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PHONETICS GLOSSARY

English Word Transcription Spanish word Meaning


Accent Acento The way a person
speaks, with
differences in
the sounds that
can show the
place a person
comes from, or
their social
class.
Acoustic Fonética The study of the
phonetics acústica physical
properties of
speech sounds.
Affricate Africada Type of
consonant
consisting of a
stop consonant
followed by a
fricative; for
example, the
initial sounds
of child and
joy. Also called
affricative.
Affricate
consonants
are /t / and
/d /.
Allophone Alófono A different form
of the same
sound or
phoneme.
Alveolar Alveolar Consonant
pronuncied using
the blade of the
tongue close to
the alveolar
ridge. In
English,
alveolar
consonants
are
/t/,/d/,/n/,/s/,
/z/ y /l/.
Alveolar Anatomy
ridge phonetics ridge
behind teeth: a
hard ridge in
the mouth
immediately
behind the roots
of the teeth.
Amplitude of Amplitud de The maximum
vibration vibración displacement of
a vibrating
particle from
its position of
rest.
Articulatory Fonética The study of the
phonetics articulatoria way the vocal
organs are used
to produce
speech sounds.
Assimilation Asimilación Change of a
sound in speech
so that it
becomes
identical with
or similar to a
neighbouring
sound.
Auditory Fonética The study of the
phonetics auditiva way people
perceive speech
sounds.
Back vowel Vocal Vowel which is
posterior produced in the
back of the
tongue. Back
vowels are
[ ],[ ],[ ],[ ],
[ ],[ ],[ ] and
[ ].
Bilabial Bilabial Consonant
pronounced using
both lips,by
bringing both
lips into
contact with
each other or by
rounding them.
English
bilabials are
/p/, /b/ and
/m/.
Central Vocal central Vowel pronounced
vowel in the central
position of the
tongue. Central
vowels are [ ],
[ ], [ ] and
[ ].
Close (or Vocal cerrada A vocal, or
high) vowel sometimes a
whispered, sound
modified by
resonance in the
oral passage,
the peculiar
resonance in
each case giving
to each several
vowel its
distinctive
character or
quality as a
sound of
speech.Close
vowels are [i],
[ ], [ ], [ ],
[ ] and [u].
Close-mid Vocal Vowel situated
vowel semicerrada between close
vowels and open-
mid vowels.
Close-mid vowels
are [e], [ ],[ ]
and [ ].
Consonant Consonante Sound formed by
stopping the air
flowing through
the mouth. The
twenty two
consonantic
phonemes in
English are:
/p,b,,f,v,t,d,k,
g,s,z, , , , ,
,m, n,l,r,h/.
Dental Dental / Consonant that
Interdental is formed by
placing the
tongue against
the back of the
top front teeth.
Diphtong Diptongo Vowels where two
vowel qualities
can be
perceived.
Disyllabic Bisílaba A word composed
of two
syllables.
Elision Elisión Language
omission of
element of word:
the omission of
a vowel,
consonant, or
syllable while
pronouncing or
writing
something,
sometimes as a
natural
shortening.
Falling Entonación Intonation
intonation descendente produced in
statements, wh
questions,
question tags
and commands.
The intonation
falls along the
sentence.
Flap Articulation of
consonants
consisting of
making a single
tap be the
tongue tip
against the
alveolar ridge,
as in some
pronunciations
of /r/ or /d/.
Formant Formante Any of several
(spectrum) (espectro) frequency
regions of
relatively great
intensity in a
sound spectrum,
which together
determine the
characteristic
quality of a
vowel sound.

Frequency Frecuencia The number of


occurrences
within a given
time period.
Sound frequency
is measured in
cycles per
second.
Frequency The point where
range vowel sounds are
at their most
distinctive and
characteristic
pitch.
Fricative Fricativa A consonant
produced by the
forcing of
breath through a
constricted
passage. Also
called spirant.
In English,
fricative
consonants
are: /f/, /v/, /
/, / /,
/s/, /z/,
/ / and / /.

Front vowel Vocal Vowel produced


anterior in the front
side of the
tongue.
Glottis Glotis The opening
between the
vocal chords at
the upper part
of the larynx.
Grapheme Grafema All of the
letters and
letter
combinations
that represent a
phoneme.
Hard palate Paladar duro The front side
of the palate.
Homograph Homógrafa One of two or
more words that
have the same
spelling but
differ in
origin, meaning,
and sometimes
pronunciation,
such as fair
(pleasing in
appearance) and
fair (market).
Homophone Homófona One of two or
more words, such
as night and
knight, that are
pronounced the
same but differ
in meaning,
origin, and
sometimes
spelling.
Intensity Intensidad The magnitude of
sound.
Intonation Entonación The use of pitch
in speech to
create contrast
and variation.

Labio-dental Labio-dental Consonant


articulated with
the lower lip
and upper teeth.
Labio-dental
consonats are
/f/ and /v/.
Larynx Laringe The expanded
upper end of the
windpipe or
trachea,
connected with
the hyoid bone
or cartilage. It
contains the
vocal cords,
which produce
the voice by
their
vibrations,when
they are
stretched and a
current of air
passes between
them. The larynx
is connected to
the pharynx by
the glottis.
Lateral Lateral Consonant
produced by
making a partial
closure bye the
blade of the
tongue against
the alveolar
ridge, in such a
way that the air
stream is able
to flow around
the sides of the
tongue. The
lateral
consonant is
/l/.
Liaison Liaison Pronunciation of
the usually
silent final
consonant of a
word when
followed by a
word beginning
with a vowel.
Lip Labios Either of two
fleshy folds
that surround
the opening of
the mouth.
Minimal pair Par mínimo Words differing
in just one
sound, a pair of
words or other
linguistic
expressions that
are the same
except for one
sound, for
example, “bit”
and “pit”.
Monophthong Vocal pura Vowel with a
(pure vowel) single perceived
auditory
quality, made by
a movement of
the tongue
towards one
position in the
mouth.
Monosyllabic Monosílaba A word which has
only a syllable.
Mouth Boca The organ
considered as
the speech
language. It
consists of
lips, teeth,
alveolus,
palate, velum
and tongue.
Nasal Nasal Consonant
articulated by
lowering the
soft palate so
that air
resonates in the
nasal cavities
and passes out
the nose, as in
the
pronunciation of
the
consonants
/m/, /n/ and
/ /.
Neightbour Contexto The sounds that
sounds lingüístico are next to a
different one.
Nose Nariz The organ that
cooperates with
mouth in breath
and
pronunciation.
It makes
possible the
pronunciation of
nasal
consonants.
Occlusion Oclusión o Closure at some
cierre point in the
vocal tract that
blocks the flow
of air in the
production of an
oral or nasal
stop.
Open (or Vocal abierta Vowel produced
low) vowel at the front of
the mouth, in
the lowest point
that is
theoretically
possible for the
body of the
tongue to reach.
They are [a],
[ ], [ ] and
[ ].

Opening Apertura Articulated with


the tongue in a
low position, as
the vowel / / in
far.
Open-mid Vocal Vowel situated
vowel semiabierta between close-
mid vowels and
open vowels.
Open-mid vowels
are [ ], [ ],
[ ] and [ ].
Palatal Palatal Consonant which
is pronuncied by
raising the
front of the
tongue close to
the hadrd
palate, as in
/j/.
Palato- Palato- Consonant
alveolar alveolar pronuncied by
using the blade
(and sometimes
the tip) of the
tongue towardds
the roof of the
mouth, as in the
consonants / /,
/ /, / / and
/ /.
Phoneme Fonema The smallest
meaningful sound
in a language.
The English
phonemes are
represented in
the Phonetic
Alphabet.
Phonetic System of
alphabet letters and
symbols that are
used to
represent the
individual
sounds of a
language.

Pharynx Faringe The passage to


the stomach and
lungs; in the
front part of
the neck below
the chin and
above the collar
bone.
Phonetics Fonética The study of the
sound systems of
languages, and
of the general
properties
displayed by
these systems.
It only studies
the contrasts in
sound (the
phonemes) which
make differences
of meaning
within language.
Phonology Fonología The science or
doctrine of the
elementary
sounds uttered
by the human
voice in speech,
including the
various
distinctions,
modifications
and combinations
of tones.
Plosive Oclusiva Of, relating to,
or being a
speech sound
produced by
complete closure
of the oral
passage and
subsequent
release
accompanied by a
burst of air, as
in the sound /p/
in pit or /d/ in
dog.

Polysyllabic Polisílaba A word which has


more than two
syllables.
Post- Post-alveolar Consonant
alveolar pronuncied by
using the tongue
tip close to
just behind the
alveolar ridge,
as in /r/.
Rate Tiempo/ Interval in
Cantidad which sounds are
produced.
Received Pronunciación The way Standard
pronunciation recibida English is
spoken; without
regional
variations.
Standard English
and RP are
widely used in
the media and by
public figures,
so it has
prestige status
and is regarded
by many as the
most desirable
form of the
language.
Retroflex Sound pronounced
using the tongue
tip curled back
to well behind
the alveolar
ridge. For some
accents, the
pronunciation of
/r/ is this way.
Rhythm Ritmo The pattern of
sound that
characterizes a
language,
dialect, or
accent.

Rising Entonación Intonation in


intonation ascendente Yes/No questions
and in short
pauses, that
consists in
starting lower
and finishing
with a louder
intonation.
Roll or Sound made by
Trill vibrating vocal
organs: a sound
or consonant
made by two
vocal organs
vibrating
rapidly against
each other, for
example, the tip
of the tongue
vibrating
against the
ridge behind the
front teeth.
Segmental Fonema Phoneme that can
phoneme segmental be isolated,
such as vowels,
consonants,
diphtongs,
triphtongs and
semivowels.
Semi-vowel Semivocal A vocal sound
with short
duration which
slides quickly
towards another
vowel that is
the centre of
the syllable.
Soft palate Paladar The back side of
(velum) blando (velo the palate.
del paladar)
Spectrograph Espectrógrafo A machine used
to measure the
frequency of the
sounds.

Speech Habla The faculty of


uttering
articulate
sounds or words;
the faculty of
expressing
thoughts by
words or
articulate
sounds; the
power of
speaking.
Standard Inglés The variety of
English estándar English that is
held to be
'correct' in the
sense that it
shows none of
the regional or
other variations
that are
considered by
some to be
ungrammatical,
or non-standard
English.
Stress Acento Phonetics
emphasis on
syllable: the
emphasis placed
on a particular
sound or
syllable by
pronouncing it
more loudly or
forcefully than
those
surrounding it
in the same word
or phrase.
Strong form Forma fuerte Form that is
used when the
word is said in
isolation or
when is being
emphasized.

Suprasegmental Fonema Phoneme that


phoneme suprasegmental cannot be
isolated,such as
rhythm, stress
and intonation.
Syllable Sílaba A unit of spoken
language
consisting of a
single
uninterrupted
sound formed by
a vowel,
diphthong, or
syllabic
consonant alone,
or by any of
these sounds
preceded,
followed, or
surrounded by
one or more
consonants./One
or more letters
or phonetic
symbols written
or printed to
approximate a
spoken syllable.
Timbre Timbre In auditive
phonetics, the
characteristic
that helps us to
recognize the
quality of a
sound.
Tone Tono The quality of a
person´s voice
Tongue Lengua The movable
fleshy organ
attached to the
bottom of the
inside of the
mouth of humans
and most
animals, used
for speech.
Transcription Transcripción A phonetic
representation
of speech using
special symbols.
Triphthong Triptongo Vowels in which
three vowel
qualities can be
perceived.
Uvula Úvula A small fleshy
V-shaped
extension of the
soft palate that
hangs above the
tongue at the
entrance to the
throat.
Velar Velar Consonant spoken
with the back of
the tongue close
to, or in
contact with,
the soft palate
(velum). Velar
consonants
are /k/, /g/ and
/ /.

Vocal chords Cuerdas Throat membranes


vocales that produce
sounds: a pair
of fibrous
sheets of tissue
that span the
cavity of the
voice box
(larynx) and
produce sounds
by vibrating.
Muscles tighten
the cords,
narrowing the
gap between
them, and as air
is expelled from
the lungs they
vibrate.
Voiced Consonante
consonant sonora Consonant
pronounced with
vibration of
vocal chords, by
passing air
across them to
create audible
vibrations, as
the sound /s/ in
the word his.
Voiceless Consonante Consonant
consonant sorda pronounced
without
vibration of
vocal cords,
without passing
air across the
vocal cords and
creating audible
vibrations, as
in the /s/ sound
in the word
“hiss”.
Vowel Vocal Sound
articulated with
a relatively
open
configuration of
the vocal tract:
no part of the
mouth is closed,
and none of the
vocal organs
comoe so close
together that we
can hear the
sound of the air
passing betwenen
them. English
vowels
are / /, / /,
/e/, / /,
/ /, / /, / /,
/ /,/ /, / / and
/ /.
Weak form Forma débil Forms which are
normal in
connected
speech:
peripheral
vowels are
replaced by
those of a more
central quality,
and ome
consonants may
be elided.