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ALLAH

in the name of,


the most gracious, the most merciful
Blessings, peace and salutations be upon His
beloved prophet
MUHAMMAD

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Leadership and Leading

Leading People

Guiding People

Influencing People

Commending People

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Contents

• What is Leadership?
• Are Leaders Born or Made?
• Leadership Traits
• Leadership Styles
• Leadership Cycle and Four Major Factors
• Leadership Grid
• Leadership Principles
• Leaders vs Managers
• The Most Important Words
• Peter Drucker on Leadership
• Conclusion
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What is Leadership?

• Leadership is a process by which a person influences


others to accomplish an objective and directs the
organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and
coherent.

• Leadership, in fact, is an important aspect of managing.

• People tend to follow those whom they see as providing


a means of achieving their own desires, wants, and
needs.
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Are Leaders Born or Made?
• Good leaders are made not born. If you have the desire
and willpower, you can become an effective leader.
Good leaders develop through a never ending process of
self-study, education, training, and experience.

• Great man theory stipulates that Leaders are born and


not made

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Orchestra leader
An organization with its members resembles a great
orchestra. When they blend the skill and expertise of their
co-workers, customres, subcontractors, and suppliers it
can look like great music in the making. They provide the
resources, expertise, and leadership to insure the safety,
quality, timeliness, and financial success of their projects

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In the sacred city of Arabia,
Shone a light that spread in all directions,
It was centrally placed for the bounds of the world
Of men’s habitations in Asia, Europe, and Africa
It made the Arabs the leading nation of culture and
science,
Of organized enterprise, and arts,
With a zeal for the conquest of Nature and her
mysteries.

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Behold! There was born into the world of sense,
The unlettered Apostle, the comely child,
Noble of birth, but nobler still
In the grace and wisdom of human love,
And human understanding; dowered with the key
Which opened to him the enchanted palace
Of nature; marked out to receive –
To receive and preach in burning words
The spiritual truth and message of the Most High.

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The leader of the leaders was born, who
illuminated the world with the light of his
wisdom, it was:

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Michael H. Hart writes in his book
‘Most Influential Persons in History’:

‘My choice of Muhammad to lead the list of the world's


most influential persons may surprise some readers
and may be questioned by others, but he was the only
man in history who was supremely successful on both
the religious and secular levels. Of humble origins,
Muhammad founded and promulgated one of the
world's great religions, and became an immensely
effective political leader. Today, thirteen centuries after
his death, his influence is still powerful and pervasive.’

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The Leader:

• Creates Vision
• Sets Direction
• Devises Strategy
• Gets People on board for strategy
• Communicates
• Networks
• Empowers people
• Cheerleader / Motivates
• Inspires
• Gives sense of accomplishment

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Leadership Traits:

Personality: Intelligence:
• Honesty • More intelligent than
• Initiative non-leaders
• Aggressive • Scholarship
• Self-confident • Knowledge
• Ambitious • Being able to get
• Originality things done
• Adaptability

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Types of Leadership Style
• Autocratic:
– Leader makes decisions without reference to anyone
else
– High degree of dependency on the leader
– Can create de-motivation and alienation
of staff
– May be valuable in some types of business where
decisions need to be made quickly and decisively
• Examples
– Emergency – Fire fighting manager
– Issues relating to his own area of responsibility

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Types of Leadership Style

Democratic:
• Encourages decision making from different perspectives –
leadership may be emphasised throughout the organisation
– Consultative: process of consultation before decisions are
taken
– Persuasive: Leader takes decision and seeks to persuade
others that the decision is correct
– May help motivation and involvement
– Workers feel ownership of the firm and its ideas
– Improves the sharing of ideas and experiences within the
business
– Can delay decision making

• Example:
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– M.B.O.
Types of Leadership Style
Laissez-Faire:
– ‘Let it be’ – the leadership responsibilities
are shared by all
– Can be very useful in businesses where creative ideas
are important
– Can be highly motivational, as people have control over
their working life
– Can make coordination and decision making time-
consuming and lacking in overall direction
– Relies on good team work
– Relies on good interpersonal relations
Examples:
– Leader of scientific research department may give free
rein to sub ordinates in developing their inquiries and
experiments 19
General Leadership Cycle

• Common to all leadership styles is a process


– Varies according to style, each has consistent process
Plan

Recognize Delegate

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Follow up
Four Major Leadership Factors

Follower - Different people


require different styles

Leader – Know yourself


as a leader, people will Communication –
decide on their own Two-way, you must
whether to follow you set the example

Situation -all are different, use


judgment to determine best
course of action 21
Situational or Contingency theory of leadership
Fred E. Fiedler’s

People become leaders not only because of the attributes


of their personalities but also because of various
situational factors and the interactions between leaders
and group members.

According to him, there are three critical


dimensions of leadership situation that help
determine what style of leadership will be most
effective:

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Critical Dimensions

• Position Power
– Power arising from org. authority enabling a leader
to get group members to comply with directions
• Task Structure
– Clarity of task, assignment of task to members and
holding them responsible.
• Leader-member relation
– The extent to which group members like, trust and
are willing to follow a leader.

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Conclusion by Fiedler

Leadership performance depends as much on the


organization as it depends on the leader’s own
attributes. Except perhaps for the unusual case, it is
simply not meaningful to speak of an effective
leader; we can only speak of a leader who tends to
be effective in one situation and ineffective in
another. If we wish to increase organizational and
group effectiveness we must learn not only how to
train leaders more effectively but also how to build
an organizational environment in which the leader
can perform well.

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Leadership Grid
By Robert Blake and Jane Mouton

1.9 Team Managers: Work 9.9


Country Club: Production accomplished from
is incidental to lack of committed people with
conflict and good interdependence through
fellowship a common stake in org.
purpose and with trust
and respect
Concern for People

Medium: Adequate
performance through
balance of work
requirements and
maintaining satisfactory
morale 5.5

Task Management: People


Impoverished are a commodity, just like
Management: V. little machines. A manger’s
concern for people as well responsibility is to plan,
as for production direct and control the
work of those subordinate
1.1 to him 9.1
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Concern for Production
Leadership at Italian ItalTel

• In 1981 when Marisa Bellisario became CEO of


ItalTel Telecommunication equipment
manufacturer, took some major steps to turn the
company around and to improve productivity.

– Restructuring the organization into business


units

– Reducing the number of employees by more


than one-third between 1980 and 1985, which
was accomplished through open communication
and cooperation with the union.
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Leadership at Italian ItalTel

– Leading the company into electronics, which


required retraining of employees

– Developing a program to upgrade low-skilled


women in the work force

– Pushing for intra-European cooperation with


companies in France, England, and Germany.

– Improving efficiency through innovation in


products and manufacturing processes.

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Leadership at Italian ItalTel

• Leadership such as this has to be analyzed in


terms of the characteristics of the leader (technical,
human, conceptual design skills); good relations
with the followers, especially the unionized work
force; and the situation, which in the early 1980s
demanded a strong leader to deal with the crisis.

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Managers vs. Leaders
Managers Leaders
• Focus on things • Focus on people
• Do things right • Do the right things
• Plan • Inspire
• Organize • Influence
• Direct • Motivate
• Control • Build
• Follow the Rules • Shape Entities

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Leadership Principles

1 - Show Interest 8 - Explain Why


2 - Positive Approach 9 - Admit Mistakes
3 - Complaints 10 - Reasonable Expectations
4 - Promises 11 - Be Prompt
5 - Get the Facts 12 - Compliment
6 - Discussion Basis 13 - Prepare for Change
7 - Design an Approach

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Show Interest
• Develop a Relationship
– Frequent personal contact - LISTEN to others
– Keep an open and honest attitude
– Take time to learn & understand other people’s needs
– Sell ideas based on merit, value to others
– Never force a personal agenda
– Offer suggestions to help others solve their OWN
problems
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Positive Approach
• Consider other person’s feelings & objectives in
planning what you do/say
– Plan before you speak
– Give “benefit of the doubt”
– Avoid jumping to conclusions
– Consider other’s point of view and emotional
state
– Keep negative emotion out of discussion

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Complaints/Suggestions
• View complaints not as personal criticism, but as
valuable feedback and suggestions

Not easy to do, but working relationships improved


when regularly practiced
– Address complaints quickly, Listen to whole story
– Remain composed, calm - avoid interruptions
– Show problem is understood by restating it, Ask
questions to clarify misunderstandings
– Show appreciation, and indicate what will be done
– FOLLOW UP with action
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Promises

• Make few promises, and keep them!


– Credibility lost when leadership fails to keep promises
– Ensure commitment is realistic and attainable
– Keep stakeholders informed of progress
– If situations change, and promise cannot be kept:
• Immediately contact those affected, avoid rumors
• Explain carefully and thoroughly the reasons
• Allow free feedback, consider others
• Follow up with mutually agreed corrective actions
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Get The Facts

• Examine all facets of a situation


– Evaluate evidence
– Allow everyone involved to express viewpoint
– Consider other’s rights, what’s fair
– Ignore unsubstantiated information
– Base decisions on logical thinking, not emotions

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Discussion Basis

• Keep it a business-like discussion


– Stick to the subject
– Listen respectfully
– Avoid getting hung up on personalities
– Grant that other person “may have something”
– Do not loose temper
– Plan the time and place for the discussion

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Design An Approach
• Approach appeals to other’s motivations and
emotions
– Be pleasant, remain calm
– Use questions, and listen to responses
– Observe body language, clues to
other’s feelings
– Give direct answers
– Speak in a manner the other participants
understand/relate to
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Explain Why

• Reasons why/why not


– Be truthful
– Show willingness to answer questions
– Let others “in on the know”
– Present the complete story

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Admit Mistakes
• Recognize no one is perfect
– Natural tendency is to avoid sharing or rationalizing a
mistake
– No mistakes => is employee or leader really doing
anything? At least not taking risks
– Determine who is affected by mistake, and if any
corrective action needed
– Recognize mistake was made, regardless of how
discovered. Show mistakes are learning opportunities
– Document “lessons learned” for each project 39
Reasonable Expectations

• Present fair/realistic expectations


– Listen completely to any objections
– Restate objections, outlining competing positions and
underlying reasoning
– Use illustrations and examples
– Present complete picture, and rationale for
subsequent decision

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Be Prompt
• Be responsive to situations / issues
– Does not mean ‘need to always act immediately’
– Be consistent, use a structured problem solving
technique
– Base decisions on facts, if this takes time
• promptly acknowledge understanding of situation
• Let others know what is going on
• Allow others to assist, give choices of alternatives
– Always follow up! 41
Compliment

• Always give recognition where deserved


– Recognition can be simple, a note of thanks
– Decide whether best kept personal or public
– Give commendation for special accomplishments &
efforts
– Do not overlook contributions, especially if others
recognition is public

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Prepare For Changes
• Prepare others in advance for changes affecting
them
– Change is threatening! And a fact of modern life
– Review impending change, determine effect on others
– Determine what/how much information should be
disseminated
– Understand and explain reasons for change
– Select right time, forum for communications
– Promptly publicize news
– Listen & respond to questions, suggestions 43
The most important words relating to
Leaders
• The six most important words: "I admit I made a mistake.“

• The five most important words: "You did a good job.“

• The four most important words: "What is your opinion.“

• The three most important words: "If you please.“

• The two most important words: "Thank you,“

• The one most important word: "We“

• The least most important word: "I" 44


Peter Drucker on Leadership

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• What Needs to Be Done?

Successful leaders don't start out asking, "What do I want


to do?" They ask, "What needs to be done?" Then they
ask, "Of those things that would make a difference, which
are right for me?" They don't tackle things they aren't
good at. They make sure other necessities get done, but
not by them. Successful leaders make sure that they
succeed! They are not afraid of strength in others.

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• Check Your Performance

Effective leaders check their performance. They write


down, "What do I hope to achieve if I take on this
assignment?" They put away their goals for six months
and then come back and check their performance
against goals. This way, they find out what they do well
and what they do poorly. They also find out whether they
picked the truly important things to do. I've seen a great
many people who are exceedingly good at execution, but
exceedingly poor at picking the important things. They
are magnificent at getting the unimportant things done.
They have an impressive record of achievement on
trivial matters.
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• Mission Driven

Leaders communicate in the sense that people around


them know what they are trying to do. They are purpose
driven--yes, mission driven. They know how to establish a
mission. And another thing, they know how to say no. The
pressure on leaders to do 984 different things is
unbearable, so the effective ones learn how to say no and
stick with it. They don't suffocate themselves as a result.
Too many leaders try to do a little bit of 25 things and get
nothing done. They are very popular because they always
say yes. But they get nothing done.

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• Creative Abandonment

A critical question for leaders is, "When do you stop


pouring resources into things that have achieved their
purpose?" The most dangerous traps for a leader are
those near-successes where everybody says that if you
just give it another big push it will go over the top. One
tries it once. One tries it twice. One tries it a third time.
But, by then it should be obvious this will be very hard to
do. So, I always advise my friend Rick Warren, "Don't tell
me what you're doing, Rick. Tell me what you stopped
doing."

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• The Rise of the Modern Multinational

The modern multinational corporation was invented in


1859. Siemens invented it because the English Siemens
company had grown faster than the German parent.
Before the Second World War, IBM was a small maker,
not of computers, but of adding machines. They had one
branch in England, which was very typical for the era. In
the 1920s, General Motors bought a German and English
and then Australian automobile manufacturer. The first
time somebody from Detroit actually visited the European
subsidiaries was in 1950. A trip to Europe was a big trip.
You were gone three months. I still remember the
excitement when the then head of GM went to Europe in
the 1920s to buy the European properties. He never went
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back.
• 21st Century Organizations

Let me give you one example. This happens to be a


consulting firm headquartered in Boston. Each morning,
between 8 A.M. and 9 A.M. Boston time, which is 5 A.M.
in the morning here in California and 11 P.M. in Tokyo,
the firm conducts a one-hour management meeting on
the Internet. That would have been inconceivable a few
years back when you couldn't have done it physically.
And for a few years, I worked with this firm closely and I
had rented a room in a nearby motel and put in a
videoconferencing screen. Once a week, I participated in
this Internet meeting and we could do it quite easily,
successfully. As a result of which, that consulting firm is
not organized around localities but around clients.
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• How To Lead a 21st Century Organization

Don't travel so much. Organize your travel. It is important


that you see people and that you are seen by people
maybe once or twice a year. Otherwise, don't travel.
Make them come to see you. Use technology--it is
cheaper than traveling. I don't know anybody who can
work while traveling. Do you? The second thing to say is
make sure that your subsidiaries and foreign offices take
up the responsibility to keep you informed. So, ask them
twice a year, "What activities do you need to report to
me?" Also ask them, "What about my activity and my
plans do you need to know from me?" The second
question is just as important.
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• Prisoner of Your Own Organization

When you are the chief executive, you're the prisoner of your
organization. The moment you're in the office, everybody comes to
you and wants something, and it is useless to lock the door. They'll
break in. So, you have to get outside the office. But still, that isn't
traveling. That's being at home or having a secret office elsewhere.
When you're alone, in your secret office, ask the question, "What
needs to be done?" Develop your priorities and don't have more than
two. I don't know anybody who can do three things at the same time
and do them well. Do one task at a time or two tasks at a time. That's
it. OK, two works better for most. Most people need the change of
pace. But, when you are finished with two jobs or reach the point
where it's futile, make the list again. Don't go back to priority three. At
that point, it's obsolete.
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• How Organizations Fall Down

Make sure the people with whom you work understand your
priorities. Where organizations fall down is when they have to
guess at what the boss is working at, and they invariably
guess wrong. So the CEO needs to say, "This is what I am
focusing on." Then the CEO needs to ask of his associates,
"What are you focusing on?" Ask your associates, "You put
this on top of your priority list--why?" The reason may be the
right one, but it may also be that this associate of yours is a
salesman who persuades you that his priorities are correct
when they are not. So, make sure that you understand your
associates' priorities and make sure that after you have that
conversation, you sit down and drop them a two-page note--
"This is what I think we discussed. This is what I think we
decided. This is what I think you committed yourself to within
what time frame." Finally, ask them, "What do you expect 54
from me as you seek to achieve your goals?"
• The Transition from Entrepreneur to Large Company
CEO

Again, let's start out discussing what not to do. Don't try
to be somebody else. By now you have your style. This is
how you get things done. Don't take on things you don't
believe in and that you yourself are not good at. Learn to
say no. Effective leaders match the objective needs of
their company with the subjective competencies. As a
result, they get an enormous amount of things done fast.

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• How Capable Leaders Blow It

One of the ablest men I've worked with, and this is a long
time back, was Germany's last pre-World War II
democratic chancellor, Dr. Heinrich Bruning. He had an
incredible ability to see the heart of a problem. But he
was very weak on financial matters. He should have
delegated but he wasted endless hours on budgets and
performed poorly. This was a terrible failing during a
Depression and it led to Hitler. Never try to be an expert
if you are not. Build on your strengths and find strong
people to do the other necessary tasks.

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• The Danger Of Charisma

I was the first one to talk about leadership 50 years ago, but there is
too much talk, too much emphasis on it today and not enough on
effectiveness. The only thing you can say about a leader is that a
leader is somebody who has followers. The most charismatic
leaders of the last century were called Hitler, Stalin, Mao and
Mussolini. They were mis-leaders! Charismatic leadership by itself
certainly is greatly overstated. Look, one of the most effective
American presidents of the last 100 years was Harry Truman. He
didn't have an ounce of charisma. Everybody who worked for him
worshiped him because he was absolutely trustworthy. If Truman
said no, it was no, and if he said yes, it was yes. And he didn't say
no to one person and yes to the next one on the same issue. The
other effective president of the last 100 years was Ronald Reagan.
His great strength was not charisma, as is commonly thought, but
that he knew exactly what he could do and what he could not do. 57
• How To Reinvigorate People

Within organizations there are people who, typically in their


40s, hit a midlife crisis when they realize that they won't make
it to the top or discover that they are not yet first-rate. This
happens to engineers and accountants and technicians. The
worst midlife crisis is that of physicians, as you know. They all
have a severe midlife crisis. Basically, their work becomes
awfully boring. Just imagine seeing nothing for 30 years but
people with a skin rash. They have a midlife crisis, and that's
when they take to the bottle. How do you save these people?
Give them a parallel challenge. Without that, they'll soon take
to drinking or to sleeping around. In a coeducational college,
they sleep around and drink. The two things are not
incompatible, alas! Encourage people facing a midlife crisis to
apply their skills in the non-profit sector. 58
• Character Development

We have talked a lot about executive development. We


have been mostly talking about developing people's
strength and giving them experiences. Character is not
developed that way. That is developed inside and not
outside.

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