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8 (a) Helium, 2 He exists as a monoatomic gas whereas chlorine, 17 Cl exists as a diatomic
gas. Explain why.
Helium wujud sebagai gas monoatom manakala klorin wujud dalam gas
diatom. Terangkan kenapa. [4 marks]

(b) Table 8.1 shows the proton number of magnesium, chlorine and carbon.
Element Magnesium Chlorine Carbon
Proton 6
number 12 17
(i) Carbon reacts with chlorine to form a compound. What type of compound formed?
Draw the electron arrangement to show the chemical bond in the compound.
Carbon bertindakbalas dengan klorin untuk membentuk satu sebatia. Apakah jenis
sebatian yang terbentuk?
Lukiskan susunan elektron bagi menunjukkan ikatan kimia dalam sebatian. [3 marks]
(ii) Describe how ionic bond is formed between magnesium and chlorine atoms.
Terangkan bagaimana ikatan ionik terbentuk antara atom magnesium dan klorin
[7 marks]
(c) Figure 8 shows the set-up of apparatus to investigate the electrical conductivity of
solid and solution of sodium chloride, NaCl.
Gambarajah 8 menunjukkan penyediaan radas buntuk mengkaji konduktiviti elektrik
pepejal dan larutan natrium klorida, NaCl

Electrode carbon

Table 8.2 shows the result of the two experiments.

Jadual 8.2 menunjukkan keputusan dua eksperimen
Experiment I II
Compound Sodium chloride Sodium chloride
State of compound Solid Aqueous
Observation Bulb does not light up Bulb lights up

(i) Compare the electrical conductivity of solid and solution of sodium chloride,
NaCl. Explain why the results of Experiment I and II are different.
Bandingkan konduktiviti elektrik pepejal dan larutan natrium klorida, NaCl. Jelaskan
mengapa keputusan eksperimen I dan II berbeza

[4 marks]
(ii) Write half equation at anode and cathode in experiment II
Tuliskan persamaan setengah pada anod dan katod dalam experiment
II [2 marks]


Section C
[20 marks]
Answer any one question.
The time suggested to answer this section is 30 minutes.

9 (a) Reactive metal can be extracted from its ore by electrolysis. Aluminium is a reactive
metal. State how aluminium can be extracted from its ore, which contains aluminium
Metal reaktif boleh diekstrak daripada bijih melalui elektrolisis. Aluminium adalah metal
yang reaktif. Nyatakan bagaimana aluminium boleh diekstrak daridapa bijih yang
mengandungi aluminium oksida [4 marks]
(b) Daniell cell is an example of a voltaic cell. In this cell, zinc and copper are used as
electrodes. Explain how a Daniell cell can produce electric current.
Use a labelled diagram to explain your answer.
Sel daniel adalah salah satu contoh sel voltan. Dalam sel ini, zink, dan kupru, digunakan
sebagi elektrod. Terangkan bagaimana sel daniel boleh menghasilkan arus elektrik
[6 marks]

(c) Diagram 9 shows the apparatus set up for the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution using carbon
Rajah 9 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk elektolisi larutan natrium klorida dengan menggunakan
elektrod karbon.

Diagram 9
Rajah 9

Based on the diagram 9, explain the reaction at electrodes P, and Q. include the following in your
Berdasarkan kepada rajah 9, terangkan tindak balas pada elektrod, P dan Q. penerangan anda perlu
 List of ions attracted yo each of electrodes, P and Q
Senarai ion-ion yang tertarik ke setiap elektrod P dan Q
 Names of the ions selectively discharged at each electrode
Nama-nama ion yang dipilih untuk dinyahcas setiap elektrod
 The reason why the ions are selectively discharged
Sebab ion-ion dipilih untuk dinyahcas
 Half equation for each reaction
Persamaan sentengah bagi setiap tindak balas

[10 marks]

[Lihat sebelah
SULIT 18 4541/2

10 (a) An insoluble salt can be prepared by the precipitation reaction.

Give an example of an insoluble salt and suggest two solutions to prepare the insoluble
Write the ionic equation to represent the precipitation reaction.
[4 marks]

(b) Figure 10 shows an incomplete flow chart of cation and anion tests for salt X.

Salt solution
of X

Cation Anion test

Zn2+ SO42-


Use the reagents listed below to confirm that salt solution of X contains Zn2+ ions and
SO42- ions.

Sodium hydroxide solution
Ammonia solution
Hydrochloric acid
Barium chloride solution

[6 marks]

(c) Copper(II) sulphate is a soluble salt. Describe how to prepare a dry sample of
copper(II) sulphate in the laboratory.

Your answer should consist of the following:

Chemicals required
Procedure of the preparation
Chemical equation involved in the reaction
[10 marks]


4541/2 SULIT