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UNIT I

1. What are the advantages of PSC construction?


The advantages of PSC construction are:
a) In case of fully prestressed member, which are free from tensile stresses under working
loads, the cross section is more efficiently utilized when compared with a reinforced
concrete section which is cracked under working loads.
b) The flexural member is stiffer under working loads than a reinforced concrete member of
the same length.

2. Define – Pre tensioning and Post tensioning (M/J 16)


Pre tensioning:
Pre tensioning is a method of prestressing concrete in which the tendons are tensioned before
the concrete is placed. In this method, the prestress is imparted to concrete by bond between

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Post tensioning:

w.EPost tensioning is a method of pre stressing concrete by tensioning the tendons against
hardened concrete. In this method, the prestress is imparted to concrete by bearing.

3.
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Write some need for high strength steel and concrete material.
a) Tensile strength of high tensile steel is in the range of 1400 to 2000 N/mm 2andif initially

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stress upto 1400 N/mm2there will be still large stress in the high tensilereinforcement after

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making deduction for loss of prestress. Therefore high tensilesteel is made for prestress
concrete.
b) High strength concrete is necessary for prestress concrete as the material offers highly

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resistance in tension, shear bond and bearing. In the zone of anchorage the bearing
stresses being hired, high strength concrete is invariably preferred to minimizing the cost.

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High strength concrete is less liable to shrinkage cracks and has lighter modulus of
elasticity and smaller ultimate creep strain resulting in a smaller loss of prestress in steel.

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The use of high strength concrete results in a reduction in a cross sectional dimensions of
prestress concrete structural element with a reduced dead weight of the material longer

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span become technically and economically practicable.

What is Relaxation of steel? (M/J 16) e


When a high tensile steel wire is stretch and maintained at a constant strain the initially force in
the wire does not remain constant but decrease with time. The decrease of stress in steel at
constant strain is termed relaxation of steel.

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5. What is concordant prestressing?


Concordant prestressing is the prestressing of members in which the cable follow a concordant
profile. In case of statically indeterminate structures it does not cause any changes in support
reaction.

6. Define – bonded and non-bonded prestressing concrete


Bonded prestressing concrete:
Bonded prestressing concrete is a concrete in which prestress is imparted to concretethrough
bond between the tendons and surrounding concrete. Pre tensionedmembers belong to this
group.

Non-bonded prestressing concrete:


Non bonded prestressing concrete is a method of construction in which the tendons are not
bonded to the surrounding concrete. The tendons may be placed in ducts formed in the

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concrete members or they may be placed outside the concrete section.

Define – Axial prestressing (N/D 16)

w.E Members in which the entire cross-section of concrete has a uniform compressive prestress is
defined as axial prestressing. In this type of prestressing, the centroid, of the tendons coincides
with that of the concrete section.

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Define – Prestressed concrete

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Prestressed concrete is defined as concrete in which internal stresses of a suitable magnitude

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anddistribution are introduced so that the stresses resulting from external loads
(or)counteracted to a desire degree in reinforced concrete member the prestress is commonly
introduced by tensioning the steel reinforcement

9. Define – anchorage nee


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A device generally used to enable the tendon to impart and maintain prestress to the concrete
is called anchorage. e.g. Fressinet, BBRV systems,etc.,

10. What are the various stages of the pre-tensioning operation? [A/M 14]
The various stages of the pre-tensioning operation are:
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a) Anchoring of tendons against the end abutments
b) Placing of jacks
c) Applying tension to the tendons
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d) Casting of concrete
e) Cutting of the tendons.

11. What are the various stages of the post-tensioning operation?


The various stages of the post-tensioning operation are:
a) Casting of concrete.
b) Placement of the tendons.
c) Placement of the anchorage block and jack.
d) Applying tension to the tendons.
e) Seating of the wedges.
f) Cutting of the tendons.

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12. What are the essential devices used for pre-tensioning?


The essential devices used for pre-tensioning are:
a) Prestressing bed
b) End abutments
c) Shuttering / mould
d) Jack
e) Anchoring device
f) Harping device (optional)

13. What are the essential devices used for post-tensioning?


The essential devices used for post-tensioning are:
a) Casting bed
b) Mould/Shuttering

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d) Anchoring devices
e) Jacks

w.E f) Couplers (optional)


g) Grouting equipment (optional)

14.
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What are the advantages and disadvantage of Post-tensioning?
(N/D 16)
Advantages:
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a) Post-tensioning is suitable for heavy cast-in-place members.
b) The waiting period in the casting bed is less.
c) The transfer of prestress is independent of transmission length.

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The relative disadvantage of post-tensioning as compared to pre-tensioning is the
requirement of anchorage device and grouting equipment.

15. Write the advantages and disadvantage of Pre-tensioning?


Advantages:
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a) Pre-tensioning is suitable for precast members produced in bulk.
b) In pre-tensioning large anchorage device is not present. e
Disadvantages:
a) A prestressing bed is required for the pre-tensioning operation.
b) There is a waiting period in the prestressing bed, before the concrete attains sufficient
strength.
c) There should be good bond between concrete and steel over the transmission length.

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Part – B (16marks)
1. A rectangular prestressed beam 150 mm wide and 300 mm deep is used over an effective span of
10 m. The cable with zero eccentricity at the supports and linearly varying to 50 mm at the centre
carries an effective prestressing force of 500 kN. Find the magnitude of the concentrated load located
at the centre of the span for the following conditions at the centre of span section:
If the load counteracts the bending effect of the prestressing
(1) force (neglecting self weight of beam) and {N/D 14}

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2. A Prestressed pretensioned beam of 200mm wide and 300mm deep is used over an span of 10m
is prestressed with a wires of area 300mm2 at an eccentricity of 60mm carrying a prestress of 1200
N/mm2 Find the percentage of loss of stress, Ec= 35 kN/mm2 Shrinkage of concrete = 300 x 10-6 ,
creep coefficient =1.6[A/M15]

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3. A PSC beam of 120mm wide and 300mm deep is used over an span of 6m is prestressed by a
straight cable carrying a force of 180 kN & located at an eccentricity of 50mm. Ec= 38 kN/mm2 . Find
the deflection at centre span
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Under prestress + self weight
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Find the magnitude of live load udl which will nullify the deflection due to prestress & self weight.

[M/J 15][N/D15]
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2. (b) (i) A concrete beam with a rectangular section 120 mm wide and 300 mm deep, is

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stressed by a straight cable carrying an effective force of 60 kN. The span of the beam is 6 m.
The cable is straight with a uniform eccentricity of 50 mm if the beam has an uniformly
distributed load of 6 kN/m. Ec= 38 kN/mm2. Estimate the deflection at centre of span for the
following case:
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(1) Prestress + self weight of the beam
(2)Prestress + self weight of the beam + Live load. (N/D 16)

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4. A PSC beam with rectangular section, 150mm wide 300mm deep is prestressed by three cables
each carrying a effective prestress of 200kN. The span of the beam is 12m. The first cable is
parabolic with an eccentricity of 50mm below the centroidal axis at the centre of the span and 50mm
above the centroidal axis at the supports. The second cable is parabolic with an eccentricity of 50mm
at the centre of the span and zero eccentricity at the supports. The third cable is straight with an
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eccentricity of 50mm below the centroidal axis. If the beam supports an UDL of 6 kN/m and
Ec=38kN/mm2 Estimate the instantaneous deflection for the following stages
i) Prestress + self weight of the beam
ii) Prestress + self weight of the beam + live load (N/D 16)

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5. (i) Describe the various systems of prestressing


(ii) State different materials required in prestressing

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6. Explain losses of shrinkage of concrete in PSC members

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7. A PSC beam of section 120mm wide and 300mm deep is used over an effective span of 6m to
support an udl of 4kN/m including self weight. The beam is prestressed by a straight cable with a force
of 180kN and located at an eccentricity of 50mm. Determine the location of thrust line in the beam and
plot its position. [M/J 14]

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UNIT II DESIGN CONCEPTS

PART A

1. What are the three approaches to analyze a prestressed member at transfer and under
service loads? (N/D 16)
The three approaches to analyze a prestressed member at transfer and under service loads
are:
a) Based on stress concept.
b) Based on force concept.
c) Based on load balancing concept.

2. Define – Stress Concept


In the approach based on stress concept, the stresses at the edges of the section under the
internal forces in concrete are calculated. The stress concept is used to compare the calculated
stresses with the allowable stresses.

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3. Define – Force Concept

w.EThe approach based on force concept is analogous to the study of reinforced concrete. The
tension in prestressing steel (T) and the resultant compression in concrete (C) are considered
to balance the external loads. This approach is used to determine the dimensions of a section

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and to check the service load capacity.

Define – Load balanced Concept (N/D 16)


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The approach based on load balancing concept is used for a member with curved or harped

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tendons and in the analysis of indeterminate continuous beams. The moment, upward thrust
and upward deflection (camber) due to the prestress in the tendons are calculated. The upward
thrust balances part of the superimposed load.
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5. What is known as kern zone and pressure line?


Kern zone:
When the resultant compression (C) is located within a specific zone of a section of a beam,
tensile stresses are not generated. This zone is called the kern zone of a section.

Pressure line:
The pressure line in a beam is the locus of the resultant compression (C) along the length. It is
also called the thrust line or C-line.

6. List out the assumptions for analysis of members under flexure for ultimate strength.
The assumptions for analysis of members under flexure for ultimate strength are:
a) Plane sections perpendicular to the axis of the member remain plane till the ultimate state.
b) Perfect bond is retained between concrete and prestressing steel for bonded tendons.
c) Tension in concrete is neglected.
d) The design stress versus strain curves of concrete and steel are considered.

ww 7. What are the three types of cracks are identified in a simply supported beam under

w.E uniformly distributed load, without prestressing? (N/D 16)


The three types of cracks that are identified in a simply supported beam under uniformly
distributed load, without prestressing are:

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a) Flexural cracks: These cracks form at the bottom near the midspan and propagate
upwards.

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b) Web shear cracks: These cracks form near the neutral axis close to the support and
propagate inclined to the beam axis.
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c) Flexure shear cracks: These cracks form at the bottom due to flexure and propagate due
to both flexure and shear.

8. List out the modes of failure due to shear? nee


The modes of failure due to shear are:
a) Diagonal tension failure rin
b) Shear compression failure
c) Shear tension failure
d) Web crushing failure
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e) Arch rib failure

Define – short term deflection and long term deflection.


e
(M/J 16)

Short term deflection:


The short term deflection at transfer is due to the prestressing force (before long term losses)
and self-weight. The effect of creep and shrinkage of concrete are not considered.

Long term deflection:


The long term deflection under service loads is due to the effective prestressing force (after
long term losses) and the gravity loads. The permanent components of the gravity loads are
considered in the effect of creep. These components are dead load and sustained live load.

10. At what quantities do the crack width of a flexural crack depends on?
The crack width of a flexural crack depends on the following quantities:

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a) Amount of prestress
b) Tensile stress in the longitudinal bars
c) Thickness of the concrete cover
d) Diameter and spacing of longitudinal bars
e) Depth of member and location of neutral axis
f) Bond strength
g) Tensile strength of concrete.

11. What are the factors that influence the transmission length?
The factors that influence the transmission length are:
a) Type of tendon
b) Size of tendon
c) Stress in tendon
d) Surface deformations of the tendon
e) Strength of concrete at transfer

ww f) Pace of cutting of tendons


g) Presence of confining reinforcement
h) Effect of creep

w.E i) Compaction of concrete


j) Amount of concrete cover.

12.
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What are the three mechanisms in the bond? (M/J 16)
The three mechanisms in the bond are:

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a) Adhesion between concrete and steel

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b) Mechanical bond at the concrete and steel interface.
c) Friction in presence of transverse compression.

13.
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What are the aspects need to be considered in the analysis and design of a prestressed
cantilever beam?

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The aspects that are needed to be considered in the analysis and design of a prestressed
cantilever beam are:

Hence, there will be two design moments at service loads.


b) The beam may be subjected to partial loading and point loading.
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a) Certain portions of the back span are subjected to both positive and negative moments.

c) The sequence of loading is important to design the prestressing force.


d) High values of moment and shear occur simultaneously near the support. e
14. What is known as splitting tensile stress and splitting bursting force?
Splitting tensile stress:
The transverse tensile stress is known as splitting tensile stress.

Splitting bursting stress:


The resultant of the tensile stress in a transverse direction is known as the bursting force.

15. What is called tension stiffening effect and transmission length?


Tension stiffening effect: (M/J 16)
The stiffening of a member due to the tension carried by the concrete is called the
tensionstiffening effect.

Transmission length:

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The prestress is transferred over a certain length from each end of a member which is called the
transmission length or transfer length.

Part – B (16marks)

1. A pretensioned prestressed concrete beam having a rectangular section, 150 mm wide and 300mm
deep has an effective cover of 50mm. If fck = 40 N/mm2 , fp= 1600 N/mm2, and the area of prestressing
steel Ap= 461mm2 , calculate the ultimate flexure strength of the section using IS : 1343 code provision.
[A/M 15 ]

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2. A post tensioned prestressed concrete Tee beam having a flange width of 1200mm and flange
thickness of 150mm, thickness of web being 300mm is prestressed by 2000mm2 of high tensile steel
located at an effective depth of 1600mm. If fck= 40 N/mm2 and fp= 1600 N/mm2, estimate the ultimate
flexural strength of the unbounded tee section, assuming span/depth ratio as 20 and fpe = 1000 N/mm2.
(M/J 16)(N/D 16)

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3.A PSC beam of effective span 16m is of rectangular section 400mm wide and 1200mm deep. A
tendons consist of 3300mm2 of strands of characteristic strength 1700 N/mm2 with an effective

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prestress of 910 N/mm2 . The strands are located 870mm from the top face of the beam. If fcu =60

Bonded tendons (ii) Unbonded tendons e


N/mm2 , estimate the flexural strength of the section as per BS provisions for the following cases: (i)
[N/D 15]

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3. Explain in detail , the types of flexural failure in concrete [A/M14]

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UNIT III

PART A

1. Define – Circular prestressing


When the prestressed members are curved, in the direction of prestressing, the prestressing is
called circular prestressing. For example, circumferential prestressing in pipes, tanks, silos,
containment structures, domes and shells.

2. What are the types of boundary conditions are considered in the analysis of the
cylindrical wall? (M/J 16)
The following boundary conditions are considered in the analysis of the cylindrical wall:
a) For base: fixed or hinged
b) For top: free or hinged or framed.

3. What are the uses of prestressed concrete tanks? [A/M 14]

ww Prestressed concrete tanks have been widely used for the storage of fluids, such as water, oil,
gas, sewage, granular materials like cement, process and liquids chemicals, slurries and more

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w.Erecently, cryogens.

By connecting the walls and the base slab what are the developments in the main walls?

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The ring tension and bending moments developed in the walls of the tank are mainly influenced
by the type of connection between the walls and the base slab.

5.
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What are the uses of prestressed concrete poles? (M/J 16)

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Prestressed concrete poles are currently mass produced and are widely used in most countries
for railway power and signal lines, lighting poles, antenna masts, telephone transmission, low

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and high voltage electric power transmission and substation towers.

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6. What are the advantages of prestressed concrete poles? [A/M 14]


The advantages of prestressed concrete poles are:
a) Resistance to corrosion in humid and temperate climates and to erosion in desert areas.
b) Freeze – thaw resistance in cold regions.
c) Easy handling due to less weight than other poles.
d) Clean and neat in appearance and requiring negligible maintenance.

7. What are the advantages of Prestressed concrete Sleeper?


The main advantage of prestressed concrete sleeper is that it has a technical necessity for
high-speed and heavy-density tracks from the point of maintainability of track geometry and
riding comfort requirements.

8. What are the types of prestressed concrete sleeper?


The types of prestressed concrete sleeper are:
a) Two block sleepers connected by a pipe filled with concrete and containing high tensile

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b) Longitudinal sleepers located continuously under the rails and connected by flexible tie
bars for gauge retention.

w.E c) Beam type single piece prestressed concrete sleepers, which are quite similar to the
conventional wooden-type sleeper in shape, length and supporting area.

9.
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Mention the importance of shrinkage in composite construction?
The time dependent behavior of composite prestressed concrete beams depends upon the

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presence of differential shrinkage and creep of the concretes of web and deck, in addition to

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other parameters, such as relaxation of steel, presence of untensionedsteel, and compression
steel.

10.
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Write any two general failures of prestressed concrete tanks. [A/M 14]
General failures of prestressed concrete tanks are:
a) Deformation of the pre-cast concrete units during construction
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b) Manufacturing inaccuracies led to out of tolerance units being delivered to the siteunder

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investigation and may have affected the ability to achieve a good seal.

Define – one and two stage constructions.


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One-stage construction:
Construct and initialize the object in one stage, all with the constructor. e
Two-stage construction:
Construct and initialize the object in two separate stages. The constructor creates the object
and an initialization function initializes it.

12. What are the different shapes of prestressed concrete tanks?


The different shapes of prestressed concrete tanks are:
a) Circular cylindrical tank
b) Conical tank
c) Water tower with conical tank
d) Water tower of doubly curved shell

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13. What is the necessity of vertical prestressing in water tank? [N/D 16]
The design of tank walls to resist the hoop tension and moments developed are based on the
considerations of desirable load factors against cracking and collapse. So that vertical
prestressing is needed in water tank design in PSC structures.

14. What are the stages to be considered while designing PSC pipes?
The stages to be considered while designing PSC pipes are:
a) Monolyte construction
b) Two stage construction

15. What is meant by monolyte construction?


Monolyte construction is based on the principle that a mix of fresh concrete subjected to triaxial
pressure behaves in some aspects like a solid body. If steel is embedded in such a mass of
concrete, which is deformed while the pressured is maintained.

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1. The end block of a prestressed concrete bema, rectangular in section, is 100mm wide and 200mm
deep. The prestressing force of 100 kN is transmitted to concrete by aa distribution plate, 100mm

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wide and 50 mm deep, concentrically located at the ends. Calculate the position and magnitude of

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the maximum tensile stress on the horizontal section through the centre and edge of the anchor plate.

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Compute the bursting tension on these horizontal planes [N/D 16]

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2. The end block of a post tensioned prestressed member is 550mm wide and 550mm deep. four
cables, each made up of seven wires of 12mm diameter strands and carrying a force of 1000kN, are

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anchored by plate anchorages, 150mm by 150mm, located with their centres at 125mm from the
edges of the end block. The cable duct is of 50mm diameter. The 28 day cube strength of concrete f cu
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is 45 N/mm2. The cube strength of concrete at transfer fci is 25 N/mm2. Permissible bearing stresses

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behind anchorages should conform with IS 1343. The characteristic yield stress in mild steel

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anchorage reinforcement is 260 N/mm2. Design suitable anchorages for the end block. [N/D 15]

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3. The end block of a post tensioned concrete beam 300mm X 300mm is subjected to a concentric
anchorage force of 832.8kN by a freyssinet anchorage system of area 11720mm2 . Discuss and
detail the anchorage reinforcement for the end block.
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4. A PSC beam of effective span 16m is of rectangular section 600mm wide and 1100mm deep. A
tendons consist of 3000mm2 of strands of characteristic strength 1700 N/mm2 with an effective
prestress of 910 N/mm2. The strands are located 870mm from the top face of the beam. If f cu =60
N/mm2, estimate the flexural strength of the section as per Indian provisions for the following cases:
(i) Bonded tendons (ii) Unbonded tendons.
Using Guyons method, compute the position and magnitude of maximum tensile stress and bursting
tension for the end block with concentric anchor of 100 kN as detailed in problem no. 5.
5. The end block of a PSC beam with rectangular cross section is 150mm wide and 300mm deep. The
prestressing force of 200kN is transmitted to the concrete by a distribution plate of 100mm x 50mm,

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concentrically loaded at the ends. Calculate the position and the magnitude of tensile stress on the
horizontal section through the centre and edge of the anchor plate. Compute the bursting tension on the

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horizontal planes.
6. The end block of a post tensioned concrete beam 250mm X 250mm is subjected to a concentric

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anchorage force of 800kN by a freyssinet anchorage system of area 1500mm2 . Discuss and detail the

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anchorage reinforcement for the end block.

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UNIT IVCOMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

PART A

1. What is composite section of pestressed concrete? [A/M 16]


A composite section in context of prestressed concrete members refers to a section with a
precast member and cast-in-place (CIP) concrete.

2. Define – composite construction


Composite construction of providing monolithic action between prefabricated units like steel
beams, precast reinforced or prestressed concrete beams and cast in situ concrete. This
method is found to provide a greater structural efficiency compared with the conventional
methods of construction. The resulting structure formed by two or more materials is called
composite construction.

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3. Define – spandrel beam

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In steel or concrete construction, the exterior beam that extends from column to column and marks
the floor level between stories is defined as spandrel beams. In buildings of
more than one story, the spandrel is the area between the sill of a window and the head of the window
below it. In steel or reinforced-concrete structures, a deep spandrel beam may span across this area.
The flat plates are provided with spandrel beams at the edges. These beams stiffen the edges against
rotation.

4. Where are the composite constructions used? (N/D 16)

In a composite construction, precast prestressed members are used in conjunction with the
concrete cast in situ, so that the members behave as monolithic unit under service loads.

5. Define – propped construction (N/D 16)

The dead-load stress developed in the precast prestressed units can be minimized by propping

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construction.

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6. Define – unpropped construction
If the precast units are not propped while placing them in situ concrete, stresses are developed
in the unit due to the self-weight of the member and the dead weight of the in suit concrete.

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This method of construction is termed as unpropped construction.

7.
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Give the advantages of precast prestressed units.

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The advantages of precast prestressed units are:
a) The C/S is more efficiently utilized when compared with a RC section.
b) Effective saving in use of materials.

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c) Improves the ability of material for energy absorption under impact load.
d) The economy of PSC is well established for long span structures.

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e) There is considerable saving on the quantity of materials used in it.

8. What is circular prestressing? [A/M 16]


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The term refers to prestressing in round members such as tanks and pipes. Liquid retaining
structures such as circular pipes, tanks and pressure vessels are admirably suited for circular

9.
prestressing.

What are the advantages of prestressed concrete sleepers?


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The advantages of prestressed concrete sleepers are:
a) It is economical.
b) Full cross-section of member is utilized.
c) Increases durability.
d) Reduces corrosion of steel.
e) Increase in shear capacity.

10. What are the advantages of prestressed composite sections? [A/M 16]
The advantages of prestressed composite sections are:
a) Savings in form work
b) Fast-track construction
c) Easy to connect the members and achieve continuity.

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11. How the composite action between the precast and cast insitu concrete is achieved?
In structural systems prestressed concrete is often combined with other materials such as
reinforced concrete for the sake of economy and efficiency. The resulting structure formed by
two or more materials is composite construction. So the combination of two materials acting as
a monolithic action called composite action in prestressed concrete structures.

12. Explain the effect of differential shrinkage on a composite member.


The in-situ concrete in a composite beam is of relatively low grade and has correspondingly
higher water cement ratio. On the other hand, the precast prestressed concrete is of higher
grade and most of its shrinkage has already occurred before the placement of in-situ concrete.
Consequently, the in-situ concrete shrinks more than the precast concrete.

13. Write the assumption in analysis of ultimate stress in composite construction.[N/D14]


The analysis at ultimate is simplified by the following assumptions.
a) The small strain discontinuity at the interface of the precast CIP portions is ignored.

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14.
b) The stress discontinuity at the interface is also ignored.

Explain the effect of deflection on a composite member.

w.E The deflections at different stages in the precracking range of the composite beam may be
determined with reasonably accuracy using the linear elastic theory. The deflection depends
upon the method of construction and the stage of loading. In a composite beam forward by the

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combination of precast prestressed concrete and in-situ concrete, the moment of inertia of only
the precast component should be taken into account in computing the initial and final chamber

15.
due to prestress.
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Explain the effect of shear strength on a composite member.
A composite beam comprising prestressed concrete and plain or reinforced concrete may fail in

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one of the following ways; it may fail in vertical shear like a conventional non composite beam.
In order to prevent shear failure it should be verified that the design ultimate shear does not

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exceed the ultimate shear strength in accordance with the code provisions.

Part – B (16marks)
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1. A precast pretensioned beam of rectangular section has a breadth of 100mm and depth of 200mm.
The beam with an effective span of 5m is prestressed by the tendons with their centroids coinciding
with the bottom kern. The initial force in the tendons is 150kN. The loss of prestress is 15%. The top
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flange width is 400mm with the thickness of 40mm.If the composite beam supports a live load of
8kN/m2. Calculate the resultant stresses developed if the section is propped and unpropped. [N/D14]

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2. A composite T beam is made up of pretensioned rib of 100mm wide and 200mm deep and a cast
insitu slab of 400mm wide and 40mm thick. Having the modulus of elasticity as 28kN/m2 , if the
differential shrinkage is 100 x 10-6 determine the shrinkage stresses developed in precast and cast
insitu units.[A/M16]

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3. A composite T-girder of span 5 m is made up of a pre-tensioned rib, 100 mm wide by 200 mm

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depth, with an in situ cast slab, 400 mm wide and 40 mm thick. The rib is prestressed by a straight
cable having an eccentricity of 33.33 mm and carrying initial force of, 150 kN. The loss of prestress is
15%. Check the composite T-beam for the limit state of deflection if its supports an imposed load of
3.2 kN/m for (i) unpropped(ii) propped. Assume modulus of Elasticity of 35 kN/mm2 for both precast&
insitu cast elements. .[A/M15]

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4. Design the continuous prestressed beam of two spans (AB = BC = 15m) to support a udl of 10kN/m.
Tensile stresses are not permitted in concrete and the compressive stress in concrete is not to exceed
15kN/mm2. Sketch the details of the cable profile and check for stresses developed at the support and
span sections. [N/D 14]

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5. i) Explain the types of composite construction with neat sketch

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(ii) Explain the precast prestressed concrete stresses at serviceability limit state.

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6. A precast pre-tensioned beam of rectangular section has a breadth of 100 mm and a depth

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of 200 mm. The beam with an effective span of 5 m is prestressed by tendons with their
centroid coinciding with the bottom kern. The initial force in the tendons is 150 kN. The loss of
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prestress may be assumed to be 157%. The beam is incorporated in a composite T-beam by

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casting a top flange of breath 400 mm and t = 400 mm. If a composite beam supports a live

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load of 1 kN/m. Calculate the resultant stresses developed in precast & in-situ cast concrete.
(N/D 16) . [N/D 14]

Stress in pre
tensioned
beam: A =
20000mm2
Z = (100x2002)/6 = 666.67x103mm2
Self weight of pre tensioned beam = 0.1x0.2x24 =
0.48kN/m Self weight moment = (0.48x52)/8 =

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1.5kNm
Stress at top & bottom = ±(1.5x106/666.67x103) =
±2.25N/mm2 Stress in cast insitu slab:
A = 16000mm2
Z = (400x402)/6 = 10.6x103mm2
Self weight of pre tensioned beam = 0.4x0.04x24 =
3.84kN/m Self weight moment = (0.348x52)/8 = 1.2kNm
Stress at top & bottom = ±(1.2x106/10.6x103) =
±1.13N/mm2 Stress in composite member

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Zb = (1.9x109)/366.7 = 5.18x106mm2
Live load moment = (1x52)/8 = 2.08kNm

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Stress at top = ±(2.08x106/8.14x106) = ±0.25N/mm2 Stress at bottom = ±(2.08x106/5.18x106) =
±0.45N/mm2

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7. Explain the design and analysis of composite beams

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UNIT V
PART A

1. Why concrete bridges are used? [N/D 14]

a. Reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete have been found most suited for the
construction of high way bridges the former for small and medium spans and latter for
long spans. Reinforcement concrete has been used on the railways upto 10m span and
prestress concrete upto 24m in India but upto 35m in other countries.

2. What are the general aspects of prestressed concrete?


a. Prestressed concrete is ideally suited for the construction of medium and long-span
bridges. It has been widely used throught the world for simply-supported, continuous,
balanced cantilever, suspension, hammer-head and bridle-chord-type bridge in the
span range of 20 to 500 m.

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3. Mention the advantages of prestressed concrete bridges?
a. The advantages of prestressed concrete bridges are:

w.E b. High-strength concrete and high-tensile steel

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c. Crack free structures


d. Little maintenance
e. Minimum disruption of traffic.

4. Where are the pretensioned prestressed concrete bridges deck used? (M/J 16)
The pretensionedprestressed concrete bridges deck are used in conjunction with cast in situ
concrete, resulting in composite bridge decks which are ideally suited for small and medium
spans in the range of 20 to 30 m.

5. Where are the post tensioned prestressed concrete bridges deck used?
a. The post tensioned prestresses concrete bridges is ideally suited for prestressing long-
span girders at the site of construction, without the need for costly factory type
installations like pretensioning beds. Segmental construction is ideally suited for post-
tensioning work.

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6. What are the basic parts of a bridge? . [N/D 16]

a. The basic parts of a bridge are:

w.E b. The substructure and


c. The superstructure.

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7. How do the structural systems of a bridge may be classified?
a. The structural systems of a bridge are classified as:
b. Beam bridges
c. Frame bridges
d. Arch bridges
e. Cable stayed bridges
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f. Suspension bridges.
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8. What are the two basic types for the deck systems? [A/M 14]
a. The two basic type for the deck systems are: rin
b. A reinforced concrete or partially prestressed concrete slab.
c. An orthotropic steel plate. g.n
9. Define – plate girder (M/J 16)
a. Plate girder bridges can provide a very competitive solution for short and medium span
bridges. They are almost always designed to act compositely with the concrete
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slab.The plate girders are fabricated with two flanges welded to a thin web which
usually has transverse stiffening and may have longitudinal stiffening.

10. Explain the uses of pigeaud’s curve.


a. M.Pigeaud developed these curves which help to analyze and design RCC bridge
deck. But these curves are cumbersome to use since involve lot of minute graphical
works and interpolations. To use these curves in computer we need the equations
which could make the engineer’s a lot easier.

11. What are the codes referred to design the concrete bridges elements? [A/M 14]

a. The codes referred to design the concrete bridges elements are:


b. IRC codes for concrete and prestressed composite bridges on railways.
c. IRC 21-2000, standard specification and code of practice for road bridges section III
cement concrete.
d. IS 456-2000, Indian standard specification and code of practice for plain and reinforced

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i. concrete.
e. IS 432-1966, Indian standard specification for mild steel and medium tensile bars and
hard drawn wires for concrete mix for concrete.
f. IRC 18-2000, Design criteria for prestressed concrete road bridges.
g. ID 1786-1966, Indian standard specification for cold twisted steel bars for concrete
reinforcement tensile steel deformed bars concrete reinforcement.

12. What are the types of bridges usually used in PSC construction?
a. The types of bridges that are used in PSC construction are:
b. Arch bridges
c. Slab bridges
d. Beam and plate girder bridges
e. Open web girder bridges
f. Suspension bridges
g. Cable stayed bridges

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13. What are the methods used for design of deck slab?
a. The following are the methods for design of deck slab:

w.E b. Determination of effective width of slab for a single concentrated load over a slab
simply supported at two ends.
c. Determination of effective width of slab for a single concentrated load placed on a
cantilever slab.
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d. Determination of effective width of slab area over which the concentrated load is

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dispersed and coefficients to be used direction when slab is supported on four sides.
e. Based on Pigeaud’s method.
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14. Mention the components for design of composite girders.

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a. The components for design of composite girders are:
b. Steel beam which may be a rolled joist or a built up section
c. Cast in situ reinforced concrete slab
d. Shear connections rin
15. What are the specifications for the design of intermediate beams and edge beams?
[A/M 14]
g.n
16. Specifications for the design of intermediate beams:
a. One-fourth of the span of the beam
b. Web thickness plus twelve time the least thickness of the slab
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c. Centre of centre distance between beams
Specifications for the design of edge beams:
d. One twelfth of the span of the beam
e. Half web thickness plus six times the least thickness of the slab
f. Half the distance to the adjoining beam.

Part – B (16marks)

1. A cylindrical PSC water tank of internal diameter 30m is required to store water over a depth of
7.5m. The permissible compressive stress in concrete at transfer is 13 N/mm2 and the minimum
compressive stress under working pressure is 1 N/mm2 . The loss ratio is 0.75. Wires of 5mm
diameter with an initial stress of 1000 N/mm2 are available for circumferential winding and
Freyssinet cables made up of 12 wires of 8mm diameter stressed to 1200 N/mm2 are to be used
for vertical prestressing. Design the tank walls assuming the base as fixed. The cube strength of
concrete is 40 N/mm2 [A/M 14]
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2. A prestressed cylindrical pipe is to be designed using a steel cylinder of 1000mm diameter
and thickness 1.6mm. The circumferential wire winding consist of a 4mm high tensile wire

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initially tensioned to a stress of 1000 N/mm2 . The ultimate tensile strength of wire is 1600

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N/mm2 . The yield stress of the steel cylinder is 280 N/mm2 . fct=14 N/mm2 , Ww =0.8 N/mm2
. Determine the thickness of concrete lining required. Fmin = 0; modular ratio = 6 3. Design a free edge
water tank of diameter 36m to store water for a depth of 5m. Assume ultimate stress in steel = e
1500N/mm2 . Stress in steel at transfer = 70% of ultimate stress. Safe stress in concrete = 0.5fck.
Compressive stress in concrete at service condition= 0.1fck. Final stress in steel = 0.8 x stress in
steel at transfer. Take modular ratio=5.5 fck = 45N/mm2 [N\D14] [A\M 16]

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4. Explain the step by step design procedure of circular tanks. [A/M 14]

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5. Explain the types of PSC pipes with neat sketch [A/M 14]

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6. A non cylindrical PSC pipe of 1000mm diameter and thickness of concrete shell is 75mm is
required to convey water at a working pressure of 1.5 N/mm2 . The length of the pipe is 6m. The
loss ratio is 0.8. Determine the circumferential wire winding of using 5mm diameter wires stretched
to 1000 N/mm2 . The maximum permissible tensile stress is 11.2 N/mm2[A/M 14]

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7. Design a non cylindrical PSC pipe of 600mm internal diameter to withstand a working
hydrostatic pressure of 1.05 N/mm2 using 2.5mm HYSD stressed to 1000N/mm2 at transfer.
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Permissible maximum and minimum stresses in concrete at transfer and service load are 14
N/mm2 and 0.7 N/mm2 . The loss ratio is 0.75. Es = 210kN/mm2 and Ec = 35kN/mm2
[N/D 15]

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