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AUDIO AMPLIFIER

by

Buenaventura, William G.
Calaro, Jerico
Lanuzo, Dale Patrick
Marcelo, Aziel Jan
Mendiola, Paolo
Sabado, Christian Paul

A PRACTICUM REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE COLLEGE OF ELECTRICAL AND


ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE COURSE

ELECTRONICS CIRCUIT ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

FEU INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

November 2016
Abstract

Audio Amplifier is required for variety of reasons nowadays. It has many applications in
our day to day life. There are a variety of audio amplifier techniques and each technique is
employed depending on where and what kind of environment that we are present. In this project
of designing an audio amplifier system, first we studied the need for sound amplification and the
basic block diagram of a sound system and its individual blocks.

Objectives

The objectives of this prototype are:

● To design a project that will require us to apply all the learned concepts and theories in
Electronics 2.

● To apply the learned concepts and theories in electronics in the real world.

● To develop the ability to design an electrical component with the use of schematic
diagrams, etc.

● To be able to apply electrical components that is needed to create an audio amplifier.

 To successfully create an audio amplifier that produces sound coming from any media
device.
INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

This audio amplifier, which is a sound system that we use from now, is the one that
makes live or pre-recorded sounds louder and may also distribute those sounds to a larger or
more distant audience. An Audio Amplifier is a type of power amplifier used to drive a
loudspeaker load. In some situations, a sound system is also used to enhance the sound of the
sources on the stage, not only simply amplifying the sources unbroken but integrating them
together. A sound system may be very complex, including hundreds of microphones, complex
audio mixing and signal processing systems, tens of thousands of watts of amplification, and
multiple loudspeaker arrays. This sound system can be as simple as a small public address
system in a house, school and other places, consisting of a single microphone connected to a
loudspeaker.

Transistor Material Used:

BC547B
Small Signal Transistor (NPN)

Beta= 200

Vmax. = 45 V
DATA ANALYSIS

I. Circuit Description

 The circuit is alienated into three divisions: Audio input from a gadget, audio amplifier
and speaker.
 The output of the audio from a gadget is coupled via a coupling capacitor of 0.1µF, the
purpose of this capacitor is to remove DC contents in the audio signal.
 A 2.2kΩ resistor is used to give the required biasing to the input audio from a gadget.
 Transistor Q1 is configured as collector to base biasing mode. This is accomplished via
470kΩ resistance. This resistor provides negative feedback to the transistor Q1.
 The output of Q1 becomes available at the collector (across 3.3kΩ resistor), which is the
input to the transistor Q2 via a 0.1µF capacitor. The capacitor removes DC voltages due
to the biasing of Q1.
 Transistor Q2 is configured as fixed bias using a 220kΩ resistor. It also provides further
amplification.
 The amplified output from Q2 is available across the 1.2kΩ resistor.
 The 47µF electrolytic capacitor also used to block the DC voltages associated with the
biasing of transistor Q2.
 The circuit uses 8Ω, ½ watt speaker to hear the amplified signal.
II. Schematic Diagram

III. PCB Layout


IV. BOM

QUANTITY COMPONENT PRICE

1 2.2k Resistor (1/4 watt, .60


5% tolerance
1 3.3k Resistor (1/4 watt, .60
5% tolerance
1 220k Resistor (1/4 watt, .60
5% tolerance
1 1.2 Resistor (1/4 watt, .60
5% tolerance
1 470k Resistor (1/4 watt, .60
5% tolerance
1 SPST Switch 20
2 0.1 µF Ceramic 10
Capacitor
1 47 µF Electrolytic 2
Capacitor
2 BC547 NPN Transistor 10
1 3x4 PCB 30
1 12 V 500 mA DC Power 80
Supply
V. Data Waveform Output
VI. Conclusion:

The Audio amplifier systems that are available in the market are known and the
feasibility of these systems is analyzed. Class A, Class B amplifiers are modeled and the results
are matched with the simulated models successfully. Based from the outcome of the project, the
group constructed and designed an audio amplifier by applying all the concepts and theories
from this subject electronics and devices 2. The group we’re able to create and design an
electrical component through the use of schematic diagrams to create the audio amplifier. As a
result the group successfully created an audio amplifier that produces sound coming from any
media device. To add up, based from the project, the output sound of a transistor decreases when
the input frequency increases but at some point the audio amplifier makes sudden sound with an
input high frequency. Therefore, the group applied all the general theories and concepts in the
subject electronics and devices 2 wherein the group created an audio amplifier that functions
very well.
AUDIO AMPLIFIER
References:

John Eargle and Chris Foreman, “Audio Engineering for Sound Reinforcement”,
Hal Leonard Corporation, 2002.

Francis Rumsey and Tim Mccormick, “Sound and Recording: an introduction” .

Collin Wells, Applications Engineer, “Modeling Electret Condenser Microphones”,


Texas Instruments Incorporated

Texas instruments . Available at: http://www.ti.com.

Sedra and Smith, “Microelectronic circuits”, New York Oxford University Press, 2004.
circuitsgallery.com/2012/07/Simple-condenser-microphone-mini-audio-sound-amplifier-circuit-
schematic.html.
Coates, E. (2007). Class AB Power Amplifiers.
learnabout-electronics.org/Amplifiers/amplifiers55.php.
tinkerist.com/camerarig/controller/docs/BC547B.pdf.