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CHAPTER :

COPPER ALLOYS
I Alloy name: Yellow brass & leaded yelllow brass
Yellow brass is an alloy between copper and zinc. The zinc content is usually found
around 30%. Their special advantage is that they can be readily cast, worked with
file and chisel, and easily gilded. In addition, they have good castability, with some
alloys being permanent mold cast or diecast. Yellow brass has a pleasant yellow
color that can be polished to a high luster.

Composition:
Cu-30 Zn- 4 Pb
Important Temperatures:
Liquidus: 899-941 °C
Solidus: 871-927 °C
Pouring:
Light casting (L): 1065-1175
Heavy casting (H): 1010-1095

Shrinkage: 2%
Application: Faucets, tubing, bolts, marine castings, gears, bushings and bearings, gun
mounts

II Alloy name: Manganese bronze


Manganese-bronze, which contains zinc (22-42%) as the major alloying element, is
among the strongest cast copper alloys. Where economically feasible, aluminum-
bronze replaces manganese-bronze because it offers high strength in combination
with better corrosion resistance.

Composition:
Cu-32 Zn- 5 Mn
Important Temperatures:
Liquidus: 880-941 °C
Solidus: 862-899 °C
Pouring:
L: 1040-1175 °C
H: 950-1065 °C

Shrinkage: 1.9-2.3 %
Application: Gears, bolts and valve stems
III Alloy name: Aluminium bronze
Aluminum-bronze has a complex metallurgical structure that imparts both strength
and oxidization resistance due to the formation of alumina-rich protective films.
These alloys are wear-resistant and exhibit good casting and welding
characteristics. Their corrosion resistance is superior in seawater, chloride and dilute
acids. The aluminum bronze alloys that contain nickel are desirable for fluid-moving
applications, such as pump impellers, because of superior erosion, corrosion and
cavitation resistance.

Composition:
Cu- 11 Al- 2.5 Fe- 6 Ni
Important Temperatures:
Liquidus: 990-1054 °C
Solidus: 950-1038 °C
Pouring:
L: 1065-1290 °C
H: 1010-1230 °C

Shrinkage: 1.6 %
Application: Propellers and valves, pickling hooks, pickling baskets and wear rings

IV Alloy name: Silicon brass


Silicon-bronze and silicon-brass are alloys of zinc and silicon that have low melting
points and high fluidity, which favor permanent mold and diecasting. Because of its
low lead content, silicon-bronze often is a replacement for leaded plumbing brasses,
but its limited machinability inhibits use in high-volume potable water systems.

Composition:
Cu- 14 Zn- 4 Si
Important Temperatures:
Liquidus: 916 °C
Solidus: 821 °C
Pouring:
L: 1040-1095 °C
H: 980-1040 °C

Shrinkage: 1.9 %
Application: immersed pumps
V Alloy name: Silicon bronze
Silicon-bronze and silicon-brass are alloys of zinc and silicon that have low melting
points and high fluidity, which favor permanent mold and diecasting. Because of its
low lead content, silicon-bronze often is a replacement for leaded plumbing brasses,
but its limited machinability inhibits use in high-volume potable water systems.

Composition:
Cu- 4 Zn- 1 Sn- 4 Si
Important Temperatures:
Liquidus: 916-971 °C
Solidus: 821-860 °C
Pouring:
L: 1095-1175 °C
H: 1010-1095 °C

Shrinkage: 1.8-2.0 %
Application: immersed pumps

VI Alloy name: Leaded red brass


The red brasses are alloys of zinc and tin and may contain lead. Lead is present to
promote pressure tightness in service and to facilitate free machining during
manufacturing. The red color is due to low zinc content. The highest volume red
brass alloy (C83600) has been used commercially for hundreds of years and
accounts for more tonnage than any other alloy

Composition:
Cu- 8 Zn- 4 Sn- 4 Pb
Important Temperatures:
Liquidus: 1004-1015 °C
Solidus: 843-860 °C
Pouring:
L: 1130-1290 °C
H: 1065-1175 °C

Shrinkage: 5.7 %
Application: plumbing fittings, such as unions, valves and water meters
VII Alloy name: Leaded semi-red brass
Semi-red brass has higher zinc content than the red brasses, which reduces
corrosion resistance, lowers raw material costs and lightens the color (but has little
effect on strength). They have outstanding aqueous corrosion resistance

Composition:
Cu- 12 Zn- 4 Sn- 5.5 Pb
Important Temperatures:
Liquidus: 954-1004 °C
Solidus: 832-843 °C
Pouring:
L: 1150-1260 °C
H: 1065-1175 °C

Shrinkage: 1.4-2.0 %
Application: plumbing fittings, such as unions, valves and water meters

VIII Alloy name: Tin bronze


Tin-bronze is an alloy of copper and tin with good aqueous corrosion-resistance.
Additional attributes include high strength, good wear resistance and a low friction
coefficient compared to steel.

Composition:
Cu- 13 Sn
Important Temperatures:
Liquidus: 889-1000 °C
Solidus: 818-854 °C
Pouring:
L: 1040-1260 °C
H: 980-1175 °C

Shrinkage: 1.5-1.8 %
Application: bearings, piston rings and gear parts
IX Alloy name: Leaded tin bronze
These alloys are a tin-bronze containing 0.3-6% lead. Leaded tin-bronze offers the
additional advantage of free cutting.

Composition:
Cu- 11 Sn- 4 Pb
Important Temperatures:
Liquidus: 982-999 °C
Solidus: 826-854 °C
Pouring:
L: 1150-1260 °C
H: 1040-1175 °C

Shrinkage: 1.5 %
Application: bearings, piston rings and gear parts

X Alloy name: High-leaded tin bronze


This is a tin-bronze containing 2-34% lead. High-leaded tin-bronze is used in sleeve
bearings and bushings because the additional lead provides improved lubricity.

Composition:
Cu- 10 Sn- 12 Pb
Important Temperatures:
Liquidus: 929-1031 °C
Solidus: 762-1000 °C
Pouring:
L: 1095-1230 °C
H: 1010-1121 °C
Shrinkage: 1.5 %
Application: sleeve bearings and bushings