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ANALISIS PENGGANTIAN

(REPLACEMENT ANALYSIS)
Analisis Penggantian?
Digunakan kembali
setelah diperbaiki?? Mesin Rusak
Mengganti dengan
aset baru??

Memerlukan analisis ekonomi teknik agar dapat diperoleh informasi yang


dibutuhkan untuk membuat keputusan logis yang selanjutnya dapat
memperbaiki efisiensi operasi serta posisi persaingan perusahaan
Penyebab Utama Penggantian Aset
Kerusakan Fisik

Keperluan Perubahan

Teknologi

Pendanaan
Umur Aset?
Umur Aset

Umur Umur Masa


Umur Fisik
Ekonomi Kepemilikan Manfaat
Menentukan Umur Ekonomis
Umur ekonomi (economic life) adalah periode waktu (tahun) yang
menghasilkan equivalent uniform annual cost (EUAC) minimum dari
kepemilikan dan pengoperasian sebuah aset.
•Menghitung Nilai Capital recovery cost (CR) di setiap tahunnya
𝐶𝑅𝑡 = 𝑃(𝐴 𝑃 , 𝑖%, 𝑡 − 𝑆(𝐴 𝐹 , 𝑖%, 𝑡
𝐶𝑅𝑡 = 𝑃(𝐴 𝑃 , 𝑖%, 𝑡 − 𝑀𝑉(𝐴 𝐹 , 𝑖%, 𝑡
•Menghitung Nilai AW (Annual Worth) di setiap tahunnya
𝐴𝑊𝑡 = 𝐶𝑅𝑡 + 𝐴𝑂𝐶

• Umur ekonomis adalah nilai AW tertinggi


Contoh 1-Menentukan UMUR EKONOMIS
Helcrow, Inc. expect to replace a downtime tracking system currently installed on CNC machines. The
Challenger system has a first cost of $ 70.000. An estimated annual operating cost of $20.000. A
maximum useful life of 5 years, and a $ 10.000 salvage value anytime it is replaced. At an interest
rate of 10% per year, determine is economic service life and corresponding AW value.

# Year 1: # Year 3: # Year 5:


AW = CR +AOC AW = CR + AOC AW = CR + AOC
= -70000 (A/P, 10%, 1) + 10000 (A/F, 10%,1) -20000 = -70000 (A/P, 10%, 3) + 10000 (A/F, 10%,3) -20000 = -70000 (A/P, 10%, 5) + 10000
= -67000 – 20000 (A/F, 10%,5) -20000
= -25,127– 20000
=-87000 = -16,828– 20000
=-45,571
# Year 2: =-36,828
# Year 4:
AW = CR + AOC AW = CR + AOC
= -70000 (A/P, 10%, 2) + 10000 (A/F, 10%,2) -20000 = -70000 (A/P, 10%, 4) + 10000 (A/F, 10%,4) -20000
= -35,571 – 20000 = -19,928– 20000
=-55,571 =-39,928
Year MV AOC CR total AW
0 -70,000
1 10,000 - 20,000 -67,000.00 -87,000
2 10,000 - 20,000 -35,571 -55,571
3 10,000 - 20,000 -25,127 -45,127
4 10,000 - 20,000 -19,928 -39,928
5 10,000 - 20,000 -16,828 -36,828

MV: Market Value


AOC: Annual of Cost
CR: Capital Recovery
AW: Annual Worth
Contoh 2 –Hubungan UMUR EKONOMIS dan Market Value
An asset with first cost of $ 250.000 is expected to have a maximum useful life of 10 years and market value
that decreases $ 25.000 each year. The annual operating cost is expected to be constant at $ 25.000 per
year for 5 year and to increase at substantial 25% per year thereafter. The interest rate is a low 4% per
year, because the company , Public Service Corp,. is majority- owned by a municipality and regarded as a
semiprivate corporation that enjoys public project interest rate on this loans.
A. Verify that the ESL is 5 years. Is the ESL sensitive to the changing market value and AOC estimates?
B. The engineer doing a replacement analysis determines that this asset should have an ESL of 10 years
when it is pitted against any challenger. If the estimated AOC series has proved to be correct, determine the
minimum market value that will make ESL equal 10 years.

Nilai CR dan AW diperoleh dengan rumus:


CR = -P (A/P, 4%, n) + MV (A/F, 4%,n)
AW = CR + AOC
nilai ESL ini sangat sensitive terhadap perubahan sekecil apapun terhadap
Market Value (MV) maupun terhadap Annual Operating Cost (AOC).
Year MV AOC CR* total AW**
0 - 250,000 B. Agar ESL 10 tahun maka AW harus lebih kecil dari
1 225,000 - 25,000 -35,000 -60,000 AW saat 5 tahun yakni $ 58,078. AW ≤ CR + AOC
2 200,000 - 25,000 -34,510 -59,510
-58078 ≤ CR - 31250
3 175,000 - 25,000 -34,026 -59,026
4 150,000 -25,000 -33,549 -58,549 CR ≤ -58078 + 31250
5 125,000 - 25,000 -33,078 -58,078 CR ≤ -26828
6 100,000 - 31,250 -32,614 -63,864
7 75,000 - 31,250 -32,157 -63,407
CR ≤ - 250000 (A/P, 4%, 10) +
8 50,000 - 31,250 -31,706 -62,956 MV (A/F, 4%, 10)
9 25,000 -31,250 -31,261 -62,511
-26828 ≤ -250000 (0.1232) + MV
10 - -31,250 -30,823 -62,073
(0.0833)
-26828 ≤ -30800 + MV (0.0833)
MV (0.0 833) ≥ 3978
MV ≥ 47,683
Contoh 3-Defender Vs Challanger
During a 3-year period Shanna, a project manager with Sherlockhome Agriculture, performed replacement studies on
drying equipment. She tabulate the ESL and AW value each year.
(a) What decision should be made each year?
(b) From the data, describe what changes took place in the defender and challenger over the 3 years.

maximum AW,
life, years ESL, years $/year
First Year, 2018
Defender 3 3 -10.000
Challenger 10 5 -15.000
Second Year, 2019
Defender 2 1 -14.000
challenger 1 10 5 -15.000
Third Year, 2020
Defender 1 1 -14.000
challenger 2 5 3 -9.000
Contoh 4-Up-Grading Defender vs Challanger
Five years ago, the Alim Rugi Ltd purchased several for $350.000 each. Last year a replacement study was performed with
the decision to retain the vehicles for 2 more years. However, this year the situation has changed in that each transport
vehicles is estimated to have a value of only $ 8000 now. If they are kept in service, upgrading at cost of $50.000 will make
them useful for up to 2 more years. Operating cost is expected to be $10.000 the first year and $15.000 the second year.
Alternatively, the company can purchase a new vehicle with an ESL of 7 years, no salvage value and an equivalent annual
cost of $-55,540 per year. The MARR is 10% per year. If the budget to upgrade the current vehicles is available this year,
use these estimates to determine
(a) When the company should replaced the upgraded vehicles
(b) The minimum future salvage value of a new vehicles necessary to indicate that purchasing now is economically
advantageous to upgrading

Year P AOC CR total AW


0 -50,000

1 8,000 -10,000 -47,000 -57,000

2 - -15,000 -28,810 -41,190


Year P AOC CR total AW Nilai minimum agar
0 -350,000 menghasilkan formula yang
1 300,000 -55,540 -85,000 -140,540 mengharuskan pergantian
2 250,000 -55,540 -82,619 -138,159 peralatan pada tahun ini adalah
3 200,000 -55,540 -135,857 jika nilai AW challenger ≤ AW
-80,317
defender
4 150,000 -55,540 -78,094 -133,634
5 100,000 -55,540 -75,949 -131,489
6 50,000 -55,540 -73,882 -129,422
7 - -55,540 -71,892 -127,432

AW ≤ CR + AOC
-57000 ≤ CR - 55540
CR ≤ 57000 - 55540
CR ≤ 1150
CR ≤ - 350000 (A/P, 10%, 1) + S (A/F, 10%, 1)
1150 ≤ -350000 (1.1) + S (1)
1150 ≤ -385000 + S (1)
S ≥ 386150
Tidak Mungkin Karena Nilai S > P