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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MALE


AND FEMALE STUDENTS IN THE
COMPETENCIES OF
ENTREPRENEURSHIP

Conference Paper · May 2016

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Elvira Catic-Kajtazovic Amra Nuhanovic


Univerzitet u Bihaću University of Tuzla
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3rd International Conference
„NEW TECHNOLOGIES NT-2016” Development and Application

RAZLIKE IZMEĈU STUDENATA I STUDENTICA U


KOMPETENCIJI PODUZETNIŠTVA

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MALE AND FEMALE STUDENTS IN


THE COMPETENCIES OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP

Elvira ûatiü-Kajtazoviü1, Amra Nuhanoviü2, Sanita Bilanoviü


1
University of Bihac, Faculty of Economics Bihaü, elviracatickajtazovic@gmail.com
2
University of Tuzla, Faculty of Economics Tuzla,
Univerzitetska 8, Tuzla, amra.kozaric@untz.ba
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SAŽETAK:
Kompetencija poduzetništva predstavlja sposobnost pojedinca da realizuje vlastite ideje, da
preuzme odgovornost, da inicira i pokreüe promjene, da je motiviran, proaktivan, inovativan te
spreman na preuzimanje rizika i timski rad. Kao jedna od osam kljuþnih kompetencija definiranih
Europskim okvirom, poduzetniþka kompetencija još uvijek nije ispravno shvaüena u Bosni i
Hercegovini. Pored navedenog, oþit je i nedostatak razumijevanja uloge poduzetniþke
kompetencije u ekonomskom rastu i razvoju.
Pomoüu Alata za procjenu poduzetniþke kompetencije raÿeno je istraživanje na prigodnom uzorku
bosanskohercegovaþkih studenata. U ovom radu prezentirani su rezultati dijela istraživanja koji
su se odnosili na spolne razlike ispitanika u kompetenciji poduzetništva.

Kljuþne rijeþi: Bosna i Hercegovina, kompetencije, poduzetništvo, studenti, studentice

ABSTRACT:
The competence of entrepreneurship represents the ability of an individual to: implement own
ideas, take responsibility, initiate and launch changes, to be motivated, proactive, innovative and
willing to take risks and work in a team. As one of the eight key competences defined in the
European framework, the entrepreneurial competence is still not properly understood in Bosnia
and Herzegovina and is mainly related to "starting a business".
Research results of the Estimator of the entrepreneurial competence have shown that male
students in Bosnia and Herzegovina have statistically significant higher values in entrepreneurial
skills and entrepreneurial intentions compared to female students. These results were confirmed
by answers to questions regarding career and willingness to adjust.

Keywords: Bosnia and Herzegovina, competencies, enterpreneuship, male students,


female students

1. INTRODUCTION

The importance of entrepreneurial competence is shown by the fact that the European Commission
included Sense of initiative and entrepreneurship as a priority task, or as one of the "Key
Competences for Lifelong Learning", in the European Key Competence Framework from 2006.
Entrepreneurial competence is a far broader concept than starting a company (business).
It primarily involves the ability to turn ideas into action, the ability to take responsibility,
innovation, initiative, initiation and acceptance of changes, motivation, risk-taking and teamwork.

478 Editors: Vlatko Doleþek, Isak Karabegoviü, Sead Pašiü


3rd International Conference
„NEW TECHNOLOGIES NT-2016” Development and Application

"Entrepreneurial competence can be defined as a combination of knowledge, skills, attitudes and


abilities to create and detect opportunities in the environment, make changes and direct behavior to
successfully deal with the task of creating and managing an organization whose aim is to exploit
these opportunities and cope with the increasing level of uncertainty and complexity in an
environment full of challenges“[5].
In Bosnia and Herzegovina, according to a stereotype, risk taking and initiative are to reserved for
men. Andit is not only in BiH, the stereotype of the man as driver of changes is deeply embedded
in the neighboring countries as evidenced by a number of researchs. Stereotype, according to
Aronson et al. (2005, p. 461), is the "generalization about a group of people in which identical
characteristics are attributed almost to all members of the group, regardless of actual variation
among the members" [8].

2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The survey was conducted by using the ASTEE questionnaire (Tool to assess the entrepreneurial
competence). After obtaining the permission to use this questionnaire in Bosnia and Herzegovina,
it was translated and tested by a pilot survey on a sample of 60 students. The pilot survey was used
to detect whether the questionnaire is understood properly. The survey questions refer to "the
entrepreneurial knowledge, entrepreneurial skills, attitude towards entrepreneurship,
entrepreneurial intentions and sense of initiative." After the pilot studies and additional
modifications, the research was conducted among students from the University of Bihac,
University of Sarajevo and the University of Tuzla [2].
Preliminary review of the returned questionnaires resulted in 358 completed questionnaires, that
could be accepted as valid answers and these questionnaires were statistically processed in SPSS
(software version 20).
The objective of this part of the research was to discover the potential impact of gender on
entrepreneurial knowledge, entrepreneurial skills, attitude towards entrepreneurship,
entrepreneurial intentions and sense of initiative.
The following hypotheses were set on the basis of variables in ASTEE questionnaire:
H1: Entrepreneurial competencies differ between male and female students.
H2:There is a difference between male and female students when it comes to wishes referring to
starting their own business, working in the private or public sector after graduation.
H3: There is a difference between male and female students when it comes to willingness to do
jobs they were not college-educated for, or jobs that don´t require a university degree.

3. RESEARCH RESULTS

A number of studies have confirmed that women have less desire to start their own business than
men [4, 9], women give less importance to money [6], and in the promotion of entrepreneurial
intention men and women should be treated as different target groups [1, 3].
On independent samples the T-test compared test results of entrepreneurial mindset, knowledge,
skills and intentions of male and female students.
Statistically significant differences are presented in the following table. The table shows that there
are statistically significant differences between male and female students in following variables:
creativity, financial literacy, managing ambiguity, marshalling of resources, planning and
entrepreneurial intentions. A review of achieved averages shows all variables and values are
higher for males students compared to female students. Therefor, male students in Bosnia and
Herzegovina have statistically significant higher values in entrepreneurial skills and
entrepreneurial intentions than female students.

Editors: Vlatko Doleþek, Isak Karabegoviü, Sead Pašiü 479


3rd International Conference
„NEW TECHNOLOGIES NT-2016” Development and Application

Table 1: Statistically significant differences in entrepreneurial skills and intentions

Scales Dependent variables Genderl N M SD t Df p


Creativity M 158 4,72 0,90
3,15 356 0,00
F 200 4,40 0,94
Financial literacy M
158 4,12 1,19
2,17 352,55 0,03
F 200 3,83 1,37
Managing uncertainty M 158 4,59 0,85
Skills 2,57 356 0,01
F 200 4,33 0,97
Shunting resources M 158 4,85 0,99
2,11 356 0,04
F 200 4,61 1,11
Planning M 158 4,59 1,03
3,45 355,49 0,00
F 200 4,17 1,26
Intentions Entrepreneurial intentions M 158 4,56 1,37
3,10 356 0,00
F 200 4,08 1,51

There are no statistically significant differences in variables of entrepreneurial spirit, self


assessment, entrepreneurial attitudes, entrepreneurial skills and innovative employee. Though,
review of the actual mean values clearly demonstrates that the achieved averages are slightly
higher for men than women (except variables of entrepreneurial knowledge and innovative
employee). This only confirmed the results of earlier studies that tell us that women are less
interested in entrepreneurship, starting their own business, etc., as compared to men - or
"entrepreneurship is still considered largely as a "male" occupation“ “[7, 8]. At the same time
(average for the variables of entrepreneurial knowledge) the research partly confirms that "girls
tend to have higher grades and higher pass rates on the final exam/graduation than boys, and boys
are more likely to leave school or repeat their school year“ “[13]. Therefore it's about stereotypes
and lack of understanding of entrepreneurial competence that is far a broader concept than just a
"starting a business". Confirmation of the statements above is evident in answers about future
career and employment. Namely, in order to reveal more information about the student´s way of
thinking, their approach to the problem of unemployment, awareness of the environment they are
living in and their plans regarding the above, students were offered the following questions:
1. After graduation you want to:
 Start your own business
 Work in the private sector
 Work in the public sector
2. Would you agree to do jobs that require only a high school degree?
3. Would you agree to labor that is not your profession?
4. Would you accept to work as a seller?

Only 28.21% of female students want to start their own business, while a high percentage of
61,54% of female students want to work in the public sector which they see as a safe source of
existence and the possibility of balancing work and family life. On the other hand 48% of male
students want to start their own business. There is statistically significant difference in responses
between male and female students (t = -4.11; p = 0.00, p <0.05). The differences are even more
evident when presented in the following figures:

480 Editors: Vlatko Doleþek, Isak Karabegoviü, Sead Pašiü


3rd International Conference
„NEW TECHNOLOGIES NT-2016” Development and Application

Figures 1: Difference between male and female students when it comes to wishes referring to
starting their own business, working in the private or public sector after graduation

Editors: Vlatko Doleþek, Isak Karabegoviü, Sead Pašiü 481


3rd International Conference
„NEW TECHNOLOGIES NT-2016” Development and Application

Somewhat surprising results were shown in the analysis of answers to following questions (the
work is not your profession, working with secondary education and working as a seller). All
answers showed a noticeable greater willingness of male students compared to female students. A
statistically significant difference (p <0.05) appeared in answers to the question: Would you agree
to labor that is not your profession? Though the eta square indicates a low effect size (eta squared
= 0.021), with caution it can be concluded that male students are more flexible than female
students, or more adaptable to change and more entrepreneurial.

3. CONCLUSION

On the basis of this research, we can conclude that there is a difference in entrepreneurial
competences with regard to the gender of the target group. It should be emphasized that the target
group is composed of students of different faculties of three universities in Bosnia and
Herzegovina. As expected according to the stereotype and characteristics of a patriarchal
environment in which they grew up, male students show significantly higher values of
entrepreneurial competencies that are needed to start a businesses. This can be related to the
attitude that the man is the one who earns money and takes care of the family. On the other hand,
although female students have entrepreneurial skills, it is evident that they do not show the desire
to get out of their "security zone", wich is often seen as a job in the public sector, preferably in
their vocation, not exposing themselves to risks that come with running your own business. This
mold of behavior just results in a society where men are initiators of change, have higher incomes,
as well as decision-making power within the family and society. We can conclude that there is a
need for different teaching approaches in the development of entrepreneurial competencies, given
the differences between genders, with special emphasis on encouraging female students to start
their own businesses.

4. REFERENCES

[1] B. Moriü Milovanoviü, S. Srhoj, T. Krišto, Modeliranje poduzetniþkih namjera studenata i


studentica Sveuþilišta u Zagrebu, Zbornik Ekonomskog fakulteta u Zagrebu, godina 13, 2,
2015, 17-47.
[2] E. ûatiü-Kajtazoviü, A. Nuhanoviü, S. Bilanoviü, Empirical study of assessment of
entrepreneurial skills, knowledge and attitudes of university students in Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Researching Economic Development and Entrepreneurship in Transition
Economies, REDETE 2015.
[3] H. Leroy, J. Maes, L. Sels, J. Debrulle, Gender effects on entrepreneurial intentions: a
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[4] L. Lee, P. Wong, M. Foo, and A. Leung, Entrepreneurial intentions: the influence
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[5] L. Sedlan-KĘnig, Poduzetniþka kompetencija kao izvor konkurentnosti studenata na tržištu
rada, Ekonomski vjesnik, God. XXVI, 1, 2013, 57-70.
[6] S. Cromie, Motivations of aspiring male and female entrepreneurs, Journal of
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[7] V. K. Gupta, D. Turban, S. A. Wasti, A. Sikdar, The role of gender stereotypes in
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[8] V. Živoder, and M. Kolega, Razlike izmeÿu studenata i studentica u identifikaciji s
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610.

482 Editors: Vlatko Doleþek, Isak Karabegoviü, Sead Pašiü


3rd International Conference
„NEW TECHNOLOGIES NT-2016” Development and Application

[9] Y. Zhang, G. M. Duijsters, and M.M.A.H. Cloodt, The role of entrepreneurship education
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[10] Key competences for lifelong learning — a european reference framework http://eur-
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[11] http://asteeproject.eu/assessment-tools/ireland (accessed 15.03.2015.)
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[13] EACEA, Rodne razlike u obrazovnim ishodima, Eurydice, 2010,
http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/Education/eurydice/documents/thematic_reports/120HR_HI.pdf

Editors: Vlatko Doleþek, Isak Karabegoviü, Sead Pašiü 483

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