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Unit 1: Step 2

Student

Tutor

Course

Grupo

203058_9

Bogotá D.C.

October 2018

INTRODUCTION

## Electromagnetic waves, as the name implies, are waves that generate

electric and magnetic fields.
James Clerck Maxwell was a Scottish scientist. In 1884, he managed to
formulate and sustain the theory of electromagnetic waves with
mathematical formulas and clarified that these waves could transmit signals
over long distances without having a physical means to transport.
Heinrich Herz was a German physicist who managed to demonstrate in
1887, the existence of electromagnetic waves, claiming that Maxwell’s
mathematical calculations were correct.

## In this paper, I will present some basic terms of electromagnetic waves, as

well as explain a little about the tangent of losses, the electromagnetic
spectrum, data such as refraction of waves.

## In this work, approaches will be developed, in which the knowledge is

displayed by the team, skills acquired during the practice of aspects related
to the application of electromagnetic waves, Electromagnetic waves in
perfect dielectrics, Waves on good conductors and good insulators,
Propagation on open mediums; and in this way, through a self-assessment,
to know weaknesses and strengths in the development of the integration
analysis therms.

GENERAL OBJECTIVE

##  Recognize the applications of electromagnetic waves in the medium

and the different mathematical formulas that compose it.

ACTIVITY DEVELOPMENT
OSCAR GIOVANNI CRUZ

## 1. Explain the concept of loss tangent by means of an example.

The tangent of losses or the delta tangent is a measure of the state of an
insulation. The dissipation factor is also described and is a measure of the
dielectric losses of solid or liquid insulation.

Therefore, its magnitude depends on the type of insulation and its conditions
and is independent of its volume. The disadvantage of this test is that it only
determines the average isolation condition, that is, it does not detect the
worst condition point. Its value can be affected by moisture and dirt on the
surface of the insulation that allows a flow of current through the surface of
the same.

## The idea is that any insulator can be assimilated to an ideal capacitor in

parallel or in a resistor that represents the dielectric losses. The delta angle
between the capacitive current and the whole is called the loss angle or
dissipation factor. The delta tangent test pursues the determination of this
angle and is based on a source of high voltage alternating power and a
Schering bridge to determine the delta tangent and the capacity of the
studied dielectric to the test voltage

An example is humidity

Humidity. This element can be present in the dielectrics that are analyzed,
so it should not be left out even if it is considered spurious or undesirable.
We know that the introduction of water inside the insulation substantially
modifies its dielectric parameters, destroying them. In the case we are
dealing with, it will increase the value of the delta tangent in proportion to
the moisture absorbed. Because although the capacitive current grows due
to the high permissiveness of the water (water = 81), to a much greater
degree the current in phase rises with the voltage due to its extremely high
loss value. The increase of the delta tangent will also depend on the physical
characteristics of the dielectric (for example, if it is fibrous), the ambient
humidity, the service temperature and the geometry or conditions that affect
the diffusion of the water. That is why you can not define rules or theoretical
formulas to use that consider this factor as a component of isolation and

then separate it. As the values of the losses that are added with moisture
water are high, a low degree of wetting of the dielectric can give very high
values of its delta tangent. In Figure No. 9 the dependence of the delta
tangent of the paper with the humidity (in% of the weight) can be observed,
according to D. M. Kazarnovski. The following figure shows a possible
variation of the delta tangent of the insulation of an MV motor when it has
been wetted.

## 2. What kind of information does the velocity of propagation give us

in the propagation of electromagnetic waves?

## At what speed do electromagnetic waves travel? Or, in another way, what

determines the speed at which they travel? Physics in the mid-nineteenth
century knew that the velocity of propagation for a mechanical wave through
a material depended on two characteristics of it: its rigidity and its density.
The speed was greater the more rigid it was, but the lower the density the
greater. This relationship between wave speed, rigidity and density is
applicable to mechanical waves and many other types of waves.

Finally, Maxwell showed that the speed of the waves (if they existed !,
remember that this was still only a theoretical deduction) is a concrete
quantity that can be calculated from experimental data.

But for this calculation there was no need to wait for the experiments to be
carried out. In 1856 Wilhelm Eduard Weber and Rudolf Kohlrausch had
carried out the necessary tests. Taking the data they had published, Maxwell
calculated the propagation speed of the alleged electromagnetic waves:
311,000,000 m / s.

But this value was familiar to Maxwell. It was very coincidental that this
large number turned out to be very close, less than 1% difference, with a
number that the whole world of physics knew at the time. In 1849 Armand
Fizeau had measured the speed of light and had obtained a value of
313,300,000 m / s (the value currently admitted is 299,792,458 m / s).

## 3. Explain how an electromagnetic wave behaves in free space,

perfect dielectrics and good conductors.

We are all familiar with the idea of wave; thus, when a stone is dropped to a
pond, the water waves run radially outward, when the guitar is played the
strings vibrate and the sound waves extend in the proximity of the
instrument, when a radio station is transmitting, the waves Electromagnetic
propagates through air or vacuum. All these are examples of wave motion
and have in common two important properties: the energy moves to distant
points and the disturbance goes through the medium without it in its
entirety undergoes any displacement

## permanent. Wave motion consists in the propagation of a physical property

or a disturbance (variation of some physical magnitude) described by a
certain field, through a medium. The field that describes the physical
property can be:

##  An electromagnetic field (case of electromagnetic waves).

 The transverse displacement of a rope, the deformation of a spring,
the pressure of a gas, etc. (case of elastic waves).

The medium that transmits the waves can be air, a tight rope, a liquid, etc.
e, even vacuum (only in the case of electromagnetic waves). As the claim
that what propagates in wave motion is a physical property or disturbance is
something abstract, it should be specified: In a wave movement is
transmitted or propagated a dynamic condition, that is, amount of
movement and energy. Whatever the nature of the medium that transmits
the waves, be it air, a taut string, an electric wire or vacuum, all wave
motions are governed by a certain differential equation, the equation of
wave motion. The mathematical part of the problem is merely to solve this
equation with the appropriate boundary conditions and then interpret the
solution appropriately.

## 4. Using the electromagnetic spectrum, explain the practical

application of each type of radiation.

## The knowledge that we have today of the electromagnetic spectrum is quite

finished and its applications are many, every time we talk on the cell phone,
we tune to a radio, watch a television program, or feel the heat of the sun,
we are perceiving one or the other form electromagnetic radiation. Visible
light is only a small part of the family of electromagnetic waves that make
up the spectrum. Their applications depend on the type of electromagnetic
wave:

## Microwave waves: One application is that of ovens. Its operation is based

on the fact that very high frequency electromagnetic radiation has a lot of
energy, so there is a very large heat transfer to food in a short time.
Communications and radar are two other applications of microwaves.

The radio waves: they are used mainly in the treatment called short wave.
It is a type of high frequency alternating current characterized by having a
wavelength comprised between 1 and 30 meters (10-300 MHz). The short
wave, due to its high frequency is able to cross all kinds of bodies, both
drivers and non-drivers.

Infrared: they are used when we turn on the television and change
channels with our remote control; In the supermarket, our products are
identified by reading the barcodes; we see and listen to compact discs ...
everything, thanks to infrared. These are just some of the simplest
applications, since they are also used in security systems, ocean studies,
medicine, etc.

X-rays: they are used mainly in the fields of scientific research, industry
and medicine.

Gamma Rays: are used to sterilize instruments that can not be sterilized by
other methods, and with considerably lower risks to health, are also used in

The main advantage of electromagnetic waves is that they have many uses.
They are used in the field of communication, in medicine, industry, ...
However, they also have some drawbacks such as the harmful effects of
some of them on health. The effects on health of electromagnetic waves are
very varied depending on their frequency; that is, the energy that their
photons carry. They range from zero effects, for very low frequencies, to
very serious effects in the case of gamma rays or cosmic rays. Apart from
the biochemical effects, electromagnetic waves have clear biophysical
aspects. In the range of frequencies that matter to us, the thermal effect is
evident and its influence on health is undeniable. The thermal effect is due
to the fact that every variable electromagnetic field, and a wave is that,
induces electrical currents, and these in turn dissipate energy, to a greater
or lesser extent depending on the coefficients of conductivity and induction.
The dissipation of energy obviously contributes to the elevation of the

## 5 What is the refractive index and what kind of information does it

give us about the behavior of electromagnetic waves?

Refraction

## The refraction of a wave consists in the change of direction that it

experiences when it passes from one medium to another. This change of
direction occurs as a consequence of the different speed of propagation that
the wave has in both media.

in the attached figure the refraction of a plane wave from one medium 1 to
another medium 2 is represented, assuming that the velocity of propagation
is lower in the second medium than in the first. As the wave front AB is
affecting the separation surface, the AC points of that surface become
secondary foci and transmit the vibration to the second medium. Because
the velocity in the second medium is smaller, the envelope of the
transmitted secondary waves forms an EC wavefront, in which the point E is
closer to the separation surface than the B. As a consequence, when passing
to the Second, the rays deviate towards the normal direction N.

6.What is a plane wave and a non-plane wave and where are they
used? What is a magnetic and a nonmagnetic medium and where are
they used?

Flat wave

## In the physics of wave propagation (especially in fields and electromagnetic

waves), a flat wave or also called a one-dimensional wave, is a wave of
constant frequency whose wave fronts (surfaces with constant phase) are
parallel planes of constant amplitude normal to the vector phase speed. That
is to say, they are those waves that propagate in a single direction
throughout the space, like for example the waves in the springs or in the
cords. If the wave propagates in a single direction, its wave fronts are flat
and parallel.

## By extension, the term is also used to describe waves that are

approximately flat in a localized region of space. For example, a source of
electromagnetic waves such as an antenna produces a field that is
approximately flat in a far field region. That is, at a distance far from the
source, the waves emitted are approximately flat and can be considered as
such.

## EDGAR HORACIO DIAZ

2. Explain the concept of loss tangent by means of an example.
Before starting the analysis of a medium it is important to recognize how it
behaves, since, according to the type of medium, the analysis varies
radically. Knowing that the tangent of losses or tangent delta is a basic
parameter to determine the behavior of a medium and mathematically is
defined as:

tan (δ) = σ / ωε

## 3. What kind of information give us the propagation velocity in

electromagnetic waves propagation?
R/ The velocity of propagation of a wave is the magnitude that measures the
speed at which the disturbance of the wave propagates along its
displacement. The speed at which the wave propagates depends on the type
of wave as well as the medium through which it propagates.

Logically, it is not going to move at the same speed a wave that moves
through the air that one that does it through the land or the sea. In the
same way, a seismic wave, sound or light does not advance at the same
speed. For example, in a vacuum electromagnetic waves propagate at the
speed of light; that is, at 300,000 km / s.

## In the case of sound in the air, its propagation speed is 343 m / s. In

general, for the mechanical waves, the velocity through a material depends
mainly on two of the characteristics of the medium: its density and its
rigidity. In any case, the speed is generally related to the value of the
wavelength and the period.

## The relationship can be expressed mathematically through the quotient: v =

λ / T, where v is the speed of the wave measured in meters per second, λ is
the wavelength measured in meters and T is the period measured in
seconds.

## In the practical sense, the speed of propagation of a wave, allows to know

the direction, module and sense of the same. The speed of propagation is
the distance that a wave advances in a given time.

## To determine it, the following formula is used:

V=λ*f

Where:

V = Speed of propagation

λ = Wavelength (m)

f = Frequency (Hz)

## In the case of electromagnetic waves when they propagate in a vacuum,

they have a constant speed of 299,792,458 km / s

## Speaking of proportionality between the velocity of propagation and the

frequency of the signal, Yes a wave of wavelength L and frequency 2U will
move twice as fast as a wave of length L but of frequency U. In short, it
depends on the frequency propagation speed.

## 4. Explain how an electromagnetic wave behaves in free space,

perfect dielectrics and good conductors.

## 5. Using the electromagnetic spectrum, explain the practical

application of every type of radiation.
R/ Microwave waves: One application is that of ovens. Its operation is based
on the fact that very high frequency electromagnetic radiation has a lot of
energy, so there is a very large heat transfer to food in a short time.
Communications and radar are two other applications of microwaves.

The radio waves: they are used mainly in the treatment called short wave. It
is a type of high frequency alternating current characterized by having a
wavelength comprised between 1 and 30 meters (10-300 MHz). The short
wave, due to its high frequency is able to cross all kinds of bodies, both
drivers and non-drivers.

Infrared: they are used when we turn on the television and change channels
with our remote control; In the supermarket, our products are identified by
reading the barcodes; we see and listen to compact discs ... everything,
thanks to infrared. These are just some of the simplest applications, since
they are also used in security systems, ocean studies, medicine, etc.

X-rays: they are used mainly in the fields of scientific research, industry and
medicine.

Gamma Rays: are used to sterilize instruments that can not be sterilized by
other methods, and with considerably lower risks to health, are also used in

## 6. What is the refraction index and what kind of information give

us about the electromagnetic waves behavior?
It is called the index of refraction, the quotient between the speed of light c
in the vacuum and the speed v of light in a transparent material medium.

n=c/v
Snell's law of refraction is expressed in terms of the refractive index
n1 · sinθ1 = n2 · sinθ2

## 7. What is a plane wave and a non-plane wave and where are

they used? What is a magnetic and a nonmagnetic medium and
where are they used?
A flat wave or also called a one-dimensional wave, is a wave of constant
frequency whose wave fronts (surfaces with constant phase) are parallel
planes of constant amplitude normal to the vector phase velocity. That is to
say, they are those waves that propagate in a single direction throughout
the space, like for example the waves in the springs or in the cords. If the
wave propagates in a single direction, its wave fronts are flat and parallel.

## By extension, the term is also used to describe waves that are

approximately flat in a localized region of space. For example, a source of
electromagnetic waves such as an antenna produces a field that is
approximately flat in a far field region. That is, at a distance far from the
source, the waves emitted are approximately flat and can be considered as
such.

## 1. Explain the concept of loss tangent by means of an example.

What is the loss per kilometer in a flat wave that propagates on dry land?
The frequency is 1 MHz

Loss angle 𝜙. The power factor is sin 𝜙 = cos(𝜋⁄2 − 𝜙), where 𝜋⁄2 − 𝜙 is the
𝐽
advance angle of 𝑱 with respect to 𝑬. The tangent of loss is tan 𝜙 = 𝑝𝑒𝑟⁄𝐽 =
𝑑𝑖𝑝𝑜
𝜎𝑒𝑓

𝜔𝜀′
At this frequency the dry earth has a conductivity 𝜎 = 10−5 𝑆⁄𝑚 and a relative
permittivity 𝜀 = 3. Where, 𝜎⁄𝜔𝜀 ≃ 0,06 ≪ 1, which means that the
displacement current dominates and the effect of conductivity is to attenuate
the wave that propagates. the value of the attenuation coefficient, using
(13.45), is given by
𝜎 𝜇 𝜎 𝑁𝑝
𝛼 = √ = 𝛽( ) = 3,6 ∗ 10−2 (0,03) = 1,1𝑥10−3
2 𝜀 2𝜔𝜀 𝑚
𝜔 2𝜋𝑓 2𝜋 ∗ 10 6
Where 𝛽 = ⁄𝜈 = = = 3,6 ∗ 10 𝑟𝑎𝑑⁄𝑚. In 1 km
−2
⁄(𝜐0 ⁄ 3 ∗ 108
⁄ ) ( ⁄ )
√𝜀 √3
of propagation the amplitude will have decreased from one to
−3 3
𝑒 −(1,1∗10 )(10 ) = 𝑒 −1,1 = 0,33
Or in 20 log(0,33) = 9,5 𝑑𝐵, which for many practical applications is a tolerable
loss.

## 2. What kind of information give us the propagation velocity in

electromagnetic waves propagation?

## The electromagnetic waves propagate at the speed of light in a vacuum. In

other mediums, like air or glass, the speed of propagation is slower. If the

speed of light in a vacuum is given the symbol 𝐶0 , and the speed in some a
medium is 𝑐, we can define the index of refraction, 𝑛 as:
𝐶0
𝑛=
𝐶

## 3. Explain how an electromagnetic wave behaves in free space,

perfect dielectrics and good conductors.

 Free-space/vacuum:
The care of an Electromagnetic wave in a free-space/vacuum, as we
know from the Maxwell's equations that a changing magnetic field
produces an electric field and vice versa. Electromagnetic wave
requires no medium as electric fields and magnetic fields constantly
generate each other as the wave propagates.
A classical vacuum is space without anything else in it. While this
space is traversed by an electromagnetic wave it is space filled with
energy. So it's no longer a vacuum.
Of course, you can only measure radiation by its effect on matter. The
idea behind the concept of classical wave propagation is that energy
does not "jump" but has to traverse space in order to come from point
A to point B.
The velocity c of propagation of light in a vacuum is the maximum
propagation speed of electromagnetic waves. The value adopted for
this constant is:
1 m
𝑐 = (ε0μ0) − = 299 792 458
2 s
The propagation of electromagnetic waves in dry air is almost as in a
vacuum (because air is an almost non-polar and non-magnetic
medium). So, in many phenomena it is the same to consider air or
vacuum. However, there are exceptions. For example, if there is
moisture in the air, water molecules absorb certain microwave

 Perfect dielectrics:
Medium without losses:
σ ≡ 0 S/m ∴ ε" = 0 y ε′ = εσ

So
1
α = 0 y β = k = ω(με)
2
It is a medium in which there is no attenuation (𝛼 = 0), where the
phase velocity is:

1
vp = λ f = ω/β = (με) −
2
the wavelength

λ =
k
and the intrinsic impedance of the perfect dielectric medium:
μ 1
η = ( )
ε 2

 Good conductors:
Medium with considerable losses:
σ/(ωε) = ε"/ε′ >> 1
so
γ ≈ jω[με′(−jε"/ε′)] 1/2 = (jωμσ)1/2 = (j2πfμσ)1/2

But how
𝑒𝑗𝜋⁄ 𝑒𝑗𝜋⁄ (1 + 𝑗)
𝑗 1⁄2 = ( 1
2) ( ⁄2) = 4= ⁄
√2
Result
1
γ ≈ (1 + j)(πfμσ)
2
That is, for a good conductor it is:
1
α = β = (πfμσ)
2
With these relationships you can see that the case of the good driver
corresponds to a phase velocity
ω 2ω 1
vp = λ f = ≈ [ ]
β μσ 2
Which is many orders of magnitude less than in air or vacuum. For
example, in 3𝑀𝐻𝑧 copper it is 720 𝑚/𝑠
The wavelength in a good conductor is:
λ = 2π/β = vp/f = 2[π/(fμσ)]1/2
And the intrinsic impedance in the good conductor:
η = (μ/εc)1/2 ≈ (1 + j) α/σ
That has an argument of 45º (the intensity of the magnetic field is 45º
delayed with respect to the intensity of the electric field).
A very important thing in the case of the good driver, is the so-called
"shielding". The wave oscillates free electrons of the metal at the same
frequency, generating an electromagnetic field that tends to annul or
shield (prevent it from penetrating) the wave itself that reaches the
metal. Then, as it penetrates more, it moves more free electrons
generating more shielding field, and attenuating more the arriving
wave.
The length
δskin ≡ α − 1 = (πfμσ) − 1/2 ≈ (πfμ0σ) − 1/2

## To which the amplitude of a traveling plane wave is reduced by a

factor of −1 ≈ 0.368 (𝑖𝑒, 𝑐𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑒 𝑡𝑜 37%), is known as the depth of
penetration of the frequency wave f in the conductivity conductor σ.
For example, for copper it is 38 𝜇𝑚 𝑎𝑡 3𝑀𝐻𝑧 𝑎𝑛𝑑 0.66 𝜇𝑚 𝑎𝑡 10𝐺𝐻𝑧. The
depth of penetration in a good conductor (𝛼 = 𝛽) is of the same order
of magnitude as the wavelength:
𝛿𝑠𝑘𝑖𝑛 = 𝛽 − 1 = 𝜆/(2𝜋)

## 4. Using the electromagnetic spectrum, explain the practical

application of every type of radiation.

 Applications of 𝛾 𝑟𝑎𝑦𝑠
The 𝛾 𝑟𝑎𝑦𝑠 simply pass through most of the materials and can not be
reflected by mirrors such as optical photons. The 𝛾 − 𝑟𝑎𝑦 spectroscopy
is very important in studies of astrophysics and cosmology, since this
region of the electromagnetic spectrum offers a lot of information
about interesting processes that are occurring in the Universe.
In addition to high-resolution ray-spectroscopy studies for
astronomical research, rays have common uses in industry and
medicine. Due to its penetrating power, 𝑦 − 𝑟𝑎𝑦𝑠 are used to check
metal parts and determine faults. Likewise, the detectors serve to
check cargoes and verify the presence of radioactive materials, to
monitor sites of hazardous waste and environmental contamination. In
treatment of certain types of cancer.

 Applications of 𝑋 − 𝑟𝑎𝑦𝑠
Due to its characteristics, 𝑋 − 𝑟𝑎𝑦𝑠 have found many applications at the
medical level as well as at an industrial level. For its detection, several
types of detectors are required. Photographic plates, Geiger counters,
scintillation detectors and semiconductor detectors are used.
𝑋 − 𝑟𝑎𝑦 fluorescence spectroscopy. This method is based on the
phenomenon of 𝑋 − 𝑟𝑎𝑦 fluorescence. In most cases it involves the
inner levels of the K and L layers. It is used to measure the elemental
composition of a material. As the method is non-destructive and fast,
it is widely used for studies in the field and industrial production for
quality control of materials.
𝑋 − 𝑟𝑎𝑦 Dispersive Energy Spectroscopy. This spectroscopy identifies
the elemental composition of a material observed in the scanning
electron microscope (SEM) of all the elements with greater atomic
number than boron.
The most important use of 𝑋 − 𝑟𝑎𝑦 diffraction is in 𝑋 − 𝑟𝑎𝑦
crystallography and powder 𝑋 − 𝑟𝑎𝑦 diffraction. Diffraction occurs
according to Bragg's law for a crystalline substance. The electrons that

surround the nuclei of the atoms are those that interact with the 𝑋 −
𝑟𝑎𝑦 photons of the source. The analysis of the diffraction patterns
produced allows to determine the distances between planes, the
spatial group and eventually the crystalline and molecular structure of
the material. Crystallography has wide application in chemistry,
biochemistry, mineralogy, geology, metallurgy, polymers,
semiconductors, and archeology.Computed Axial Tomography (CAT).
This technique is used to get 2D and 3D views of the internal structure
of the body.

 UV-Visible applications
The variety of practical applications of the 𝑈𝑉 − 𝑣𝑖𝑠𝑖𝑏𝑙𝑒 region have
been developed due to the variety and sensitivity of the radiation
detectors in this region. The main detectors are: photomultiplier tube
(PMT), semiconductor detectors, photodiodes, charge coupled devices
(CCD).

 Infrared applications.
Infrared radiation detectors: Many of the interesting applications of the
infrared region have been developed thanks to the wide variety of
infrared detectors that already exist. These detectors are electro-
optical: they absorb electromagnetic radiation and produce an
electrical signal that is usually proportional to the irradiance (intensity
of the incident electromagnetic radiation). Depending on the type of
detector and how it operates, the production can be a voltage or a
current. An electro-optical detector is used to sense or measure the
radiation emitted or reflected by objects within the optical field of view
of the detector. The detectors are divided into two classes: thermal
detectors or quantum detectors.

 Applications of microwaves.
Microwaves have many applications: in microwave ovens for heating
and cooking food; broadcasting and telecommunications transmissions
due to a large bandwidth, as for example in microwave television;
communications and the Internet; networks in metropolitan areas
(MAN); cable television and Internet (in coaxial cable); cell phone
networks; semiconductor processing (plasma process); transmission of
energy; maser

##  Applications of radio waves

earth's surface since the atmosphere is quite transparent in the region

## of radio waves. However, observatories in space have certain

II, ISEE 1, ISEE 2, GOES 9 and Voyager 1. A special technique in radio
astronomy called interferometry, allows you to use two or more
telescopes that are far apart to create images that have the same
resolution as if there were a large telescope as large as the distance
between the individual telescopes.

Radio waves are invisible and humans do not detect them, but they
are indispensable today in modern society. The following technologies
garage door openers, wireless networks, radio controlled toys,
satellite communication, police radio , wireless clocks, baby monitors,
communication, wireless Internet access.

## 5. What is the refraction index and what kind of information give

us about the electromagnetic waves behavior?

## The refractive index (𝑛) of a material medium is defined as the quotient of

the speed of light in vacuum (𝑐) and the speed of light in the medium (𝑣).
𝑐
𝑛=
𝑣
Electromagnetic waves propagate through vacuum and when they penetrate
a material medium their wavelength is reduced proportionally to their
refractive index.
𝑐
The wavelength, 𝜆0 , in the vacuum will be: 𝜆0 = 𝑣 , and in a material medium
𝑣 𝑐 𝜆0
of refractive index, 𝜆 = 𝑉 = 𝑛𝑉 = 𝑛
If instead of going from the vacuum to a material medium, light passes from
one medium to another, you can use the relative refractive index 𝑛21 , from
medium 2 𝑡𝑜 1, defined as:
𝑛2
𝑛21 =
𝑛1
𝑐 𝜆0
𝑛2 𝑣2 𝑣1 𝑛2 𝜆2 𝜆
𝑛21 = 𝑛 = 𝑐 =𝑣 𝑂𝑟 𝑤𝑒𝑙𝑙, 𝑛21 = 𝑛 = 𝜆0 = 𝜆1
1 𝑣1 2 1 2
𝜆1
that is to say:
𝑛2 𝑣1 𝜆1
𝑛21 = = =
𝑛1 𝑣2 𝜆2

## Therefore: the refractive indices of two media are inversely proportional to

the velocities of light and the wavelengths in those media.

When the refractive index increases, the speed of light and the wavelength
decrease.

## 6. What is a plane wave and a non-plane wave and where are

they used? What is a magnetic and a nonmagnetic medium and
where are they used?

## A plane wave or also called a one-dimensional wave, is a wave of constant

frequency whose wave fronts (surfaces with constant phase) are parallel
planes of constant amplitude normal to the vector phase velocity. That is to
say, they are those waves that propagate in a single direction throughout
the space. If the wave propagates in a single direction, its wave fronts are
flat and parallel.
By extension, the term is also used to describe waves that are
approximately flat in a localized region of space. For example, a source of
electromagnetic waves such as an antenna produces a field that is
approximately flat in a far field region. That is, at a distance far from the
source, the waves emitted are approximately flat and can be considered as
such.
Circular or spherical waves, It is called a spherical wave because its wave
fronts are concentric spheres, whose centers coincide with the position of the
source of disturbance.
Sound waves are spherical waves when they propagate through a
homogeneous and isotropic medium, such as air or water at rest. Light also
propagates in the form of spherical waves in air, water, or through vacuum.
Magnetic medium
A magnetic medium is a device that stores information by means of
magnetic waves. Magnetic media are hard drives, audio tapes or cassettes.

## The tangent of loss can be defined as a dielectric parameter, which refers

to the dielectric losses of the insulating materials and evaluates the
insulation of the materials.

According to the document (Parra), it is the relation that exists between the
current of conduction and the current of displacement in a specific medium.

The tangent of loss always generates positive results and gives rise to delta
angle, these values range from 0 °, perfect dielectric, to 90 °, perfect
conductor.
𝝈
𝑻𝒂𝒏(𝜹) =
𝒘𝑬

## Example: What is the tangent of loss of seawater with a frequency of

150Hz?

𝝈 𝑨𝒈𝒖𝒂 𝒅𝒆 𝒎𝒂𝒓= 4
𝟏
𝑬𝒓 = 𝟖𝟎 W=2π*F 𝑬 = 𝑬𝜞∗ 𝑬𝟎 𝑬𝟎 =
𝟑𝟔𝝅∗𝟏𝟎−𝟗

𝟒
𝑻𝒂𝒏(𝜹) = 𝟏 =6000000 Result with Casio calculator
𝟐𝝅∗𝟏𝟓𝟎∗𝟖𝟎∗ ∗𝟏𝟎−𝟗
𝟑𝟔𝝅

calculator

## The speed of propagation of electromagnetic waves gives us information

such as the path or the advance developed by a wave in the unit of time.

m / s.

## An electromagnetic wave behaves as a propagation energy through space

without transfer of matter, is a disturbance that advances in the vacuum,
through intensity variations in magnetic and electric fields, it also depends
on the density and elasticity of the medium.

## The perfect dielectrics behave as an insulator, that they do not present

currents of conduction, therefore it does not have losses, but it is necessary
to clarify that not all the insulating materials are dielectrics.

## According to the article on (Parra), good drivers have polarization currents,

therefore, they have capacitive effects or load accumulation, but the
current of conduction and losses by joule effect is much more significant.

## The electromagnetic spectrum shows in a graph all the electromagnetic

waves that exist in the environment, such as gamma rays, x-rays, UV rays,
among many others, and describes the frequency ranges from the lowest
(more wave distances). long) and very high frequencies (shorter wave
distance).

## According to the article of electromagnetic waves, electromagnetic radiation

are waves produced by the oscillation or acceleration of an electrical
charge, which is composed of gamma rays, hard and soft X-rays, ultraviolet

## us about the electromagnetic wave’s behavior?

The refractive index is the relationship between the speed of light in the
vacuum and the speed of light in a medium.

𝒄
𝒏 = 𝒗𝟎
𝒑

## 𝒏 = 𝑰𝒏𝒅𝒆𝒙 𝒐𝒇 𝒓𝒆𝒇𝒓𝒂𝒄𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 𝒐𝒇 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝒎𝒆𝒅𝒊𝒖𝒎.

6. What is a plane wave and a non-plane wave and where are they

## are they used?

A plane wave, are those that propagate in a single direction in space and are
constant, are also called one-dimensional, that is, according to (CHAPTER 1:
Propagation of plane waves), indicates that the fields of vectors E and H,
they are in a plane at each point in space.

They are used to emit waves at long distances, such as cell phones, radios.

## The magnetic means are devices in charge of storing information, by means

of magnetic waves.

They are used in magnetic tapes, magnetic disks, this is due to the
ownership of their materials.

## The tangent of losses in a medium or tangent Delta, is a parameter of the

dielectric material which does not represent the total of the volume losses of
the same, the quality of the insulator can be defined with δ where we
establish a value of δ ~ 0 ° for the good materials you see we have the
power angle φ ~ 90.
An example with which the use of the tan δ can be explained is to establish
the drying time for the solid insulator in a power transformer which must
subsequently be submerged in a dielectric oil, these materials according to
their charge, contamination and the others factors should be reviewed over
time.

## 2. What kind of information give us the propagation velocity in

electromagnetic waves propagation?

## The propagation velocity in electromagnetic waves gives us the distance that

this wave can travel in a period of time, usually the speed is equal to that of
light the phase velocity depends on the electromagnetic properties of the
medium where it propagates.

## 3. Explain how an electromagnetic wave behaves in free space,

perfect dielectrics and good conductors.

The electromagnetic waves in the free space present losses achieving the
dispersion and reducing the density of power or the attenuation in this
medium can also be lost due to the absorption due to the particles that the
medium has, the electromagnetic waves present an attenuation to the
measure that they move away from their source not by loss of power but by
the spherical dispersion.
The propagation in the ideal dielectrics is similar to the propagation in
vacuum but if there is a difference and it is in the parameter of permitivity
which if it is different and affects the flat waves, this causes refraction,
speed, etc. to vary. . For the ideal dielectric the impedance is resist pure and
the real dielectric the impedance is complex.

## Considering the relation σ / (ωε) in good conductors is a very large

magnitude, it can be concluded that for a conductive medium, the intrinsic
impedance is small, This implies that the relation between electric and
magnetic field is smaller for a conductive medium than for the vacuum.

PROBLEMS

## 1. A dissipative medium has the following parameters:

ε_r=4.5, μ_r=1.2 and σ=1.2 S/m
Find the wavelength and the amount of wavelengths that will
penetrate a 6MHz signal.

## The phase constant: β= 5.84 rad/m

𝟐𝝅
The wavelength: 𝐬𝐨𝐥𝐯𝐞 (𝝀=𝟓.𝟖𝟒)

## The wavelength is= 1.075887895065 m

The depth of penetration:

## The wave penetrates:

𝑹𝒆𝒔𝒖𝒍𝒕𝒂𝒅𝒐 𝒑𝒓𝒐𝒇𝒖𝒏𝒅𝒊𝒅𝒂𝒅 𝒅𝒆 𝒑𝒆𝒏𝒆𝒕𝒓𝒂𝒄𝒊𝒐𝒏
𝜹𝑷 (𝝀) = = 𝟎, 𝟏𝟓𝟗𝟎𝟔𝟗𝟕𝟔𝟕𝟒𝟒𝟒𝟏𝟗 𝝀
𝑹𝒆𝒔𝒖𝒍𝒕𝒂𝒅𝒐 𝒅𝒆 𝒍𝒐𝒏𝒈𝒊𝒕𝒖𝒅 𝒅𝒆 𝒐𝒏𝒅𝒂
“penetration of the wave”.

## 2. In a medium with the following characteristics, 𝜺𝒓 = 𝟒, 𝝁𝒓 = 𝟏. 𝟔

and 𝝈 = 𝟐. 𝟑𝒙𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝑺/𝒎 find these parameters for a 300MHz signal:
a. Loss tangent.
b. Propagation constant.
c. Phase velocity.
d. Wavelength.
e. Index of refraction.

Solution:

## 𝜎 2,3 ∗ 10−4 𝑆⁄𝑚

𝑇𝑎𝑛(𝛿) = =
𝜔𝜖 2𝜋 ∗ 108 𝑟𝑎𝑑⁄𝑠𝑒𝑔 ∗ 4 ∗ 1 ∗ 10−9 𝐹 ⁄𝑀
36𝜋
𝑇𝑎𝑛(𝛿) = 0,00104

## It is a loss tangent of less than 0.1, so that the medium can be

characterized as a dielectric with low losses, therefore:

108 𝑟𝑎𝑑 1
𝛾 = 𝑗𝜔√𝜇𝜖𝑗2𝜋 ∗ ∗ √4𝜋 ∗ 10−7 𝐻/𝑚 ∗ 4 ∗ ∗ 10−9 𝐹 ⁄𝑀
𝑠𝑒𝑔 36𝜋

4𝜋
𝛾=𝑗 √2
3
4𝜋
𝛽= √2𝑟𝑎𝑑/𝑚
3

𝜇 4𝜋 ∗ 10−7 𝐻/𝑚
𝜂√ = √ = 366,6Ω
𝜖 1 −9
4 ∗ 36𝜋 ∗ 10 𝐹 ⁄𝑀

## 𝜎𝜂 2,3 ∗ 10−4 𝑆⁄𝑚 ∗ 366,6Ω

𝛼= = = 420,910−4 𝑁𝑝/𝑚
2 2

## The phase velocity:

𝜔 2𝜋 ∗ 108 𝑟𝑎𝑑⁄𝑠𝑒𝑔
𝑉𝑝 = = = 1061348𝐾𝑚/𝑠
𝛽 4𝜋
3 √2𝑟𝑎𝑑/𝑚

The wavelength:

2𝜋 2𝜋 𝑟𝑎𝑑
𝜆= = = 2,12𝑚
𝛽 4𝜋
3 √2𝑟𝑎𝑑/𝑚

𝑓𝑣 = = = 0,354
𝐶𝑜 3 ∗ 108 /𝑠

1 1
𝑛= = = 2,83
𝑓𝑣 0,354

## 3. An open medium has the following electromagnetic

characteristics 𝜀𝑟 = 9, 𝜇𝑟 = 1.6 and 𝜎 = 1.2𝑥10−5 𝑆/𝑚
Find the power transmitted by a 120MHz signal with a
maximum electric field of 200V/m and find the skin depth of
the signal.

## 4. For a medium with the same electromagnetic characteristics

than the third problem, find the losses per length unit for a
80MHz signal. If the original signal has an electric field of
120Vrms/m. Find the losses in watts when the signal travels
10m in the medium.

## 5. For a 1GHz signal, traveling in seawater find the attenuation

per length unit. How long does the signal have to travel, in order to
have an attenuation greater than 𝟑𝒅𝑩?

## π = 3.14 f = 1GH µ=1 σ=4

a = √π ∗ f ∗ µ ∗ σ

a = √π ∗ 1 ∗ 1 ∗ 4 = 3.5449 𝑁𝑝/𝑚
1
eaz =
2
1
e−az = 2 ≫ 𝑧= ∗ ln(2)
𝑎
1
𝑧= ∗ ln(2)
3.5449
𝑧 = 0.1958 𝑚𝑚

## IN AN EXCEL DOCUMENT MAKE THE FOLLOWING ACTIONS

In a sheet put the following table, assigning an average frequency for every

## Illustration 1.Frequency Prom

Selected Range of
Acronym Meaning
frequency frequency

Extra Low
ELF 15 Hz 3-30 Hz
Frequency

Super Low
SLF 150Hz 30-300 Hz
Frequency

Ultra-Low
ULF 500 Hz 300-3000 Hz
Frequency

Very Low
VLF 15KHz 3-30 KHz
Frequency

Low
LF 100 KHz 30-300 KHz
Frequency

Medium
MF 1500 KHz 300-3000KHz
Frequency

High
HF 15 MHz 3-30 MHz
Frequency

Very High
VHF 150 MHz 30-300 MHz
Frequency

Ultra-High 300-
UHF 1500 MHz
Frequency 3000MHz

Super High
SHF 15 GHz 3-30 GHz
Frequency

Extra High
EHF 150 GHz 30-300 GHz
Frequency

## Illustration 2. Reference values for the tangent calculation.

Note: Reference values for the calculation of the tangent of losses for
different physical media

## In another sheet define 9 different mediums with their electromagnetic

characteristics and let the user to select the medium and automatically

CONCLUSIONS

##  It deepens acquired knowledge, skills in order to achieve an

appropriate concept management in the development of aspects
related to the concepts, Electromagnetic waves in perfect dielectrics,
Waves on good conductors and good insulators, Propagation on open
mediums in the solution of practical problems in their field of
education, acquiring skills in the management of ICT, and thus in this
way and with the general concepts of electromagnetic waves, the use
of them to understand the use of these tools in real life. Strategies are
recognized by the student, which lead to recognition, knowledge,
deepening and finally transfer what has been learned creating a
synergy within the group, achieved through the discussion of each of
the topics discussed.
 I know it is an electromagnetic wave.
 I learned how medium an electromagnetic wave can be transmitted,
its frequency and wave length.
 Reflection is the change of direction with return to the initial
environment.
 The refraction is the change of direction and change of medium.
 The proper use of electromagnetic waves in applications of medical use
can help the modification of tissues and the analysis of them.