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COMMUNITY RESILIENCE IN BANDARHARJO VILLAGE IN DEALING WITH

TIDAL FLOOD: A CASE STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH,


SEMARANG, INDONESIA

Yuniar Widya*), Suhartono**), Budiyono**)
*) Student of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University
**) Lecturer of Environmental Health, Facvulty of Public Health, Diponegoro
University
e-mail : yuniarwidya@ymail.com

Abstract: Tidal flood is a familiar phenomenon in the city of Semarang in which sea
waters enters the land areas with a level lower than sea level. Kelurahan
Bandarharjo is one of the areas in northern area of Semarang that are often exposed
to tidal floods and have a high level of severity. Tidal flood in the area will impact on
the damage to facilities and infrastructure (water, waste management, drainage,
sanitation) as well as the environmental degradation that is characterized by
declining quality of public health. Given the vulnerability of society to the negative
impact of tidal floods, but the community still survive and choose to stay in the area
and the population is increasing through the years. Community resilience can be
seen from several aspects, namely economic, social, infrastructure, and health. The
purpose of this research is to find out the resilience index of Kelurahan Bandarharjo.
This type of research is observational descriptive with Cross Sectional approach,
sample in this research is 92 residents of RW 01 Kelurahan Bandarharjo. The result
of research shows that 95.7% have high social resilience index, 52,2% of
respondents have high resilience index of infrastructure. The conclusion of this
research is, the average respondents have medium infrastructure resilience index
and has high social resilience index.

Keywords: Tidal flood, Community Resilience, Environmental Sanitation

BACKGROUND flood, which in 2015 almost all of the


Tidal flood is a flood caused by areas in Northern Semarang affected
tides that flooded areas with a level by tidal flood with total areas that
lower than sea level, tidal flood also affected by tidal flood with total area of
caused by global warming (rising 823.545 ha. Kelurahan Bandarharjo,
temperature). Tidal flood is a global one of the district in northern have a
problem that affect 10 percent of total total area of 197,286 ha affected by
global population, and affect 700 tidal flood with a total areas flooded
milion people, that stays in coastal are 89,77%. 3
areas. Tidal flood can have negative
Semarang City, one of the impacts on the coastal residential
major cities in Indonesia and capital of area. The impact of flooding has
Central Java is a flood-prone area. changed the physical environment and
Northern Semarang is one of the put pressure on people, buildings, and
areas that always affected by tidal infrastructure of existing settlements
across the area. Flood tides will impact increase population in North
on the damage to facilities and Semarang which in 2010 amounted to
infrastructure (water, waste 117.485 inhabitants and in 2015 a
management, drainage, sanitation) as significant increase amount to 127.752
well as the environmental degradation inhabitants.13 This data shows that
that is characterized by declining community perform adaptations that
quality of public health.12 can make them survive in their
In addition, the flood tide (rob) also environment, to anticipate the
cause various diseases caused by problems that will arise from the
environment and degradation of disaster and can bounce back from
environmental sanitation. Respiratory adversity after the disaster. It is called
diseases, skin diseases and diarrhea resilience.
are the top ten biggest disease in RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
community health center of Semarang This type of research is
coastal areas namely Puskesmas observational descriptive with Cross
Bandarharjo. Based on data taken in Sectional approach. The research was
Bandarharjo Community Health Center conducted in RW 01 Kelurahan
in 2016 top ten diseases are acute Bandarharjo. RW 01 Kelurahan
respiratory infections with total of 6106 Bandarharjo is an area directly
cases, essential hypertension adjacent to the sea and is an area that
(primary) with total 3709 cases, is still inundated by the flood.
disruption of other soft tissues 2641 The population of the research
cases, nasopharyngitis acute 1987 is all of the head of families (KK) in
cases, headache syndromes 1382 Kelurahan Bandarharjo which consist
cases, other disorders of skin and of 567 KK. To get a representative
subcutaneous tissue 1266 cases, pulp sample, this study uses proportionate
and periapical disease 1165 cases, stratified random sampling. Total
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus as sample in this research are 92 people.
many as 993 cases, gastritis and Research variables include
duodenitis 956 cases, and the last are access to health services, health
11
diarrhea with total of 721. insurance, health problems, access to
Considering the environmental clean water, access to family latrines,
conditions in coastal areas prone to sewerage facilities, waste disposal
disaster and disease, the people facilities, housing type, income,
choose to stay in the area even though occupation, saving, and social
the environment is not comfortable for resilience index as well as
occupancy. This is proven by the infrastructure resilience index.
To determine resilience index, RW 01 ≥10 years were 77 people
we use indicator from Coastal (83.7%), with average respondents
Resilience Index with scoring methods living in RW 01 Bandarharjo for 27
and then classified into resilience years.
index. The classified are: Tidal Flood Incident

Table 1. Resilience Index of According to the results of the


Infrastructure research note that the incidence of rob
in RW 1 Kelurahan Bandarharjo as
Range Class Resilience
much as 47.8% of respondents said
Index
tidal flood frequency as much as once
Infrastructur
a month and 32.6% of respondents
0,00 – 1,99 1 Low
said that tidal flood occurs every day.
2,00 – 3,99 2 Medium
Based on interview data of most
 4.00 3 High
respondents who experience tidal
flood every day that is RT 1 and RT 5,
Table 2. Resilience Index of Social
this is because of its location adjacent
Range Class Resilience
to the sea. According to respondents,
Index Social
tidal flood usually occurs in the
0,00 – 1,99 1 Low
afternoon and then will recede at night
2,00 – 3,99 2 Medium
or at dawn.
4,00 – 5,00 3 High A total of 36 respondents said
that their house was not flooded. This
Data collection include actual interview is due to the respondent's house and
and observation using questionnaires street that has been elevated.
and observation sheets According to information from
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION respondents, since December of 2016
Characteristics of respondents the government provides infrastructure
in this study include sex, age, and development funding by starting to
duration of stay in RW 01. The most increase road construction such as RT
sexes are women that is as much as 4, RT 6, and RT 8. While some other
70 people (76.1%), the average age of RTs will take turns gradually to be
respondents 42 years, and length of elevated. This is one way to prevent
stay is divided into 2 class ie <10 the occurrence of rob flood in RW 1
years and ≥10 years (long term Kelurahan Bandarharjo.
resident). Respondents living in RW Economy Characteristics
01 <10 years were 15 people The description of respondent's
(16.35%) and respondents living in economic characteristics covers the
type of work of the head of family 76 households (82.6%) own private
(father) with most of the jobs are labor latrines and 16 households (17.4%) do
(46.7%), the type of head of household not have private latrines, with 37 out of
most employment are housewife 76 (48.7%) did not meet the criteria.
(73.9%) where regional minimum The condition of the garbage of the
wage (UMR) Kota Semarang is respondents was 64 respondents
Rp.2.125.000. 43 households (46.7%) (69.6%) had the condition of the open
earned <UMR and 49 households dumpster and the waste bins criteria
(53.3%) earned ≥UMR with a range of according to SNI No. 19-2454-2002 of
income ranging from Rp.700.000 - 61 respondents garbage bins (66.3%)
Rp.6.000.000. Saving ability of did not meet the criteria.
respondents, as many as 48 The availability of clean water
respondents (52.25%) claimed to set and basic sanitation conditions is
aside his income with a range from essential to protect the health of the
Rp.50.000 - Rp.250.000 per month. population, especially during
The economic sector is one of emergencies and in disaster prone
the most important components of areas such as floods.6 Resilient
resilience, this is because disaster communities have adequate
resilience is considered a contributing infrastructure and services, including
factor in sectoral development goals, clean water. Where the entire
including those concerning water, community has adequate access to
sanitation, food, education, clean water.7
infrastructure and health. As described Characteristics of the House
above, economic factors are very Description of the respondent's
important pillars in each of these house includes the type of
growth sectors. respondent's house with 59
Basic Sanitation households (64,1%) own permanent
The description of basic house type, 28 households (30,4%)
sanitation includes clean water semi permanent, and 5 households
facilities with 100% of respondents (5,4%) have non permanent house
using artesian wells and average type. 82 respondents (89.1%) have
water consumption of respondents per their own home ownership status. The
day on average as much as 150.98 number of respondent houses
liters, while drinking water source used inundated as much as 56 families
86 respondents (93.5%) using bottled (60.9%) and 36 families (39.1%) said
water / refill and 6 HH (6.5%) using that the house is not flooded. The
artesian wells cooked first. A total of majority of respondents (60.9%) said
that they always do the construction of as 33 respondents (60%) and itching /
their house for each 5 years to avoid skin rash (21.8%).
the flood. Access to health services has
Housing is considered one of a significant contribution to the overall
the most valuable assets for the local health of the community and, with
population. Housing is often the regard to community resilience to
highest source of losses from climate- survive the negative effects of
related disasters associated with the disasters. The health care system
economic downturn. Nevertheless, should ensure continuous operations
housing reconstruction is seen as one in disaster situations, especially given
of the major interventions for building the increasing number and severity of
disaster and climate resilience for disasters caused by climate change.10
vulnerable communities. Land tenure Resilience Index
is an important aspect of people's Infrastructure
8
resilience to natural disasters. By Resilience index of infrastructure is
having their own land, communities divided into 3 classes, namely low,
can reconstruct homes or simply medium, and high. A total of 48
invest in measures to improve future households (52.2%) had high
9
resilience to disasters. resilience index, 40 families (43.5%)
Description of Health Aspects and low resilience index (4, 4.3%). The
The description of health average index of infrastructure
aspect covers the type of health resistance 3.29 which shows that the
service utilized by the respondents average respondent has a medium
when the illness is puskesmas resilience index of infrastructure.
(91.3%), 63 respondents said they Respondents who have a high
have health insurance where majority resilience index indicate that the
have BPJS (60,9%), incidence of community has prepared all
disease during last three months on possibilities well to deal with the
respondent that is 38 of respondents disaster. Respondents who have a
(41,3%) admitted that they did not high resilience index will not suffer
suffer from illness, most of them were losses or suffer a minimal loss during
fever (10,9%), ISPA (9.8%), skin robot floods.4 To build an adequate
disease / itchy and skin rash (8.7%) infrastructure sector, the economy
and diarrhea (7.6%). The majority of plays an important role, so it is
the diseases caused by the floods that important to develop the economic
have been experienced by the sector in advance to have adequate
respondents are water fleas as many infrastructure. In addition, the
government also plays an important communities. With active participation
role in the development of public and collaboration, such as
infrastructure for the community so participating in local activities or
that the need for good cooperation organizations within the community,
between the local government and the can foster a sense of collective and
community to create adequate belonging, which in turn helps build
infrastructure from the puddle rob. resilience within a community.12
Social CONCLUSION
Resilience index of social field 1. Analysis of infrastructure sector
is divided into 3 classes that is low, resilience index shows that 52.2%
medium, and high. Four families of respondents have high
(4.3%) had medium index and 88 resilience index, 43.5% of
households (95.7%) had high index. respondents have medium
The average index of social resilience resilience index
of all respondents is 4.60. This 2. Analysis of resilience index of
suggests that, on average, social field shows that 95,7% of
respondents have a high index of respondents have high resilience
social resilience. index
Most of the people in RW 01 3. Economic Characteristics
Bandarharjo have high social a. 46,7% head of family (father)
resilience, this is because they have occupation have job as laborer
good social ties between each other. and 73,9% head of household
The community regularly and actively (mother) job as housewife
hold meetings of organizations such b. As many as 65.2% of
as RT / RW, PKK, arisan, religious, respondents have income
and consecrated work. According to below regional minimum wage
Meyetr & Aldrich (2014) to increase (UMR) Semarang City
trust and social cohesion comes from c. 52.2% of respondents said
inter-community meetings and social they could set aside their
events; This approach includes income for savings
general social activities such as 4. Health Aspect
parades, exhibitions, and parties in the a. The majority of respondents
home complex. 11 In disaster (91.3%) utilized Community
situations, there are some indications Health Center (PUSKESMAS)
that social cohesion is evident through as health care facilities at the
the willingness of citizens to help each time of illness
other while rebuilding their
b. The majority of respondents 2002), 61 garbage bins
(83.7%) can still access health (66.3%) did not meet the
services at the time of the flood criteria
c. Respondents who have h. Number of respondents who
insurance BPJS as much as have permanent house type
60.9% are 59 respondents (64,1%),
5. Infrastructure 28 respondents (30,4%) own
a. All respondents RW 01 semi permanent house, and 5
Kelurahan Bandarharjo use respondent (5,4%) have non
artesian well water as a permanent house
source of clean water, and SUGGESTION
daily water needs of all For the government to increase the
respondents are fulfilled and development of infrastructure evenly,
more than 60 liters per person especially the road elevation and the
per day. formation of sewerage that is qualified
b. 93.5% used bottled water / as a form of robotic flood mitigation
refill water as a source of and immediately implement the
drinking water policies and strategies in mitigation
c. A total of 76 respondents efforts especially in areas susceptible
(82.6%) already have private to flooding. The community should
latrines improve the performance of flood
d. The condition of respondents' disaster management organizations,
latrines according to such as in the organization of the
Permenkes No. 3 In 2004, as community with the assistance of
many as 37 respondents experts who understand the risks of
(48.7%) of 76 respondents flood rob disasters. So as to improve
who have private latrines are community performance in managing
not eligible the organization of the community and
e. A total of 53 respondents reduce the risk of rob flood disaster
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