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Policy Dialog Session On Sustainable Sanitation in Asia

21-22 September 2018


Country Presentation
Bhimsen Timilsina
Under secretary
The views expressed in this presentation are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI),
the Asian Development Bank (ADB), its Board of Directors, or the governments they represent. ADBI does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper
and accepts no responsibility for any consequences of their use. Terminology used may not necessarily be consistent with ADB official terms.
INTRODUCTION Total Area: 147,181 Sq. Km.
Nepal has
federation ,
states (7), local
level (753)
(Metropolitan , Total Population: 26.6 Million
Municipalities Capital:
& rural Katmandu

0.03% of world’s area

General Information
´ Nepal’s successful transformation to a federal system of governance
with central, provincial and local level elections held in 2017 is
opening new avenues for local empowerment, development and
economic prosperity.
´ Although Nepal with total population of 26.6 million (CBS 2011), is a
least developed country, there has been significant progress in
reducing poverty. The nationally defined poverty stood at 21.6
percent in 2015 compared to 31 percent in 2004.
´ Nepal’s Human Development Index (HDI) in 2015 was 0.558, and was
ranked 144 out of 188 countries (UNDP, 2016).
´ Nepal is committed to graduate the nation to a developing country
by 2022 and become a middle-income country by 2030.
Status on Health and Education
´ Nepal’s progress in the health sector can be seen from the dramatic increase in
life expectancy from 41 years in 1992 to 66.6 in 2011 – where female life
expectancy increased to 67.9 from 40 years (CBS, 2011).
´ Similarly under five mortality has reduced from 118 to 39 deaths per 1000 lives from
1996 to 2016 (MoH, 2016).
´ Although the prevalence of diarrhea in under five children has decreased from 14
to 8 per cent from 2011 to 2016, more than one in five deaths is due to diarrhea
and acute respiratory illness. (MoH 2015).
´ Regarding access to education, the net enrollment rate in primary schools
reached 96.6 percent in 2015
´ There is a need to retain children in school and to improve literacy among
women. According to CBS 2011, literacy rate in national level is 65.9 percent
,among male is 75.1 percent and among female is only 57.4 percent
Progress on sanitation sector
´The sanitation coverage of Nepal is 95.4 percent at the end
of 2017.
´The National Sanitation and Hygiene Master Plan (NSHMP)
2011, which brought all stakeholders together under the
leadership of local governments, unleashed a countrywide
sanitation movement to rapidly expand open defecation free
(ODF) communities.
´Consensus building, capacity building training, mobilization of
trained human resources and review meeting have carried out
at Federation,Province and local levels whereby all local levels
to mobilize local communities.
Progress on sanitation sector cont…

´ By the end of 2017, 47 out of 77 districts had been declared open

defecation free (ODF) and 9 others had achieved 100 percent
sanitation coverage and are undergoing verification process for ODF
´ 352 rural municipalities among 460, 167 municipalities among 276, 7
sub-metropolises among 11 and 2 metropolises among 6 had been
declared as open defecation free (ODF) zones.
Water ,Sanitation and Hygine (WaSH)in School

´ According to Department of Education (DoE), 78

percent of community schools have water supply
facilities and 82 percent schools have toilet facilities
but only 69 percent schools have separate toilet for
girls (EMIS, 2015/16).
´The Government of Nepal has committed to have
one gender-separated toilet for every 50 girls for every
school with specific budget allocation for itin coming
days . The progress so far is 1:69 as per Education
Management Information System( EMIS) 2015/16.
Water ,Sanitation and Hygine(WaSH) in Health services

´ A survey done in 963 health facilities throughout the country

in 2015 indicates that overall 81 percent health care facilities
in the country have access to improved water source and a
functioning latrine in the general outpatient area.
´While about 80 percent of public health facilities have
latrines for patients, practically all private facilities have
them. Only 54 percent of health facilities providing child
curative care had soap and running water or alcohol-based
hand disinfectant for hand cleansing (MoH 2015).
Water ,Sanitation and Hygine(WaSH) in
Public places
´ There are limited functioning public toilets in Nepal.
´Most toilets in public institutions are poorly
managed with no structural consideration for the
special needs of child, gender and person with
´ Department of Water Supply and Sewerage
(DWSS) is in the process of finalizing public toilet
operational guidelines
Faecal Sludge Management and Wastewater Treatment

´ According to Nepal Demographic and Health Survey , 4.4 percent of

households have improved toilet connected to sewer systems and 3.5
percent of households have shared toilets connected to sewer system
(GoN 2017).
´ Most of the toilets being constructed are connected to septic tanks or
pits which need to be emptied regularly, faecal sludge management
(FSM) is an emerging challenge posing huge environmental health risks.
Wastewater Treatment
´ At present, only a few cities have wastewater treatment facilities and many of these
are not functioning properly.
´ In Kathmandu, government of Nepal, with support from the ADB, is in the process of
renovating and upgrading five wastewater treatment systems and the sewer system. A
few towns and institutions such as hospitals, hotels and schools have also established
decentralized wastewater treatment systems.
sustainable development goals(SDGS) and
sanitation in Nepal
´ Among the 17 SDGs, SDG 6, which states “Ensure availability and sustainable management of
water and sanitation for all” is directly related with water and sanitation and within this goal, the
most relevant target related to sanitation is Target 6.2. The Total Sanitation Implementation
Guidelines 2016 and the recently drafted National Policy on Dignified Menstrual Hygiene
Management (MHM) are aimed at attaining Target 6.2.
´ The Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) estimates that globally 39 percent of the population used
safely managed sanitation services in 2015. However, in the case of Nepal, JMP does not have
estimates for percent of population with safely managed sanitation. It estimates that in 2015, 46
percent of the population used improved toilet that is not shared (WHO & UNICEF, 2017).
´ According to National Demographic and Health Survey(NDHS) 2016, 64.6 percent of the
population (64.8 percent of urban 64.3 percent of rural) are using safely managed sanitation
services, including a hand-washing facility with soap and water (MoH, 2017). It is estimated that
about 30 percent of the toilets ( Improved, Shared And General Toilets) are connected to sewer
systems but the sewer is rarely treated.
sustainable development goals(SDGS) and
sanitation in Nepal cont…
´ The GoN has recently published a status report on road map to achieving the
SDGs (NPC/GoN, 2018). This report takes stock of Nepal’s development status
and projects a roadmap to 2030.
´ The report has grouped the 17 SDGs into the five clusters for a better conceptual
appreciation as seen from Nepal’s present development stage.
´ Four of the goals, including Goals 1, 2, 6, and 7 which deal with the ending of
poverty and hunger, and providing basic water, sanitation and modern energy
for all citizens have been grouped together as the “Basic mark of civilization.”
´ Therefore Among the 17 SDGs, SDG 6, which states “Ensure availability and
sustainable management of water and sanitation for all” has been identified as a
priority by the government.
Nepalese policy on sustainable sanitation
´ Article 35 (4) of the constitution of Nepal states that "Every citizen shall
have the right of access to safe water and sanitation". Similarly, article 30
(1) states broadly that "Every person shall have the right to live in a healthy
and clean environment".
´ The Nepal Sanitation and Hygine Management Plan 2011 set the
approach for accelerating the sanitation coverage through ODF
movement led by local governments.
´ The Total Sanitation Guidelines, 2015 provides guidelines for sustaining ODF
outcomes and initiating post-ODF activities through an integrated water,
sanitation and hygiene plan at municipality, district and provincial levels.
´ Nepal has adopted participatory approaches in designing policies,
guidelines, directives and school and community-based program
packages, capacity development frameworks and advocacy campaigns
on WaSH.
Institutional Framework on sustainable sanitation
´ The Constitution of Nepal has envisioned decentralization in all aspects of planning,
implementation and sustainable management of WaSH interventions in leadership of federal,
provincial and local government institutions. The country is still in the transition phase to
reform all the government structures to function with full decentralization adhering to the
principles of the constitution of Nepal.
´ In federal level there are different Ministries engaged in promoting WaSH.
´ Ministry of Water Supply (MoWS) is the lead ministry responsible for the formulation of WaSH
policies and plans.
´ Department of Water Supply and Sewerage (DWSS) under the MoWS is responsible for WaSH
sector capacity development and implementation of large projects serving metropolitan
and sub-metropolitan cities, projects with impounding reservoirs and bulk water distribution
systems, projects with complexities in view of technology and wastewater management
projects in large cities.
´ Department for Urban Development and Building Construction (DUDBC) under the Ministry of
Urban Development is implementing ADB-financed Integrated Urban Environmental
Improvement Project in which sewerage and drainage are key components.
Institutional Framework on sustainable sanitation cont…

´ Ministry of Health and population is responsible to promote health and hygiene through
water quality surveillance and emergency response.
´ Ministry of Education,science and technology is responsible for promoting WaSH in schools .
´ Ministry of Forest and Environment contributes in climate change resilient infra-structures
including the WaSH services.
´ Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Fund Development Board (RWSSFDB) is an autonomous
body under Ministry of Water Supply for implementation of small rural water and sanitation
projects through financing of World Bank, under which communities are supported in
planning, management and monitoring of WaSH services through Service Agencies.
´ local governments including rural municipalities and municipalities are also key actors in the
changed federal structure where these institutions are more responsible for local
development projects including WaSH.
´ INGOs, NGOS, CBOs, DPs , Private sector and civil societies are also involve in this areas as
support groups.
Financing on sustainable sanitation
´ NPC prepares Annual Development Program in consultation with concerned ministries
considering the budget ceiling circulated by the Ministry of Finance.
´ In Nepal, there are different ministries engaged in promoting of water, sanitation and
´ Concept of SWAp has been discussed in the sector since last many years however more
efforts are required to ensure coordinated efforts and achieve sector convergence.
´ As per the federal constitution, WaSH plans and programs will now be developed at
municipal level integrating with other development agenda mainly local development,
education and health services.
´ In the local planning process, communities have more power to shape up their local
plans in leadership of the elected municipal leaders.
´ Municipalities also invest in solid waste management and drainage.
´ The National Budget over the last four years indicates that the budget for sanitation is
increasing but that for wastewater and solid waste management is fluctuating.
Accomplished key activities on sustainable sanitation

´ Nepal has accomplished the following key activities on sustainable

sanitation in recent years

§ Conduction of ODF sustainability study

§ Preparation of training manuals on total sanitation
§ Formulation of WaSH in School guidelines
§ Preparation of disaster management guidelines for WaSH
§ Country-wide expansion of ODF campaign
Challenges on sunstainable satitation programs
´ Poverty, difficult geography, caste discrimination, gender disparity and exclusion are
generally considered to be key factors of WaSH inequalities.
´ child, gender and disabled (CGD) friendly toilets are not properly constructed and
operated in houses, schools and public places depriving person with disability to
comfortably access the toilet services.
´ Menstruation-related discrimination in its severest forms was most prevalent in the Mid-
Western Mountains, where 71 percent of women experienced chhaupadi, a traditional
practice of banishing menstruating women from their house (GoN and Unicef, 2015).
´ Wastewater and Faecal Sludge Management is a major challenge in urban area .
´ Coordination in all local levels in line with new governance setup is difficult task .
´ Lack of budget to implement sunstainable satitation programs .
´ In recent years, Nepal’s sanitation campaign faced several challenges such as
earthquake and floods .
Nepal's planned interventions for sustainable
sanitation (Interventions over Next Three Years )

1. Sector policy/ strategy

§ Approval and implementation of Nepal WaSH Sector Development plan
§ Formulation and implementation of operational manual on total sanitation with
tangible indicators, and concrete actions in line with SDG
§ Formulation and implementation of Wastewater and Faecal Sludge Management
§ Declaration of National Year of Sanitation-2018 for accelerated sanitation
movement heading towards Total Sanitation
2. Institutional arrangements
§ Reformation and establishment of the inclusive WaSH-Coordination Commitees in
all local levels in line with new federal system of governance setup
Nepal's planned interventions for sustainable
sanitation cont..

3. Sector financing
§ Implementation of sector financing strategies as identified by the Nepal WaSH Sector
Development Plan
§ Engagement of Development Partners, private sector and local communities to leverage
resources and increase sector financing
4. Planning, monitoring and review
§ Establishment of SDG aligned data base management system through National
Management Information Project (NMIP) under the Department of Water supply and
§ Establishment of WaSH sector monitoring system at province and local levels
§ Formulation and implementation of WaSH plan in all municipalities and rural municipalities
§ Conduction of ODF impact study for pragmatic planning, financing and monitoring
Nepal's planned interventions for sustainable
sanitation cont..
5. Capacity development
§ Formulation of Capacity Development Master Plan for the
WaSH sector considering effectiveness and need of trainings
in new governance context
§ Conduct trainings and orientations to capacitate provincial
and local governments to implement WaSH plans and monitor
local level activities
§ Documentation of best practices and innovations of the
WaSH sector for strengthening learning alliance
Thank You For Attention !!!