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458 A new mining method: double post mining

A new mining method:


Double post mining

Octavio Alvídrez O. 1 , Javier Berumen M. 1,


Charles Gryba 2 , Iván Arriagada 3,
Michael Arriagada3

1
Industrias Peñoles

2
DPM Mining Inc

3
EDC Mining Ltd

Abstract
As part of Peñoles’ strategic vision a decision was made to search the globe for alternative mining
methods which would vastly improve production and safety at their mines. A dinner meeting at the
PDAC in Toronto in March 2010 between Ivan Arriagada, then with Wardrop (Tetra Tek), and Armando
Sanchez of Peñoles led to a discussion of Double Post Mining (hereafter referred to as “DPM”). This
led to a DPM presentation for senior members of Peñoles mining team followed by a positive cost and
technical study, which ultimately led to the current phase of DPM test mining at the Madero Mine in
Zacatecas, México.
DPM is a patented mining method that generates room and pillar productivity in midsized
underground orebodies. Mine planning starts by generating a 7.5m x 7.5m x 6m high block model,
with mining progressing from the top down in 6m lifts. The initial lift (the “Top Slice”) is standard drift
and fill mining, but prior to CRF backfilling concrete posts are inserted into the ground and concrete
floors are poured. On completion of top slicing one ends up with a continuous reinforced concrete
floor, which then becomes the roof of the next lower lift, supported by a 7.5m grid of posts.
A combination of inserted and filler posts allows for a continuous system to set up as part
of the mining/backfill cycle; mining and backfilling proceed in parallel. With DPM, 100% of the
orebody is mined. Subsequent mining is similar to working in a car parkade with a concrete roof and
posts. DPM substantially reduces the amount of scaling, rock bolting, cable bolting, shotcreting, long
hole drilling, slot raising etc, thus safety statistics will improve. Economic factors such as 50% less
capital development, earlier production, better dilution control, 100% ore recovery, higher labor and
equipment productivity plus improved safety more than offset the cost of posts, concrete and rebar.
Golder FLAC 3D modeling indicates that 15m wide panels (stopes) can be set up; primary
panels are mined and backfilled to form pillars so the secondary panels can be mined and backfilled.
All aspects of mining and backfilling over the life cycle of the DPM área can be monitored with load
cells in real time, thus ensuring safety and the possibility for future optimization as the method is being
mine-proven at the Madero mine.
This paper will explain the DPM mining method, the Golder modeling of the concept, the
instrumentation to be used in the mine and the advantages of the DPM process. This will be followed
by a description of the research and development process Peñoles followed that led to the decision to
mine prove the DPM mining system at the 7000 tpd Madero base metal mine.

Introduction: Dpm Mining Method DPM mines the orebody from the top down. The ini-
DPM mining is based on mining 6m lifts of 800 to 1200 ton tial lift utilizes standard drift and fill mining except a grid
blocks of ore generated by a Gemcom or Datamine 3D geolo- of 7.5m concrete posts and a continuous concrete floor is
gical block modal. Each DPM room is mined by 2 drift rounds installed prior to backfilling with cemented rock fill (CRF).
or a combination of drift rounds and slashes that dimensiona- Lower lifts are similar to room and pillar mining but carried
lly match the geological block model; the model becomes the out under a concrete roof temporarily supported by a grid of
stoping plan for the orebodies with 100% ore recovery. concrete posts. As with any new technology there are a few

AIMMGM, XXIX Convención Internacional de Minería, Acapulco, Gro., México, Octubre 26–29, 2011.
Octavio Alvídrez O., Javier Berumen M., Charles Gryba, P.Eng, Iván Arriagada, Michael Arriagada 459

new terms that have been developed to explain the system posts, prepare and pour the concrete floors, then fill with
e.g. DPM top slicing, DPM rooms, double posting, pre brea- CRF. Posting starts with drilling a grid of post holes surve-
king around posts and filler posts. yed to match the corner location of each ore block. A precast
DPM is a very flexible mining method that can use concrete post is than installed into each hole, followed by
drill blast muck techniques for hard ore and roadheaders for drilling pre-shearing holes around the post.

Figure 1: Typical DPM Rooms and Terminology.

softer ores. Mining can be done in any direction under the


concrete floor and it can extend out past the concrete to fo-
llow the ore – this new área then becomes a top slice. Every
DPM room within the orebody will have exactly the same
standard design. The outer perimeter rooms have the addi-
tion of wall pins and rebar hangers to support the perimeter
of the concrete floor slab.
The backfill cycle is very standardized; install the

Figure 3: DPM Post Layout – Section View.

Preparation for installing the concrete floor starts with


spreading a layer broken followed by a layer of plastic; the
ore acts as a cushion to prevent blast damage to the concrete
roof while the layer of plastic keeps wet concrete from lea-
king into the cushion material. At this time filler posts are
installed in the DPM lifts – they are bolted to the bottom
flange of the post from the previous lift forming the double
Figure 2: DPM Post Layout – Plan View. posting system.

Acta de Sesiones Rodolfo Corona Esquivel y J.A. Gómez Caballero, eds .


460 A new mining method: double post mining

Rebar and welded concrete mesh can now be installed, the detail engineering required to bring DPM to completion.
followed by special concrete forms that are backfilled with However, before production could begin, there remained two
sand. Removing the sand after the adjacent room is mined large question marks: what is the loading on the concrete
allows the rebar to be over lapped, thus forming a continuous posts; and does post loading increase with each additional
concrete floor. Standard 3000psi concrete is pumped to com- mining lift?
plete the reinforced slab. Once the concrete floor sets the
CRF is tight filled using a push blade on an LHD plus a Paus Golder Modeling
Slinger truck for the nooks and crannies. Joe Carvello, PhD of Golder Toronto was retained to model
The DPM mining and backfill cycles use only stan- the test mining área using FLAC 3D. Based on previous 2D
dard mine proven equipment, concrete and CRF. Subse- modeling 0.4m diameter concrete posts and a 7.5m x 7.5m x
quent DPM mining is then carried out under the pre-posted 6m room size was fixed. An 8 room wide x 12 room long by
composite roof beam comprised of reinforced concrete plus 5 lift high (or 400,000t) área was selected to allow for maxi-
tightly-packed CRF. Ivan Arriagada and his current company mum load development within the backfill; excavation is via
– EDC Mining Ltd. – has been involved in developing DPM primary and secondary panels 2 rooms (15m) wide accessed
from the beginning and has now been retained to provide from a central entry drift. The concrete floor was modeled

Figure 4: Golder Modeling Plan.

Figure 5: Golder FLAC 3D Model Results.

AIMMGM, XXIX Convención Internacional de Minería, Acapulco, Gro., México, Octubre 26–29, 2011.
Octavio Alvídrez O., Javier Berumen M., Charles Gryba, P.Eng, Iván Arriagada, Michael Arriagada 461

only as a tension member as the concrete floor plus cemen- Instrumentation


ted rock fill act as a composite beam. Through the years many attempts have been made to fully
A total of 10 computer runs were performed using va- instrument a mine to provide useful, real-time feedback with
rious stiffness’ for the backfill, posts and floors; each run regards to loads, stresses, etc. DPM provides the framework
taking about 120 to 150 hours to completely mine the 480 for this type of instrumentation coverage. Dr. Andrew Hy-
blocks. Snapshots of data results were captured every 15 mi- ett of Yield Point is on board to design the instrumentation
nutes for analysis. package in conjunction with DPM Mining Inc, EDC Mining
Some of the results were: Ltd and Golder.
1. Normal 6% cemented rock fill generated post The main item to be instrumented is the concrete post
loading mainly between 100t and 250t and the loads sta- loading as one goes through the mining and backfill cycle.
bilized after 4 lifts. Posts were designed for 400t thus post However this alone will not provide a snapshot of what is
loading is about 50% of the design strength of the posts in happening within the backfill and concrete floors – for
compression. example is the fill separating from the stope back while the
backfill arches? This type of technical questioning soon lead
to list of the various items that had to be monitored with uni-
que instrumentation to provide the necessary answers.

Figure 6: Golder FLAC 3D Post Loading Results.

2. To mobilize the backfill strength of typical 6% CRF Figure 7: Instrumentation Layout


the posts had to be compressible; weaker fills have to move
further to arch loads to the walls thus causing more post A summary of the instrumentation installed in a qua-
compression. DPM has designed 400t capacity compression drant of the test mine área or 9 sets of posts is as follows:
springs that can be adjusted to match the required movement. 1. Instrumented cable bolts installed in the back above
3. The concrete floors act only as a tensile member to 9 post locations to measure the movement of the hanging
confine the CRF and the loads arched as predicated. Backfill wall or the convergence of the HW into the backfill thus
arching is seen on 2 scales – initially it remains within the loading the backfill. Similarly cables could be installed in
DPM rooms; as additional lifts are mined it expands to cover the perimeter walls to see if the walls converge into the bac-
the lift. kfill
4. Surprisingly with weaker fills the tensile loads on 2. Similar instrumented cables anchored at the back,
the posts in the backfill reduced to 300t. The concrete posts extending through the CRF and bolted to the top of the 9
in effect become large friction rockbolts in the composite posts supporting the top concrete floor will measure the ele-
CRF beam. To take advantage of this anchoring phenomenon vation of the concrete floor vs. the back to see if there is any
the posts were redesigned with flanges to attain a continuous separation of fill from the back.
150t tensile strength for individual posts and 300t for double 3. Instrumented cables will measure a range of ten-
posting. sile loads in key áreas of floor slab loading to monitor the
Wardrop was then retained to provide an initial civil tension in the rebar. Cables can also be installed around the
design for the posts and floors. As actual mine data is collec- perimeter of the floor slab to see what stresses are encoun-
ted the Golder model will be updated to verify results and to tered near the edge of the floor. Similarly by draping cables
find improvements in the DPM system. over a 2 inch diameter wall pin with the ends anchored in

Acta de Sesiones Rodolfo Corona Esquivel y J.A. Gómez Caballero, eds .


462 A new mining method: double post mining

the floor slab the loading along the walls can be measured. thick do the concrete floors have to be? With these questions
4. The concrete post compression movement and post now answered, DPM and all the advantages associated with
loading will be measured by the reduction in height of the it can now move forward.
compression members below the posts. The concrete posts DPM Mining Inc. is approaching the initial mine in a
have been designed with a conduit pipe to allow instrumen- very methodical way to eliminate risk in the process as much
tation wires to run though the post and through conduit im- as possible. We are in the early stages but the benefits to
bedded in the concrete floor slabs. Post compression pads the mine owner are immediately apparent – these are listed
bolt to the post bottom flange and are reusable. below:
5. The tensile loading of the post can be measured in 1. DPM mine planning - The mine plan for DPM
several ways, instrumented cable bolts cast in the concrete mining is the geological block model; all that is required is
parallel to the rebar or a standard mine extensometer could access to the top 6m high mining lift and a second access
be installed into a conduit in the post and anchored to the top for ventilation and egress. Mining and backfilling of 100%
and bottom steel flanges. of the 6m lift proceeds in parallel. A safe planning rule of
6. Instrumented 3/4inch dia. flange bolts will be used thumb is that an orebody can support a 1000tpd mining rate
between the instrumented posts to monitor tensile loads from per 100 ore blocks – with the number of blocks known the
one post to the next. mining rate can be estimated and then the mine infrastructure
7. The Golder 3D modal shows the backfill loads ar- designed to suite. Parallel mining and backfilling plus 100%
ching to the walls. Custom instrument packs are being deve- of the ore lift in production gives a much higher mining
loped to monitor the loads within the backfill to ensure the rate per million tons of orebody compared to other mining
arching is developing as predicted, to check if the backfill is methods such as blasthole or cut and fill stoping.
separating from the floor or back, and to monitor in real-time 2. Following the Ore - the normal mine planning pro-
what is happening as the backfill is being compressed (pac- cess of designing and scheduling stopes and pillars is an ite-
ked) into place. ration process; planning various scenarios takes time and a
8. Tilt meters will be located in various áreas of the change in orebody size or shape or a change in metal prices
concrete floor to see how the floor is bending near the con- requires a complete redesign. The versatility of DPM means
crete posts or how the floor edges bend as one goes through that mining can halt at any point under the concrete floor if
the mining or backfill cycle. the orebody ends or the grade diminishes. Similarly mining
All of the instrumentation that leaves the Yield Point can continue past the concrete to follow the ore, in effect
factory is calibrated with it’s own on board computer and ba- becoming a new top slice. This means that a change in the
ttery power supply. Each instrument has its own custom data shape of the ore body or grade will not affect production or
file thus downloading data from a number of instruments au- require a redesign. Also, if ore values increase, a road header
tomatically feeds into the proper data file. Results can be can drive through the backfill to reach now profitable ore at
transmitted to Golder at regular intervals as each lift is mined the far end of the ore body.
to update the 3D model. 3. Elimination of Work – DPM eliminates most
ground control functions such as rock bolting, cable bol-
DPM Changes Mine Planning ting and shotcreting (except for the top slicing). Other mi-
DPM mining provides a new mining method that has the po- ning functions like cut lose raises, long hole drilling and the
tential to totally revolutionize underground mine planning equipment to carry out the functions are reduced. DPM also
of midsized orebodies. The key breakthrough comes from eliminates a lot of higher cost mining functions – primary,
the small stope size - 7.5m x 7.5m x 6m - that has a rein- secondary and sill pillar recoveries, fill fences or bulkheads
forced concrete roof held up by 4 large concrete posts. The etc. Most mines spend 30% of their labor and material on
individual blocks in the initial geological block model now ground control. Ground control work also reduces develop-
becomes the stoping plan! ment advance rates by 30 to 50% - more development foo-
DPM was developed 25 years ago but until recently tage or headings, more delays. By eliminating development
computer modeling wasn’t powerful enough to recalculate work, both productivity and safety statistics improve by that
the redistribution of loads every time a drift round was remo- percentage.
ved in an individual DPM room. The Golder FLAC 3D mo- 4. Ore Recovery - The initial geological block model
deling answered many of the what if questions: what is the with conventional mining methods is usually chopped by
loading on the posts? Does the loading increase with each 20% or so by the mining engineers as the size of stopes and
lower lift? How strong does the backfill have to be? How pillars don’t necessarily follow the orebody. Room and pillar

AIMMGM, XXIX Convención Internacional de Minería, Acapulco, Gro., México, Octubre 26–29, 2011.
Octavio Alvídrez O., Javier Berumen M., Charles Gryba, P.Eng, Iván Arriagada, Michael Arriagada 463

or post pillar mining methods leave an additional 20 to 30% nuously purchased all of the modern mining equipment as it
of the orebody behind. DPM recovers 100% of the ore iden- became mine proven, including raise bore machines, road-
tified by the geological block. DPM mining can also remove headers, electric hydraulic drills, automated shotcrete and
internal dilution as well, thus the mining grade can be hig- cable bolting machines etc. Modern equipment has proven
her than the original block model average geological grade. to be only a partial mining solution. Productivity and cost
Room grades are confirmed by mapping, face sampling and savings have plateaued for all conventional mining methods
post hole chip sampling. The orebody can be mined selec- such as room and pillar, cut and fill and blast hole stoping.
tively with minimum of internal and wall dilution. Econo- Rather than just funding R&D Peñoles started sear-
mic mine life of Madero could be extended 4 or more years, ching globally for mining systems that had the potential
plus DPM ore grade may substantially increase mill revenue. to make a fundamental change on how they mined. Javier
Other Peñoles mines may have a similar increase in mine life Berumen, a very experienced Peñoles mining engineer, re-
or revenue per ton milled. membered DPM mining from the CIM 2000 Conference in
5. Capital Development Cost – DPM mines the ore- Toronto. Armando Sanchez approached DPM mining at the
body from the top down; pre production waste development 2009 PDA in Toronto via Ivan Arriagada who was Senior
is limited to providing access to the top 6m lift or multi- Mining Engineer for Wardrop – Tetra Tech. A DPM – War-
ple locations depending on the size or shape of the orebody. drop presentation was made to 20 senior Peñoles technical
Two other factors come into play – less development leads to and operating staff in Torreon.
quicker ore production plus a higher mining rate is achieved Peñoles, Wardrop and DPM mining had a series of
earlier. Operating revenue reduces the capital cost dollar for meetings to pick the test mine location and secondly to de-
dollar thus the ROI of the project is substantially increased. sign a program to independently 3D modal and cost DPM
6. Mechanized Mining – DPM provides room to ma- mining using the Madero Mine cost components. Subse-
neuver large road headers and the concrete roof eliminates quently several meetings were held with Golder to design
falls of ground. Ground that is soft enough to cut with a FLAC 3D program parameters. Once the 3D Golder mode-
roadheader usually limits the safe size of openings; the DPM ling and Wardrop preliminary civil engineering was comple-
concrete roofs and posts eliminate most ground imperfec- te; Wardrop mining engineers were able to estimate costs and
tions. If there is a combination of weak and hard ore the hard recommend a test mining project to confirm the 3D mode-
sections can be drilled and blasted. ling parameters.
7. Cemented Tailings Fill - Future development of Peñoles chose the Madero Mine in Zacatecas for the
DPM will examine other opportunities for improvement, test mine location. Madero is Manto type low grade 3% zinc,
such as using paste fill to replace CRF. Using paste fill the 2% Pb and 1 opt silver mine. The NSR dollar value of the
posts may have to compress 250mm and post spacing may ore at the time test mining location was chosen was $47 per
have to be reduced to 6m x 6m. Once the Golder 3D model tonne. The mine has been in production for 10 years, and
is calibrated by mining with stiff fill, weaker fills can be mo- mills at 7,000 tpd. The main mining method is room and pi-
deled. llar mining with 6m wide rooms and a grid of 6m x 6m post
8. Safety – Reducing accidents is a complex opera- pillars; development waste is used for fill when available.
tion; the largest source of accidents is development work, The initial test mine location covered a 7 room by 12
scaling, rock bolting and other ground control functions. room plan área with separate ramp access to each of 5, 6m
Falls of ground, falls of backfill or unexpected pillar or back high mining lifts or about 470 rooms. Updating the ore reser-
failures, working on broken ore, runs of fill, driving raises ves plus extending the test mine along strike has tripled the
etc are all source of injuries. In base metal mines large stope number of rooms to 1500. The DPM test mine and the Gol-
blasts often cause dust explosions. DPM creates a shop like der 3D model have similar plan dimensions thus allowing
work environment that can be monitored, uses large equip- rapid updating of the FLAC 3D model.
ment with high productivity and reduces the number of mi-
ners underground. New hazards such as tripping on rebar or Mini Test Mine
chemical burns from working with concrete will have to be From both a safety and cost viewpoint it is critical to have
identified and managed. hard engineering data before top slicing a 1500 room block
of ore. One major advantage of DPM is that it is scalable.
Peñoles Approach to Research and Development Based on the Golder 3D modeling the maximum backfill
Peñoles has been underground mining in México for 130 loading is on the 1st lift and based on the post pattern the
years. With multiple mines in production, Peñoles has conti- maximum área loading a single post is 4 rooms. All aspects

Acta de Sesiones Rodolfo Corona Esquivel y J.A. Gómez Caballero, eds .


464 A new mining method: double post mining

of mini test mine can be instrumented thus obtaining real Wardrop Cost Study
data for a final set of civil calculations. The test mine also Once the Golder modeling was complete, the main parame-
allows for field proving all operational and safety aspects of ters fixed and a preliminary civil design completed, the min-
both the mining and backfill cycles. ing and backfill productivities were estimated. DPM mining
The initial post can be a small diameter steel post with is one of the easiest mining methods to cost because each
a top flange that is the same diameter as the production posts. DPM room is exactly the same. Madero actual costs for la-
The concrete floor in the 4 rooms would have an initial 1m x bor and material were used for the Wardrop cost estimates.
1m pattern of 25mm rebar with a couple of layers of concrete Typical components for estimating the cost of top slicing and
mesh. The edges of the concrete slab will be suspended from the cost of mining a DPM room are summarized in the tables
2 inch diameter pins with hangers made from 25mm rebar. below.
The floor rebar, edge rebar, post compression pad and back- In summary, DPM mining and backfill costs will be
fill can all be instrumented to see what happens as more and approximately the same as Peñoles current mining cost per
more concrete floor is exposed. Results from the calibration tonne. The main economic factor is that the DPM ore reco-
of this small scale test mine can be used to eliminate risk very increases 30%. A second major advantage is that whi-
from the large scale 5 lift mine. le top slicing the post location can be test drilled to a 30m

Table 1: DPM ROOM PARAMETERS

Room Width 7.5m


Room Length 7.5m
Room Height 6.0m
Área 56.3 m2
Volume 337.5m3
Ore Specific Gravity 3.00t/m3
Tonnes per Room 1012.5t
Post to Room Ratio (Top Slice + 4 DPM Levels) 1.11
Table 2: COST SUMMARY PER DPM ROOM
Task Description Top Slice DPM
Top Slice Drift 5 m x 6 m H. x 3.75 m round (3 rounds) $9,051
DPM Drift 6 m x 6 m H. x 3.75 m round (2 rounds x 2 $5,553
Drill Post Holes 0.60 m diameter x 5.5 m length $645 $645
Insert Post 0.50 m diameter x 6.5 m length $690 $690
Drill & Blast Helper Holes 8 @ 30 mm diameter x 6m $369 $369
Stood Post 0.50 m diameter x 5.5 m length $567
Ventilation Manway and Services $87 $87
Concrete Floors 0.25 m, 19m3 (materials and labor) $3,483
Concrete Floors 0.25 m, 19m3 (materials and labor) $3,483
Tight Fill Room 6.0% cement, 700 tons fill $1,751 $1,751
Total Cost per Room $16,076 $13,145
Cost per Ton $15.88 $12.98
Weighted Cost per Ton (Top Slice + 4 DPM Levels) $13.43

AIMMGM, XXIX Convención Internacional de Minería, Acapulco, Gro., México, Octubre 26–29, 2011.
Octavio Alvídrez O., Javier Berumen M., Charles Gryba, P.Eng, Iván Arriagada, Michael Arriagada 465

TABLE 3: AVERAGE MINING CYCLE

Man Shifts Man Shifts


PRODUCTION CYCLE
Drill- Blast –Muck 2 rds per DPM room 3.00 6.00
BACKFILL CYCLE {POSTING = UNIT WORK X POST ROOM RATIO)
Drill post holes 1 man 3 holes per shift 0.33 0.37
Insert Posts 3 men 3 posts per shift 1.00 1.1 I
Drill & Blast Helper 1 man 3 posts per shift 0.33 0.37
Stand posts 3 men 3 posts per shift 1.00 1.11
Vent Manway and Every 16 rooms plus extensions 0.50 1.00
Pour concrete floor Rebar screen, level concrete etc. 3.00 1.50
Tight fill room 1.50 1.50
10.67 12.96
Tonnes/ 78.13

depth by deepening a helper hole. This allows rerunning the • 100% Ore Recovery
block model to identifying sub ore grade blocks that can be • Easier Mine Planning – The block model becomes
mined, used as backfill or left in situ; whichever is more cost the mine plan.
effective. • Block Model Updating – as post holes/drift rounds
The price of cement and rebar are two of the major are drilled, the ore can be analyzed and block model updated
cost components. Once CRF test work is done a 4 room by 2 to ensure accuracy.
lift DPM test stopes will be set up and test mined to confirm • Reduction in Dilution – DPM allows for “chasing”
the steel design, the Golder 3D assumptions, safely check the ore so the mine can halt if ore grade drops, which leads
critical components and operational procedures by actual to;
test mining on a small scale. DPM room costs can then be • Increased Ore Recovery – if a higher grade is found
re calculated using accurate field data for cement and steel. the mine can continue to “follow the ore” in whichever di-
The capital cost of the specialized equipment required rection is required.
for DPM mining and backfilling is about $4,000,000. With • Minimal Development Work – Since DPM works
current metal prices the profit margin of mining and milling; from the top down, the ore is reached much quicker. Also,
an extra 150,000t of ore more than pays for the extra DPM the use of internal ramps can further reduce development.
test mining costs. Applying the 30% extra recovery to the • Improved Productivity – Wide spans (made pos-
current Madero proven and probable reserves indicates mine sible by the concrete ceiling) and multiple faces allow the
life would be extended by 4 years at the current 7000tpd mi- drill/blast/muck, posting and backfilling cycles to be carried
lling rate. The decision was made to go ahead with the DPM out in parallel which leads to improved productivity.
test mine. • Control of Big Muck – DPM produces only drift
muck.
DPM Summary • Real-Time Feedback – with DPM the mine can be
DPM offers many benefits when compared to stan- fully instrumented; posts, floors and backfill all contain sen-
dard methods used today. These advantages to DPM are sors providing real-time loading/stresses to the mine engi-
highlighted in the following list: neer ensuring a safe work environment.
• Improved Safety – Majority of work is performed While the two main benefits to DPM mining are 100%
under a pre-posted, continuous concrete floor which elimina- ore recovery and much improved safety, the combination of
tes most ground control issues. Combined with minimizing all the above factors results in quicker start-up/production,
development work and real-time feedback, these result in a improved productivity, improved quality, and reduced costs,
much safer work environment. all while maintaining a safe work environment.

Acta de Sesiones Rodolfo Corona Esquivel y J.A. Gómez Caballero, eds .