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Father of Modern Chemistry: Antoine L.

Lavoisier
Antoine-Laurent de
Lavoisier (26 August 1743 – 8
May1794)was a French
nobleman and chemist central
to the 18th-century Chemical
Revolution and a large
influence on both
the histories of chemistry
and biology. Antoine L.
Lavoisier laid the foundation
of chemical sciences by
establishing two important
laws of chemical combination.
Laws of Chemical Combinations

There are two laws of chemical


combination.
Law of Conservation of Mass.
Law of Constant Proportions.
Law of Conservation of Mass

Antoine L. Lavoisier, a French scientist,


established the theory of Law of
Conservation of Mass.
The law of conservation of mass states,
“Mass can neither be created nor
destroyed in a chemical reaction”.
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John Dalton

John Dalton  (6 September


1766 – 27 July 1844) was an
English chemist, meteorologist a
nd physicist. He is best known
for his pioneering work in the
development of modern atomic
theory, and his research
into colour blindness. 
Main points of Dalton's
atomic theory.
Elements are made of extremely small particles called
atoms.
Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and
other properties;
Atoms of different elements differ in size, mass, and
other properties.
Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed.
Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole-
number ratios to form chemical compounds.
In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or
rearranged.
What is an Atom?

Atom can be defined as the smallest


particle of matter that takes part in a
chemical reaction.
How big are Atoms?
Atoms are very small, they are
smaller than anything that we can
imagine or compare with.
Characters of atoms:

A tom is the smallest particle of matter.


All elements are made of tiny particles called atom.
Atoms are very small in size and cannot be seen through
naked eyes.
Atom does not exist in free-state in nature. But atom takes
part in a chemical reaction.
The properties of a matter depend upon the characteristics
of atoms.
Atoms are the building block of an element similar to a brick
which combine together to make a building.
The size of atoms is indicated by its radius.
In ancient time atoms was considered indivisible.
Symbols of Atoms of Different
Elements
Symbols of some elements are formed
from the first letter of the name and a letter,
appearing later in the name.
E.g.: (i) chlorine: Cl, (ii) zinc: Zn etc
Some have been taken from the
names of elements in Latin, German or Greek.
E.g.: s Iron is Fe from ferrum,
Sodium is Na from natrium,
Potassium is K from kalium
Atomic Mass

Mass of atom is called atomic mass. Since, atoms are


very small consequently actual mass of an atom is very
small. For example the actual mass of one atom of
hydrogen is equal to 1.673 x 10-24 g. This is equal to
0.000000000000000000000001673 gram. To deal with such small number is
very difficult. Thus for convenience relative atomic mass is used.
Molecule

A
 molecule is a group of two or more atoms that are chemically bonded
together, that is, tightly held together by attractive forces.
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Tetra-atomic:- When molecule is formed by the combination
of four atoms it is called tetra-atomic molecule. For example:
Phosphorous molecule (P4)
Polyatomic:- When molecule is formed by the combination of more than two atoms, it is
called polyatomic molecule. For example: Sulphur molecule (S8)

All metals are mono-atomic.

All gases are di-atomic.


Molecules of different
Elements
The
 molecules of an element are constituted by the same
type of atoms.
e.g.: O + O→ O2 (Oxygen Gas) ‘di-atomic’
O + O + O→ O3 (Ozone) ‘tri-atomic’
4P→ P4 (Phosphorous) ‘tetra-atomic’
8S→ S8 (Sulphur) ‘poly-atomic’
Ions

Particles carrying positive or negative charges are called


ions.
Types of ions:
1.Cations: Positively charged ions E.g.: Al3+, Ca2+
2.Anions: Negatively charged ions E.g.: Cl−, Br−

All metals form cations by loosing electrons.

All non-metals form anions by gaining electrons.


Chemical Formulae

The chemical formula of a compound


is a symbolic representation of its
composition.
e.g.: H20 (Water), CaO (Calcium
Oxide), NH3 (Ammonia) , K2SO4
(Potassium sulphate) etc.
Concept of writing chemical
formulae
• The valencies or charges on the ion must balance.
• When a compound consists of a metal and a non-
metal, the name or symbol of the metal is written
first. For example: calcium oxide (CaO), sodium
chloride (NaCl), iron sulphide (FeS), copper oxide
(CuO) etc., where oxygen, chlorine, sulphur are non-
metals and are written on the right, whereas
calcium, sodium, iron and copper are metals, and
are written on the left.
• In compounds formed with polyatomic ions, the ion
is enclosed in a bracket before writing the number
to indicate the ratio.
Mole Concept

One
 mole of any species (atoms, molecules, ions or
particles) is that quantity in number having a mass equal to
its atomic or molecular mass in grams.
1
 mole (of anything) = 6.022×1023
23 in
in number
number

Mass
Mass of
of 1
1 mole
mole of
of a
a particular
particular substance
substance is
is always
always fixed.
fixed.
Avogadro’s Number

It
 was named after the Italian scientist named Amedeo
Avogadro.
It
 is denoted by.
Its
 value is 6.022×1023
23

AAoo is
 is equal
equal to
to 1
1 mole.
mole.
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