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SPACE, ·TIME AND ARCHITECTURE

LONDON : GEOFFREY' CUMBERLEGE


OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
CAMBRIDGE 9 MASSACHUSETTS
HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS
1952

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FOREWORD TO THE EIGHTH PRINTING

Jacob Burckhardt and Heinrich vVoeffiin never touched their


COPYRIGHT, 1941, 1949
by the President and Fellows
books once they were written ; they Jet others "improve" later
of Harvard College editions. Jacob Burckhardt, in reference to a late printing
of his Cicerone , once remarked to his students, " I can really
PRINTINGS
recommend this book to you ; nine tenths of it have been re-
Jirst, March 1941
second, August 1941 written by others."
third, February 1942
fourth, April 1943 Indeed, books are born of a particular moment ; it does no
fifth, July 1944 good to revise thern later. For the eighth printing of Space,
sixth, June 1946 Time and Archileclure we have merely added sorne new illus-
seventh, June 19-17
eighth, enlarged, November 1949 trations, scattered here and there throughout the book; sorne
ninth, January 1952 pages on " Gusta ve Eiffel and His Tower"; sorne additional
PRINTED
notes on the works of Robert Maillart ; and a chapter on
et the Harvard University Printinl! Officc
Alvar Aalto.
s.
Cambridge, .Mas.s., U. A.
Maybe this book has slowly found its way through the
TYPOGRAPHY English-speaking world because it shows - in the field of
by Hcrbert Bayer architecture - the gap which exists today between thought
and feeling. In investigating the causes of this break, the
problern of rnechanization carne to the fore. The results of
this research, however incomplete, are set down in Mechani-
:alion Takes Command (Oxford University Press, 1948).

ZumcH, DowERTAL, MAY 1949 S. G.

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FOREWORD
. ared by Mr. R. Bollomley.
tures the English vers10n :ias:,.:~rt Mallhews made the Eng-
Space Time and Architecture is intended for those wh
'
alarmed by the present state of our culture and anxious to fi
o~ Mr. W . J . C~llaghan an~ o{" which was completed at Cam-
· contract·1ctory tendencies•nd lish translat1on of the . o , S rin of 1940.
a way out of the apparent ch aos of 1ts bridge, Massac_husetts, m the Up . g ·ty I found myself the
I have attempted to establish, both by argument and by oh• · . t Harvard mvers1 . .
· sp1te
· o f t h e seemmg
· conf us1on· there is nev. Dunng my stay ª and warm friendsh1p fr~m
tive evidence, that m Jec. 1 1
recipient of such generous rn p as I should wish is qmte
ertheless a true, if hidden, unity, a secret syn thesis, in our prese t i, ·t t thank evervone .
every quarter t11a o " t ºtude to the chairmen
. B I -·t express my ara I
civilization. To point out why this synthesis h as nol beco;e imposs1ble. ut :"1u:; , C mi:, ittee Professor Paul J .
·l Ehot Norton om • . ..
a conscious and active reality has been one of my chief aims. of t h e Ch a1 es ·b for their never-faihng coop-
My interest has been particularly concentrated on the growth Sachs and Prof~s ·or E . w .: o, ;s, f or Joseph J-fodnul , Dea n
eration and a . ·1s tance, an to ro e . - many occa-
of the new tradition in architecture, for the purpose of show-
of the School of Architecturh~ a~ ~Iar;tr~~~~;:~~ s;or personal
ing its interrelations with other human activities and the sions encouragcd me by is n en Y t H V
similarity of methods that are in use totlay in architecture, ad vice I aro indebted to Profe . ors J<ennelh Conan ' . .
construction, painting, city planning, and scieuce. Hubbard, and Chrislopher Tunnard. .
I have found it preferable, in order to arrive at a true and Nor would I fail to acknowledge what I ~,rn to the vanous
complete understanding of the growth of the new tradition, to librarians who gave me at all_times ungrudg~ng and_r:?'Y ~e~~;
select from the vast body of available historical material only often much beyond the reqmrements ?f tbelf du:y . iss
relatively few facts. Hislory is not a compilalion of facls , bul Cook of the Architectural Librar-y, lVhss J<alherine McNamara
an insight inlo a moving process of lije. Moreover, such insight is of the Landscape Architecture Librar-y, an~ Mr. R : H . Hayne;
obtained not ¡by the exclusive use of the panoramic survey, of the Widener Librar-y, at HaTVard ; Miss Man_on Rawls o
the Art Instit ute of Chicago ; Miss Janet Henrich and Mr.
the bird's-eye- view, but by isolating and examining certain
Beaumont Newhall of t he l\1 useum of Mod~rn Art, N ew York;
specific events intensively, penetrating and exploring them in
and finally but by no means least, n:1)'. fnend 1:dward Carter,
the manner of the close-up. This procedure makes it possible Librarían of the Royal Institute of Bnt1sh Architects, London.
to evaluate a culture from within as well as from without.
I am deeply indebted to Miss Conslance Purlell of ~oston for
In keeping with this approach, the bibliographical apparatus her careful editorial assistance, which she h as so grac1ously a nd
has been reduced to a mínimum. For those interested in efficiently continued in my absence.
furth er study and research in the subject, the necessary in- ZURICH, DOLDEHTAL, JUNE 1940 S.G.
formation is given in footnotes. No general bibliography ~as
been provided. I ts addition, in view of the theme and design
of the book, would sirnply have swollen the volume by so~e
fifty extra~pages without at the same time affording scientific
completeness.
Space, Time and Archileclure was written in stimulating as-
sociation with young Americans - an outgrowth of lectures
and seminars which I gave as Charles Eliot Norton Professor
· • · was
at 1-Iarvard University. The problem of its compositwn.
. . n mto
10
to transmute the spoken word of Iecture and d1scuss C G.J
the quite different medium of the printed page. For the ]ec-
-Q,i· -1 i
150
CONTENTS The Interrelations of Architecture and Engineering 152
Henri Labrouste, 1801-1875 · · · · · ~~L~~.~~~ 164
NEW BUILDING PROBLEMS - NEW 164
Market Halls • · · · · · · · · · · · 168
Part I 178
Department Stores . • · · ·
HISTORY A PART OF LIFE . THE GREAT EXHIBITIONS lM
The Great Exhibition , London , 1851 • 190
INTROOUCTION
The Universal Exhibition , Paris, 1855 . 194
THE HISTORIAN'~ ~~L~~.~~ ~~ ~l¡S . A~~ . 2
199
5 Paris Exhibition of 1867
THE OEMANO FOR CONTINUITY . 202
7 Paris Exhibition of 1878
CONTEMPORARY HISTORY ..... .
Paris Exhibition of 1889 209
8
THE IDENTITY OF METHOO~ . . 212
11 Chicago , 1893 . • • • · · · · • • · ·
TRANSITORY ANO CONSTIT~N~ -F~~;S
17
CU STAVE EIFFEL AN D ms TOWEH
ARCHITECTURE AS AN ORGANIS!\1
19
PROCEOURE . . . . . . . . . . . .
23
Part IV 225
THE DEMAND FOR MORALITY IN ARCHITECTURE
Part II 226
THE NINETIES : PRECURSORS OF CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE
227
OUR ARCHITECTURAL INHERITANCE 29 What were the Sources of this Movement? • · · · · · · · · · 229
THE NEW SPACE CONCEPTION: PERSPECTIVE Brusseb the Center of Contemporary Art, 1880- 1890 233
THE LATE llAROQUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Victor Horto's Contribution . . . . . . . • • • • • · 2,1.2
THE UNOULATING WALL ANO THE FLEXIBLE G~l~ ~N ~ ·P~¡ N·
Berlage's Stock Exchange and the Demandfor Morality 250
Otto Wagner and the Viennese School . . • • • • • · · 256
Francesco Borromini, 1599-1667 .
FERROCONCllETE AND ITS INFLUENCE UPON ARCHITECTURE
Guarino Guarini , 1624- 1683 . . . 55 262
A. G. Perret . 265
South Germany: Vierzehnheiligen 61
Tony Garnier
THE ORGANIZATION OF OUTER SPACE 68
The Residential Group and Nature . 68
Single Squares . . . . . . . 75 PartV
269
Series of lnterrelated Squares 78 AMERICAN DEVELOPMENT
270
Europe Obsen•es American Production .
2711
Part 111 The Structure of American lndustry . .
281
THE BALLOON FHAME AND INDUSTRIALIZATION
THE EVOLUTION OF NEW POTENTIALITIES 97 21.15
The Balloon Frame and the Building - up of tite West .
lndustrialization as a Fundamental Event 99 285
The lnvention of the Balloon Frome . . . .
IHON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 2H6
George Washington Snow, 1797 - 1870 . . . . . . . . .
103 The Balloon Frame and the Windsor Cllair . . . . . . 2Hll
Early lron Construction in England
105 Pl,AN E SUHFACES IN AMERICAN AUClllTECTURE 289
The Sunderland Bridge . . . . . .
108 The Flexible and Informal Ground Plan 2<J7
Early lron Construction on the Continent
115 TIIE CHICAGO SCIIOOL :10:1
FIWM THE IHON COLUMN TO TIIE STEEL FltAME
117 The Apartment House . :no
The Cast-lron Column
12,i TOWAHD PUHE FOllMS :n5
TOWAHD TIIE STEEL FHAME :111
129 Tlle Leiter Building, 1889
James Bogardus . . . . . :121
134 Tite Reliance Building, 1894
The St . Louis River Front
UB Sullivan: Tite Carson , Pirie, Scott Store, 1899-1906
Early Skeleton Buildings The lnj/uence of the Chicago World's Fair, 1893
Elevators . . . .... 142
]46
TIIE SCHISM BETWEEN AHCHITECTURE AND TECIINOLOG Y
1'he /)emand for a New Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . 1411

viii
FRANK LLOYD WRIGIIT . . . . . . 331
,i97
Wright ond the American Development 331 Part VII NINETEENTH CENTURY
CITY PLANNING IN THE 498
The Cruciform ond the Elongoted Pion 331,
. . . . . . . . 502
Plone Surfoces ond Structure 341 Early Nineteenth Century . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Urge toword the Orgonic . . 348 504
The Ruede Rivoli of Napoleon I . y. ·T~~ ~~NDON SQUA RES
Office Buildings . . . . . . . . . 352 NCE OF G REENER : 513
TI-IE DOMINA F DI OOMSBU RY . . . . . . . . .
Jnjluence of Fronk Lloyd Wright . 523
358 THE CARDEN S QUARES O V¡lOPl\lENT : R EGENT'S PARK
J, ARGE-SCALE IIO USING DE . T· T II E T RANSFORl\lATION
529
THE STREET BECOMES D01\IIN AN . . ..
OF PARIS, 1853- 1868 . . . . . . . . . 529
. in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century . 533
-Part VI Paris " ·• E (1. e Haussmann . . . 5,H
The " Trois Réseaux OJ u&en
SPACE-TIME IN ART, ARCHITECTURE, Squares, Boule11ards, Gardens and Plants . . : : 552
AND CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . 361 Th e City as a Technical Problem . . . . . . . . 555
's Use o• Modern iWethods of Fmance 558
TIIE NEW SPACE CONCEPTION: SPACE-TIME 362 Haussman n 'J

Do We Need Artists? . . . . . . . . . . . 362 Th e Basic Unit of the Street . . . . . . 559


THE RESEARCI-1 INTO SPACE: CUBISM . . . . 367 The Scale of the Street • · · · · · · 56:J
The Artistic Meons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 Haussmann's Foresight: His Jnjluen ce
TI-IE RESEARCI-1 INTO MOVEMENT: FUTURISM 376
PAINTING TODA Y . . . . . . . . . 382
CONSTRUCTION AND AESTHETICS: SLAB AND PLANE . 3113 Part VIII 567
The Bridges of Robert Moillort 383 , CITY PLANNING AS A HUMAN PROBLEM
Afterword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... 3911 568
The Late Nineteenth Century • · · · · · · 572
WALTER GROPIUS AND TI-IE GERMAN DEVELOPMENT 4-09
Ebenezer Howard and the Carden City . . . 575
Germany in the Nineteenth Century . 4-09 Tony Garnier's Cité lndustrielle, 1901-1904 . .
Walter Gropius . . . . . . . . . . . . -1-H
581
AMSTERDAM AND THE REBIRTI-1 OF TOWN PLANNING
Post-War Germany and the Bauhous -1-17
593
THE GENERAL EXTENSION PLAN OF Al\lSTERDAl\l, 1931
600
The Bauhaus Buildings at Dessau, 1926. 423 lnterrelations of Housin g and Activities of Prfrate Lije • • · •
Architectural Aims . . . . . . . . . . 4-29
LE CORBUSIER AND THE MEANS OF ARCHITECTONIC EXPRESSION 431
The Villa Savoie, 1928-1930 436
Part IX
The League of Nations Competition, 1927: Contemporary Architecture
Comes to the Front . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441 SPACE-TIME IN CITY PLANNING .
Large Constructions and Architectural Aims . . . . . . . . . . 449 Contemporary Attitude toward Town Plannin[! <>04
TI-IE DEVELOPMENT OF CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE 493 DESTRUCTION OR TRANSFORl\'IATION? 607
ALVAR AALTO: ELEMENTAL ANO CONTEMPORARY . 453 THE NEW SCALE IN CITY PLANNING 61•
The Complementarity of the Differentiated and the Primitive 454 The Parkway . . . . . . . . 614
Finland . . . . . . . . . . . : 456 Tall Buildings in Open Space 623
Finnish Architecture Be.fore 1930 . . 458 A Cfric Center . . 633
Aalto's First Buildings . . . . . . . 4,58 IN CONCLUSION . . . . . . 615
Paimio: The Sanatorium, 1929-1933 163
1

The Undulating Wall . . . . . . . 467 lndex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Sunila: Factory and Landscape, 1937-1939 474
1Wairea . . . . . . . . . . . 475
Organic Town Planning . . . ,t.82

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Furniture in Standard Units . 488
The Human Side . 1..., I" 1 .-.,v
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