Anda di halaman 1dari 9

CONFIDENTIAL EH/APR 2010/CPE471/481/491

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA


FINAL EXAMINATION

COURSE MATERIALS AND ENERGY BALANCE


COURSE CODE CPE471/481/491
EXAMINATION APRIL 2010
TIME 3 HOURS

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

1. This question paper consists of five (5) questions.

2. Answer ALL questions in the Answer Booklet. Start each answer on a new page.

3. Do not bring any material into the examination room unless permission is given by the
invigilator.

4. Please check to make sure that this examination pack consists of:

) the Question Paper


) a one - page Appendix 1
) a one - page Appendix 2
iv) a two - page Appendix 3
v) an Answer Booklet - provided by the Faculty

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO


This examination paper consists of 5 printed pages
© Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL
CONFIDENTIAL 2 EH/APR 2010/CPE471/481/491

QUESTION 1

a) Define:

i. Base units
(2 marks)

ii. Multiple units


(2 marks)

b) A gas cylinder with a volume of 6.5 m3 contains 1 kmol of carbon dioxide at 7 = 80°C.
Use the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of state given below to estimate the
gas pressure in unit atm.
/ • CttfYl
(Given R = 0.0826 ; Tc = 95°C; P c = 740 KPa; a = 1.0115)
mol • K

SRK equation of state:

RT aa
P=^
V-b V(V + b)

Where P pressure, atm


V specific molar volume, L mol "1

(RT)2
a 0.42747
Pc

RTc
0.08664
Pc

(11 marks)

QUESTION 2

In a sugar processing plant, sugarcane is fed to a mill that squeezes out cloudy syrup. The
resulting bagasse contains 80 wt% pulp. The syrup is fed to a filter to remove all the pulp
and produces clear liquid, E containing 42 wt% sugar and the rest is water. The evaporator
produces thick syrup which is then fed to a crystallizer to produce 1000 kg/hr of dry sugar
crystals. The process flow diagram is as shown in Figure 1.

© Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL


CONFIDENTIAL 3 EH/APR 2010/CPE471/481/491

Sugarcane, A
18% Sugar
57% Pulp Syrup, C
39% Sugar Clear syrup, 49% Sugar Dry Sugar, J
7% Pulp E 1000 kg/h
G
Mil! H Filter Evaporator • Crystallizer •

T T
Bagasse, B Wet Solids, D Water, F Water, H
80% Pulp 95% Pulp

Figure 1 Sugar Recovery Process

a) Determine the flow rate of all streams.


(10 marks)

b) Compute the percentage of sugar that is lost throughout the system and explain
whether this operation is efficient or not.
(4 marks)

c) Analyze which unit causes the highest lost of sugar.


(4 marks)

d) Suggest for any improvement to make this plant more economically feasible.
(2 marks)

QUESTION 3

Methanol (CH3OH) may be produced according to the reaction

COz + 3 H2 - * CH3OH + H 2 0

The reaction does not go to completion in a single pass through the reactor so the gases
leaving the reactor go to a condenser where the entire methanol is recovered as a pure liquid,
the remaining gases being recycled to the reactor inlet. In a particular system the carbon
dioxide used as feed in preparing a fresh feed mixture in which the reactants are in the correct
stoichiometric ratio, contains 0.3 mol% inert while the hydrogen used is pure. The inert gas is
insoluble in methanol so a 'bleed' stream is taken off the recycle stream after the condenser to
control the accumulation of inert in the system. Under steady-state conditions the concentration
of inert in the reactor inlet is 5 mol%, 30 mol% of C0 2 , 60 mol% of H2 and the conversion of
hydrogen per pass is 70%.

© Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL


CONFIDENTIAL 4 EH/APR 2010/CPE471/481/491

Carbon
dioxide Reactor
Recycle
I Purge

Condenser

Hydrogen

Methanol
Calculate the molar flow rate and molar compositions of the fresh feed, the total feed through
the reactor, the recycle stream and the purge stream for the system.

(20 marks)

QUESTION 4

Normal heptane is dehydrocyclized to toluene and hydrogen in a continuous vapor-phase


reaction:
C/H16 • C6H5CH3 + 4H 2

Pure heptane at 400°C is fed to the reactor. The reactor operates isothermally at 400°C and
the reaction goes to completion. Given that the average heat capacity of n-heptane between
25°C and 400°C is 0.2427 kJ/mol°C.

a) By taking a basis of 1 mol of heptane fed, draw and label the flow chart.
(3 marks)

b) By using Heat of Formation method, determine the required heat transfer to the
reactor.
(17 marks)

QUESTION 5

Nuranco Sdn. Bhd. has been known as a company that produces hydrocarbon product. One
of the processes involved in this company is the separation of benzene - toluene mixture by
using electrical partial evaporator (C-101). The current process of C-101 is separation of
54 kmol/hr of benzene - toluene mixture (in liquid phase) at 54°C and 1 atm containing 45
mol% of benzene (B) to produce vapor product containing 90.0 mol% benzene (B) and liquid
product containing 90 mol% toluene (T). The temperature and pressure for vapor and liquid
products are 94°C and 1 atm, respectively. The liquid product is drained into cylindrical tank
with internal diameter of 1 m and height of 2.5 m. As an operation engineer to the plant, you
are asked to:

© Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL


CONFIDENTIAL 5 EH/APR 2010/CPE471/481/491

a) Determine the electricity consumption cost per hour for the process if the industrial
tariff is RM0.28/kWh. Neglect the effect of pressure on enthalpy. Given 1 kWh is
equivalent to 3.6 MJ.
(19 marks)

b) Determine the time required (in minute) for the liquid product to be filled in 75% of the
cylindrical tank volume. Given that the specific gravity of the liquid product is 0.985 and
the molecular weights of benzene and toluene are 78 and 92, respectively.
(6 marks)

END OF QUESTION PAPER

© Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL


CONFIDENTIAL APPENDIX 1 EH/APR 2010/CPE471/481/491

Table A1.1 Factors for unit conversion

Quantity Equivalent Values


Mass 1 kg = 1000 g = 0.001 metric ton = 2.20462 lbm = 35.27392 oz
1 lbm = 16 oz = 5 x 10" 4 ton = 453.593 g = 0.453593 kg
Length 1 m = 100 cm = 1000 mm = 106 microns (|xm) = 1010 angstroms (A)
= 39.37 in. - 3.2808 ft = 1.0936 yd = 0.0006214 mile
1 ft = 1 2 in. = 1/3 yd = 0.3048 m = 30.48 cm
Volume 1 m3 = 1000 L = 106 cm3 = 106 mL
= 35.3145 ft3 = 220.83 imperial gallons = 264.17 gal
= 1056.68 qt
1 ft3 = 1728 in.3 = 7.4805 gal - 0.028317 m3 = 28.317 L
= 28,317 cm3
Force 1 N = 1 kg-m/s2 = 105 dynes = 105 g-cm/s2 = 0.22481 lbf
1 lbf = 32.174 lbm-ft/s2 = 4.4482 N = 4.4482 x 105 dynes
Pressure 1 atm = 1.01325 x 105 N/m2 (Pa) = 101.325 kPa = 1.01325 bar
= 1.01325 x 106 dynes/cm2
= 760 mm Hg at 0°C (ton) = 10.333 m H 2 0 at 4°C
= 14.696 lbf/in.2 (psi) = 33.9 ft H , 0 at 4°C
= 29.921 in. Hg at 0°C
Energy 1 J = 1 N-m = 107 ergs - 107 dyne-cm
= 2.778 X 10" 7 kW-h = 0.23901 cal
= 0.7376 ft-lbf = 9.486 x 10~4 Btu
Power 1 W = 1 J/s = 0.23901 cal/s = 0.7376 ft-lbf/s = 9.486 X 10~4 Btu/s
= 1.341 X 10~3 hp

2.20462 lbn
Example: The factor to convert grams to lbm is
1000 g

© Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL


SO tAJTmY-j &Hv(Thy-J (HAffi <M?YJ
Compound Formula Moi. Wt., (20W) Tm(°C? kJ/mol r*<rcy kJ/tnol Te(K¥ Peimttf kJ/tnol kj/rnol
Acetaldefayde CH,CHO 44.05 0.783*** -123,7 20.2 25.1 461.0 ™~~ -166.2(1) -1192.4(g)
Acetic acid CHjCOOH 60.05 1.049 16.6 12.09 118.2 24.39 594.8 57.1 -486.18(1) -871.69(1)
-4mi5(g) -919.73(g)
Beozaldehyde QHjCHO 106.12 1.046 -26.0 — 179.0 38.40 — — -88.83(1) -3520.0(1)
-40.04(g)
Benzene Csfcfc 78.11 0J79 5.53 9.837 80.10 30.765 562.6 48.6 +48.66(1) -3267.6(1)
+82J3(g) -3301.5(g)
fl-Heptane CiHjft 10020 0.684 -90.59 14.03 98.43 31.69 540.2 27.0 -224.4(1) -4816.9(1)
-187.8(g) -4853.%)
n-Hexane CsHj4 86.17 0.659 -9532 13.03 68.74 28.85 507.9 29.9 -198.8(1) -4163.1(1)
-167.2(g) -4194.8(g)
Hydrogen H2 2.016 — -259.19 0.12 -252.76 0.904 33.3 12.8 %) -285.84(g)
Hydrogen HBr 80.92 — -86 — -67 — — — -36.23(g) —
bromide
Sulfuric H2SQ4 98.08 L834» 1035 9.8? Decomposes at 340*C — — -811.32(1) —
acid -907.51(aq) —
Toluene G?Hs 92.13 0.866 -94.99 6.619 110.62 33.47 593.9 40.3 +12.00(1) -3909.9(1)
+S0.Q0(g) -3947.9(g)
Water H20 18.016 1.00** 0.00 6.0095 100.00 40.656 647.4 2183 -285.84(1)
-24140(g) —

"Adapted in part front D. M. Himmelblau, Basic Principles and Calatktiom in Chemical Engineering, 3rd Edition, ©lf74, Tables D.l and Rl. Adapted by permission of
Prentice-Hall, Inc., Eaglewood Cliffs, NX
'Melting point at 1 atm.
'Heat of fusion at Tm and 1 atm.
* Bofling potat at 1 atm.
*Heat of vaporisation at 74 and 1 am.
'Critical temperature.
'Critical pressure.
*Heat of formation at 25*C and 1 atm.
r
Heat of conitaiion at 25"C and 1 atm. Standard states of products are COj{g), HjO(i), SOj(g), HCt(aq), and Nj(g). To calculate &Jt% with HjO(g) as a product, add
44.01 n« to the tabulated; value, where «* «* moles H>0 formed/mole fuel burned.
fib convert Ai? to kcaVmol, divide given value by 4.184; to convert to Btu/lb-rBofc, multiply by 430.28.
Form 1: Cp[k3!(mobpQ] or [kJ/(molK)] = a + bT + cTz + dT3
Form 2: Cp[kJ/(moI-°C)] or [kJ/(mol-K)] = a• + bT + cT~2
Example: (C;,}i,«to)e<g) = 0.07196 + (20.10 X IQT5)T - (12.78 X W-&)T2 + (34.76 x 10~l2)T3, where T is in °C
Note: The formulas for gases are strictly applicable at pressures low enough for the ideal gas equation of state to apply.
Range
Mol. Temp. (Unite
Compound Formula Wt State Form Unit a x Itf bxW e x 10s d x 1012 of 7)
Acetone CH3COCH3 58.08 1 1 °C 123.0 18.6 -30-60
g 1 °c 71.% 20.10 -12.78 34.76 0-1200
Acetylene Q2H2 26.04 g 1 °c 42.43 6.053 -5.033 18.20 0-1200
Benzene QH& 78.11 1 1 °c 126.5 23.4 6-67
g 1 °c 74.06 32,95 -25.20 77.57 0-1200
Isobutane C4H1Q 58.12 g 1 °c 89.46 30.13 -18,91 49.87 0-1200

Toluene G?H& 92.13 1 1 °c 148.8 32.4 0-110


g 1 °c 94.18 38.00 -27.86 80.33 0-1200
Water H20 18.016 1 1 °c 75.4 0-100
g 1 °c 33.46 0.6880 0.7604 -3.593 0-1500
'Adapted in part from D. M. Hiittmeibku, Basic Principles and Calcukthns in Chemical Engineering, 3rd Edition, © 1974, Table E.l. Adapted by
permission of Prentice-Hall, lac, Englewood Cliffs, NX
CONFIDENTIAL APPENDIX 3 (2) EH/APR 2010/CPE471/481/491

Table A3.2 Specific Enthalpies of Selected Gases: SI Units

//(kJ/raol)
Reference state: Gas, Fref = 1 atm, rref = 25°C
T Air o2 N2 H2 CO co 2 H20
0 -0.72 -0.73 -0.73 -0.72 -0.73 -0.92 -0.84
25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
100 2.19 2.24 2.19 2.16 2.19 2.90 2.54
200 5.15 5.31 5.13 5.06 5.16 7.08 6.01
300 8.17 8.47 8.12 7.96 8.17 11.58 9.57
400 11.24 11.72 11.15 10.89 11.25 16.35 13.23
500 14.37 15.03 14.24 13.83 14.38 21.34 17.01
600 17.55 18.41 17.39 16.81 17.57 26.53 20.91
700 20.80 21.86 20.59 19.81 20.82 31.88 24.92
800 24.10 25.35 23.86 22.85 24.13 37.36 29.05
900 27.46 28.89 27.19 25.93 27.49 42.94 33.32
1000 30.86 32.47 30.56 29.04 30.91 48.60 37.69
1100 34.31 36.07 33.99 32.19 34.37 54.33 42.18
1200 37.81 39.70 37.46 35.39 37.87 60.14 46.78
1300 41.34 43.38 40.97 38.62 41.40 65.98 51.47
1400 44.89 47.07 44.51 41.90 44.95 71.89 56.25
1500 48.45 50.77 48.06 45.22 48.51 77.84 61.09

© Hak Cipta Universiti Teknologi MARA CONFIDENTIAL