oil shall be used at the startup and
shutdown stages of the gas turbine.

2. The totaled volumes of the main crude oil and heavy oil tanks, including that of the cleaning oil

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tank, shall be not less than the 15 days oil consumption in the whole plant. The number of oil
tanks shall not be less than two for light oil, or three for crude oil and heavy oil. It is recommended to
equip three cleaning oil tanks, each of which shall be able to meet the planed 24 hr total oil
consumption.

3. The quality of oil after treated shall meet the requirement of gas turbine running; the number of the
oil treatment units shall not be less than two rows, and when the row with the largest treatable volume
stops, the treatable volume of the other row(s) shall not be less than the total oil consumption of all
gas turbines in the whole plant.

4. The type of oil delivery pumps depends on oil quality. All oil pumps shall be grouped or connected
to the manifold, and there preferably are two or three sets of oil pumps in each group or the whole
plant, one of them is for stand-by.

5. The type of oil unloading pumps depends on oil quality, unloading mode, and other factors. The
number of oil pumps shall not be less than two sets, and when one of them stops, the capacity of the
other pump(s) shall meet the requirement to unload all delivered oil within the desired period. If oil is
delivered by water carriage, the capacity shall be determined according to the agreed shipping space
of the tank vessel and the discharging time. If oil is delivered by railway transportation, the capacity
shall be determined according to that the oil-unloading platform may accept from 12 to 24 tank
wagons simultaneously, and the unloading time is form 6 to 12 hrs.

6. The design pressure and requirement for technological design of the natural gas pipeline shall be
determined by technical and economic comparison in condition of gas source, requirement of the gas
turbine, environmental factors.

7. The layout of the natural gas system and the pressure governing stations shall meet the requirement
of technological flow and design; Outdoor or semihoused arrangement is preferable for the pressure
governing stations, however, indoor arrangement also is suitable if they are located in a severely cold
region or sandy region.

B.0.7 A decentralized control system is used to perform monitor and control of main technological
systems. For other auxiliary systems, independent monitoring devices may be adopted, but necessary
interfaces shall be provided to connect DCS.

B.0.8 The following requirements shall be met in the design of the water supply system:

1. When surface water, i.e. water form natural rivers, the watercourse which level is governed by the
reservoir, and reservoirs, is taken as the water source, the assured rate of the design low-water-season
flow shall be determined based on the capacity of the steam turbine, and shall conform to the
following provisions:

For the steam turbine of below 50MW: P =90%;

For the steam turbine of 50Mw and above:

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Combined circulation set with peakload adjustment, P = 95%;

Combined circulation set with basic load, P = 97%.

2. When groundwater is taken as the water source, the water volume taken shall not exceed the
allowable water-produced quantity determined by calculation of balanced water flow in the low water
year or continuous low water years.

B.0.9 The following requirements shall be met in selection of the water treatment system:

1. The desalt system for the make-up purpose water, including the pre-desalt system, shall be
determined by technical and economic comparison in the quality of the raw water, water quality
standard for the gas turbine and the waste heat boiler, supply condition of chemicals for treatment,
and requirements for environmental protection. For a single circulation set, water used for the gas
turbine may be directly purchased from the market, and so no desalt system of make-up water is
required.

2. The total output of the make-up water treatment equipment shall be determined by calculation
based on the normal total steam and water loss, including water volume used for the gas turbine, the
additional output demanded for startup of and failure with the set, and daily operation hours of the set
in a gas turbine combined circulation power plant.

3. The total effective volume of the desalt water tank shall match with the output of the water
treatment equipment, and meet the demand to pickle the largest waste heat boiler or start the set, and
run the gas turbine for water. If no stand-by is provided for the ion-exchanger, the stand-by water
volume demanded during the regenerating period shall be calculated into.

B.0.10 The following requirements shall be met in the design of civil works structure:

1. For the gas turbine-generator set or single-axial arranged gas-steam turbine-generator set, its
foundation is recommended to adopt the block type reinforced concrete foundation.

2. For the multi-axial arranged combined circulation set, it is recommended to adopt the reinforced
concrete frame structure in or the block type reinforced concrete foundation as the foundation of
steam turbine-generator set.

3. Regardless of gas turbine-generator set or gas-steam turbine-generator set, their foundations shall
be separated from the other foundations surrounding them or equipped with the necessary
vibration-isolating measure.

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Appendix C (appendix as a prompt)

Flue gas Desulfurization Technology

C.0.1 Selection of the flue gas desulfurization technological system shall be determined by technical
and economic comparison in the set capacity, the sulfur content in the fuel gas, the requirement for
desulfurization efficiency, the varieties and transport conditions of various available absorbents, the
capacity of ash storage yard, possibility to utilize the by-product from desulfurization, and the
reliabilities of available desulfurization process. For the renovated and/or extended power plants, the
space and other conditions on site also shall be taken into account.

Selection of the flue gas desulfurization process shall adapt local condition, if a higher
desulfurization efficiency is desired, the limestone-gypsum wet process is recommended; when the
sulfur content in coal is lower, semi-wet process or some certified process else may be adopted if
doing so is allowed by the condition, and is reasonable technically and economically.

C.0.2 The absorbent to be used shall has reliable and sufficient source, and its powdery product
meeting the size requirement shall be directly purchased from the market by making great effort;
when the condition allows, and the scheme is reasonable, the power plant itself may build an
absorbent preparing workshop; if a newly built absorbent powder processing plant is necessary, a
regionally coordination effort, i.e. a scheme to build the plant by gathering all-sided forces shall be
taken into account, and shall be subject to technically and economically comprehensive
demonstration in its investment and management modes, processing technology, address of the plant,
and transport condition.

The warehouse capacity for the absorbent in the plant shall be determined according to supply
continuity, distance from the supply source, and transport condition, and shall ensure an inventory not
less than three days consumption.

The preparation, storage and handling systems of the absorbent shall be equipped with the facilities to
prevent pollution including secondary dust flying.

C.0.3 It is recommended that the rated capacity of the absorbing tower in the desulfurization works
shall be designed according to the flue gas emission from the boiler, and no allowance for capacity is
added. It shall be determined according to factors including the exhaust temperature at the outlet of
the absorbing tower and if mix with hot flue gas to provide a heat exchanger or not.

The flue gas temperature at the inlet of the absorbing tower shall be designed as the flue gas
temperature in normal operation plus the allowance of 10℃ (50℃ may be reached in the short time),
and great attentions shall be given proper measures to prevent the equipment from damaged when the
boiler in the abnormal operation condition.

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The number of the absorbing towers shall be determined according to the capacity of the boiler,
the capacity and reliability of the absorbing tower, and other factors. When the wet process is adopted,
for the power plant with 300MW and above, it is recommended to equip one tower for one boiler; for
that with 200MW and below, one tower for two boilers. When the semi-wet desulfurization process is
adopted, one boiler may be equipped with more absorbing towers.

Reliable anti-corrosive measures shall be taken based on the technological characteristics inside of
the absorbing tower.

C.0.4 When the desulfurization system is equipped with the booster fan, the capacity of the latter
shall be selected according to the flue gas flow, and the allowance for blast volume shall not be less
than 10%, the allowance for blast pressure shall not be less than 20%.

It is recommended to provide the by-pass flue for the desulfurization unit, and the baffle or spile at the
inlet and outlet of the desulfurization unit shall have good operability and tightness.

Proper anti-corrosive measure shall be taken for the flue connecting the outlet of the absorbing tower
to the chimney depending on different desulfurization processes.

C.0.5 Great effort shall be made to create favorable conditions for comprehensive utilization of
desulfurization by-products in the design of the desulfurization process. The desulfurization
by-products may be transported outward if doing so is proved to be reasonable technically and
economically, and their processed extent, varieties, and quantity shall be determined based on reliable
market survey result.

If sufficient comprehensive utilization condition is unavailable in a short period, the desulfurization


by-products may be delivered to a storage yard, however, they shall be separately piled up from slag,
waiting for future utilization, and corresponding measures shall be taken to prevent generation of
secondary pollution.

C.0.6 It shall be taken into account to equip the anti-block facility and the pipe-cleaning device in the
absorbent and the desulfurization by-products slurry delivery system.

C.0.7 It is recommended to merge the desulfurization control room and other control rooms; when
the major works cannot be synchronously constructed or one tower will be used for two boilers, an
independent control room may be constructed.

The control level of the desulfurization system shall not be below that of the set.

C.0.8 It shall be determined by technically and economically comparing and taking actual condition
into account that the power supply scheme of the flue gas desulfurization unit adopts a special plant
transformer or an outgoing line from the plant transformer used for the set.

C.0.9 It is recommended to arrange the desulfurization absorbing tower near the flue at the tail of the
boiler, or the chimney, the absorbent preparation and desulfurization by-products processing plants in

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rear of the boiler or other proper places in a centralized mode.

When the environmental impact assessment requires preserve a space for future desulfurization, it
preferably is outside of the chimney, and its area shall be determined according to the future possible
desulfurization scheme. Any facility difficult to remove will not be allowed to build in the preserved
space.

It is recommended to arrange the desulfurization tower outdoors, however, necessary protection


measure shall be taken.

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Appendix D (appendix as a prompt)

Clean Coal-Fired Power Generating Technology

D.0.1 The design of power plant equipped with the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler shall meet
the following provisions:

1. For the generating set with a capacity of 300MW or below, the circulating fluidized bed (CFB)
boiler may be adopted when sulfur coal, hard-to-fire coal, or faulty coal is taken as fuel coal, or a
higher environmental protection standard is required, or the existing boiler is required to rebuild. The
type of the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler is determined by technical and economic
comparison in the quality of the coal, boiler capacity, environmental protection requirement,
technical reliability of the boiler of type.

2. It depends on the requirement of the boiler for size and size distribution the coal that the crushing
and screening plants need or not to equip in the coal conveying system. Similarly it shall depend on
the size and its distribution of the delivered coal that if secondary crushing is necessary. There shall
be the three-stage deironing facilities in the coal conveying system. Besides, the raw coal bunker
shall be equipped with proper plugging inhibiting devices.

3. Limestone powder used as desulfurizer shall be purchased from the market as much as possible,
and the plant limestone powder warehouse shall have a capacity enough to meet three days
consumption; when the pulverizer is required to equip in the plant, it usually is mounted in the coal
bunker bay, and the capacity of the limestone powder storage yard shall not be below the
consumption for seven days; the capacity of the limestone warehouse shall not be less than 8 hrs
consumption as the boiler operating in its maximum steam output; the capacity of the limestone
powder warehouse shall not be less than 4 hrs consumption as the boiler operating in its maximum
steam output. Both the limestone warehouse and the limestone power warehouse shall be equipped
with their respective plugging inhibiting devices, and it depends on the argumentation result on local
condition that anti-freezing devices are equipped or not.

4. The set number, capacity, and allowance for pressure head of fans shall meet the following
requirements:

(a) For each boiler with a steam output of 220t/hr or below, one underfire air fan and one
overfire air fan each are provided; for each of 410t/hr and above, two sets of each of the both
fans, and for the both cases above, no stand-by is required. When the tubular air preheater is
used with the boiler, its capacity shall not be less than 20%; when the regenerative air preheater
is used, its allowance for capacity shall be added due to air leakage. The allowance for pressure
head shall not be less than 20% for the underfire air fan, or 30% for the overfire air fan;

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(b) For each boiler with a steam output of 220t/he or below, it is recommended to equip two
high-pressure fluidizing purpose fans with 50% of total desired capacity; for each of 410t/hr
and above, it is recommended to equip three with 50% of total desired capacity. Both the
allowances for capacity and head shall not less than 20%;

(c) A symmetrical coal-feeding mode shall be adopted for boiler operation, and at least two set
of coal-feeding equipment shall be equipped, their total capacity shall meet the demand for
200% of the coal consumption as the boiler operating in its maximum continuous steam output.

5. The design of the dust handling system shall meet the following requirements:

(a) The output of the bottom-ash conveying device shall be 250% of the bottom-ash output as
boiler operating in its maximum continuous steam output;

(b) The temperature of ash leaving the ash exhauster preferably is not above 200℃.

6. It is recommended to adopt a decentralized control system to perform centralized control of main


parameters for the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler set. The thermodynamic control apparatuses
used to perform following functions shall be added in addition to those used for the conventionall
boiler:

(a) Detection of the bed temperature and the bed pressure in the firebox and flue gas analysis;

(b) Ordered interlock used to start and stop underfire air fan, overfire air fan, draught fan, high
-pressure fluidizing purpose fan, coal-feeding equipment, limestone feeder, as well as fault
trip;

(c) Interlock between underfire air fan, overfire air fan, draught fan, high-pressure fluidizing
purpose fan and relevant baffle plates;

(d) The limestone feeding rate and the adjustment of the bed pressure.

7. The elevation of feeding floor of the coalbunker bay shall be determined based on the elevation and
position of the feed port of the boiler, and when the coalbunker bay is arranged next to the deaerator
bay, it is recommended that the elevation of the feeding floor is coincident with that of the deaerator
floor to offer convenience for operation and maintenance.

D.0.2 The design of an integrate gasification combined circulation (IGCC) set shall meet the
following requirements:

1. The IGCC power generating technique is applicable for the acid rain control region and SO2
pollution control region and the power plant using sulfur coal as fuel; This technique also may be
used in the capacity-expanding and rebuilt projects of the existing conventional power plants, and the
project to change original gas-fired or oil-fired combined circulation power plant into a coal-fired one,
if doing so is proved reasonable by technical and economic comparison.

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2. For a newly extended IGCC power plant, its unit capacity preferably is 300MW or above; the
set with a smaller capacity also may be adopted in the project to expand capacity and change oil-fired
into coal-fired, if doing so is proved reasonable by technical and economic comparison.

3. It is recommended to adopt the oxygen-blown spray bed technique in the heavy-duty gasifier, and
adoption of wet or dry feeding mode, and chilling or full heat recovery mode shall be determined by
technical and economic comparison.

4. For the IGCC generator set with a unit capacity of 400MW or below, it is recommended to equip
one gasifier for each power island unit, and no stand-by is required; Technical and economic
argumentation is necessary if two sets of gasifiers with 50% of total desired capacity are required.

5. Each set of gasifier is equipped with one set of decontamination plant, including dust removal and
desulfurization, and it is recommended to adopt cold decontamination. The wet process is preferably
adopted in desulfurization to recover the element sulfur, and it shall be determined based on the
market demand by technical and economic comparison that sulfuric acid shall be made or not finally.
It is recommended to equip one set of subsequent sulfur recovery unit and one tail-gas treatment unit
for each or two gasifier(s).

6. The full low pressure molecular sieve booster expander process is recommended to use in air
separation, and oxygen produced in the air separation island shall meet the maximum oxygen
consumption of the gasifier, with an allowance of not less than 10%; the integrated rate of the air
separation unit and the power unit in air supply shall be determined by technical and economic
comparison. It is recommended to equip one set of air compressor and one set of oxygen compressor,
as regards nitrogen compressor, it shall be equipped as function requirement, and it is recommended
to provide no stand-by. The fractionating facility to extract argon may be added when there is demand
for argon on the market and doing so is thought to be reasonable by technical and economic
comparison.

7. The heat recovery system of the gasifier island and the boiler circuit of the power island shall be
planed integrally, and made thermodynamic equilibrium together. The heavy duty gas turbine which
can adapt low-BTU synthetic gas, and startup/stand-by fuel, fully utilize the nitrogen separated out by
the air separation unit to back fill, and is equipped with the facility to reduce NOx shall be adopted.

8. The IGCC power station shall be equipped with the set/system control room based on the
characteristics of the technological system, adopt a decentralized control system to perform
monitoring of main technological systems.

D.0.3 The design of the pressurized fluidized bed - combined circulation (PFBC-CC) set shall meet
the following requirements:

1. The PFBC-CC power generating technique is applicable for the power plant using sulfur coal or
hard-to-fire coal as fuel, the space-limited newly built or capacity-expanding project also may adopt
if doing so is thought to be reasonable by technical and economic comparison.

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2. The fuel-feeding mode, i.e. dry- or wet-process, for the pressurized fluidized bed boiler shall
be determined based on coal quality, arrangment characteristics of the plant and the main building
after technical and economic comparison.

3. The materials delivered into the raw coal bunker and the desulfurizer warehouse shall meet the
running requirement of the bubbling pressurized fluidized bed boiler in their sizes.

4. Affection of the heat-exchanging equipment for pressurized fluidized bed and its heat recovery
shall be comprehensively taken into account, and determined by optimization in the design of the
boiler circuit for a PFBC-CC power station combined circulation section.

5. The gas turbine selected for a PFBC-CC power station shall be able to adapt the requirement for the
dust and metal ions contents in the flue gas at the inlet.

— 175 —